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Sample records for alaryngeal speech rehabilitation

  1. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the…

  2. Production of Syntactic Stress in Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandour, Jack; Weinberg, Bernd

    1985-01-01

    Reports on an acoustical investigation of syntactic stress in alaryngeal speech. Measurements were made of fundamental frequency, relative intensity, vowel duration, and intersyllable duration. Findings suggest that stress contrasts in alaryngeal speech are based on a complex of acoustic cues which are influenced by linguistic structure.…

  3. Prosodic Boundaries in Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; Quene, H.; Nooteboom, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Alaryngeal speakers (speakers in whom the larynx has been removed) have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F[subscript 0] and duration. This study investigated whether proficient tracheoesophageal and oesophageal speakers consistently convey phrase boundaries. It was further investigated if these alaryngeal speakers used the…

  4. Acoustic Markers of Prosodic Boundaries in Spanish Spontaneous Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, M. H.; Barrio, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy…

  5. Acoustic markers of prosodic boundaries in Spanish spontaneous alaryngeal speech.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, M H; Barrio, M M

    2010-11-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy and less intelligible than normal speech. This case study has investigated whether one Spanish alaryngeal speaker proficient in both oesophageal and tracheoesophageal speech modes used the same acoustic cues for prosodic boundaries in both types of voicing. Pre-boundary lengthening, F0-excursions and pausing (number of pauses and position) were measured in spontaneous speech samples, using Praat. The acoustic analysis has revealed that the subject has relied on a different combination of cues in each type of voicing to convey the presence of prosodic boundaries.

  6. The Lombard Effect on Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeine, Lina; Brandt, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The study investigated the Lombard effect (evoking increased speech intensity by applying masking noise to ears of talker) on the speech of esophageal talkers, artificial larynx users, and normal speakers. The noise condition produced the highest intensity increase in the esophageal speakers. (Author/DB)

  7. Effects of irradiation on alaryngeal voice of totally laryngectomized patients

    SciTech Connect

    Izdebski, K.; Fontanesi, J.; Ross, J.C.; Hetzler, D.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of radiation therapy on the ability of totally laryngectomized patients to produce voice and speech were examined using objective non-invasive methods. Moderate to severe losses were noted in patients producing voice with all types of alaryngeal modalities: tracheoesophageal, esophageal, and electrolaryngeal. Voice and speech losses were related to the impaired motility and vibratory capability of the esophageal wall and mucosa, to fibrosis of the submandibular region and to trismus. Tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice was recovered some weeks after completion of irradiation. No voice losses were observed in alaryngeal speakers who did not undergo voice restoration until after irradiation. All irradiated patients also showed various degrees of dysphagia during the treatment.

  8. Acoustic assessment of erygmophonic speech of Moroccan laryngectomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouattassi, Naouar; Benmansour, Najib; Ridal, Mohammed; Zaki, Zouheir; Bendahhou, Karima; Nejjari, Chakib; Cherkaoui, Abdeljabbar; El Alami, Mohammed Nouredine El Amine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic evaluation of alaryngeal voices is among the most prominent issues in speech analysis field. In fact, many methods have been developed to date to substitute the classic perceptual evaluation. The Aim of this study is to present our experience in erygmophonic speech objective assessment and to discuss the most widely used methods of acoustic speech appraisal. through a prospective case-control study we have measured acoustic parameters of speech quality during one year of erygmophonic rehabilitation therapy of Moroccan laryngectomized patients. Methods We have assessed acoustic parameters of erygmophonic speech samples of eleven laryngectomized patients through the speech rehabilitation therapy. Acoustic parameters were obtained by perturbation analysis method and linear predictive coding algorithms also through the broadband spectrogram. Results Using perturbation analysis methods, we have found erygmophonic voice to be significantly poorer than normal speech and it exhibits higher formant frequency values. However, erygmophonic voice shows also higher and extremely variable Error values that were greater than the acceptable level. And thus, live a doubt on the reliability of those analytic methods results. Conclusion Acoustic parameters for objective evaluation of alaryngeal voices should allow a reliable representation of the perceptual evaluation of the quality of speech. This requirement has not been fulfilled by the common methods used so far. Therefore, acoustical assessment of erygmophonic speech needs more investigations. PMID:26587121

  9. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  10. [Speech rehabilitation using Provox voice prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Morshed, Kamal; Gołabek, Wiesław; Szymański, Marcin; Olszański, Witold

    2005-01-01

    The first voice prosthesis was described in 1972 by Mozolewski. Eight years later Blom and Singer constructed the first commercial prosthesis. In 1988 another prosthesis was presented as Provox system prosthesis. The aim of the study was to describe the technique of tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) and to present two years results of the technique performed in 21 patients. Primary TEP with immediate implantation of the Provox 2 prosthesis was applied in 16 (76%) patients. In five patients (24%) secondary TEP was performed. All the patient with primary TEP had cricopharyngeal myotomy. In 7 patients the vocal prosthesis was exchanged. In five because of leakage through the valve and in two patients the vocal prosthesis was extruded. Leakage around the prosthesis occurred in two patients with secondary TEP. The mean device-related lifetime was 216 days and ranged from 30 to 540 days. In non-radiated patients the lifetime of the prosthesis was 255 days and in patients after radiotherapy the lifetime was 150 days. In all the patients the prosthetic voice was more similar to normal voice than in patients with esophageal speech. The implantation of the voice prosthesis is a simple method of restoring of a good quality voice enabling communication.

  11. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  12. Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Research on Speech Motor Control Recovery and Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Hoit, Jeannette; Kent, Raymond; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Strand, Edythe; Yorkston, Kathryn; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders. Method: A working group in speech motor control and disorders developed this report, which examines the potential relevance of basic research on the brain mechanisms involved in neural…

  13. [The use of the vocal prosthesis Provox 2 for speech rehabilitation after total laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Paluch, Jarosław; Wardas, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    The authors have presented the application and usage the alloplastic vocal prosthesis Provox 2 to serve for rehabilitation speech after total laryngectomy. Surgical technique of implantation of vocal prosthesis was discussed. The authors estimated in 6 patients following parameters of speech; fundamental frequency, maximum phonation time of vowel "a", maximum intensity and degree of dysphonia. In all 6 cases post-operative course was uncomplicated. Above mentioned parameters of voice were measured in order to comparison quality of oesophageal speech to tracheo - oesophageal speech. The authors assessed speech at 6 patients with voice prosthesis and 6 with good oesophageal speakers as a control group. The results of our investigations showed, that quality of tracheo - esophageal speech obtained with usage vocal prosthesis Provox 2 is more like normal speech than oesophageal speech. Social efficiency and quality of tracheo - oesophageal voice is better than oesophageal voice.

  14. Clients becoming teachers: Speech-language pathology students' understanding of rehabilitation following clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Attrill, Stacie; Gunn, Simon

    2010-04-01

    There has been limited research investigating the conceptual development of rehabilitation in speech-language pathology (SLP) students. The aim of this study was to describe SLP students' understanding of rehabilitation following completion of a clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach according to grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 SLP students who had completed a practicum in a rehabilitation setting. Interview data analysis revealed the emergence of five axial categories. Clients becoming teachers was identified as the core category, as the notion that clients were fundamental to students' understanding of rehabilitation occurred reliably throughout the data and related to all other categories. A theoretical model was proposed that demonstrated successive levels of support to students in the acquisition of their understanding of rehabilitation on practicum. Students' understanding of rehabilitation was derived from client-related interactions and factors experienced on practicum in rehabilitation settings. Rehabilitation practicum provided students with a rich and complex learning environment that may facilitate the development of the "core skills" identified for rehabilitation practice.

  15. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    PubMed

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  16. Speech and Swallowing Data in Individual Patients Who Underwent Glossectomy after Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining oral function in patients undergoing glossectomy boosts interventions such as prosthetic rehabilitation. However, current literature still fails in the presentation of results of prosthetic rehabilitation in relation to speech or swallowing. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of prosthetic rehabilitation on voice, speech, and swallowing in patients undergoing glossectomy by performing a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of individual cases. Studies were identified by relevant electronic database and included all dates available. The criteria used were sample with any n; resection due to malignant tumors, restricted to tongue and/or floor of mouth; type of prosthetic rehabilitation; and description of the oral functions outcomes with prosthesis. For the meta-analysis of individual data, associations between the variables of interest and the type of prosthesis were evaluated. Thirty-three of 471 articles met the selection criteria. Results on speech and/or voice and swallowing were reported in 27 and 28 articles, respectively. There were improvement of speech intelligibility and swallowing in 96 patients and in 73 patients, respectively, with prosthesis. Based on the available evidences, this article showed that prosthetic rehabilitation was able to improve oral functions and can be a strategy used with surgical reconstruction in selected cases. PMID:28042295

  17. Objective assessment of tracheoesophageal and esophageal speech using acoustic analysis of voice.

    PubMed

    Sirić, Ljiljana; Sos, Dario; Rosso, Marinela; Stevanović, Sinisa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the voice quality of alaryngeal tracheoesophageal and esophageal speech, and to determine which of them is more similar to laryngeal voice production, and thus more acceptable as a rehabilitation method of laryngectomized persons. Objective voice evaluation was performed on a sample of 20 totally laryngectomized subjects of both sexes, average age 61.3 years. Subjects were divided into two groups: 10 (50%) respondents with built tracheoesophageal prosthesis and 10 (50%) who acquired esophageal speech. Testing included 6 variables: 5 parameters of acoustic analysis of voice and one parameter of aerodynamic measurements. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Analysis of the data showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the terms of intensity, fundamental frequency and maximum phonation time of vowel at a significance level of 5% and confidence interval of 95%. A statistically significant difference was not found between the values of jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio between tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice. There is no ideal method of rehabilitation and every one of them requires an individual approach to the patient, but the results shows the advantages of rehabilitation by means of installing voice prosthesis.

  18. Speech and swallow rehabilitation in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P; Radford, K; Coffey, M; Stewart, M

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. The disease itself and the treatment can have far reaching effects on speech and swallow function, which are consistently prioritised by survivors as an area of concern. This paper provides recommendations on the assessments and interventions for speech and swallow rehabilitation in this patient group. Recommendations • All multidisciplinary teams should have rehabilitation patient pathways covering all stages of the patient's journey including multidisciplinary and pre-treatment clinics. (G) • Clinicians treating head and neck cancer patients should consult the National Cancer Rehabilitation Pathway for head and neck cancers. (G) • All head and neck cancer patients should have a pre-treatment assessment of speech and swallowing. (G) • A programme of prophylactic exercises and the teaching of swallowing manoeuvres can reduce impairments, maintain function and enable a speedier recovery. (R) • Continued speech and language therapist input is important in maintaining voice and safe and effective swallow function following head and neck cancer treatment. (R) • Disease recurrence must be ruled out in the management of stricture and/or stenosis. (R) • Continuous radial expansion balloons offer a safe, effective dilation method with advantages over gum elastic bougies. (R) • Site, length and completeness of strictures as well as whether they are in the presence of the larynx or not, need to be assessed when establishing the likelihood of surgically improved outcome. (G) • Primary surgical voice restoration should be offered to all patients undergoing laryngectomy. (R) • Attention to surgical detail and long-term speech and language therapist input is required to optimise speech and swallowing after laryngectomy. (G) • Patients should commence wearing heat and moisture exchange devices as soon as possible after

  19. Training Effects on Speech Production Using a Hands-Free Electromyographically Controlled Electrolarynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ehab A.; Heaton, James T.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The "electrolarynx (EL)" is a widely used device for alaryngeal speech, but it requires manual operation and produces voice that typically has a constant fundamental frequency. An electromyographically controlled EL (EMG-EL) was designed and implemented to provide hands-free control with dynamic pitch modulation. Method: Three…

  20. Novel esophageal speech therapy method in total laryngectomized patients: biofeedback by intraesophageal impedance.

    PubMed

    Şahin, M; Ogut, M F; Vardar, R; Kirazli, T; Engin, E Z; Bor, S

    2016-01-01

    The loss of the best communication port after total laryngectomy surgery makes speech rehabilitation an important goal. Our aim was to improve the quality of esophageal speech (ES) using online esophageal multichannel intra-luminal impedance (MII) as a new biofeedback method. Twenty-six total laryngectomized patients were included. Before ES therapy, an esophageal motility test was carried out. MII catheters were placed in all subjects who were then randomized into two groups. Group 1 included 13 cases, who were retrained according to the classical method. Group 2 included 13 cases, who were retrained according to the simplified animation of air movements within the esophagus and upper stomach resulting from the modifications of intra-esophageal air kinetics gained by MII. The level of speech proficiency was evaluated relative to pretraining levels using perceptual scales in the third and sixth months. Acoustic voice was analyzed. The number of syllables read per minute and the intelligibility of monosyllabic and dissyllabic words were calculated. In this study, MII was used for the first time in alaryngeal speech rehabilitation as a biofeedback method; an overall sufficient speech level was achieved by 68.4% at the end of therapy, whereas attendance was 90%. A statistically significant improvement was found in both groups in terms of ES level compared with the pretraining period although there was no significant difference between groups. Although we did not observe the expected difference between groups suggested by our hypothesis, MII may be used as an objective tool to show patients how to swallow and regurgitate air during training, and may thus expedite ES therapy both for the speech therapist and the patient in the future.

  1. The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shinya; Wan, Catherine Y.

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the “SEP” hypothesis, which postulates that (1) “sound envelope processing” and (2) “synchronization and entrainment to pulse” may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations. PMID:25352796

  2. The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Wan, Catherine Y

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations.

  3. Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing things you did before. This process is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation often focuses on Physical therapy to help your ... who has had a stroke may simply want rehabilitation to be able to dress or bathe without ...

  4. Rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of the speech therapy approach

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Gisela Carmona; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: There are an estimated 30,000–40,000 new cases of cerebral palsy per year in Brazil. Motor disorders caused by cerebral palsy can lead to dysphagia as they may alter the preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases. Aim: To identify existing rehabilitation methods of swallowing disorders in cerebral palsy, with emphasis on the pursuit of research using the Bobath concept, the Castillo Morales concept, oral sensorimotor therapy, and continuing education. Summary of the findings: We performed a systematic review of the medical and speech therapy literature on the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy spanning 1977–2010 and from all languages and nations. Among the 310 articles retrieved, only 22 (7.09%) addressed therapeutic rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Of the 22 reports, 12 (54.5%) were from Canada, 3 (13.6%) were from Japan, 2 (9%) were from Brazil, 2 (9%) were from Germany, 1 (4.5%) was from the USA, 1 (4.5%) was from the United Kingdom, and 1 (4.5%) was from Poland. Of these reports, 63.6% used oral sensorimotor therapy as a therapeutic method, 36.3% reported continuing education as a therapeutic approach, and only 18.1% and 9% used the Bobath concept and Castillo Morales concept, respectively. Conclusion: Even with a constantly increasing cerebral palsy population, few studies include (re)habilitation in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in these children. PMID:25991964

  5. Speech and voice rehabilitation in selected patients fitted with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA).

    PubMed

    Thomas, J

    1996-01-01

    With the Birmingham osseointegrated implant programme there have been several patients with severe pre-lingual conductive hearing loss. The majority of these have been patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. There are characteristic features of speech and voice in those with long-standing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the associated abnormalities of jaw, teeth and palate may amplify the problem. There may be spontaneous improvement in features such as voice pitch, quality and intensity following the fitting of a BAHA. However, in those with a pre-lingual hearing impairment, speech therapy may be necessary. Patients assessed as suitable for BAHA have a full assessment of communication skills including audio recording of speech and voice. Post-operative training improves auditory discrimination and perception and is followed by training in the production of the newly perceived speech sounds.

  6. Evolution of non-speech sound memory in postlingual deafness: implications for cochlear implant rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lazard, D S; Giraud, A L; Truy, E; Lee, H J

    2011-07-01

    Neurofunctional patterns assessed before or after cochlear implantation (CI) are informative markers of implantation outcome. Because phonological memory reorganization in post-lingual deafness is predictive of the outcome, we investigated, using a cross-sectional approach, whether memory of non-speech sounds (NSS) produced by animals or objects (i.e. non-human sounds) is also reorganized, and how this relates to speech perception after CI. We used an fMRI auditory imagery task in which sounds were evoked by pictures of noisy items for post-lingual deaf candidates for CI and for normal-hearing subjects. When deaf subjects imagined sounds, the left inferior frontal gyrus, the right posterior temporal gyrus and the right amygdala were less activated compared to controls. Activity levels in these regions decreased with duration of auditory deprivation, indicating declining NSS representations. Whole brain correlations with duration of auditory deprivation and with speech scores after CI showed an activity decline in dorsal, fronto-parietal, cortical regions, and an activity increase in ventral cortical regions, the right anterior temporal pole and the hippocampal gyrus. Both dorsal and ventral reorganizations predicted poor speech perception outcome after CI. These results suggest that post-CI speech perception relies, at least partially, on the integrity of a neural system used for processing NSS that is based on audio-visual and articulatory mapping processes. When this neural system is reorganized, post-lingual deaf subjects resort to inefficient semantic- and memory-based strategies. These results complement those of other studies on speech processing, suggesting that both speech and NSS representations need to be maintained during deafness to ensure the success of CI.

  7. Clinical information behavior of rehabilitation therapists: a review of the research on occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists*

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea; Bartlett, Joan C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The review sought to synthesize existing research relevant to rehabilitation therapists' clinical information behavior and to identify gaps in evidence, particularly in comparison to what is already known about the information behavior of other health professionals, such as physicians. Methods: A literature review was conducted of both quantitative and qualitative research studies that included information on the clinical information behavior of occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists. Findings were organized according to a taxonomy of variables derived from the literature. Results: Findings from seventeen studies, mostly surveys, conducted since 1990 demonstrate that very little is known about the clinical information needs of and information use by rehabilitation therapists. The sources most often consulted by rehabilitation therapists are printed materials (books and journals) and colleagues. Databases are consulted less often, and few rehabilitation therapists are aware of databases other than MEDLINE. Discussion: Methodological flaws limit the generalizability and validity of much of the research conducted on the clinical information behavior of this population. More research is needed to better understand the clinical questions that arise in rehabilitation therapists' practice, reasons for consulting certain sources, and ways in which information seeking enhances evidence-based practice. PMID:19626145

  8. Speech therapy with obturator.

    PubMed

    Shyammohan, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2010-12-01

    Rehabilitation of speech is tantamount to closure of defect in cases with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Often the importance of speech therapy is sidelined during the fabrication of obturators. Usually the speech part is taken up only at a later stage and is relegated entirely to a speech therapist without the active involvement of the prosthodontist. The article suggests a protocol for speech therapy in such cases to be done in unison with a prosthodontist.

  9. [Micro-current reflexotherapy in the rehabilitative treatment of the speech function disorders in children with cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, T A; Gorbunov, F E

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to study the influence of microcurrent reflexotherapy on the compromised speech functions in children (n = 84) presenting with cerebral palsy in comparison with the control group comprised of children (n = 56) with the same problems treated by medicamental therapy. The microcurrent reflexotherapy was shown to be instrumental in the restoration of the compromised speech function. Moreover, it promoted positive dynamics of locomotor and cognitive disorders.

  10. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  11. Computer-Based Rehabilitation for Developing Speech and Language in Hearing-Impaired Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrea; El-Refaie, Amr; Stephenson, Caitlin; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Deng, Dennis; Erickson, Shane; Tay, David; Morris, Meg E.; Doube, Wendy; Caelli, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine whether online or computer-based technologies were effective in assisting the development of speech and language skills in children with hearing loss. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss were analysed with reference to (1) therapy outcomes, (2) factors affecting outcomes, and (3)…

  12. Rehabilitation or Compensation: Time for a Fresh Perspective on Speech and Language Therapy for Dysphagia and Parkinson's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sarah K.; Roddam, Hazel; Sheldrick, Heulwen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and can have negative consequences for physical health and quality of life. A variety of treatment options are available to clinicians working with people who have dysphagia and Parkinson's disease. These options can be broadly categorized as being compensatory or rehabilitative in…

  13. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology; (12) Physical education; (13) Therapeutic recreation; (14) Community rehabilitation program personnel... the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (b) The Rehabilitation Long-Term...

  14. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology; (12) Physical education; (13) Therapeutic recreation; (14) Community rehabilitation program personnel... the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (b) The Rehabilitation Long-Term...

  15. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology; (12) Physical education; (13) Therapeutic recreation; (14) Community rehabilitation program personnel... the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (b) The Rehabilitation Long-Term...

  16. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology; (12) Physical education; (13) Therapeutic recreation; (14) Community rehabilitation program personnel... the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (b) The Rehabilitation Long-Term...

  17. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology; (12) Physical education; (13) Therapeutic recreation; (14) Community rehabilitation program personnel... the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (b) The Rehabilitation Long-Term...

  18. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  19. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  20. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  1. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  2. [(Re)habilitation after cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Diller, G

    2009-07-01

    Over the last years, indications for cochlear implants (CIs) have changed dramatically. The benefits depend on the preconditions of the individual patient as well as on the subsequent (re)habilitation. Therefore, many variables influencing the hearing and speech perception of a CI user must be kept in mind. As an example, the special situation of children having Turkish as their mother tongue is described. The most convincing argument concerning (re)habilitation is its benefit. Indeed, this benefit represents the final standard of quality and serves as the yardstick for standard assessments of (re)habilitation quality. CI (re)habilitation includes medical, pedagogical, audiological, hearing and speech, and psychological therapeutic aspects.

  3. Rehabilitation of Poststroke Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Shigaki, Cheryl L.; Frey, Scott H.; Barrett, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing rates of stroke and our aging population, it is critical that we continue to foster innovation in stroke rehabilitation. Although there is evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, the set of cognitive domains effectively addressed to date represents only a small subset of the problems experienced by stroke survivors. Further, a gap remains between investigational treatments and our evolving theories of brain function. These limitations present opportunities for improving the functional impact of stroke rehabilitation. The authors use a case example to encourage the reader to consider the evidence base for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, focusing on four domains critical to daily life function: (1) speech and language, (2) functional memory, (3) executive function and skilled learned purposive movements, and (4) spatial-motor systems. Ultimately, they attempt to draw neuroscience and practice closer together by using translational reasoning to suggest possible new avenues for treating these disorders. PMID:25520021

  4. Relationship of speech-language pathology inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: The SCIRehab Project

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Wendy; Gerber, Donald; David, Dana Spivack; Adornato, Viki; Brougham, Rebecca; Gassaway, Julie; Kreider, Scott E.D.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Background/objective Describe associations of patient characteristics and speech–language pathology (SLP) interventions provided during impatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) to outcomes at discharge and 1-year post-injury. Methods Speech–language pathologists at six inpatient rehabilitation centers documented details of treatment provided. Least squares regression modeling was used to predict outcomes at discharge and 1-year injury anniversary. Cognitive, participation, and mood outcomes for a subsample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive-communication limitations (CCLs) were examined. Results SLP treatment factors explain a small amount of variation in cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM), participation, and mood. Variation explained by treatment factors for cognitive outcomes at the time of discharge increased when the patient group was more homogeneous (patients with TBI and CCLs). More time in SLP cognitive-communication interventions had a negative relationship, while longer length of stay was positive. The added explanatory power was not seen for similar outcomes at 1-year post-injury. Conclusion Patients with SCI who have the greatest need for interventions to address cognitive limitations due to TBI receive the most SLP cognitive-communication treatment and show the greatest amount of improvement during rehabilitation. Their cognitive functioning remained impaired at discharge; this likely accounts for the consistent finding that more hours of SLP cognitive-communication treatment is associated with lower cognitive FIM scores at discharge. Future research on individuals with dual SCI and TBI should include more comprehensive assessment of individual differences in cognitive performance in order to better examine the complex relationships between SLP treatments and outcomes. Note This is the fifth of nine articles in this SCIRehab series. PMID:23318037

  5. Paralysis: Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and exercise are key to ...

  6. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services... Optional Hospital Services § 482.56 Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services. If the hospital provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology...

  7. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  8. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the respiratory system . The ability to understand language and produce speech is coordinated by the brain. So a person with brain damage from an accident, stroke, or birth defect may have speech and language problems. Some people with speech problems, particularly articulation ...

  9. Hearing speech in music.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01). Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01) and SPN (P<.05). Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01), but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01). It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  10. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  12. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  13. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William D.

    Presented in this book is a view of speech communication which enables an individual to become fully aware of his or her role as both initiator and recipient of messages. Communication is treated broadly with emphasis on the understanding and skills relating to various types of speech communication across the broad spectrum of human communication.…

  14. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  15. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  16. Rehabilitation of swallowing and communication following glossectomy.

    PubMed

    LaBlance, G R; Kraus, K; Steckol, K F

    1991-01-01

    Patients who have had surgical removal of part or all of the tongue are left with varying degrees of swallowing and speech deficiencies. The extent of resection, mobility of the residual tongue segment, and adequacy of the remaining structures determine the amount and type of deficiency. While communicative impairment and dysphagia commonly are seen in a rehabilitation setting, the problems of the glossectomy patient often are unique. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the oral and pharyngeal musculature, discusses the speech and swallowing of the glossectomy patient, and presents nursing considerations for successful rehabilitation.

  17. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... thinking, but it becomes disorganized as they're speaking. So, someone who clutters may speak in bursts ... refuse to wait patiently for them to finish speaking. If you have a speech problem, it's fine ...

  18. Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes rehabilitation implications associated with psychosocial factors, patient reaction, and family adjustment to coronary heart disease. Patient education and counseling must stress specific long-term care and follow-up and deal with family anxiety and depression. The rehabilitation counselor can help patients incorporate medical…

  19. Measuring the Expertise of Paediatric Rehabilitation Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…

  20. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  1. The intelligibility of tracheoesophageal speech, with an emphasis on the voiced-voiceless distinction.

    PubMed

    Jongmans, P; Hilgers, F J M; Pols, L C W; van As-Brooks, C J

    2006-01-01

    Total laryngectomy has far-reaching effects on vocal tract anatomy and physiology. The preferred method for restoring postlaryngectomy oral communication is prosthetic tracheoesophageal (TE) speech, which like laryngeal speech is pulmonary driven. TE speech quality is better than esophageal or electrolarynx speech quality, but still very deviant from laryngeal speech. For a better understanding of neoglottis physiology and for improving rehabilitation results, study of TE speech intelligibility remains important. Methods used were perceptual evaluation, acoustic analyses, and digital high-speed imaging. First results show large variations between speakers and especially difficulty in producing voiced-voiceless distinction. This paper discusses first results of our experiment.

  2. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  3. Speech analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A speech signal is analyzed by applying the signal to formant filters which derive first, second and third signals respectively representing the frequency of the speech waveform in the first, second and third formants. A first pulse train having approximately a pulse rate representing the average frequency of the first formant is derived; second and third pulse trains having pulse rates respectively representing zero crossings of the second and third formants are derived. The first formant pulse train is derived by establishing N signal level bands, where N is an integer at least equal to two. Adjacent ones of the signal bands have common boundaries, each of which is a predetermined percentage of the peak level of a complete cycle of the speech waveform.

  4. Stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M.; Vennu, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and other complications worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, stroke has become an emerging health issue leading to disability and death. However, stroke care including rehabilitation services, in Saudi Arabia lags behind developed countries. Stroke rehabilitation is an essential recovery option after stroke and should start as early as possible to avoid potential complications. The growing evidence on stroke rehabilitation effectiveness in different health care settings and outcome measures used widely are reviewed in this call to action paper. PMID:27744457

  5. SCIRehab Project Series: The Speech Language Pathology Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Wendy; Spivak-David, Dana; Adornato, Viki; Dale, Beverly; Brougham, Rebecca; Georgeadis, Amy C; Gassaway, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Outcomes research for speech language pathology (SLP) interventions for acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in the US is difficult because of the lack of a treatment classification system (taxonomy). Objective: To describe a taxonomy developed by speech language pathologists (SLPs) to examine the effects of SLP interventions on SCI rehabilitation outcomes. Methods: The SCIRehab study uses practice-based evidence, a rigorous observational methodology that examines treatment processes without specifying or requiring specific therapeutic interventions. Speech language pathology lead clinicians and researchers at 6 US SCI centers developed a detailed SLP taxonomy documentation process that is comprehensive of SLP interventions for patients with SCI. Results: The SLP taxonomy consists of 7 intervention categories that address deficits (speech production for patients with artificial airway, motor speech and voice, swallowing, cognitive-communication, and communication) and the associated exercises and tasks that patients perform. Time is recorded for each category, and supplementary information focuses on cueing needs and family involvement that helps to describe and guide intervention selection. The SCIRehab project is enrolling 1,500 patients with acute traumatic SCI at 6 inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Conclusions: Speech language pathology taxonomy information is being captured for the SCIRehab patients who are referred for SLP services; this may be the first attempt to document the many details of the SLP rehabilitation process for patients with SCI in the US. PMID:19810632

  6. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  7. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients' family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary.

  8. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  9. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  10. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  11. Keynote Speeches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the six of the seven keynote speeches from an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. "IVETA (International Vocational Education and Training Association) 2000 Conference 6-9 August 2000" (K.Y. Yeung) discusses the objectives and activities…

  12. Speech production knowledge in automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Frankel, Joe; Livescu, Karen; McDermott, Erik; Richmond, Korin; Wester, Mirjam

    2007-02-01

    Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds, and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition is provided.

  13. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Engin; Çam, Pınar; Altınok, Nermin; Çallı, Duygu Ekinci; Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke. PMID:27904489

  14. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  15. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  16. Cued Speech for Enhancing Speech Perception and First Language Development of Children With Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Leybaert, Jacqueline; LaSasso, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 300 million people worldwide have moderate to profound hearing loss. Hearing impairment, if not adequately managed, has strong socioeconomic and affective impact on individuals. Cochlear implants have become the most effective vehicle for helping profoundly deaf children and adults to understand spoken language, to be sensitive to environmental sounds, and, to some extent, to listen to music. The auditory information delivered by the cochlear implant remains non-optimal for speech perception because it delivers a spectrally degraded signal and lacks some of the fine temporal acoustic structure. In this article, we discuss research revealing the multimodal nature of speech perception in normally-hearing individuals, with important inter-subject variability in the weighting of auditory or visual information. We also discuss how audio-visual training, via Cued Speech, can improve speech perception in cochlear implantees, particularly in noisy contexts. Cued Speech is a system that makes use of visual information from speechreading combined with hand shapes positioned in different places around the face in order to deliver completely unambiguous information about the syllables and the phonemes of spoken language. We support our view that exposure to Cued Speech before or after the implantation could be important in the aural rehabilitation process of cochlear implantees. We describe five lines of research that are converging to support the view that Cued Speech can enhance speech perception in individuals with cochlear implants. PMID:20724357

  17. Speech Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    Academic Press, 1973. Kimura, D. The neural basis of language qua gesture. In H. Whitaker & H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics (Vol. 3...Lubker, J., & Gay, T. Formant frequencies of some fixed- mandible vowels and a model of speech motor programming . Journal of Phonetics, 1979, 7, 147-162...A. Interarticulator programming in stop production. To appear in Journal of Phonetics, in press. Ldfqvist, A., & Yoshioka, H. Laryngeal activity in

  18. Overview of telehealth activities in speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Pauline A; Doarn, Charles R

    2008-12-01

    It is estimated that 10% of the world's population, approximately 650 million people, have some form of disability. Population growth, aging, and medical advances that preserve and prolong life have increased demands for health and rehabilitation services. Recent predictions indicate a shortage of speech-language pathologists and other rehabilitation specialists to provide care for individuals with disabilities. The application of telemedicine and telehealth technologies offers effective solutions to this challenge. An extensive literature review was conducted that included technical reports, websites, publications from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and peer-reviewed journal articles of telehealth applications in speech-language pathology. Various applications of telehealth in speech-language pathology are described including types of technology, patient and clinician satisfaction, advantages of using telehealth, challenges and barriers to application, and future directions. This review provides a strong foundation for broader applications of telehealth technologies in this area of healthcare.

  19. Stroke Rehabilitation using Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge facing the field is inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches. Therefore, this article also introduces a framework to help define new therapy combinations that may be necessary to address stroke heterogeneity. PMID:26522910

  20. Automatic, computer-based speech assessment on edentulous patients with and without complete dentures - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Stelzle, F; Ugrinovic, B; Knipfer, C; Bocklet, T; Nöth, E; Schuster, M; Eitner, S; Seiss, M; Nkenke, E

    2010-03-01

    Dental rehabilitation of edentulous patients with complete dentures includes not only aesthetics and mastication of food, but also speech quality. It was the aim of this study to introduce and validate a computer-based speech recognition system (ASR) for automatic speech assessment in edentulous patients after dental rehabilitation with complete dentures. To examine the impact of dentures on speech production, the speech outcome of edentulous patients with and without complete dentures was compared. Twenty-eight patients reading a standardized text were recorded twice - with and without their complete dentures in situ. A control group of 40 healthy subjects with natural dentition was recorded under the same conditions. Speech quality was evaluated by means of a polyphone-based ASR according to the percentage of the word accuracy (WA). Speech acceptability assessment by expert listeners and the automatic rating of the WA by the ASR showed a high correlation (corr = 0.71). Word accuracy was significantly reduced in edentulous speakers (55.42 +/- 13.1) compared to the control group's WA (69.79 +/- 10.6). On the other hand, wearing complete dentures significantly increased the WA of the edentulous patients (60.00 +/- 15.6). Speech production quality is significantly reduced after complete loss of teeth. Reconstitution of speech production quality is an important part of dental rehabilitation and can be improved for edentulous patients by means of complete dentures. The ASR has proven to be a useful and easily applicable tool for automatic speech assessment in a standardized way.

  1. Rehabilitation News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Rehabilitation news items include, among others: a midpoint review of the implementation of the World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, an international study on the impact of new technologies on employment of disabled people, and a U.S. project to investigate disability service provision and innovations in other countries. (JDD)

  2. Rehabilitation Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 40 equipment items for rehabilitation and physical therapy programs for all levels of handicapped children. Described are such items as a handygym, a suspension…

  3. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your risk of future heart problems, and to improve your health and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs increase ... exercise routine at home or at a local gym. You may also continue to ... health concerns. Education about nutrition, lifestyle and weight loss ...

  4. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that ... to STS, go to www. fcc. gov/ guides/ telecommunications- relay- service- trs. Filing a Complaint If you ...

  5. [Hearing function in children with speech retardation].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Povarova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Hearing function was studied in 140 children aged between 2 and 5 years with speech retardation and perinatal pathology for formulation of further treatment policy and rehabilitation. Impedance audiometry, SEAAE, game audiometry identified hearing loss of the first, second, third, forth degree in 6 (4%), 10 (7%), 24 (17%), 31 (21%) children respectively. Deafness was registered in 17 (12%) children, 52 (37%) examinees were audiologically normal.

  6. Speech research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Phonology is traditionally seen as the discipline that concerns itself with the building blocks of linguistic messages. It is the study of the structure of sound inventories of languages and of the participation of sounds in rules or processes. Phonetics, in contrast, concerns speech sounds as produced and perceived. Two extreme positions on the relationship between phonological messages and phonetic realizations are represented in the literature. One holds that the primary home for linguistic symbols, including phonological ones, is the human mind, itself housed in the human brain. The second holds that their primary home is the human vocal tract.

  7. [Motor rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Doménech, J; García-Aymerich, V; Juste, J; Ortiz, A

    2002-02-01

    The child's rehabilitation objectives are the same of the early intervention. The early intervention include motor approaches to facilitate the unique way of the newborn's expression: the movement and with it his holistic development. The motor approach is a classic aspect of early intervention but it is not itself early intervention. When the treatment objective is a term or preterm newborn or neonate the motor approach may be the principal method to facilitate perceptions experiences and basic habits. This intervention is not made with a specific physiotherapeutic technique. It is a sequential stimulation or development, without forget that the child must be taken as a whole. This point of view has special importance the first days of life and must be included in perinatal approach routines. In this paper we expose the work method of a Child Rehabilitation Team liked to a Newborn Unit.

  8. A Virtual Therapist for Speech and Language Therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Vuuren, Sarel; Cherney, Leora R.

    2015-01-01

    A virtual therapist (VT) capable of modeling visible speech and directing speech and language therapy is presented. Three perspectives of practical and clinical use are described. The first is a description of treatment and typical roles that the VT performs in directing participation, practice and performance. The second is a description of techniques for modeling visible speech and implementing tele-rehabilitation. The third is an analysis of performance of a system (AphasiaRx™) for delivering speech and language therapy to people with aphasia, with results presented from a randomized controlled cross-over study in which the VT provided two levels of cuing. Compared to low cue treatment, high cue treatment resulted in 2.3 times faster learning. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of speech and language therapy delivered by the VT. PMID:25938137

  9. A Virtual Therapist for Speech and Language Therapy.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, Sarel; Cherney, Leora R

    2014-01-01

    A virtual therapist (VT) capable of modeling visible speech and directing speech and language therapy is presented. Three perspectives of practical and clinical use are described. The first is a description of treatment and typical roles that the VT performs in directing participation, practice and performance. The second is a description of techniques for modeling visible speech and implementing tele-rehabilitation. The third is an analysis of performance of a system (AphasiaRx™) for delivering speech and language therapy to people with aphasia, with results presented from a randomized controlled cross-over study in which the VT provided two levels of cuing. Compared to low cue treatment, high cue treatment resulted in 2.3 times faster learning. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of speech and language therapy delivered by the VT.

  10. 78 FR 49717 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  11. The Integration of Movement Oriented Fields of Practice in Child Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, A.

    1985-01-01

    A series of interviews and situational analyses were conducted to examine the integration of rehabilitation movement activities for physically handicapped as practiced by professionals in medical services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech training, and movement education. Four general goals of rehabilitation regarding movement are…

  12. Peace Corps in Special Education and Rehabilitation. Case Study CS-2. Appropriate Technologies for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Gregory L.; Davis, Katherine

    The monograph evaluates the efforts of the Peace Corps in special education and rehabilitation. Charts list levels of activity; work sectors (health, education, social service, or vocational); locale; specialty area (special education, occupational, physical, and speech therapy, vocational rehabilitation, and social work); and disabilities served…

  13. Perspectives on rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wayne A

    2010-02-01

    Gordon WA. Perspectives on rehabilitation research. The author provides his perspectives on both the methodologic and funding challenges faced by rehabilitation researchers. His concerns are conveyed about the devaluing of rehabilitation research by federal funding agencies and Congress.

  14. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  15. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  16. Rehabilitation Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts OSEP Reports & Resources RSA Welcome to RSA Rehabilitation Services Administration RSA Spotlight News Commissioner's Quarterly Newsletter ... The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services’ Rehabilitation Services Administration is proud to announce the publication ...

  17. Using Telerehabilitation to Assess Apraxia of Speech in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne Jane; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Telerehabilitation is the remote delivery of rehabilitation services via information technology and telecommunication systems. There have been a number of studies that have used videoconferencing to assess speech and language skills in people with acquired neurogenic communication disorders. However, few studies have focused on cases…

  18. Ultrasound in Speech Therapy with Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Barbara; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope; Adler-Bock, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    The present paper comprises an overview of techniques using ultrasound in speech (re)habilitation. Ultrasound treatment techniques have been developed for English lingual stops, vowels, sibilants, and liquids. These techniques come from a series of small "n" studies with adolescents and adults with severe hearing impairment, residual…

  19. Cultural competence education in university rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Matteliano, Mary A; Stone, John H

    2014-01-01

    The Center of International Rehabilitation Research, Information, and Exchange (CIRRIE) has prepared curriculum guides for rehabilitation professionals in occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech language pathology, and rehabilitation counseling. The objective is to provide a resource to faculty who wish to include or strengthen cultural competency education in their program and courses. CIRRIE assessed students'cultural needs, and solicited assistance from experts in the field to assist with the development of the guides. After the guides were published CIRRIE conducted surveys to assess their usefulness. Survey responses were highest among occupational therapy faculty. Among faculty who responded, most intended to use the cultural competence activities, case studies, and resources that the guides offer throughout their curriculum.

  20. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... is…Robbie, Pearl, and Mario. Back to top Definition There are many kinds of speech and language ... education available to school-aged children with disabilities. Definition of “Speech or Language Impairment” under IDEA The ...

  1. Rehabilitation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Biotran, or Fastex as named by Cybex, the company that manufactures it, is a force sensing system that helps physicians and physical therapists treat people with movement deficiencies. Based on NASA sensor technology, it also has applications in sports training and evaluation. Biotran provides a means of testing weight-bearing capabilities that may have been compromised by injury or disease. It also assists in the rehabilitation process by putting patients through a course of computer-directed exercises designed to improve strength and balance reaction time. The system tests and documents progress until maximum medical improvement is achieved. Lewis Research Center also assisted the company in the selection of the material used in the Biotran force sensing platforms. Biotran is currently manufactured by Cybex under the name Fastex.

  2. A novel speech prosthesis for mandibular guidance therapy in hemimandibulectomy patient: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Adaki, Raghavendra; Shigli, Kamal; Hormuzdi, Dinshaw M.; Gali, Sivaranjani

    2016-01-01

    Treating diverse maxillofacial patients poses a challenge to the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Rehabilitation of hemimandibulectomy patients must aim at restoring mastication and other functions such as intelligible speech, swallowing, and esthetics. Prosthetic methods such as palatal ramp and mandibular guiding flange reposition the deviated mandible. Such prosthesis can also be used to restore speech in case of patients with debilitating speech following surgical resection. This clinical report gives detail of a hemimandibulectomy patient provided with an interim removable dental speech prosthesis with composite resin flange for mandibular guidance therapy. PMID:27041917

  3. Speech imagery recalibrates speech-perception boundaries.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The perceptual boundaries between speech sounds are malleable and can shift after repeated exposure to contextual information. This shift is known as recalibration. To date, the known inducers of recalibration are lexical (including phonotactic) information, lip-read information and reading. The experiments reported here are a proof-of-effect demonstration that speech imagery can also induce recalibration.

  4. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  5. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  6. Free Speech Yearbook: 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of syllabi, attitude surveys, and essays relating to free-speech issues, compiled by the Committee on Freedom of Seech of the Speech Communication Association. The collection begins with a rationale for the inclusion of a course on free speech in the college curriculum. Three syllabi with bibliographies present guides for…

  7. Speech and respiration.

    PubMed

    Conrad, B; Schönle, P

    1979-04-12

    This investigation deals with the temporal aspects of air volume changes during speech. Speech respiration differs fundamentally from resting respiration. In resting respiration the duration and velocity of inspiration (air flow or lung volume change) are in a range similar to that of expiration. In speech respiration the duration of inspiration decreases and its velocity increases; conversely, the duration of expiration increases and the volume of air flow decreases dramatically. The following questions arise: are these two respiration types different entities, or do they represent the end points of a continuum from resting to speech respiration? How does articulation without the generation of speech sound affect breathing? Does (verbalized?) thinking without articulation or speech modify the breathing pattern? The main test battery included four tasks (spontaneous speech, reading, serial speech, arithmetic) performed under three conditions (speaking aloud, articulating subvocally, quiet performance by tryping to exclusively 'think' the tasks). Respiratory movements were measured with a chest pneumograph and evaluated in comparison with a phonogram and the identified spoken text. For quiet performance the resulting respiratory time ratio (relation of duration of inspiration versus expiration) showed a gradual shift in the direction of speech respiration--the least for reading, the most for arithmetic. This change was even more apparent for the subvocal tasks. It is concluded that (a) there is a gradual automatic change from resting to speech respiration and (b) the degree of internal verbalization (activation of motor speech areas) defines the degree of activation of the speech respiratory pattern.

  8. Degraded neural and behavioral processing of speech sounds in a rat model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Borland, Michael S; Buell, Elizabeth P; Centanni, Tracy M; Fink, Melyssa K; Im, Kwok W; Wilson, Linda G; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with Rett syndrome have greatly impaired speech and language abilities. Auditory brainstem responses to sounds are normal, but cortical responses are highly abnormal. In this study, we used the novel rat Mecp2 knockout model of Rett syndrome to document the neural and behavioral processing of speech sounds. We hypothesized that both speech discrimination ability and the neural response to speech sounds would be impaired in Mecp2 rats. We expected that extensive speech training would improve speech discrimination ability and the cortical response to speech sounds. Our results reveal that speech responses across all four auditory cortex fields of Mecp2 rats were hyperexcitable, responded slower, and were less able to follow rapidly presented sounds. While Mecp2 rats could accurately perform consonant and vowel discrimination tasks in quiet, they were significantly impaired at speech sound discrimination in background noise. Extensive speech training improved discrimination ability. Training shifted cortical responses in both Mecp2 and control rats to favor the onset of speech sounds. While training increased the response to low frequency sounds in control rats, the opposite occurred in Mecp2 rats. Although neural coding and plasticity are abnormal in the rat model of Rett syndrome, extensive therapy appears to be effective. These findings may help to explain some aspects of communication deficits in Rett syndrome and suggest that extensive rehabilitation therapy might prove beneficial.

  9. Speech Recognition: A General Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sopena, Luis

    Speech recognition is one of five main areas in the field of speech processing. Difficulties in speech recognition include variability in sound within and across speakers, in channel, in background noise, and of speech production. Speech recognition can be used in a variety of situations: to perform query operations and phone call transfers; for…

  10. Advances in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yee Sien; Chew, Effie; Samuel, Geoffrey S; Tan, Yeow Leng; Kong, Keng He

    2013-10-01

    Rehabilitation medicine is the medical specialty that integrates rehabilitation as its core therapeutic modality in disability management. More than a billion people worldwide are disabled, and the World Health Organization has developed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework through which disability is addressed. Herein, we explore paradigm shifts in neurorehabilitation, with a focus on restoration, and provide overviews on developments in neuropharmacology, rehabilitation robotics, virtual reality, constraint-induced therapy and brain stimulation. We also discuss important issues in rehabilitation systems of care, including integrated care pathways, very early rehabilitation, early supported discharge and telerehabilitation. Finally, we highlight major new fields of rehabilitation such as spasticity management, frailty and geriatric rehabilitation, intensive care and cancer rehabilitation.

  11. Specificity in Rehabilitation of Word Production: A Meta-Analysis and a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemot, Charlotte; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Robotham, Laura; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Speech production impairment is a frequent deficit observed in aphasic patients and rehabilitation programs have been extensively developed. Nevertheless, there is still no agreement on the type of rehabilitation that yields the most successful outcomes. Here, we ran a detailed meta-analysis of 39 studies of word production rehabilitation involving 124 patients. We used a model-driven approach for analyzing each rehabilitation task by identifying which levels of our model each task tapped into. We found that (1) all rehabilitation tasks are not equally efficient and the most efficient ones involved the activation of the two levels of the word production system: the phonological output lexicon and the phonological output, and (2) the activation of the speech perception system as it occurs in many tasks used in rehabilitation is not successful in rehabilitating word production. In this meta-analysis, the effect of the activation of the phonological output lexicon and the phonological output cannot be assessed separately. We further conducted a rehabilitation study with DPI, a patient who suffers from a damage of the phonological output lexicon. Our results confirm that rehabilitation is more efficient, in terms of time and performance, when specifically addressing the impaired level of word production. PMID:22425722

  12. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  13. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  14. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  15. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  16. Speech Outcome in Oral Cancer Patients – Pre- and Post-operative Evaluation: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Gomathi; Ranganathan, Venkatesan; Gandhi, Anitha; Jaya, V

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The tongue plays a major role in articulation. Speech outcome depends on the site of lesion, extent of resection, and flexibility of the remaining structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the speech outcome measures such as sounds that are misarticulated and speech intelligibility and its connection to tumor site before and after surgery. Methodology: Totally, 24 (12 pre- and 12 post-operative patients) patients who had buccal and tongue cancer underwent speech intelligibility rating and articulation screening. Result: The results show that the speech outcome is worse in postoperative patients when compared to preoperative patients. The articulation errors produced by tongue cancer patients were more than the errors produced in buccal cancer patients. The type of reconstruction also affects the speech outcome. Conclusion: The perceptual analysis of oral cancer patients showed specific articulation issues and reduced intelligibility of speech in regards to site of lesion and type of reconstruction surgery. To reduce the speech errors, effective rehabilitation is recommended. A comprehensive speech evaluation and analysis of error patterns would help us in planning the rehabilitative measures of speech which is the most important factor in re-establishing interpersonal communication and well-being of the individual. PMID:27803574

  17. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Khan, Andleeb; Hillman, Todd; Chen, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a means to rehabilitate patients with sensorineural hearing loss. It differs from hearing aids in that it uses mechanical energy rather than acoustic sound to deliver better sound quality to the inner ear. The implant's crucial component is a floating mass transducer that is directly fixed to the incus to drive it, which is introduced into the middle ear through a facial recess approach. Although this is a newer technology, studies thus far have demonstrated better hearing results compared with hearing aids in terms of functional gain and speech intelligibility, and better outcomes on subjective assessments.

  18. Groningen prosthesis for voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Annyas, A A; Nijdam, H F; Escajadillo, J R; Mahieu, H F; Leever, H

    1984-02-01

    Singer and Blom's endoscopic technique, using a single valved silicone prosthesis, constituted a dramatic advance in speech rehabilitation following total laryngectomy. Since 1980, we have developed a silicone biflanged prosthesis that overcomes some of the inconveniences of previous prostheses. Insertion via the mouth and the oesophagus, or as a primary procedure during total laryngectomy is easily done with the use of specially developed instruments. The success rate in 36 patients in which the voice button was inserted at the time of total laryngectomy was 86.2%.

  19. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  20. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but…

  1. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  2. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  3. Advertising and Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Allen, Ed.; Johnson, M. Bruce, Ed.

    The articles collected in this book originated at a conference at which legal and economic scholars discussed the issue of First Amendment protection for commercial speech. The first article, in arguing for freedom for commercial speech, finds inconsistent and untenable the arguments of those who advocate freedom from regulation for political…

  4. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  5. Free Speech Yearbook 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The nine articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics discussed include the following: (1) freedom of expression in Thailand and India; (2) metaphors and analogues in several landmark free speech cases; (3) Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas's views of the First Amendment; (4) the San…

  6. Free Speech Yearbook 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    This issue of the "Free Speech Yearbook" contains the following: "Between Rhetoric and Disloyalty: Free Speech Standards for the Sunshire Soldier" by Richard A. Parker; "William A. Rehnquist: Ideologist on the Bench" by Peter E. Kane; "The First Amendment's Weakest Link: Government Regulation of Controversial…

  7. Egocentric Speech Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunwald, Susan R.

    A range of language use model is proposed as an alternative conceptual framework to a stage model of egocentric speech. The range of language use model is proposed to clarify the meaning of the term egocentric speech, to examine the validity of stage assumptions, and to explain the existence of contextual variation in the form of children's…

  8. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976"…

  9. SPEECH COMMUNICATION RESEARCH.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    studies of the dynamics of speech production through cineradiographic techniques and through acoustic analysis of formant motions in vowels in various...particular, the activity of the vocal cords and the dynamics of tongue motion. Research on speech perception has included experiments on vowel

  10. Child Speech, Language and Communication Need Re-Examined in a Public Health Context: A New Direction for the Speech and Language Therapy Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature…

  11. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  12. Educational needs of speech and language therapists in the field of audiology.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    Speech and language therapists have rather diverse educational backgrounds globally. Their qualifications vary from a 1 to 2-year diploma or certificate programme in a non-university educational setting, to a 6-year university graduate education. Although speech and language therapy is generally considered an interdisciplinary profession, both in education and in clinical practice, in some countries the main emphasis may still be on special education, medicine (mainly medical audiology) or, because of a joint qualification, psychology. This article discusses the requirements for audiological education in proper assessment and (re)habilitation of hearing impairments. Future challenges of both the profession and the discipline of speech and language therapy are also highlighted.

  13. Post-stroke pure apraxia of speech - A rare experience.

    PubMed

    Polanowska, Katarzyna Ewa; Pietrzyk-Krawczyk, Iwona

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder, most typically caused by stroke, which in its "pure" form (without other speech-language deficits) is very rare in clinical practice. Because some observable characteristics of AOS overlap with more common verbal communication neurologic syndromes (i.e. aphasia, dysarthria) distinguishing them may be difficult. The present study describes AOS in a 49-year-old right-handed male after left-hemispheric stroke. Analysis of his articulatory and prosodic abnormalities in the context of intact communicative abilities as well as description of symptoms dynamics over time provides valuable information for clinical diagnosis of this specific disorder and prognosis for its recovery. This in turn is the basis for the selection of appropriate rehabilitative interventions.

  14. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  15. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  16. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With... this document, the Commission amends telecommunications relay services (TRS) mandatory minimum standards applicable to Speech- to-Speech (STS) relay service. This action is necessary to ensure...

  17. Rehabilitation in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Ennio; Spadaro, Antonio; Parsons, Wendy J; Atteno, Mariangela; Ferrara, Nicola

    2009-08-01

    This article summarizes the state of the art of rehabilitation in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Very little evidence was available to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation. Some data were borrowed from studies on ankylosing spondylitis. Covering certain aspects of the disease by the standard measure of functioning was difficult. However, rehabilitation was considered by the GRAPPA Group (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis), as part of treatment of axial PsA.

  18. Speech modifications algorithms used for training language learning-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, S S; Wang, X; Merzenich, M M; Schreiner, C E; Johnston, P; Jenkins, W M; Miller, S; Tallal, P

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the details of processing algorithms used in a training program with language learning-impaired children (LLI's) are described. The training program utilized computer games, speech/language training exercises, books-on-tape and educational CD-ROM's. Speech tracks in these materials were processed using these algorithms. During a four week training period, recognition of both processed and normal speech in these children continually increased to near age-appropriate levels. We conclude that this form of processed speech is subject to profound perceptual learning effects and exhibits widespread generalization to normal speech. This form of learning and generalization contributes to the rehabilitation of temporal processing deficits and language comprehension in this subject population.

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ries, Andrew L; Make, Barry J; Reilly, John J

    2008-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an established treatment for patients with chronic lung disease. Benefits include improvement in exercise tolerance, symptoms, and quality of life, with a reduction in the use of health care resources. As an adjunct to surgical programs, such as lung volume reduction surgery, pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role not just in preparing patients for surgery and facilitating recovery but also in selecting patients and ensuring informed choices about treatment options after optimal medical care. In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), subjects completed 6-10 weeks of comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation before randomization and continued rehabilitation throughout the trial, both at home and with intermittent supervision at either an NETT center or an NETT-certified satellite center. Sessions included a combination of upper and lower extremity exercise, education, and psychosocial support. Before randomization, pulmonary rehabilitation resulted in highly significant changes in exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life. As expected, improvements were significantly greater in those without prior rehabilitation experience. Results for patients completing rehabilitation at satellites were similar to those at NETT centers. Prerandomization pulmonary rehabilitation had a significant effect on outcome after lung volume reduction surgery. NETT identified subgroups with differential outcome by treatment (surgical vs. nonsurgical), defined in part by postrehabilitation maximum exercise capacity. Overall, NETT demonstrated the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in improving function, symptoms, and health status in a large cohort of patients with advanced emphysema treated in a cross-section of programs in the United States.

  20. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  1. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  2. Psychiatrists and psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Torrey, William C; Green, Ronald L; Drake, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Interventions that focus directly on functional impairments related to mental illnesses are termed psychiatric rehabilitation. Research demonstrates that rehabilitation services are increasingly able to help adults with psychiatric disabilities achieve the functional outcomes they desire, particularly in the areas of housing and employment. To support the community lives of adults with severe mental illnesses, psychiatrists must stay current with advances in this field and know how to integrate psychiatric rehabilitation with other interventions. This article reviews the concept of psychiatric rehabilitation, current approaches in the field, the psychiatrist's role in these services, and implications for psychiatric training and continuing education.

  3. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  4. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  5. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  6. Speech perception as categorization

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702

  7. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  8. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  9. [Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

    1991-12-01

    On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child.

  10. Assessing Disordered Speech and Voice in Parkinson's Disease: A Telerehabilitation Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinescu, Gabriella; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth; Wilson, Stephen; Wootton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease face numerous access barriers to speech pathology services for appropriate assessment and treatment. Telerehabilitation is a possible solution to this problem, whereby rehabilitation services may be delivered to the patient at a distance, via telecommunication and information technologies. A number of…

  11. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  12. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    reported elsewhere. 1. Introduction This research was performed as part of the DARPA-Babylon program aimed at rapidly developing multilingual speech-to...used in an external DARPA evaluation involving medical scenarios between an American Doctor and a naïve monolingual Thai patient. 2. Thai Language...To create more general acoustic models we collected read speech data from native speakers based on the concepts of our multilingual data collection

  13. [Phonatory rehabilitation via esophageal voice and the laryngophone].

    PubMed

    Motta, S

    1992-01-01

    Esophageal voice obtained through logopedic treatment and speech produced by electronic prostheses is the principal means of verbal communication of laryngectomized patients. Several factors condition the success of logopedic rehabilitation: entity of hypopharyngeal surgical exeresis and scar repairing modalities; rehabilitation technique employed; patient's skill in controlling pharyngo-esophageal tract and articulation organs; patient motivation. A previous study executed by our School reported that only the 20% of the patients who did not practise logopedic therapy employed the laryngophone. Reduced use of electronic prosthesis depends on three factors: acoustic products of poor quality; evidence of anatomic and functional impairment pointed out by laryngophone use; limitation of manual activity during phonation. Electronic prostheses have a precise indication in the following cases: immediately after surgery; in case of logopedic treatment failure and when tracheo-esophageal prosthesis are contraindicated; when the esophageal voice has an insufficient volume or in noisy environments. Finally indicative criteria to introduce patients to the most suitable rehabilitation modality are reported.

  14. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  15. Technology Utilization in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    The use of technology in the rehabilitation of disabled individuals is hampered by the lack of financial resources, information on such technology, consumer involvement, and support services such as consumer training and product service. Federal and local money and resources plus the involvement of rehabilitation professionals are needed to…

  16. Rehabilitation of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Rehabilitation of hearing is considered in five conference papers. Two papers come from Poland: "Rehabilitation of Hearing in Children 'Deaf' in First 5 Years of Age" by D. Borkowska-Gaertig and others and "Possibilities of Hearing Improvement in Adults with Conservative Methods" by T. Bystrzanowska. Also included are…

  17. Rehabilitation Counseling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stude, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A 10-week paid summer internship for a rehabilitation counseling faculty in a state vocational rehabilitation agency is described. The benefits of the internship in relation to increasing faculty relevance in and outside the classroom are discussed, and recommendations for improving the internship are presented. (Author)

  18. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions.

  19. [Phototherapy in rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Okuni, Ikuko

    2012-07-01

    Rehabilitation can be classified into four types: medical, vocational, educational, and social rehabilitation. The goal of medical rehabilitation is to maintain and improve a patient's physical and mental capabilities. Phototherapy is an important means of treatment in rehabilitation medicine and is usually performed with ultraviolet, infrared, or laser light. Among them, laser light has been shown to have various biological effects, such as increasing blood flow, promoting wound healing, reducing inflammation, and improving immune function. Laser therapy is as important a treatment option as exercise therapy in rehabilitation medicine, and is considered to be worth evaluating as a therapeutic means to relieve pain in musculoskeletal disorders, promote healing in peripheral neuropathy, and alleviate muscle spasticity.

  20. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  1. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    PubMed

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders.

  2. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  3. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  4. Alleviating speech and deglutition: Role of a prosthodontist in multidisciplinary management of velopharyngeal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Sharma, Sunanda; Suryavanshi, Shalini; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of soft palate due to cancer affects the effective functioning of the velopharyngeal mechanism (speech and deglutition). With the loss of speech intelligibility, hyper resonance in voice and impaired function of swallowing (due to nasal regurgitation), there is a depreciation in the quality of life of such an individual. In a multidisciplinary setup, the role of a prosthodontist has been described to rehabilitate such patients by fabrication of speech aid prosthesis. The design and method of fabrication of the prosthesis are simple and easy to perform. The use of prosthesis, together with training (of speech) by a speech pathologist resulted in improvement in speech. Furthermore, an improvement in swallowing had been noted, resulting in an improved nutritional intake and general well-being of an individual. The take-home message is that in the treatment of oral cancer, feasible, and rapid rehabilitation should be endeavored in order to make the patient socially more acceptable. The onus lies on the prosthodontist to practise the same in a rapid manner before the moral of the patient becomes low due to the associated stigma of cancer. PMID:26929526

  5. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  6. Postacute Care in Cancer Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Fu, Jack B; Guo, Hong; Camp, Jennifer; Shin, Ki Y; Tu, Shi-Ming; Palmer, Lynn J; Yadav, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    Acute care is usually associated with disease progression, treatments for cancer, and medical comorbidities. Patients with cancer may develop sudden functional deficits that require rehabilitation. Some of these patients benefit from acute rehabilitation, others benefit from subacute rehabilitation. After acute rehabilitation, continuous care for these patients has not been well described. Three studies are presented to demonstrate that cancer rehabilitation is a continuous process. Rehabilitation professionals should know how to detect fall risk, monitor symptoms, and render symptom management. Patients with cancer often require rehabilitation services during their entire disease trajectory.

  7. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  8. Rehabilitation in Managing MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... tool to locate physiatrists. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology- Provides an online directory of psychologists who are board-certified in clinical neuropsychology. American Occupational Therapy Assocation American Speech-Language-Hearing ...

  9. Introduction to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Konin, Jeff G

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation plays an integral role when it comes to managing sports injuries in a safe and timely manner. Doing so competently allows for a greater chance of quick recovery and ultimate success on and off the field. Understanding the goals of rehabilitation and how to enhance communication between all providers who are involved with athlete care is critical to the process. The purpose of this article is to thoroughly explain the steps and critical components of a rehabilitation process designed specifically for each athlete's needs.

  10. Outpatient Pain Rehabilitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph J

    2006-01-01

    Outpatient pain rehabilitation programs that include an interdisciplinary approach have been shown to be effective treatments for patients with chronic pain. The objectives of this article are to describe the common interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programs available, the appropriate indications for use, the components of typical pain rehabilitation programs, the short-term and long-term success rates, the costs of attending these programs, and the significant societal costs of those patients who do not complete these programs and do not return to work. PMID:16789457

  11. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  12. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  13. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  14. [Visual synthesis of speech].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Y; Villanueva, A; Cabeza, R

    2000-01-01

    The eyes can come to be the sole tool of communication for highly disabled patients. With the appropriate technology it is possible to successfully interpret eye movements, increasing the possibilities of patient communication with the use of speech synthesisers. A system of these characteristics will have to include a speech synthesiser, an interface for the user to construct the text and a method of gaze interpretation. In this way a situation will be achieved in which the user will manage the system solely with his eyes. This review sets out the state of the art of the three modules that make up a system of this type, and finally it introduces the speech synthesis system (Síntesis Visual del Habla [SiVHa]), which is being developed in the Public University of Navarra.

  15. Multilingual Speech and Language Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    FRANCE RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS 66 Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (Le traitement multilingue de la parole et du langage) Papers presented at... Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (Le traitement multilingue de la parole et du langage) Papers presented at the Information Systems Technology Panel...Reserved ISBN 92-837-1102-5 iii Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (RTO MP-066 / IST-025) Executive Summary Multilingual speech and language

  16. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  17. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  18. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  19. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  20. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  1. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  2. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  3. [Dermato-oncological rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Buhles, N; Sander, C

    2005-07-01

    National insurance companies in Germany support health cures for patients with malignant tumors (malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumor, malignant cutaneous lymphoma). The clinical requirements are an invasively growing tumor, problems of self-assurance, and dis-integration of the patient regarding his social and/or professional environment. The decision for a health cure is made by the treating dermatologist in the hospital. In this context, the following sociomedical criteria should be applied: impairment, disability, and handicap. Usually, rehabilitation starts after the patient is discharged from the hospital. The inpatient rehabilitation program should be performed at an institution capable of providing dermatological and psychological treatment. The dermatologist acts as a manager for the members of the rehabilitation team (psychologists, physiotherapists, social workers, and ergo-therapists). In conclusion, dermato-oncologic rehabilitation plays an important role in re-integrating the patient into his professional life to avoid retirement.

  4. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment.

  5. Rehabilitation For Independent Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forecast for Home Economics, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The focus of the homemaking program at the Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine is twofold--to retrain disabled homemakers in basic skills and to replan the patients' homes to fit their new physical needs. (Author/BP)

  6. Speech transmission index from running speech: A neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. F.; Cox, T. J.

    2003-04-01

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an important objective parameter concerning speech intelligibility for sound transmission channels. It is normally measured with specific test signals to ensure high accuracy and good repeatability. Measurement with running speech was previously proposed, but accuracy is compromised and hence applications limited. A new approach that uses artificial neural networks to accurately extract the STI from received running speech is developed in this paper. Neural networks are trained on a large set of transmitted speech examples with prior knowledge of the transmission channels' STIs. The networks perform complicated nonlinear function mappings and spectral feature memorization to enable accurate objective parameter extraction from transmitted speech. Validations via simulations demonstrate the feasibility of this new method on a one-net-one-speech extract basis. In this case, accuracy is comparable with normal measurement methods. This provides an alternative to standard measurement techniques, and it is intended that the neural network method can facilitate occupied room acoustic measurements.

  7. Final priority; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program--rehabilitation specialty areas. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-07-23

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years in order to fund any of the rehabilitation specialty areas listed in this notice. The specific rehabilitation specialty areas to be funded in a given year will be listed in a notice inviting applications. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality rehabilitation programs in the following nine rehabilitation specialty areas of national need: Rehabilitation Administration (84.129C); Rehabilitation Technology (84.129E); Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment (84.129F); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill (84.129H); Rehabilitation Psychology (84.129J); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Blind or Have Vision Impairments (84.129P); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (84.129Q); Job Development and Job Placement Services (84.129R); and Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (84.129W). These programs must meet rigorous standards in order to provide rehabilitation professionals the training and qualifications necessary to meet the current challenges facing State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies and related agencies and assist individuals with disabilities in achieving high-quality employment outcomes.

  8. Availability and Structure of Ambulatory Rehabilitation Services: A Survey of Hospitals with Designated Rehabilitation Beds in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Passalent, Laura A.; Cott, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree to which ambulatory physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and speech language pathology (SLP) services are available in hospitals with designated rehabilitation beds (DRBs) in Ontario, and to explore the structure of delivery and funding among services that exist. Methods: Questions regarding ambulatory services were included in the System Integration and Change (SIC) survey sent to all hospitals participating in the Hospital Report 2005: Rehabilitation initiative. Results: The response rate was 75.9% (41 of 54 hospitals). All hospitals surveyed provide some degree of ambulatory rehabilitation services, but the nature of these services varies according to rehabilitation client groups (RCGs). The majority of hospitals continue to deliver services through their employees rather than by contracting out or by creating for-profit subsidiary clinics, but an increasing proportion is accessing private sources to finance ambulatory services. Conclusions: Most hospitals with DRBs provide some degree of ambulatory rehabilitation services. Privatization of delivery is not widespread in these facilities. PMID:20145757

  9. 78 FR 12002 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... CFR Chapter III Proposed Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... and Rehabilitative Services proposes a priority for the Rehabilitation Research and Training...

  10. 78 FR 38840 - Final Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and...

  11. 78 FR 42868 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and...

  12. 77 FR 8234 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research... Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program-- Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project--Center on Knowledge Translation for Disability...

  13. 78 FR 66344 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program--Vocational... Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training... Program: The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program provides financial assistance for-- (1)...

  14. 76 FR 22084 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training AGENCY: Office of... Information: Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training notice inviting applications for new... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program (Training...

  15. 78 FR 35808 - Proposed priority-Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program-Vocational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... CFR Chapter III Proposed priority--Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training Program... and Rehabilitative Services proposes a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal...

  16. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andréll, Paulin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  17. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  18. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  19. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  20. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  1. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  2. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  3. Recognition of speech spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B; Carrell, T D

    1984-07-01

    The performance of eight naive observers in learning to identify speech spectrograms was studied over a 2-month period. Single tokens from a 50-word phonetically balanced (PB) list were recorded by several talkers and displayed on a Spectraphonics Speech Spectrographic Display system. Identification testing occurred immediately after daily training sessions. After approximately 20 h of training, naive subjects correctly identified the 50 PB words from a single talker over 95% of the time. Generalization tests with the same words were then carried out with different tokens from the original talker, new tokens from another male talker, a female talker, and finally, a synthetic talker. The generalization results for these talkers showed recognition performance at 91%, 76%, 76%, and 48%, respectively. Finally, generalization tests with a novel set of PB words produced by the original talker were also carried out to examine in detail the perceptual strategies and visual features that subjects abstracted from the training set. Our results demonstrate that even without formal training in phonetics or acoustics naive observers can learn to identify visual displays of speech at very high levels of accuracy. Analysis of subjects' performance in a verbal protocol task demonstrated that they rely on salient visual correlates of many phonetic features in speech.

  4. On Curbing Racial Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Mary Ellen

    1991-01-01

    An alternative interpretation of the First Amendment guarantee of free speech suggests that universities may prohibit and punish direct verbal assaults on specific individuals if the speaker intends to do harm and if a reasonable person would recognize the potential for serious interference with the victim's educational rights. (MSE)

  5. Speech Understanding Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    insensitive to random occurrences of noise. 3) It is capable of being extended to handle large vocabularies. 4) It oermits alternate...baseforms, phonological rules, and marking of syllable boundaries and stress levels from the Speech Communications Research Laboratory , We also

  6. Speech and Hearing Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakata, Reiko; Sakata, Robert

    1978-01-01

    In the public school, the speech and hearing therapist attempts to foster child growth and development through the provision of services basic to awareness of self and others, management of personal and social interactions, and development of strategies for coping with the handicap. (MM)

  7. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  8. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  9. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  10. Media Criticism Group Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  11. Free Speech Yearbook, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    A collection of essays on free speech and communication is contained in this book. The essays include "From Fairness to Access and Back Again: Some Dimensions of Free Expression in Broadcasting"; "Local Option on the First Amendment?"; "A Look at the Fire Symbol Before and After May 4, 1970"; "Freedom to Teach,…

  12. Free Speech Yearbook 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The seven articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics covered are: the United States Supreme Court, motion picture censorship, and the color line; judicial decision making; the established scientific community's suppression of the ideas of Immanuel Velikovsky; the problems of avant-garde jazz,…

  13. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by...

  14. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2013-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22851346

  15. Telerehabilitation, virtual therapists, and acquired neurologic speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2012-08-01

    Telerehabilitation (telerehab) offers cost-effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed.

  16. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  17. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  18. Propositional speech in unselected stroke: The effect of genre and external support.

    PubMed

    Law, Bonnie; Young, Breanne; Pinsker, Donna; Robinson, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Distinguished from nominal language, propositional language generation refers to the spontaneous and voluntary aspect of language that introduces novel concepts to a specific context. Propositional language can be impaired in a range of neurological disorders, including stroke, despite well-preserved nominal language. Although external support can increase speech rate in patients with reduced propositional speech, no specific investigation of propositional speech has been carried out in unselected stroke patients. The current study investigated propositional language in an unselected post-acute stroke group (N = 18) with mild cognitive impairment and prominent executive dysfunction, but without significant aphasia. Specifically, we investigated whether genre or external support affected the number of words, sentences, and novel ideas produced, compared to healthy controls (N = 27). Results showed that discourse genre was not associated with differential performances. By contrast, speech quantity increased without external support although, for stroke patients, speech novelty decreased. Overall, the novelty deficit in unselected stroke patients highlights the importance of assessing cognition and propositional speech. Our findings suggest that for stroke patients with mild cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction, introducing external support improved speech quality but not quantity. Implications for both assessment and rehabilitation of social communication are discussed.

  19. [Speech and regulation of behavior: the works of LS Vygosty and AR Luria].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The role of speech in the regulation of behavior was described in child psychology by LS Vygotsky and AR Luria in the Soviet Union during the twenties, and extended to neuropsychology by Luria after the World War II. According to Vygotsky, man built up « psychological tools » on the model of material tools to extend his natural capacities. Psychological tools, such as language, are symbolic systems from social origin, which control activity and behavior, and convert natural cognitive processes into higher cortical functions. Therefore child's development is embedded into particular social relationships. First communicational speech then inner speech plays a major role in the regulation of behavior in man: at first it goes with action, then precedes it, and finally replaces it. A willful action is thus an action largely controlled by inner speech, especially in novel and complex tasks, but the properties of inner speech differ from those of communicational speech. Assessment of the role of speech on the regulation of action and behavior should be part of the neuropsychological examination of frontal lobe functions. It also could be useful to assess the ability of patients to participate in cognitive rehabilitation, particularly in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    PubMed

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  1. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  2. [In-patient (early) rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, Claus-W; Lautenschläger, Sindy

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to develop the financing and hospital provision of interventions for early rehabilitation within the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. In addition to a range of partially rehabilitative complex interventions, the system recognizes three main forms of early rehabilitative interventions: geriatric, neurological/neurosurgical, and interdisciplinary and others. In this article, the appropriate definitions and cost-effectiveness of these procedures are analyzed and compared. The early rehabilitative interventions are characterized by constant cooperation in the therapeutic team, especially neurological early rehabilitation through the incorporation of nursing as a therapeutic profession. Whereas geriatric and neurological early rehabilitation are reflected in the DRG system, the former provided in many general hospitals and the latter mainly in specialized institutions, interdisciplinary early rehabilitation has only occasionally been represented in the DRG system so far. If all acute in-patients who require early rehabilitation should receive such an intervention, an additional fee must be implemented for this this interdisciplinary service.

  3. Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rehabilitative and assistive technology refers to tools, equipment, or products that can ...

  4. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENKINSON, EDWARD B., ED.

    THIS GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH FOCUSES ON SPEECH AS ORAL COMPOSITION, STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAR THINKING AND COMMUNICATION. THE PROPOSED 1-SEMESTER BASIC COURSE IN SPEECH ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE THE STUDENT'S ABILITY TO COMPOSE AND DELIVER SPEECHES, TO THINK AND LISTEN CRITICALLY, AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SPEECH. IN ADDITION…

  5. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  6. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  7. Headphone localization of speech.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Wenzel, E M

    1993-06-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects "pulled" their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15% to 46% of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  8. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  9. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  10. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  11. Speech Understanding Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    ELEMENT PARITY XII-10 C. THE ENVIRONMENT TREE XII-14 D. THE EXECUTIVE FOR THE DEDUCTIVE COMPONENT .... XII-18 E. GENERATING CANDIDATE BINDINGS FOR A...SELECTED QVISTA ELEMENT XII-22 F. RAMIFICATIONS OF A PROPOSED BINDING XII-23 G. THE BINDER XII-26 H. DERIVING ELEMENT-OF AND SUBSET RELATIONS...developed to resolve simple anaphoric reference and to correlate information from a primitive world model. Using programs for speech analysis and

  12. Speech Quality Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    noise test , t=2 for t1-v low p’ass f lit er te st ,and t 3 * or theit ADP(NI cod ing tevst ’*s is the sub lec nube 0l e tet Bostz- Av L b U0...a 1ý...it aepa rate, speech clu.1 t laboratory and controlled by the NOVA 830 computoer . Bach of tho stations has a CRT, .15 response buttons, a "rad button

  13. Speech Database Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    cluded basic phonetic coverage and varying phonetic environments. Examining pairs of phonemes we augmented these sentences, attempting to have at...and the sampling rate. Speech data was collected and recorded utilizing the Vocabulary Master Library file (VML). 630 VML files were created and run on...these descriptions is attached with this report as Appendix B.) Basically , phonetic alignment is accomplished in three steps. First, each 5 ms frame

  14. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    1993] [ LeGoff and Benoit 1996]. In physics-based methods, the animator relies on the laws of physics to determine the mouth movement, given some initial...work in the memory of Christian Benoit [ LeGoff and Benoit 1996] who was a pioneer in audiovisual speech research. The authors would like to thank...Polymorph: An algorithm for morphing among multiple images. IEEE Computer Graphics Applications 18, 58–71. LEGOFF , B., AND BENOIT, C. 1996. A text-to

  15. Hiding Information under Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-12

    as it arrives in real time, and it disappears as fast as it arrives. Furthermore, our cognitive process for translating audio sounds to the meaning... steganography , whose goal is to make the embedded data completely undetectable. In addi- tion, we must dismiss the idea of hiding data by using any...therefore, an image has more room to hide data; and (2) speech steganography has not led to many money-making commercial businesses. For these two

  16. Speech Compression and Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    from Block 19: speech recognition, pnoneme recogmtion. initial design for a phonetic recognition program. We also recorded ana partially labeled a...track for two halves of a long vowel phoneme reconstructed from two diphone templates. The dotted line indicates where the templates meet...more accurately by compensating for the spectral errors in the LPC spectrum at the pitch harmonics. d) Designed and implemented a phonetic

  17. Challenging Developments in Rehabilitation Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mary Ball

    Rehabilitation psychology and medicine are growing rapidly and can provide rehabilitation psychologists many opportunities for the integration of psychological approaches with adjustment realities resulting from client functional limitations. This paper discusses significant developments in rehabilitation counseling in medical settings over the…

  18. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  19. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  20. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  1. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  2. Evaluation of NASA speech encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques developed by NASA for spaceflight instrumentation were used in the design of a quantizer for speech-decoding. Computer simulation of the actions of the quantizer was tested with synthesized and real speech signals. Results were evaluated by a phometician. Topics discussed include the relationship between the number of quantizer levels and the required sampling rate; reconstruction of signals; digital filtering; speech recording, sampling, and storage, and processing results.

  3. The Perceptions of Students in the Allied Health Professions towards Stroke Rehabilitation Teams and the SLP's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insalaco, Deborah; Ozkurt, Elcin; Santiago, Dign

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of final-year speech-language pathology (SLP), physical and occupational therapy (PT, OT) students toward stroke rehabilitation teams and the SLPs' roles on them. The investigators adapted a survey developed by (Felsher & Ross, 1994) and administered it to 35 PT, 35 OT, and…

  4. Cognitive rehabilitation in non-communicative brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Moretta, Pasquale; Cozzolino, Autilia; Saltalamacchia, Annamaria; Estraneo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Conscious patients with severe motor and speech disorders have great difficulty interacting with the environment and communicating with other people. Several augmentative communication devices are now available to exploit these patients' expressive potential, but their use often demands considerable cognitive effort. Non-communicative patients with severe brain lesions may have, in addition, specific cognitive deficits that hinder the efficient use of augmentative communication methods. Some neuropsychological batteries are now available for testing these patients. On the basis of such cognitive assessments, cognitive rehabilitation training can now be applied, but we underline that this training must be tailored to single patients in order to allow them to communicate autonomously and efficiently.

  5. [Effectiveness of music in brain rehabilitation. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Leo, Vera; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for diseases causing brain injury. Music causes extensive activation of the brain, promoting the repair of neural systems. Addition of music listening to rehabilitation enhances the regulation or motor functions in Parkinson and stroke patients, accelerates the recovery of speech disorder and cognitive injuries after stroke, and decreases the behavioral disorders of dementia patients. Music enhances the ability to concentrate and decreases mental confusion. The effect of music can also be observed as structural and functional changes of the brain. The effect is based, among other things, on lessening of physiologic stress and depression and on activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system.

  6. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.

  7. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health care professionals have lists of milestones ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Children who have speech disorders may have ...

  8. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  9. Educated parent as a key member of rehabilitation team.

    PubMed

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development.

  10. [Quality in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Jäckel, W H

    2010-12-01

    Particularly in the context of introduction of quality assurance programmes 15 years ago, "quality" became a central issue for rehabilitation, and its importance is bound to grow in the years to come. After giving a general definition of quality, this article deals more closely with 3 aspects of quality: quality development, quality assurance, and data on quality. Quality development in rehabilitation centres demands an atmosphere that supports change, encourages creativity, courage, transparency and involvement, and reduces fear. The creation of such an atmosphere is, in particular, the responsibility of a centre's management. Routine interviews regarding patient as well as employee satisfaction, and the use of strategic planning and management systems have proven successful instruments in the practice of quality development. Compared with other sectors of the health system, quality assurance in rehabilitation is marked by its comprehensive approach, intense patient orientation, scientific underpinning, and nationwide implementation. Regarding the benefits of these programmes for the health system at large, however, no clear scientific proof is available yet. Data gained from quality assurance programmes on the whole show a high amount of patient satisfaction, good quality of structures and processes as well as an improvement of the patients' health status. Between centres, however, there are marked differences of quality in a number of cases, and long-term effectiveness could be improved in some indications. Finally, suggestions are offered concerning further development of quality in rehabilitation as well as of the quality assurance programmes.

  11. Trends in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Discusses major potential trends in rehabilitation (identified through informal interviews with 94 individuals representing various organizations, progessions, or programs) e.g., services for the severely handicapped, return to the vocational emphasis, increased interagency cooperation, and consumer involvement. Modification of programs as a…

  12. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursz, Daniel

    A new approach to rehabilitation of the disabled and disadvantaged is necessary, but the problem of how to involve consumers and how to organize groups for community action is a big one. Moreover, citizen participation cannot be a substitute for basic improvement in the quality of service. Service agencies need to be decentralized and staff…

  13. [Blindness and visual rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Matonti, F; Roux, S; Denis, D; Picaud, S; Chavane, F

    2015-02-01

    Blindness and visual impairment are a major public health problem all over the world and in all societies. A large amount of basic science and clinical research aims to rehabilitate patients and help them become more independent. Various methods are explored from cell and molecular therapy to prosthetic interfaces. We review the various treatment alternatives, describing their results and their limitations.

  14. The Juvenile Rehabilitation Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains several essays on topics of interest to researchers of rehabilitative efforts. The subjects covered include an historical look at chronic delinquents and their treatment programs; a review of West European programs; legal constraints on intervention; a review of evidence concerning biological contributions to criminality and…

  15. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    PubMed

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.

  16. Acupuncture and Equine Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    le Jeune, Sarah; Henneman, Kimberly; May, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Acupuncture is one of the most common veterinary integrative medicine modalities. Acupuncture can greatly contribute to a rehabilitation protocol by promoting analgesia, tissue healing, and muscle strength. Acupuncture is safe, has minimal detrimental side effects, and is well tolerated by most horses.

  17. Rehabilitation Technology Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatherleigh Co., Ltd., New York, NY.

    Designed as a special continuing education program for rehabilitation professionals, this document is divided into five lessons. Lesson 1, "Technology Assessment: Determining the Needs" (Ricardo G. Cerna), includes discussion on technology assessment and determining the needs of the clients as well as different types of assistive…

  18. Rehabilitation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, the disability community in Russia has battled for its rights. In 1995, a disability rights law was passed that covered multiple areas, such as environmental access, education, and work. This article focuses on Russian rehabilitation philosophy and practice. It is written from a mixture of perspectives?personal experience,…

  19. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  20. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  1. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines.

  2. From ancient Greece to the cognitive revolution: A comprehensive view of physical rehabilitation sciences.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pernía, David; González-Castán, Óscar; Huepe, David

    2017-02-01

    The development of rehabilitation has traditionally focused on measurements of motor disorders and measurements of the improvements produced during the therapeutic process; however, physical rehabilitation sciences have not focused on understanding the philosophical and scientific principles in clinical intervention and how they are interrelated. The main aim of this paper is to explain the foundation stones of the disciplines of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy in recovery from motor disorder. To reach our goals, the mechanistic view and how it is integrated into physical rehabilitation will first be explained. Next, a classification into mechanistic therapy based on an old version (automaton model) and a technological version (cyborg model) will be shown. Then, it will be shown how physical rehabilitation sciences found a new perspective in motor recovery, which is based on functionalism, during the cognitive revolution in the 1960s. Through this cognitive theory, physical rehabilitation incorporated into motor recovery of those therapeutic strategies that solicit the activation of the brain and/or symbolic processing; aspects that were not taken into account in mechanistic therapy. In addition, a classification into functionalist rehabilitation based on a computational therapy and a brain therapy will be shown. At the end of the article, the methodological principles in physical rehabilitation sciences will be explained. It will allow us to go deeper into the differences and similarities between therapeutic mechanism and therapeutic functionalism.

  3. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  4. Recognizing articulatory gestures from speech for robust speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Vikramjit; Nam, Hosung; Espy-Wilson, Carol; Saltzman, Elliot; Goldstein, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that supplementary articulatory information can help to improve the recognition rate of automatic speech recognition systems. Unfortunately, articulatory information is not directly observable, necessitating its estimation from the speech signal. This study describes a system that recognizes articulatory gestures from speech, and uses the recognized gestures in a speech recognition system. Recognizing gestures for a given utterance involves recovering the set of underlying gestural activations and their associated dynamic parameters. This paper proposes a neural network architecture for recognizing articulatory gestures from speech and presents ways to incorporate articulatory gestures for a digit recognition task. The lack of natural speech database containing gestural information prompted us to use three stages of evaluation. First, the proposed gestural annotation architecture was tested on a synthetic speech dataset, which showed that the use of estimated tract-variable-time-functions improved gesture recognition performance. In the second stage, gesture-recognition models were applied to natural speech waveforms and word recognition experiments revealed that the recognized gestures can improve the noise-robustness of a word recognition system. In the final stage, a gesture-based Dynamic Bayesian Network was trained and the results indicate that incorporating gestural information can improve word recognition performance compared to acoustic-only systems.

  5. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  6. IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator * Yuqing Gao, Liang Gu, Bowen Zhou, Ruhi Sarikaya, Mohamed Afify , Hong-Kwang...for Improved Discriminative Training,” In Proc. ICASSP, Orlando, 2002. [14] M. Afify et.al, “On the Use of Morphological Analysis for Dialectal

  7. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  8. [Needs in rehabilitation and rehabilitative care of new target groups. Immigrants in psychosomatic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kobelt, A; Göbber, J; Petermann, F

    2011-04-01

    Treatment of patients with migration background in psychosomatic rehabilitation is gaining in importance. Cultural differences and increased barriers are considered the most important causes for the inferior effective treatment results in psychosomatic rehabilitation and a higher percentage of pensions due to impairment. We discuss perspectives in psychosomatic rehabilitation which not only focus on the migration background as the main cause for inferior effective treatment results, but place greater focus on typical barriers of this patient group. For this reason, the need for more integrative and adapted forms of psychosomatic rehabilitation becomes more evident. Psychosomatic rehabilitation can be adapted by introducing case management, psychosomatic aftercare, and outpatient information groups.

  9. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  10. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  11. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  12. Speech Communication: A Radical Doctrine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews connections between speech communication as a discipline and active commitments to First Amendment principles. Reflects on the influence of Professor James O'Neil, principal founder of the Speech Communication Association and offers his example as a role model. (PD)

  13. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  14. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  15. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  16. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  17. Speech acoustics: How much science?

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manjul

    2012-01-01

    Human vocalizations are sounds made exclusively by a human vocal tract. Among other vocalizations, for example, laughs or screams, speech is the most important. Speech is the primary medium of that supremely human symbolic communication system called language. One of the functions of a voice, perhaps the main one, is to realize language, by conveying some of the speaker's thoughts in linguistic form. Speech is language made audible. Moreover, when phoneticians compare and describe voices, they usually do so with respect to linguistic units, especially speech sounds, like vowels or consonants. It is therefore necessary to understand the structure as well as nature of speech sounds and how they are described. In order to understand and evaluate the speech, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of science of speech acoustics: how the acoustics of speech are produced, how they are described, and how differences, both between speakers and within speakers, arise in an acoustic output. One of the aims of this article is try to facilitate this understanding.

  18. Speech disturbances and quality of life in schizophrenia: differential impacts on functioning and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric J; Thomas, Neil; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-04-01

    Speech disturbances in schizophrenia impact on the individual's communicative ability. Although they are considered a core feature of schizophrenia, comparatively little work has been done to examine their impact on the life experiences of patients. This study aimed to examine the relationship between schizophrenia speech disturbances, including those traditionally known as formal thought disorder (TD), and quality of life (QoL). It assessed effects on functioning (objective QoL) and satisfaction (subjective QoL) concurrently, while controlling for the influence of neurocognition and depression. Fifty-four patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the PANSS, MADRS (with separate ratings for negative TD [verbal underproductivity] and positive TD [verbal disorganisation and pressured speech]) and Lehman's QOLI assessing both objective and subjective QoL. Ratings of positive and negative TD, depression, and general neurocognition were entered into hierarchical regressions to explore their relationship with both life functioning and satisfaction. Verbal underproductivity was a significant predictor of objective QoL, while pressured speech had a trend association with subjective QoL. This suggests a differential relationship between speech disturbances and QoL. Verbal underproductivity seems to affect daily functioning and relations with others, while pressured speech is predictive of satisfaction with life. The impact of verbal underproductivity on QoL suggests it to be an important target for rehabilitation in schizophrenia.

  19. Masked speech perception across the adult lifespan: Impact of age and hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Tine; Vercammen, Charlotte; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    As people grow older, speech perception difficulties become highly prevalent, especially in noisy listening situations. Moreover, it is assumed that speech intelligibility is more affected in the event of background noises that induce a higher cognitive load, i.e., noises that result in informational versus energetic masking. There is ample evidence showing that speech perception problems in aging persons are partly due to hearing impairment and partly due to age-related declines in cognition and suprathreshold auditory processing. In order to develop effective rehabilitation strategies, it is indispensable to know how these different degrading factors act upon speech perception. This implies disentangling effects of hearing impairment versus age and examining the interplay between both factors in different background noises of everyday settings. To that end, we investigated open-set sentence identification in six participant groups: a young (20-30 years), middle-aged (50-60 years), and older cohort (70-80 years), each including persons who had normal audiometric thresholds up to at least 4 kHz, on the one hand, and persons who were diagnosed with elevated audiometric thresholds, on the other hand. All participants were screened for (mild) cognitive impairment. We applied stationary and amplitude modulated speech-weighted noise, which are two types of energetic maskers, and unintelligible speech, which causes informational masking in addition to energetic masking. By means of these different background noises, we could look into speech perception performance in listening situations with a low and high cognitive load, respectively. Our results indicate that, even when audiometric thresholds are within normal limits up to 4 kHz, irrespective of threshold elevations at higher frequencies, and there is no indication of even mild cognitive impairment, masked speech perception declines by middle age and decreases further on to older age. The impact of hearing

  20. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System.

    PubMed

    Chonnaparamutt, Winai; Supsi, Witsarut

    2016-01-01

    SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic) rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM). The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC), Patient Communication (PC), Training with Game (TG), Progress Monitoring (PM), and Patient Supervision (PS). These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE.

  1. [Rehabilitation and algodystrophies].

    PubMed

    Simon, L; Blotman, F; Leroux, J L; Claustre, J; Azema, M J; Brun-Meyer, M

    1982-12-01

    Based on 20 years experience, and a personal series of 272 cases of reflex dystrophy (84 cases involving upper limbs, 188 cases involving lower limbs) admitted under a rheumatology unit equipped with all the available techniques of rehabilitative medicine, the authors stress the value of well conducted functional rehabilitation which, even alone, can obtain excellent results in the treatment of this disease, whatever the stage. The authors detail the modalities of this treatment. A local intra-articular or intra-canal injection of corticosteroids permits pain-free physiotherapy. The mobilisation of the lower limb is an urgent priority. Non-aggressive physiotherapeutic techniques should be adapted to the stage and the site of reflex dystrophy. Hydrokinesitherapy and the adaptation of craft techniques to occupational therapy also play an important part.

  2. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System

    PubMed Central

    Supsi, Witsarut

    2016-01-01

    SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic) rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM). The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC), Patient Communication (PC), Training with Game (TG), Progress Monitoring (PM), and Patient Supervision (PS). These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE. PMID:27578961

  3. Monaural speech segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deliang; Hu, Guoning

    2003-04-01

    Speech segregation from a monaural recording is a primary task of auditory scene analysis, and has proven to be very challenging. We present a multistage model for the task. The model starts with simulated auditory periphery. A subsequent stage computes midlevel auditory representations, including correlograms and cross-channel correlations. The core of the system performs segmentation and grouping in a two-dimensional time-frequency representation that encodes proximity in frequency and time, periodicity, and amplitude modulation (AM). Motivated by psychoacoustic observations, our system employs different mechanisms for handling resolved and unresolved harmonics. For resolved harmonics, our system generates segments-basic components of an auditory scene-based on temporal continuity and cross-channel correlation, and groups them according to periodicity. For unresolved harmonics, the system generates segments based on AM in addition to temporal continuity and groups them according to AM repetition rates. We derive AM repetition rates using sinusoidal modeling and gradient descent. Underlying the segregation process is a pitch contour that is first estimated from speech segregated according to global pitch and then adjusted according to psychoacoustic constraints. The model has been systematically evaluated, and it yields substantially better performance than previous systems.

  4. Dichotic speech tests.

    PubMed

    Hällgren, M; Johansson, M; Larsby, B; Arlinger, S

    1998-01-01

    When central auditory dysfunction is present, ability to understand speech in difficult listening situations can be affected. To study this phenomenon, dichotic speech tests were performed with test material in the Swedish language. Digits, spondees, sentences and consonant-vowel syllables were used as stimuli and the reporting was free or directed. The test material was recorded on CD. The study includes a normal group of 30 people in three different age categories; 11 years, 23-27 years and 67-70 years. It also includes two different groups of subjects with suspected central auditory lesions; 11 children with reading and writing difficulties and 4 adults earlier exposed to organic solvents. The results from the normal group do not show any differences in performance due to age. The children with reading and writing difficulties show a significant deviation for one test with digits and one test with syllables. Three of the four adults exposed to solvents show a significant deviation from the normal group.

  5. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  6. [Cardiac rehabilitation in women].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Lamouchi, S; Justin, K D; Meimoun, P; Ghannem, L

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs later in life in women when compared to men (10 years later). The FAST-MI study has shown that the profile of women with CAD has changed in the past 15 years, they are younger, more obese, and usually smokers. Whatever the age at which CAD occurs in women, the prognosis tends to be worse than in men, despite a higher frequency of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with angiographically normal coronary arteries in women. In women without significant lesion at coronary angiography, the WISE study has shown abnormalities of the coronary vasomotricy. Despite its beneficial effect on morbidity and mortality, cardiac rehabilitation is underused particularly in women. Indeed, several factors do not encourage a woman to follow a cardiac rehabilitation program, even after an ACS. These factors may be cultural, domestic, familial, orthopedic, or even the fear of exercising. Therefore, physicians have to be particularly convincing in women, in order to have them participating in rehabilitation programs. Physical capacity is lower in women when compared to men. However, the weaker the physical capacity, the better the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation. Physical endurance training continuously or in interval, associated to muscle strengthening can improve the physical capacity in women. Vascular risk factors correction is also an important step for the management of women with CAD. Therapeutic education and several available workshops help women to better understand their disease and to improve their self-management when they return home. Anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction frequently deteriorate the quality of life of our patients. Therefore, psychological management is also essential in our departments.

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them."

  8. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rössler, W; Drake, R E

    2017-01-19

    To describe the core elements of modern psychiatric rehabilitation. Based on selected examples we describe the discussion about values in mental health care with focus on Europe. We present outcome data from studies, which have tried to implement care structures based on this value discussion. In the second half of the 20th century, mental health care in all European and other high-income countries changed conceptually and structurally. Deinstitutionalisation reduced the number of psychiatric beds and transferred priority to outpatient care and community-based services, but community mental health programs developed differently across and within these countries. High-income countries in Europe continued to invest in costly traditional services that were neither evidence-based nor person-centered by emphasising inpatient services, sheltered group homes and sheltered workshops. We argue that evidence-based, person-centred, recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation offers a parsimonious solution to developing a consensus plan for community-based care in Europe. The challenges to scaling up effective psychiatric rehabilitation services in high-income countries are not primarily a lack of resources, but rather a lack of political will and inefficient use and dysfunctional allocation of resources.

  9. Urut Melayu, the Traditional Malay Massage, as a Complementary Rehabilitative Care in Postpartum Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Ismail, Suhaila; Abd Ghani, Norsuria; Ahmad, Norlaili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The case of a 32-year-old Malay woman who developed postpartum stroke is reported. Methods The patient received a series of urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, sessions at one of the newly established integrated hospitals in the country. Results After 14 urut Melayu sessions, she improved tremendously in her speech and fine motor skills and regained her activities of daily living. Conclusions This use of urut Melayu to complement rehabilitation care in patients poststroke is promising. PMID:22401300

  10. Rehabilitation R&D Progress Reports 1995, Volume 33, June 1996

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    Development of an Automated Technique for Clinical Tinnitus Evaluation: A Pilot Study 242 Early Detection of Hearing Loss Due to Ototoxic Agents by High...New Osteogenic Agents to Accelerate Rehabilitation 297 Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Bone Loss 298 Employment of IBM Speech Recognition in...and the robotic arm. controlled, via TCP/IP protocol link, by a DOS computer. An algorithm has been implemented as a feature extracting agent . The

  11. [Organization of pedagogical rehabilitation for the children with a cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Shmatko, N D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the peculiarities oforganization of pedagogical rehabilitation for the children with a cochlear implant and to demonstrate the most effective forms of their upbringing and education. Special attention is given to the organization ofsuch work during the preschool period with reference to potential difficulties encountered in the education of the children suffering a delay in the speech development.

  12. Rehabilitation R&D Progress Reports 1996, Volume 34, May 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    IN AAC Patrick Demasco, MS; Blaise Liffick, Phi) RERC on Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Applied Science and Engineering Laboratories...for Computer Assisted Speech Evalu- ation and Rehabilitation (CASPER). METHODOLOGY—Programs are written in Delphi- Pascal . Algorithms are being...RESNA Press, 1996:223-5. [332] DESIGN OF A NEW BOWEL CARE/SHOWER CHAIR FOR SCI VETERANS Pascal Malassigne MID, IDSA; Audrey L. Nelson, RN, PhD

  13. Suppressing aliasing noise in the speech feature domain for automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiqun; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2008-07-01

    This letter points out that, although in the audio signal domain low-pass filtering has been used to prevent aliasing noise from entering the baseband of speech signals, an antialias process in the speech feature domain is still needed to prevent high modulation frequency components from entering the baseband of speech features. The existence of aliasing noise in speech features is revealed via spectral analysis of speech feature streams. A method for suppressing such aliasing noise is proposed. Experiments on large vocabulary speech recognition show that antialias processing of speech features can improve speech recognition, especially for noisy speech.

  14. Speech Anxiety: The Importance of Identification in the Basic Speech Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.

    A study investigated speech anxiety in the basic speech course by means of pre and post essays. Subjects, 73 students in 3 classes in the basic speech course at a southwestern multiuniversity, wrote a two-page essay on their perceptions of their speech anxiety before the first speaking project. Students discussed speech anxiety in class and were…

  15. Biofeedback in rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-time ultrasound imaging (RTUS) biofeedback. EMG biofeedback is the most widely investigated method of biofeedback and appears to be effective in the treatment of many musculoskeletal conditions and in post cardiovascular accident (CVA) rehabilitation. RTUS biofeedback has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cardiovascular biofeedback methods have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, asthma, fibromyalgia and even psychological disorders however a systematic review in this field has yet to be conducted. Similarly, the number of large scale studies examining the use of respiratory biofeedback in rehabilitation is limited. Measurements of movement, postural control and force output can be made using a number of different devices and used to deliver biomechanical biofeedback. Inertial based sensing biofeedback is the most widely researched biomechanical biofeedback method, with a number of studies showing it to be effective in improving measures of balance in a number of populations. Other types of biomechanical biofeedback include force plate systems, electrogoniometry, pressure biofeedback and camera based systems however the evidence for these is limited. Biofeedback is generally delivered using visual displays, acoustic or haptic signals, however more recently virtual reality (VR) or exergaming technology have been used as biofeedback

  16. Biofeedback in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Giggins, Oonagh M; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-06-18

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-time ultrasound imaging (RTUS) biofeedback. EMG biofeedback is the most widely investigated method of biofeedback and appears to be effective in the treatment of many musculoskeletal conditions and in post cardiovascular accident (CVA) rehabilitation. RTUS biofeedback has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cardiovascular biofeedback methods have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, asthma, fibromyalgia and even psychological disorders however a systematic review in this field has yet to be conducted. Similarly, the number of large scale studies examining the use of respiratory biofeedback in rehabilitation is limited. Measurements of movement, postural control and force output can be made using a number of different devices and used to deliver biomechanical biofeedback. Inertial based sensing biofeedback is the most widely researched biomechanical biofeedback method, with a number of studies showing it to be effective in improving measures of balance in a number of populations. Other types of biomechanical biofeedback include force plate systems, electrogoniometry, pressure biofeedback and camera based systems however the evidence for these is limited. Biofeedback is generally delivered using visual displays, acoustic or haptic signals, however more recently virtual reality (VR) or exergaming technology have been used as biofeedback

  17. [Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea occurs in most cancer patients and is often associated with severe pain. Pulmonary rehabilitation has become increasingly important to improve ADL and QOL and to relieve pain that results from dyspnea. Although pulmonary rehabilitation is now provided mainly during the perioperative period, it has been recognized as an effective procedure for patients before, during, or after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also useful for patients with advanced or terminal cancer. However, an evidence-based cancer rehabilitation procedure has to be established.

  18. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt,…

  19. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  20. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  1. Emerging Technologies Speech Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Using computers to recognize and analyze human speech goes back at least to the 1970's. Developed initially to help the hearing or speech impaired, speech recognition was also used early on experimentally in language learning. Since the 1990's, advances in the scientific understanding of speech as well as significant enhancements in software and…

  2. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  3. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  4. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  5. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  6. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Xin; Rice, Shawn J; Belani, Chandra P

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease with high morbidity and mortality despite targeted therapy. Symptom burden related to cancer impairs quality of life and functional status in patients with lung cancer and in survivors. Pulmonary rehabilitation has been recognized as an effective, noninvasive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory disease. It is well established that pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with chronic obstruction pulmonary disease through improved exercise capacity and symptoms. Evidence is increasing that the benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation can be applied to patients with lung cancer. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation has made its way as a cornerstone of integrated care for patients with lung cancer.

  7. Psychiatric rehabilitation interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Marianne; Anthony, William A

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation has become accepted by the mental health field as a legitimate field of study and practice. Over the last several decades various psychiatric rehabilitation programme models and procedures have been developed, evaluated and disseminated. At the same time the process of psychiatric rehabilitation has been specified and its underlying values and practitioner technology articulated. This review describes the psychiatric rehabilitation process and in so doing differentiates psychosocial interventions that can be classified as psychiatric rehabilitation interventions from other psychosocial interventions. Furthermore, the major psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are examined within a framework of the psychiatric rehabilitation process with a review of their evidence. The review concludes that psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are currently a mixture of evidence-based practices, promising practices and emerging methods that can be effectively tied together using the psychiatric rehabilitation process framework of helping individuals with serious mental illnesses choose, get and keep valued roles, and together with complementary treatment orientated psychosocial interventions, provide a broad strategy for facilitating recovery.

  8. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test.

  9. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-11-23

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test.

  10. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test. PMID:27876875

  11. Mapping acoustics to kinematics in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Rohan

    An accurate mapping from speech acoustics to speech articulator movements has many practical applications, as well as theoretical implications of speech planning and perception science. This work can be divided into two parts. In the first part, we show that a simple codebook can be used to map acoustics to speech articulator movements in natural, conversational speech. In the second part, we incorporate cost optimization principles that have been shown to be relevant in motor control tasks into the codebook approach. These cost optimizations are defined as minimization of integral of magnitude velocity, acceleration and jerk of the speech articulators, and are implemented using a dynamic programming technique. Results show that incorporating cost minimization of speech articulator movements can significantly improve mapping acoustics to speech articulator movements. This suggests underlying physiological or neural planning principles used by speech articulators during speech production.

  12. 50 CFR 21.31 - Rehabilitation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association and the International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council (Minimum...; or the International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council: 829 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, CA 94710, http.../or mobile, and may provide less space and protection from noise and disturbance than...

  13. 50 CFR 21.31 - Rehabilitation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association and the International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council (Minimum...; or the International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council: 829 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, CA 94710, http.../or mobile, and may provide less space and protection from noise and disturbance than...

  14. Cardiac Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercising are other risk factors. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here Cardiac Rehabilitation (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Cardiac Rehabilitation (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? (American Heart Association) - ...

  15. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  16. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-05

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted, and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: whereas motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded, hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production.

  17. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: while motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production. PMID:22218206

  18. Steganalysis of recorded speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah K.; Lyu, Siwei; Farid, Hany

    2005-03-01

    Digital audio provides a suitable cover for high-throughput steganography. At 16 bits per sample and sampled at a rate of 44,100 Hz, digital audio has the bit-rate to support large messages. In addition, audio is often transient and unpredictable, facilitating the hiding of messages. Using an approach similar to our universal image steganalysis, we show that hidden messages alter the underlying statistics of audio signals. Our statistical model begins by building a linear basis that captures certain statistical properties of audio signals. A low-dimensional statistical feature vector is extracted from this basis representation and used by a non-linear support vector machine for classification. We show the efficacy of this approach on LSB embedding and Hide4PGP. While no explicit assumptions about the content of the audio are made, our technique has been developed and tested on high-quality recorded speech.

  19. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  20. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  1. Anxiety and ritualized speech.

    PubMed

    Lalljee, M; Cook, M

    1975-08-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrevelant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well', and 'you know'. Two hypotheses are tested: (i) that URS rate will increase with anxiety; and (ii) that the speaker's preferred URS will increase with anxiety. Subjects were interviewed on topics they had previously rated as anxiety-provoking and non-anxiety-provoking. Hypothesis (i) was supported, but hypothesis (ii) was not. More specifically, the use of 'I mean' and 'well' increases when the speaker is anxious. Explanation for this is sought in the grammatical location of these two units. Sex differences in the use of URSs, correlations between URSs and their relationship to other forms of disfluency are also considered.

  2. Deep Ensemble Learning for Monaural Speech Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Ensemble Learning for Monaural Speech Separation Xiao-Lei Zhang Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Ohio State University, Columbus...State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA dwang@cse.ohio-state.edu Abstract – Monaural speech separation is a fundamental problem in robust speech...processing. Recently, deep neural network (DNN) based speech separation methods, which predict either clean speech or an ideal time-frequency mask, have

  3. [Social inequality in medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Deck, R

    2008-10-01

    The association of social inequality and health is well known and well documented. Numerous studies have shown that a lower socio-economic status is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This association is caused by various circumstances such as unfavourable work and living conditions, unhealthy life styles and risk factors and, last but not least, the access to medical care depending on socio-economic status. These aspects are correlated in various ways, at any rate they cause a higher prevalence of diseases and lower quality of life in persons with lower socio-economic status. The present article discusses the association between social inequality and medical rehabilitation, a problem which is rarely investigated in present research on social inequality and health. In our study, 911 rehabilitation patients were included. Analyses of socio-economic differences with respect to rehabilitation care address the following questions: are there differences in access to medical rehabilitation, in rehabilitation care, with respect to success of rehabilitation and satisfaction with rehabilitation? To assign patients to a social class - lower, middle and upper class - we constructed an indicator of social status based on education, occupation and income level. Our findings in a sample of rehabilitation patients are in line with the results of existing research on social inequality and health. Patients from the lower social class enter the rehabilitation care system with a poorer health state and leave it with less favourable results than patients with higher social status. However, with regard to the effect of rehabilitation care, middle class patients benefit least. It can be speculated that systematic information of patients about the aims of the rehabilitation programme and specific after care focusing on relevant aspects of daily living may reduce the disadvantages of lower class patients.

  4. Writing, Inner Speech, and Meditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James

    1982-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among meditation, inner speech (stream of consciousness), and writing. Considers the possibilities and implications of using the techniques of meditation in educational settings, especially in the writing classroom. (RL)

  5. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Possible Problem If you're concerned about your child's speech and language development, there are some things to watch for. An ...

  6. Acute stress reduces speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tony W; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-03-01

    People often report word-finding difficulties and other language disturbances when put in a stressful situation. There is, however, scant empirical evidence to support the claim that stress affects speech productivity. To address this issue, we measured speech and language variables during a stressful Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as during a less stressful "placebo" TSST (Het et al., 2009). Compared to the non-stressful speech, participants showed higher word productivity during the TSST. By contrast, participants paused more during the stressful TSST, an effect that was especially pronounced in participants who produced a larger cortisol and heart rate response to the stressor. Findings support anecdotal evidence of stress-impaired speech production abilities.

  7. Speech measures indicating workload demand.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Doherty, E T; Shipp, T

    1994-01-01

    Heart rate and six speech measures were evaluated using a manual tracking task under different workload demands. Following training, 17 male subjects performed three task trials: a difficult trial, with a $50 incentive for successful performance at a very demanding level; an easy trial, with a $2 incentive for successful performance at a simple level; and a baseline trial, in which there was physiological monitoring but no tracking performance. Subjects counted aloud during the trials. It was found that heart rate, speaking fundamental frequency (pitch), and vocal intensity (loudness) increased significantly with workload demands. Speaking rate showed a marginal increase, while vocal jitter and vocal shimmer did not show reliable changes. A derived speech measure, which statistically combined information from all other speech measures except shimmer, was also evaluated. It increased significantly with workload demands and was surprisingly robust in showing differences for individual subjects. It appears that speech analysis can provide practical workload information.

  8. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... often around 9 months), they begin to string sounds together, incorporate the different tones of speech, and ... of age, babies also should be attentive to sound and begin to recognize names of common objects ( ...

  9. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  10. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  11. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Agarwal, Surendra; Bhoyar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis. PMID:26929525

  12. Rehabilitation of the paralyzed face.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1991-06-01

    Rehabilitation for facial paralysis is a highly individualized task that relies on a complex set of physical, physiologic, social, and emotional factors. A wide range of surgical techniques exist for establishing partial rehabilitation of facial expression and motion. The facial surgeon must analyze these factors and work with the patient in a realistic approach to the problem.

  13. Rehabilitation Counseling with Deaf Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danek, Marita

    1983-01-01

    The nature and impact on educational and vocational functioning of prelingual deafness are reviewed, stereotypes are exposed, and the special needs of deaf clients in rehabilitation assessment, goal setting, service delivery, and placement are discussed. Trends in deafness rehabilitation are considered in terms of legislation, professional…

  14. Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This volume of 12 lessons--each one written by either a medical or a mental health professional--provides expert information on a variety of medical and psychological issues in rehabilitative counseling. The lessons, each of which concludes with a few multiple-choice questions, are as follows: (1) "Rehabilitation of the Seriously Mentally…

  15. Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This volume of 12 lessons provides expert information on a variety of medical and psychological issues in rehabilitative counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Integration of Psychiatric Treatment and Rehabilitation" (Jeanne Steiner, Larry Davidson, Michael A. Hoge, and Selby Jacobs);…

  16. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  17. Community Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Amihay; Neumann, Micha

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of community-based rehabilitation services for persons with mental illness in Israel. It focuses on occupational, social, and residential community psychiatric rehabilitation services. The paper argues that service development has been slow and out of step with the philosophy and objectives of community…

  18. Statistical Prediction in Proprietary Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kurt L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Applied statistical methods to predict case expenditures for low back pain rehabilitation cases in proprietary rehabilitation. Extracted predictor variables from case records of 175 workers compensation claimants with some degree of permanent disability due to back injury. Performed several multiple regression analyses resulting in a formula that…

  19. Physical Therapy Principles in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of vestibular rehabilitation for persons with balance and vestibular disorders is used to improve function and decrease dizziness symptoms. Principles of a vestibular rehabilitation program are described including common exercises and outcome measures used to report change. A review of negative and positive predictive factors related to recovery is also provided. PMID:22027077

  20. Rehabilitation Technologies for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents on-going research work for the USEPA Research Project on “Rehabilitation of Water and Wastewater Systems.” It will compare various renewal methods (i.e. replacement, rehabilitation and repair technologies that are available in the market). The paper discusse...

  1. The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated how native language background influences the intelligibility of speech by non-native talkers for non-native listeners from either the same or a different native language background as the talker. Native talkers of Chinese (n=2), Korean (n=2), and English (n=1) were recorded reading simple English sentences. Native listeners of English (n=21), Chinese (n=21), Korean (n=10), and a mixed group from various native language backgrounds (n=12) then performed a sentence recognition task with the recordings from the five talkers. Results showed that for native English listeners, the native English talker was most intelligible. However, for non-native listeners, speech from a relatively high proficiency non-native talker from the same native language background was as intelligible as speech from a native talker, giving rise to the ``matched interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.'' Furthermore, this interlanguage intelligibility benefit extended to the situation where the non-native talker and listeners came from different language backgrounds, giving rise to the ``mismatched interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.'' These findings shed light on the nature of the talker-listener interaction during speech communication.

  2. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  3. Setting goals for cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I H

    1999-12-01

    Evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of the brain, including cell regeneration, means that rehabilitation can aim at reinstituting impaired cognitive function, as well as at training compensatory strategies for the lost function. New theoretical frameworks make predictions regarding the circumstances under which these two approaches should each be attempted. There has been progress over the past 6 years in designing effective rehabilitation strategies, with more of these having a strong theoretical basis in cognitive neuroscience. Basic cognitive science has generated counter-intuitive, but effective cognitive rehabilitation methods, showing that the goal of rehabilitation need not always be the most obvious one dictated by real life performance. Limb Activation Training for unilateral neglect is an example of a theoretically derived cognitive rehabilitation procedure that has now been clinically evaluated in clinical trials.

  4. Current trends in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dafoe, W; Huston, P

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality and morbidity for patients with many types of cardiac disease cost-effectively, yet is generally underutilized. Rehabilitation is helpful not only for patients who have had a myocardial infarction but also for those with stable angina or congestive heart failure or those who have undergone myocardial revascularization procedures, a heart transplant or heart valve surgery. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation include a reduction in the rate of death from cardiovascular disease, improved exercise tolerance, fewer cardiac symptoms, improved lipid levels, decreased cigarette smoking, improvement in psychosocial well-being and increased likelihood of return to work. Rehabilitation involves a multidisciplinary team that focuses on education, individually tailored exercise, risk-factor modification and the optimization of functional status and mental health. Current research trends in this area include the evaluation of new secondary-prevention modalities and alternative program options, such as home-based rehabilitation. PMID:9054823

  5. Strategies for stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation after hemiplegic stroke has typically relied on the training of patients in compensatory strategies. The translation of neuroscientific research into care has led to new approaches and renewed promise for better outcomes. Improved motor control can progress with task-specific training incorporating increased use of proximal and distal movements during intensive practice of real-world activities. Functional gains are incorrectly said to plateau by 3–6 months. Many patients retain latent sensorimotor function that can be realised any time after stroke with a pulse of goal-directed therapy. The amount of practice probably best determines gains for a given level of residual movement ability. Clinicians should encourage patients to build greater strength, speed, endurance, and precision of multijoint movements on tasks that increase independence and enrich daily activity. Imaging tools may help clinicians determine the capacity of residual networks to respond to a therapeutic approach and help establish optimal dose-response curves for training. Promising adjunct approaches include practice with robotic devices or in a virtual environment, electrical stimulation to increase cortical excitability during training, and drugs to optimise molecular mechanisms for learning. Biological strategies for neural repair may augment rehabilitation in the next decade. PMID:15324721

  6. [Burns and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rochet, J M; Hareb, F

    2002-03-01

    Necessary principles of rehabilitation for burn patient are based on empirical findings recently corroborated by discoveries about healing pathophysiology. Risks are assessable immediately from the extensive, depth and situation of the burns, problems appear only if the dermis is affected: retraction, hypertrophy and losses of substances. To cutaneous problems it is necessary to add those linked to the prolonged immobilization and to complications of the resuscitation. To be effective, re-education has to be precocious, continuously suited to cicatricial processing and to the different therapeutic steps: resuscitation, surgical treatment, processing in a re-education and rehabilitation center, steady at home and processing of the sequelae. The processing rests on the repressive cloth port 23/24 hours during more of a year, the port of orthesis of immobilization and segmental posture (to stretch the dermis permanently) and the mobilization of articulations to avoid their stiffening. The cooperation of the patient is essential, it needs the share of therapies as well as the totality of problems and difficulties met by the patient, that they are physical, psychological, social, family or occupational. The steady has to be insured by a pluridisciplinarity team during at least the two necessary years for the cicatricial maturation.

  7. Elderly perception of speech from a computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alan; Eskenazi, Maxine; Simmons, Reid

    2002-05-01

    An aging population still needs to access information, such as bus schedules. It is evident that they will be doing so using computers and especially interfaces using speech input and output. This is a preliminary study to the use of synthetic speech for the elderly. In it twenty persons between the ages of 60 and 80 were asked to listen to speech emitted by a robot (CMU's VIKIA) and to write down what they heard. All of the speech was natural prerecorded speech (not synthetic) read by one female speaker. There were four listening conditions: (a) only speech emitted, (b) robot moves before emitting speech, (c) face has lip movement during speech, (d) both (b) and (c). There were very few errors for conditions (b), (c), and (d), but errors existed for condition (a). The presentation will discuss experimental conditions, show actual figures and try to draw conclusions for speech communication between computers and the elderly.

  8. Spectrogram Analysis of Complete Dentures with Different Thickness and Palatal Rugae Materials on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Zaki Mahross, Hamada; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of reproduction of different thickness and palatal rugae materials on complete dentures speech using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). Materials and Methods. Three completely edentulous male patients (aged 50–60 years) were selected for reading a paragraph. Twelve upper dentures were constructed, four for each patient. The patients' speech groups were divided into five groups, Group I: patients without dentures; Group II: patients rehabilitated with conventional acrylic dentures; Group III: patients with conventional acrylic dentures with rugae reproduction; Group IV: patients with dentures with metallic framework of minimal thickness and direct ragged metallic palatal surface at rugae area; Group V: patients with dentures with palatal rugae constructed from resilient acrylic resin material with thickness less than conventional denture. Speech samples were recorded after insertion of each denture for groups using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). The sounds selected were lingopalatal /s/z/sh/t/d/ and /l/. Results. Group III produced high mean significant difference with /sh/t/ sound. For Group IV, the difference was noticed with /s/z/sh/t/ and /d/ sounds, while for Group V the difference was shown with /z/l/ sound (P < 0.05). Conclusion. It is recommended to reproduce the rugae area in complete denture because the phonetic quality of complete denture with rugae is superior to the conventional denture. PMID:25883655

  9. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  10. Child directed speech, speech in noise and hyperarticulated speech in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Carmichael, Lesley; Beckford Wassink, Alicia; Galvin, Lisa

    2004-05-01

    Three types of exaggerated speech are thought to be systematic responses to accommodate the needs of the listener: child-directed speech (CDS), hyperspeech, and the Lombard response. CDS (e.g., Kuhl et al., 1997) occurs in interactions with young children and infants. Hyperspeech (Johnson et al., 1993) is a modification in response to listeners difficulties in recovering the intended message. The Lombard response (e.g., Lane et al., 1970) is a compensation for increased noise in the signal. While all three result from adaptations to accommodate the needs of the listener, and therefore should share some features, the triggering conditions are quite different, and therefore should exhibit differences in their phonetic outcomes. While CDS has been the subject of a variety of acoustic studies, it has never been studied in the broader context of the other ``exaggerated'' speech styles. A large crosslinguistic study was undertaken that compares speech produced under four conditions: spontaneous conversations, CDS aimed at 6-9-month-old infants, hyperarticulated speech, and speech in noise. This talk will present some findings for North American English as spoken in the Pacific Northwest. The measures include f0, vowel duration, F1 and F2 at vowel midpoint, and intensity.

  11. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  12. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  13. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Nam, Sang-Ook; Lee, Chang-Hyung; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Yun, Young-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs). Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years) who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate). A total of 292 (56%) children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48%) children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%), speech therapy (28%), and occupational therapy (19%), and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5%) and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%). The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%), occupational therapy (18%), cognitive behavioral therapy (16%), speech therapy (10%), and physical therapy (8%). Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs. PMID:24324519

  14. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

  15. Rehabilitation of patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Mary; Henriksson, Roger; Salander, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Disabling sequelae occur in a majority of patients diagnosed with brain tumor, including glioma, such as cognitive deficits, weakness, and visual perceptual changes. Often, multiple impairments are present concurrently. Healthcare staff must be aware of the "biographic disruption" the patient with glioma has experienced. While prognostic considerations factor into rehabilitation goals and expectations, regardless of prognosis the treatment team must offer cohesive support, facilitating hope, function, and quality of life. Awareness of family and caregiver concerns plays an important role in the overall care. Inpatient rehabilitation, especially after surgical resection, has been shown to result in functional improvement and homegoing rates on a par with individuals with other neurologic conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. Community integration comprises a significant element of life satisfaction, as has been shown in childhood glioma survivors. Employment is often affected by the glioma diagnosis, but may be ameliorated, when appropriate, by addressing modifiable factors such as depression, fatigue, or sleep disturbance, or by workplace accommodations. Further research is needed into many facets of rehabilitation in the setting of glioma, including establishing better care models for consistently identifying and addressing functional limitations in this population, measuring outcomes of various levels of rehabilitation care, identifying optimal physical activity strategies, delineating the long-term effects of rehabilitation interventions, and exploring impact of rehabilitation interventions on caregiver burden. The effective elements of cognitive rehabilitation, including transition of cognitive strategies to everyday living, need to be better defined.

  16. Stroke rehabilitation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; McClure, Andrew; Pan, Cheng; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    There is a revolution underway in stroke rehabilitation. International comparative studies coupled with an impressive evidence base have provided a platform from which an ideal system for stroke rehabilitation can be envisioned. Using the concepts of structure and process of care, different systems of stroke rehabilitation can be compared and evaluated against best evidence. Two structures of care are examined: specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units and outpatient programs. Although specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units remain the "gold standard" of care, access to them is often limited. Outpatient programs are essential to stroke rehabilitation systems of care; however, while some countries are investing in outpatient programs, others are scaling back. Even though structures of care have been shown to affect processes of care, it is the processes of care that have proven to be more influential in altering patient outcomes. Four key processes of care are examined: time to admission, intensity of therapy, task-specific therapy, and discharge planning. Within international stroke rehabilitation systems, differences in these processes have resulted in significant differences in outcomes. This allows for "real-world" comparisons of how differing processes affect patient outcomes. Those systems whose structures and processes of care best reflect current best evidence appear to achieve better outcomes.

  17. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients' sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability.

  18. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Aashish S

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs are recognized as integral to the comprehensive care of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), and as such are recommended as useful and effective (Class I) by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology in the treatment of patients with CHD. The term cardiac rehabilitation refers to coordinated, multifaceted interventions designed to optimize a cardiac patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning, in addition to stabilizing, slowing, or even reversing the progression of the underlying atherosclerotic processes, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Cardiac rehabilitation, aims at returning the patient back to normal functioning in a safe and effective manner and to enhance the psychosocial and vocational state of the patient. The program involves education, exercise, risk factor modification and counselling. A meta-analysis based on a review of 48 randomized trials that compared outcomes of exercise-based rehabilitation with usual medical care, showed a reduction of 20% in total mortality and 26% in cardiac mortality rates, with exercise-based rehabilitation compared with usual medical care. Risk stratification helps identify patients who are at increased risk for exercise-related cardiovascular events and who may require more intensive cardiac monitoring in addition to the medical supervision provided for all cardiac rehabilitation program participants. During exercise, the patients' ECG is continuously monitored through telemetry, which serves to optimize the exercise prescription and enhance safety. The safety of cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs is well established, and the occurrence of major cardiovascular events during supervised exercise is extremely low. As hospital stays decrease, cardiac rehabilitation is assuming an increasingly important role in secondary prevention. In contrast with its growing importance internationally, there are very few

  2. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  3. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... or crutches. Occupational therapists will teach you the skills you need to do every day tasks at home. Speech and language therapists will evaluate and treat problems with swallowing, speaking, and understanding.

  4. An overview of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Whitney, S L; Alghwiri, A A; Alghadir, A

    2016-01-01

    Data related to the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation and its evolution as an intervention are provided. Concepts and various treatment strategies are described, with explanations of why people with uncompensated peripheral and central vestibular disorders might improve with rehabilitation. Various tests and measures are described that are commonly used to examine patients and determine their level of ability to participate in their environment. Factors that affect recovery, both positively and negatively, are described in order to better prognosticate recovery. A case utilizing many of the principles discussed is included to provide insight into how to utilize vestibular rehabilitation with a person with an uncompensated peripheral vestibular loss.

  5. [Surgical rehabilitation of stomal disease].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Persico Stella, L; Nicolai, A P; Nicastro, A; Gasparrini, M; de Anna, L; Lucidi, V; Montori, A

    1997-10-01

    The Authors report their experience in the surgical rehabilitation of patients with complicated ileo- or colostomy. Mechanical and psychosocial implications as well as different rehabilitative methods are discussed. The results of a surgical protocol in the treatment of stomal diseases observed in 63 patients are herein reported. In 14 patients the surgical treatment was performed in general anaesthesia, while in 49 local anaesthesia was used. The latter was better tolerated by the patients. In conclusion, surgery should play a major role in this rehabilitation protocol, either in terms of prevention or definitive treatment.

  6. Telecommunications technology in cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Caltagirone, Carlo; Zannino, Gian Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive disorders are a common long-term consequence of many forms of acquired neurological damage of different aetiology. The already high prevalence of diseases causing cognitive deficits (in particular stroke) is expected to increase in the near future, leading to a greater need for cognitive rehabilitation. The impact of cognitive impairment on daily functioning may be even greater than that of physical limitations in affected patients, contributing to the high cost of brain disorders. New technologies, including telerehabilitation, may provide an effective response to this challenge, allowing increased access to rehabilitation services as well as reduced care costs for individuals needing cognitive rehabilitation.

  7. Efficiency, effectiveness, and duration of stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S; Vanclay, F; Cooper, B

    1990-02-01

    This prospective multicenter study identifies the variables significant in the prediction of rehabilitation efficiency, achievement of rehabilitation potential and duration of rehabilitation stay in 258 persons with a first stroke admitted to comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation in Brisbane, Australia, during 1984. All three dependent variables were poorly predicted, with only 17% of the variance in rehabilitation efficiency, only 30% of the variance in achievement of rehabilitation potential, and only 22% of the variance in duration of rehabilitation stay explained. Unlike other reports, we considered most of the major medical (side of paralysis, stroke etiology, site of the lesion, arterial distribution affected, etc.), rehabilitative (initial Barthel Index score, interval from stroke onset to acute-care hospital admission, interval from hospital admission to rehabilitation commencement, neurologic measures, etc.), and demographic (age, years of education, occupation, ethnicity, etc.) variables. The high proportion of unexplained variance is likely to be due to nonmedical factors influencing the selection of patients for rehabilitation.

  8. Performance Pressure Enhances Speech Learning

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Koslov, Seth; Yi, Han-Gyol; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Real-world speech learning often occurs in high pressure situations such as trying to communicate in a foreign country. However, the impact of pressure on speech learning success is largely unexplored. In this study, adult, native speakers of English learned non-native speech categories under pressure or no-pressure conditions. In the pressure conditions, participants were informed that they were paired with a (fictitious) partner, and that each had to independently exceed a performance criterion for both to receive a monetary bonus. They were then informed that their partner had exceeded the bonus and the fate of both bonuses depended upon the participant’s performance. Our results demonstrate that pressure significantly enhanced speech learning success. In addition, neurobiologically-inspired computational modeling revealed that the performance advantage was due to faster and more frequent use of procedural learning strategies. These results integrate two well-studied research domains and suggest a facilitatory role of motivational factors in speech learning performance that may not be captured in traditional training paradigms. PMID:28077883

  9. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  10. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  11. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  12. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  13. The Fragile Nature of the Speech-Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: Natural vs. Synthetic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomert, Leo; Mitterer, Holger

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies reported that developmental dyslexics are impaired in speech perception, especially for speech signals consisting of rapid auditory transitions. These studies mostly made use of a categorical-perception task with synthetic-speech samples. In this study, we show that deficits in the perception of synthetic speech do not…

  14. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  15. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... request did not produce results) Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following: ... questions and requests for information from members and non-members. Available 8:30 a.m.–5:00 ...

  16. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  17. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  18. 75 FR 21273 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Overview Information; Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Mentally Ill. 84.129J Rehabilitation Psychology. 84.129P Specialized Personnel for Rehabilitation of... Mentally Ill. 84.129J Rehabilitation 100,000 2 Psychology. 84.129P Specialized Personnel 100,000 3...

  19. Strength Is in Numbers: Can Concordant Artificial Listeners Improve Prediction of Emotion from Speech?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Mencattini, Arianna; Di Natale, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate their emotions by modulating facial expressions or the tone of their voice. Albeit numerous applications exist that enable machines to read facial emotions and recognize the content of verbal messages, methods for speech emotion recognition are still in their infancy. Yet, fast and reliable applications for emotion recognition are the obvious advancement of present ‘intelligent personal assistants’, and may have countless applications in diagnostics, rehabilitation and research. Taking inspiration from the dynamics of human group decision-making, we devised a novel speech emotion recognition system that applies, for the first time, a semi-supervised prediction model based on consensus. Three tests were carried out to compare this algorithm with traditional approaches. Labeling performances relative to a public database of spontaneous speeches are reported. The novel system appears to be fast, robust and less computationally demanding than traditional methods, allowing for easier implementation in portable voice-analyzers (as used in rehabilitation, research, industry, etc.) and for applications in the research domain (such as real-time pairing of stimuli to participants’ emotional state, selective/differential data collection based on emotional content, etc.). PMID:27563724

  20. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    PubMed Central

    GONÇALVES, Rosa de Fátima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background : The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim : Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method : Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and quality of life of 70 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty, and a group of 35 obese suffered speech therapy. Results : In the evaluation of mastication for group 1 (pre and post speech therapy), the results show that, except for the lack of chewing, the other variables, such as food court, type of mastication, mastication rhythm, jaw movements, bolus size, excessive mastication and fluid intake, demonstrate statistical insignificance. In evaluating the quality of life when compared groups 1 and 2, the results from the questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL - Quality of Life in Swallowing) total and 11 domains assessed in the questionnaire, were statistically significant. With these results, the group 2 presented unfavorable conditions for quality of life . Conclusion : The stimulation protocol, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food of these patients in the postoperative period, applied in these conditions of the study, was not the distinguishing factor of the rehabilitation process for the observed period. PMID:27120739

  1. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  2. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  3. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  4. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  5. When does stroke rehabilitation end?

    PubMed

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol

    2013-01-01

    This article examines key evidence on intervention effectiveness late poststroke; provides discussion on how this evidence impacts stroke rehabilitation at a clinical and national level; and explores strategies that should improve the way in which chronic stroke is addressed internationally.

  6. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  7. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout’s adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30–40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  8. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. Conclusion: The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  9. Rehabilitation services for the Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M H; Barker, J C

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Rehabilitation Research and Training Center was created to help meet the challenges of rehabilitating people in rural remote communities in the United States-associated Pacific. We describe the center, the special region it serves, some of its many programs, and some of the ways it is helping communities in this region provide services that are appropriate and sensitive to the culture, the environment, and the disability. PMID:8351905

  10. Rehabilitative strategies following hand fractures.

    PubMed

    Hays, Peyton L; Rozental, Tamara D

    2013-11-01

    The importance of rehabilitation in the management of hand fractures cannot be overstated. The breadth of rehabilitative strategies ranges from heat and range-of-motion exercises to more complex splinting and tendon gliding modalities. The goals, however, are clear: control pain; limit soft tissue swelling; provide support for fracture healing; restore motion, strength, and function; and enable the return to work and daily activities.

  11. Investigation of an HMM/ANN hybrid structure in pattern recognition application using cepstral analysis of dysarthric (distorted) speech signals.

    PubMed

    Polur, Prasad D; Miller, Gerald E

    2006-10-01

    Computer speech recognition of individuals with dysarthria, such as cerebral palsy patients requires a robust technique that can handle conditions of very high variability and limited training data. In this study, application of a 10 state ergodic hidden Markov model (HMM)/artificial neural network (ANN) hybrid structure for a dysarthric speech (isolated word) recognition system, intended to act as an assistive tool, was investigated. A small size vocabulary spoken by three cerebral palsy subjects was chosen. The effect of such a structure on the recognition rate of the system was investigated by comparing it with an ergodic hidden Markov model as a control tool. This was done in order to determine if this modified technique contributed to enhanced recognition of dysarthric speech. The speech was sampled at 11 kHz. Mel frequency cepstral coefficients were extracted from them using 15 ms frames and served as training input to the hybrid model setup. The subsequent results demonstrated that the hybrid model structure was quite robust in its ability to handle the large variability and non-conformity of dysarthric speech. The level of variability in input dysarthric speech patterns sometimes limits the reliability of the system. However, its application as a rehabilitation/control tool to assist dysarthric motor impaired individuals holds sufficient promise.

  12. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  13. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  15. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  16. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  17. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  18. Theoretical Value in Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, John J., Jr.

    The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…

  19. Improving Speech Production with Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Brenda H.; Barefoot, Sidney M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the specific problems of the adolescent and adult hearing-impaired individual who wishes to improve and develop his or her expressive speech ability. Considered are issues critical to the learning process, intervention strategies for improving speech production, and speech production as one part of communication competency.…

  20. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  1. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  2. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  3. Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010388 TITLE: Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10378 thru ADPO10397 UNCLASSIFIED 69 TOWARDS MULTILINGUAL INTEROPERABILITY IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH...communication, we address multilingual interoperability (DARPA) [39, 5, 12, 40, 14, 43]. aspects in speech recognition. After giving a tentative

  4. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  5. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  6. Recovering Asynchronous Watermark Tones from Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Audio steganography for covert data transmission by impercep- tible tone insertion,” Proceedings Communications Sys- tems and Applications, IEEE, vol. 4, pp. 1647–1653, 2004. 1408 ...by a comfortable margin. Index Terms— Speech Watermarking, Hidden Tones, Speech Steganography , Speech Data Hiding 1. BACKGROUND Imperceptibly

  7. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  8. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  9. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made…

  10. Nebraska Speech, Debate, and Drama Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska School Activities Association, Lincoln.

    Prepared and designed to provide general information in the administration of speech activities in the Nebraska schools, this manual offers rules and regulations for speech events, high school debate, and one act plays. The section on speech events includes information about general regulations, the scope of competition, district contests, the…

  11. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  12. Speech, the Alphabet, and Teaching to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Isabelle Y.; Shankweiler, Donald

    The dependence of reading on speech is based on three assumptions: speech is the primary language system, acquired naturally without direct instruction; alphabetic writing systems are more or less phonetic representations of oral language; and speech appears to be an essential foundation for the acquisition of reading ability. By presupposing…

  13. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  14. Audiovisual Speech Integration and Lipreading in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth G.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: During speech perception, the ability to integrate auditory and visual information causes speech to sound louder and be more intelligible, and leads to quicker processing. This integration is important in early language development, and also continues to affect speech comprehension throughout the lifespan. Previous research shows that…

  15. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  16. [Qualifying language disorders of schizophrenia through the speech therapists' assessment].

    PubMed

    Boucard, C; Laffy-Beaufils, B

    2008-06-01

    schizophrenia-associated language impairments and offer a solid foundation for rehabilitation. Current research makes connections between schizophrenia and other neurological disorders concerning language. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to explore these connections to complete our investigations. The strategies we designed are aimed at enabling a subject with schizophrenia to improve his/her language skills. We support the idea that such improvement could be reached by speech therapy. We conclude that speech therapists can play an important role in the non pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, by selecting appropriate interventions that capitalize on spared abilities to compensate for impaired abilities.

  17. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  18. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  19. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  20. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  1. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  2. Automatic intelligibility assessment of pathologic speech over the telephone.

    PubMed

    Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Batliner, Anton; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Objective assessment of intelligibility on the telephone is desirable for voice and speech assessment and rehabilitation. A total of 82 patients after partial laryngectomy read a standardized text which was synchronously recorded by a headset and via telephone. Five experienced raters assessed intelligibility perceptually on a five-point scale. Objective evaluation was performed by support vector regression on the word accuracy (WA) and word correctness (WR) of a speech recognition system, and a set of prosodic features. WA and WR alone exhibited correlations to human evaluation between |r| = 0.57 and |r| = 0.75. The correlation was r = 0.79 for headset and r = 0.86 for telephone recordings when prosodic features and WR were combined. The best feature subset was optimal for both signal qualities. It consists of WR, the average duration of the silent pauses before a word, the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency on the entire sample, the standard deviation of jitter, and the ratio of the durations of the voiced sections and the entire recording.

  3. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers’ Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, E. Niki; Smith, Peter M.; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy) by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences. Methods A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers’ compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors. Results Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female), 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users. Conclusions Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26982491

  4. Cognitive rehabilitation in non-communicative brain-damaged patients

    PubMed Central

    Trojano, Luigi; Moretta, Pasquale; Cozzolino, Autilia; Saltalamacchia, Annamaria; Estraneo, Anna

    Summary Conscious patients with severe motor and speech disorders have great difficulty interacting with the environment and communicating with other people. Several augmentative communication devices are now available to exploit these patients’ expressive potential, but their use often demands considerable cognitive effort. Non-communicative patients with severe brain lesions may have, in addition, specific cognitive deficits that hinder the efficient use of augmentative communication methods. Some neuropsychological batteries are now available for testing these patients. On the basis of such cognitive assessments, cognitive rehabilitation training can now be applied, but we underline that this training must be tailored to single patients in order to allow them to communicate autonomously and efficiently. PMID:21693090

  5. Prosthodontic Management in Conjunction with Speech Therapy in Cleft Lip and Palate: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhakshaini, M R; Pushpavathi, M; Garhnayak, Mirna; Dhal, Angurbala

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP), a congenital disturbance needs a lot of attention with respect to its rehabilitation as a person suffering from this defect can lead a normal life given with the right type of treatment at the right time. However, if a patient cannot get surgical treatment at the appropriate time either due to availability or economic constraints, it is still possible to improve their social and psychological well-being with prosthodontic rehabilitation. The literature search was carried out through PubMed and Google scholar and manual search. The articles related to prosthodontic treatment in congestion with speech therapy and some articles on psychological assessment were considered The available prosthodontic treatment options for improvement of speech is discussed and highlighted the importance of prosthetic management of such patients along with a speech therapist. Also, a review of the available prosthetic treatment options is discussed in detail. Finally, a case report of a CLP patient treated prosthodontically with the assistance of speech pathologist is presented. PMID:26668496

  6. Prosthodontic Management in Conjunction with Speech Therapy in Cleft Lip and Palate: A Review and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dhakshaini, M R; Pushpavathi, M; Garhnayak, Mirna; Dhal, Angurbala

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP), a congenital disturbance needs a lot of attention with respect to its rehabilitation as a person suffering from this defect can lead a normal life given with the right type of treatment at the right time. However, if a patient cannot get surgical treatment at the appropriate time either due to availability or economic constraints, it is still possible to improve their social and psychological well-being with prosthodontic rehabilitation. The literature search was carried out through PubMed and Google scholar and manual search. The articles related to prosthodontic treatment in congestion with speech therapy and some articles on psychological assessment were considered The available prosthodontic treatment options for improvement of speech is discussed and highlighted the importance of prosthetic management of such patients along with a speech therapist. Also, a review of the available prosthetic treatment options is discussed in detail. Finally, a case report of a CLP patient treated prosthodontically with the assistance of speech pathologist is presented.

  7. Pavement evaluation and rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, N.A.; Khosla, N.P.; Johnson, E.G.; Hicks, R.G.; Uzan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The 20 papers in this report deal with the following areas: determination of layer moduli using a falling weight deflectometer; evaluation of effect of uncrushed base layers on pavement performance; the effect of contact area shape and pressure distribution on multilayer systems response; sensitivity analysis of selected backcalculation procedures; performance of a full-scale pavement design experiment in Jamaica; subsealing and load-transfer restoration; development of a demonstration prototype expert system for concrete pavement evaluation; numerical assessment of pavement test sections; development of a distress index and rehabilitation criteria for continuously reinforced concrete pavements using discriminant analysis; a mechanistic model for thermally induced reflection cracking of portland cement concrete pavement with reinforced asphalt concrete overlay; New Mexico study of interlayers used in reflective crack control; status of the South Dakota profilometer; incorporating the effects of tread pattern in a dynamic tire excitation mechanism; external methods for evaluating shock absorbers for road-roughness measurements; factor analysis of pavement distresses for surface condition predictions; development of a utility evaluation for nondestructive-testing equipment used on asphalt-concrete pavements; estimating the life of asphalt overlays using long-term pavement performance data; present serviceability-roughness correlations using rating panel data; video image distress analysis technique for Idaho transportation department pavement-management system; acceptability of shock absorbers for road roughness-measuring trailers.

  8. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  9. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0267 IDENTIFYING DECEPTIVE SPEECH ACROSS CULTURES Julia Hirschberg THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK SPONSORED PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 8

  10. Sociolinguistic Factors in Speech Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W.; And Others

    The first of two experiments conducted in Detroit investigated the relationship between class and ethnic membership and identification of class and ethnicity; the role age and sex of respondent play in accuracy of speaker identification; and attitudes toward various socioethnic speech patterns. The second study was concerned with the attitudes of…

  11. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  12. "Free Speech" and "Political Correctness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Free speech" and "political correctness" are best seen not as opposing principles, but as part of a spectrum. Rather than attempting to establish some absolute principles, this essay identifies four trends that impact on this debate: (1) there are, and always have been, legitimate debates about the--absolute--beneficence of…

  13. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  14. Neural Networks for Speech Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    This is a general introduction to the reemerging technology called neural networks , and how these networks may provide an important alternative to...traditional forms of computing in speech applications. Neural networks , sometimes called Artificial Neural Systems (ANS), have shown promise for solving

  15. Aerosol Emission during Human Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Sima; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    The traditional emphasis for airborne disease transmission has been on coughing and sneezing, which are dramatic expiratory events that yield easily visible droplets. Recent research suggests that normal speech can release even larger quantities of aerosols that are too small to see with the naked eye, but are nonetheless large enough to carry a variety of pathogens (e.g., influenza A). This observation raises an important question: what types of speech emit the most aerosols? Here we show that the concentration of aerosols emitted during healthy human speech is positively correlated with both the amplitude (loudness) and fundamental frequency (pitch) of the vocalization. Experimental measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) indicate that speaking in a loud voice (95 decibels) yields up to fifty times more aerosols than in a quiet voice (75 decibels), and that sounds associated with certain phonemes (e.g., [a] or [o]) release more aerosols than others. We interpret these results in terms of the egressive airflow rate associated with each phoneme and the corresponding fundamental frequency, which is known to vary significantly with gender and age. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission.

  16. Speech Registers in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Thelma E.

    This study of child language acquisition concerns various structural and paralinguistic features of language and examines their role in the total language acquisition process. The informants were three children (two boys and one girl) aged five years, two months; three years, four months; and one year, nine months. Their speech was recorded over a…

  17. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  18. Acoustic Analysis of PD Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chenausky, Karen; MacAuslan, Joel; Goldhor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, approximately 500,000 Americans have Parkinson's disease (PD), with roughly another 50,000 receiving new diagnoses each year. 70%–90% of these people also have the hypokinetic dysarthria associated with PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) substantially relieves motor symptoms in advanced-stage patients for whom medication produces disabling dyskinesias. This study investigated speech changes as a result of DBS settings chosen to maximize motor performance. The speech of 10 PD patients and 12 normal controls was analyzed for syllable rate and variability, syllable length patterning, vowel fraction, voice-onset time variability, and spirantization. These were normalized by the controls' standard deviation to represent distance from normal and combined into a composite measure. Results show that DBS settings relieving motor symptoms can improve speech, making it up to three standard deviations closer to normal. However, the clinically motivated settings evaluated here show greater capacity to impair, rather than improve, speech. A feedback device developed from these findings could be useful to clinicians adjusting DBS parameters, as a means for ensuring they do not unwittingly choose DBS settings which impair patients' communication. PMID:21977333

  19. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and…

  20. Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that speech comprehension processes rely on a hierarchical network involving the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Further, the results support the dual-stream model for speech comprehension, with a dorsal stream for auditory-motor integration, and a ventral stream for extracting meaning but also the processing of sentences and narratives. Specific patterns of functional asymmetry between the left and right hemisphere can also be demonstrated. The review article concludes with a discussion on interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams, particularly the involvement of motor related areas in speech perception processes, and outlines some remaining unresolved issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  1. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  2. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to…

  3. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  4. Speech Errors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in error…

  5. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  6. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  7. Rule-based frequency domain speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Vance M.

    1990-12-01

    A speech processing system is designed to simulate the transmission of speech signals using a speech coding scheme. The transmitter portion of the simulation extracts a minimized set of frequencies in Fourier space which represents the essence of each of the speech timeslices. These parameters are then adaptively quantized and transmitted to a receiver portion of the coding scheme. The receiver then generates an estimate of the original timeslice from the transmitted parameters using a sinusoidal speech model. After initial design, how each of the design parameters affect the human perceived quality of speech is studied. This is done with listening tests. The listening tests consist of having volunteers listen to a series of speech reconstructions. Each reconstruction is the result of the coding scheme acting on the same speech input file with the design parameters varied. The design parameters which are varied are: number of frequencies used in the sinusoidal speech model for reconstruction, number of bits to encode amplitude information, and number of bits used to code phase information. The final design parameters for the coding scheme were selected based on the results of the listening tests. Post design listening tests showed that the system was capable of 4800 bps speech transmission with a quality rating of five on a scale from zero (not understandable) to ten (sounds just like original speech).

  8. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  9. Speech motor learning in profoundly deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Sazzad M; Ostry, David J

    2008-10-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs--audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input alone may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation with training. Moreover, the corrections that we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimeters, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is substantially dependent on somatosensory input.

  10. Speech disorders in right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Dyukova, G M; Glozman, Z M; Titova, E Y; Kriushev, E S; Gamaleya, A A

    2010-07-01

    Clinical practice shows that right-hemisphere cerebral strokes are often accompanied by one speech disorder or another. The aim of the present work was to analyze published data addressing speech disorders in right-sided strokes. Questions of the lateralization of speech functions are discussed, with particular reference to the role of the right hemisphere in speech activity and the structure of speech pathology in right-hemisphere foci. Clinical variants of speech disorders, such as aphasia, dysprosody, dysarthria, mutism, and stutter are discussed in detail. Types of speech disorders are also discussed, along with the possible mechanisms of their formation depending on the locations of lesions in the axis of the brain (cortex, subcortical structures, stem, cerebellum) and focus size.

  11. Perception of speech sounds in school-age children with speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Irwin, Julia R.; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (Rvachew, 1994), which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers’ ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-age children with residual speech errors (RSE). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-age children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-age children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  12. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided.

  13. Intelligibility of laryngectomees' substitute speech: automatic speech recognition and subjective rating.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Maria; Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Lohscheller, Jörg; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Substitute speech after laryngectomy is characterized by restricted aero-acoustic properties in comparison with laryngeal speech and has therefore lower intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility has not existed, although the intelligibility can serve as a global outcome parameter of voice restoration after laryngectomy. An automatic speech recognition system was applied on recordings of a standard text read by 18 German male laryngectomees with tracheoesophageal substitute speech. The system was trained with normal laryngeal speakers and not adapted to severely disturbed voices. Substitute speech was compared to laryngeal speech of a control group. Subjective evaluation of intelligibility was performed by a panel of five experts and compared to automatic speech evaluation. Substitute speech showed lower syllables/s and lower word accuracy than laryngeal speech. Automatic speech recognition for substitute speech yielded word accuracy between 10.0 and 50% (28.7+/-12.1%) with sufficient discrimination. It complied with experts' subjective evaluations of intelligibility. The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone did not differ from the multi-rater kappa of experts and the recognizer. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of laryngectomees. For clinical use, the speech recognition system will be adapted to disturbed voices and can also be applied in other languages.

  14. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  15. Teaching speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka: issues in curriculum, culture and language.

    PubMed

    Wickenden, Mary; Hartley, Sally; Kariyakaranawa, Sunil; Kodikara, Somadasa

    2003-01-01

    This paper draws on the experiences of the authors in designing and teaching a new course to educate speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka. This was the first speech and language therapist course in the country and was the result of collaboration between two universities, one in the UK and one in Sri Lanka. Rather than replicating established programmes elsewhere it was more appropriate to design a new course, suited to providing a comprehensive model of service, encompassing both social and medical approaches to rehabilitation. Issues about developing teaching and learning approaches to match pre-existing knowledge and experience of both staff and students are addressed. The particular ways of designing the programme to take account of cultural and language aspects of the Sri Lankan context are discussed.

  16. [Curriculum development in speech-language therapy and audiology: basis and principles].

    PubMed

    Hugo, S R; Uys, I C

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some of the important issues that form the basis of curriculum development for education in speech-language therapy and audiology. The demands of the profession are such that a horizontal occupational structure is no longer adequate in the multicultural, multilingual RSA context. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative educational options to accommodate current needs. These may include diploma training for technicians, certificate programmes for community rehabilitation workers and professionally directed masters courses. It is also apparent that the professional functions of the speech-language therapist and audiologist have extended to the point where aspects such as computer literacy, management functions, community work and consultation should play a greater role in the curriculum than is the case at present.

  17. How Foreign are ’Foreign’ Speech Sounds? Implications for Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Language Speech Sounds. In James, A. & J. Leather (eds.). Sound Patterns in Second Language Acquisition , Foris Publications. ... language acquisition (SLA) research. The This paper reports results from a production study which phonological processes involved when approaching a...se *Telia Research AB, Room B324, S-12386 Farsta, Sweden ABSTRACT field of phonological acquisition, and more specifically, into the field of second

  18. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  19. Speech and language therapies to improve pragmatics and discourse skills in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Marilyne; Bonneau, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-06-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia display speech and language impairments that greatly impact their integration to the society. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the importance of speech and language therapy (SLT) as part of rehabilitation curriculums for patients with schizophrenia emphasizing on the speech and language abilities assessed, the therapy setting and the therapeutic approach. This article reviewed 18 studies testing the effects of language therapy or training in 433 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results showed that 14 studies out of 18 lead to improvements in language and/or speech abilities. Most of these studies comprised pragmatic or expressive discursive skills being the only aim of the therapy or part of it. The therapy settings vary widely ranging from twice daily individual therapy to once weekly group therapy. The therapeutic approach was mainly operant conditioning. Although the evidence tends to show that certain areas of language are treatable through therapy, it remains difficult to state the type of approach that should be favoured and implemented to treat language impairments in schizophrenia.

  20. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  1. Optimal timing of speech and language therapy for aphasia after stroke: more evidence needed.

    PubMed

    Nouwens, Femke; Visch-Brink, Evy G; Van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke M E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; de Lau, Lonneke M L

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia due to stroke affects communication and quality of life. Most stroke survivors with aphasia receive speech and language therapy. Although an early start of treatment is advocated in clinical practice, evidence for "The earlier, the better" in aphasia rehabilitation is weak. Hence, clinicians are faced with the dilemma of when to initiate intensive treatment: as early as possible, when most of the spontaneous recovery occurs but when patients are often ill, or later, when the patients' condition is more stabilized. Here we discuss whether aphasia outcome is affected by timing of treatment in relation to stroke onset and whether there is evidence for an optimal window of time during which language therapy should be provided. Findings from various rehabilitation research fields are discussed and combined to provide principles for future research.

  2. Smartphone-based real-time speech enhancement for improving hearing aids speech perception.

    PubMed

    Yu Rao; Yiya Hao; Panahi, Issa M S; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a speech processing pipeline on smartphones for hearing aid devices (HADs) is presented. This pipeline is used for noise suppression and speech enhancement (SE) to improve speech quality and intelligibility. The proposed method is implemented to run in real-time on Android smartphones. The results of the testing conducted indicate that the proposed method suppresses the noise and improves the perceptual quality of speech in terms of three objective measures of perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), noise attenuation level (NAL), and the coherent speech intelligibility index (CSD).

  3. [Total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction with a jejunum speech siphon : A case report].

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Sheppard, K; Dogan, Z A; Remmert, S

    2014-06-01

    Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis and a pronounced loss of quality of life due to impairment of the swallowing and voice function. The fundamental therapeutic challenge is successful tumor control with concomitant rehabilitation of swallowing and voice functions. Further objectives are a low complications rate (fistula, aspiration) and prompt transfer to the adjuvant radio-oncologic therapy. With these factors in mind, the microvascular anastomosed jejunum speech siphon with a biventer rein has proven to be an effective method of reconstruction following extensive circular laryngopharyngeal resections. In this case report, a typical operative and postoperative course is presented, as are the functional results.

  4. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after a partial mandibulectomy

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; Vechiato Filho, Aljomar José; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; de Carvalho, Karina Helga Turcio; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of orofacial tumors may cause facial deformities by losses of structures that affect basic functions, i.e. feeding, speech, and the reduction of patient self-steam. Presentation of case A white male patient was diagnosed with epidermoid cancer on the mandibular alveolar ridge with infiltration staging IV A. The patient was submitted to a mandibulectomy associated with a complete extraction of mandibular teeth. For rehabilitation, a conventional denture for the mandibular arch and a removable partial denture for the maxillary arch were fabricated. A correct occlusal adjustment and a satisfactory amount of alveolar bone was favorable for conventional dentures of the prostheses bases improve their retention and stability. After one year of follow-up, the patient was adapted to the prostheses, satisfied with their retention, and reported an improvement on his feeding. Discussion The prosthetic rehabilitation of patients after a partial mandibulectomy is essential for their self-steam. Conventional dentures may have their retention and stability improved if they are well fabricated, recorded and have a balanced occlusion. Conclusion A correct occlusal adjustment and an adequate retention of the prostheses bases may improve their retention and stability. Patients without xerostomy and with a satisfactory amount of alveolar bone may have a favorable prognosis for conventional dentures. PMID:26052437

  5. Aspects of orthodontic-prosthetic rehabilitation of dentofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ajduković, Zorica; Janošević, Mirjana; Filipović, Gordana; Arsić, Stojanka; Janošević, Predrag; Petrović, Nenad

    2014-04-01

    Skeletal class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult dentofacial anomalies, characterized by deviation in the development of the mandible and maxilla in the sagittal plane, where the mandible is dominant in relation to the maxilla. In patients with class III malocclusion, anomalies in the dentoalveolar level and esthetic discrepancies are also frequent. The etiology of class III malocclusion is multifactorial due to the interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. Rehabilitation and treatment of malocclusion is one of the major goals of modern dentistry. This article presents the orthodontic-prosthetic therapy and rehabilitation of a 45-year-old patient with an abnormal occlusal vertical dimension and a skeletal class III malocclusion. The patient came to the clinic complaining about degraded esthetics and disordered functions of the orofacial region (functions of eating, swallowing, speech) and also pain in the temporomandibular joint. After the diagnosis was made, the patient was first referred to orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances (self-ligating brackets system Rot 0.22). Upon completion of the orthodontic treatment, the patient was sent for further prosthetic treatment. Fixed prosthetic restorations were made in the upper and lower jaw, thus achieving a satisfactory result in terms of esthetics and function of the stomatognathic system.

  6. Relationship of Level of Rehabilitation Counselor Education to Rehabilitation Client Outcome in the Wisconsin Division of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Edna Mora

    1991-01-01

    Examined rehabilitation counseling in Wisconsin Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR). Findings from 144 DVR counselors and 11,862 clients whose cases they closed during fiscal year 1989 revealed that counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling or related fields had better outcomes for clients with severe disabilities than…

  7. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca’s aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT’s generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca’s aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID:25157222

  8. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Payment System Rule Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Rule Outpatient Prospective Payment System/Ambulatory Surgical ... Payment System Rule Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Rule Outpatient Prospective Payment System/Ambulatory Surgical ...

  9. Vocational Rehabilitation: Outlook for Persons with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Richard T.

    1977-01-01

    Incidence, treatment methods, psychological rehabilitation, and vocational rehabilitation considerations are reviewed for cancer of the head and neck, cancer of the digestive organs, breast cancer, lymphomas, and cancer of the genital organs. (CL)

  10. Stroke Rehabilitation: What Research is Being Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / ... Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation medlineplus.gov/strokerehabilitation.html National Institute of ...

  11. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following: Physiatrist Specializes in rehabilitation following injuries, accidents or illness Neurologist Specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of stroke and other diseases of the brain and spinal cord Rehabilitation Specializes in helping people ...

  12. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... better in your daily life. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here Pulmonary Rehabilitation (American Thoracic Society) - PDF Pulmonary Rehabilitation (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) What Are the Benefits and Risks of ...

  13. Levels of Processing of Speech and Non-Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-10

    Timbre : A better musical analogv to speech? Presented to the Acoustical Society of America. Anaheim. A. Samuel. (Fall 1987) Central and peripheal...Thle studies of listener based factors include studies of perceptual. restoration of deleted sounds (phonemes or musical notes), and studies of the... music . The attentional investi- ctnsdemons;trate, rjAher fine-tuned ittentional control under high-predictability condi- Lios. ic~ifcart oogrssh&A; been

  14. Segregation of Whispered Speech Interleaved with Noise or Speech Maskers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    presented diotically via Beyerdyanamic DT990 Pro headphone . Listeners were seated in front of a computer monitor in a sound-treated room and responded to...a target speech signal from a same talker masker [13]. Performance was best when the target speaker was different from the masker and decreased as...Tartter, V. C. 1991. “Identifiability of vowels and speakers from whispered syllables,” Percept. Psychophys. 49, 365–372. [4] Tartter, V. C. 1989

  15. 24 CFR 572.100 - Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. 572.100 Section 572.100 Housing and Urban Development... § 572.100 Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. (a)...

  16. A Tough-Love Pedagogy in Rehabilitation: Integration of Rehabilitation Ideology with Local Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jye

    2009-01-01

    This study problematizes a unique therapeutic relationship in rehabilitation and how the interaction reflects the integration of rehabilitation ideology with local cultures. The data drew from a larger ethnographic study of a rehabilitation unit in Taiwan. Participants included 21 patient-caregiver pairs and their rehabilitation professionals.…

  17. Vestibular rehabilitation: rationale and indications.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Kang, Christian M; Tusa, Ronald J

    2013-07-01

    Treatment options of the patient with dizziness include medication, rehabilitation with physical therapy, surgery, counseling, and reassurance. Here the authors discuss vestibular rehabilitation for patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), unilateral vestibular loss or hypofunction, and bilateral vestibular loss/hypofunction. They describe the different mechanisms for recovery with vestibular rehabilitation, the exercises that are used, and which ones are best. An exhaustive literature review on clinical outcomes with the best research publications for BPPV, unilateral vestibular loss/hypofunction, and bilateral vestibular loss/hypofunction is presented. For BPPV, the authors also summarize the evidence-based review practice parameters published in Neurology by Fife et al. (2008) and review all relevant articles published since then.

  18. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  19. [Occupational medical counseling in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Schian, H M

    1991-04-01

    The present contribution seeks to outline the counselling possibilities on the part of the industrial medical service. Starting out from the legal bases (the Act concerning safety at work), the scope for action available internally and externally is examined. Towards the background of the assertion (which is in agreement with numerous other authors) that rehabilitation invariably means teamwork, the author seeks to describe the internally competent authorities and departments in terms of internal team, and to contrast it with the external team involved. A number of opportunities for cooperation are outlined, and already implemented practical approaches are pointed out. The company services are viewed in a community based rehabilitation context, and the relationships with the financially responsible administrations and their facilities in respect of vocational and medical rehabilitation are set out. Systematic in-plant procedures are explained by a conceptual model, practical implementations (for ex. in the EAM system) are touched on.

  20. [Industrial medicine counseling in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Schian, H M

    1989-11-01

    The present contribution seeks to outline the counselling possibilities on the part of the company medical service. Starting out from the legal bases (the Act concerning safety at work), the scope for action available internally and externally is examined. Towards the background of the assertion (which is in agreement with numerous other authors) that rehabilitation invariably means teamwork, the author seeks to describe the internally competent authorities and departments in terms of internal team, and to contrast it with the external team involved. A number of opportunities for cooperation are outlined, and already implemented practical approaches are pointed out. The company services are viewed in a community-based rehabilitation context, and the relationships with the financially responsible administrations and their facilities in respect of vocational and medical rehabilitation are set out. Systematic in-plant procedures are explained by a conceptual model, practical implementations (for ex. in the EAM system) are touched on.

  1. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Janom, H H

    2014-03-31

    Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures.

  2. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  3. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland.

  4. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  5. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-03

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  6. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  7. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  8. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation after whiplash injury

    PubMed Central

    Haiduk, Philipp; Benz, Thomas; Lehmann, Susanne; Gysi-Klaus, Francoise; Aeschlimann, André; Michel, Beat A.; Angst, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Whiplash injury associated disorders (WAD) cause high costs for public health care. Neck pain is number 16 on the global prevalence lists for the 50 most common sequelae. It is of importance to obtain long-term data on disability and working capacity outcomes after rehabilitation. Long-term prospective data of the outcome course of whiplash are sparse. The aim of this study was to quantify improvements of pain, function/role performance, vitality, and working capacity 5 years after whiplash injury and to compare the state of health to normative values at 5 years after rehabilitation. In this naturalistic, observational, prospective cohort study, 115 patients were assessed 5 years (60 months) after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The assessment set consisted of the Short Form 36 (SF-36), parts of the North American Spine Society's cervical spine assessment questionnaire (NASS) and the coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ). The effects were quantified by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). Score differences over the course were tested by the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test for significance. Comparing data between entry and 60 months after rehabilitation 8 of 15 parameters improved with large ES/SRM. Outcome between 6 and 60 months showed small to moderate ES/SRM. Working capacity increased from 0 at entry to rehabilitation to 21 h/wk at 6 months and to 30 h/wk at 60 months follow-up. After large improvements in health and working capacity in the mid-term, further important improvements were observed in the long-term course. It can be hypothesized that part of those can be attributed to the interventions during inpatient rehabilitation, for example, due to better coping strategies. PMID:28248865

  9. Mobile, Virtual Enhancements for Rehabilitation (MOVER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-31

    0359 Total Award Value: $767,388 Charles River Analytics Contract No. C12198 Mobile, Virtual Enhancements for Rehabilitation (MOVER) Quarterly...2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-03-2015 to 31-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mobile, Virtual Enhancements for Rehabilitation (MOVER) 5a...address these issues, we are developing mobile, virtual enhancements for rehabilitation (MOVER), a mobile, technology-enabled home-based rehabilitation

  10. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  11. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  12. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  13. THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND, PART III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOULKE, EMERSON

    A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ON THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND IDENTIFIES FIVE METHODS OF SPEECH COMPRESSION--SPEECH CHANGING, ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING, COMPUTER SAMPLING, SPEECH SYNTHESIS, AND FREQUENCY DIVIDING WITH THE HARMONIC COMPRESSOR. THE SPEECH CHANGING AND ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING METHODS AND THE NECESSARY APPARATUS HAVE…

  14. 24 CFR 401.472 - Rehabilitation funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rehabilitation funding. 401.472... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.472 Rehabilitation funding. (a) Sources of funds—(1) Project accounts. The Restructuring Plan for funding rehabilitation must include funds from the project's...

  15. 24 CFR 401.472 - Rehabilitation funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rehabilitation funding. 401.472... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.472 Rehabilitation funding. (a) Sources of funds—(1) Project accounts. The Restructuring Plan for funding rehabilitation must include funds from the project's...

  16. 24 CFR 401.472 - Rehabilitation funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rehabilitation funding. 401.472... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.472 Rehabilitation funding. (a) Sources of funds—(1) Project accounts. The Restructuring Plan for funding rehabilitation must include funds from the project's...

  17. 24 CFR 401.472 - Rehabilitation funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rehabilitation funding. 401.472... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.472 Rehabilitation funding. (a) Sources of funds—(1) Project accounts. The Restructuring Plan for funding rehabilitation must include funds from the project's...

  18. Manual for Training Leprosy Rehabilitation Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itoh, Masayoshi; Eason, Alice L.

    The purpose of this manual is to introduce the general concepts and techniques in leprosy rehabilitation to physical therapy aides. Because of the lack of well-trained, qualified, physical therapists, the committee on leprosy rehabilitation considers it necessary to publish a teaching manual outlining leprosy rehabilitation for those who work with…

  19. Rehabilitation in the Work Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Berkowitz, Edward D.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the reasons for the workers' compensation and vocational rehabilitation programs drifting apart; the reasons for their getting together again in the 1970s; and the reasons for the current state of affairs, in which compensation programs are retreating from mandatory referral for rehabilitation. Urges vocational rehabilitation profession…

  20. Statistical Power Analysis of Rehabilitation Counseling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.; Szymanski, Edna Mora

    1993-01-01

    Provided initial assessment of the statistical power of rehabilitation counseling research published in selected rehabilitation journals. From 5 relevant journals, found 32 articles that contained statistical tests that could be power analyzed. Findings indicated that rehabilitation counselor researchers had little chance of finding small…