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Sample records for alaryngeal speech rehabilitation

  1. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the production…

  2. Prosodic Boundaries in Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; Quene, H.; Nooteboom, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Alaryngeal speakers (speakers in whom the larynx has been removed) have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F[subscript 0] and duration. This study investigated whether proficient tracheoesophageal and oesophageal speakers consistently convey phrase boundaries. It was further investigated if these alaryngeal speakers used the…

  3. Acoustic Markers of Prosodic Boundaries in Spanish Spontaneous Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, M. H.; Barrio, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy…

  4. The Lombard Effect on Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeine, Lina; Brandt, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The study investigated the Lombard effect (evoking increased speech intensity by applying masking noise to ears of talker) on the speech of esophageal talkers, artificial larynx users, and normal speakers. The noise condition produced the highest intensity increase in the esophageal speakers. (Author/DB)

  5. Effects of Audio-Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Alaryngeal Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evitts, Paul M.; Portugal, Lindsay; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is minimal research on the contribution of visual information on speech intelligibility for individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL). Aims: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of mode of presentation (audio-only, audio-visual) on alaryngeal speech intelligibility. Method: Twenty-three naive listeners were…

  6. Effects of irradiation on alaryngeal voice of totally laryngectomized patients

    SciTech Connect

    Izdebski, K.; Fontanesi, J.; Ross, J.C.; Hetzler, D.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of radiation therapy on the ability of totally laryngectomized patients to produce voice and speech were examined using objective non-invasive methods. Moderate to severe losses were noted in patients producing voice with all types of alaryngeal modalities: tracheoesophageal, esophageal, and electrolaryngeal. Voice and speech losses were related to the impaired motility and vibratory capability of the esophageal wall and mucosa, to fibrosis of the submandibular region and to trismus. Tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice was recovered some weeks after completion of irradiation. No voice losses were observed in alaryngeal speakers who did not undergo voice restoration until after irradiation. All irradiated patients also showed various degrees of dysphagia during the treatment.

  7. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  8. Fundamental Frequency Variation with an Electrolarynx Improves Speech Understanding: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Peter J.; Schlauch, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of fundamental frequency (F0) variation on the intelligibility of speech in an alaryngeal talker who used an electrolarynx (EL). Method: One experienced alaryngeal talker produced variable F0 and a constant F0 with his EL as he read sentences aloud. As a control, a group of sentences with variable F0 was…

  9. Speech-Language Therapists' Process of Including Significant Others in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…

  10. The changing role of the speech-language pathologist in pediatric rehabilitation/habilitation.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J; Workinger, M S

    1990-01-01

    The speech-language pathologist shares in the management of children who have a need for pediatric rehabilitation/habilitation services. Technological advances provide new tools to assess and promote communication.

  11. Contemporary review: Impact of primary neopharyngoplasty on acoustic characteristics of alaryngeal tracheoesophageal voice.

    PubMed

    Albirmawy, Osama A; Elsheikh, Mohamed N; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2012-02-01

    The physiology of the vibratory mechanism in alaryngeal tracheoesophageal speech depends on several factors. The structure and resulting function of the neoglottis (or neopharynx) varies from patient to patient depending on the individual details of the surgical procedure performed, as well as the patient's anatomy. In general, the vibratory segment is a blending of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, cricopharyngeus, and upper circular fibers of the esophagus. Limited ability to visualize dynamically these three-dimensional structures during rapid events of voice and speech production impedes complete understanding of the vibratory function of the neopharynx. Acoustic studies have elucidated some general characteristics of the pharyngoesophagus and neoglottic vibratory mechanism in the laryngectomized population. A critical degree of tonicity is necessary for apposition of mucosal surfaces in the production of tracheoesophageal voice. Deficiencies in the vibratory segment can usually be managed with various surgical procedures (neopharyngoplasty), resulting in reduced intraesophageal pressure and corresponding increase in fluent, intelligible, effortless speech. The acoustic measures, when correlated with neopharyngoplasty variables, produce many significant associations. Some of them are paramount and deserve further attention. PMID:22258890

  12. Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Research on Speech Motor Control Recovery and Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Hoit, Jeannette; Kent, Raymond; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Strand, Edythe; Yorkston, Kathryn; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders. Method: A working group in speech motor control and disorders developed this report, which examines the potential relevance of basic research on the brain mechanisms involved in neural…

  13. Clients becoming teachers: Speech-language pathology students' understanding of rehabilitation following clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Attrill, Stacie; Gunn, Simon

    2010-04-01

    There has been limited research investigating the conceptual development of rehabilitation in speech-language pathology (SLP) students. The aim of this study was to describe SLP students' understanding of rehabilitation following completion of a clinical practicum in a rehabilitation setting. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach according to grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 SLP students who had completed a practicum in a rehabilitation setting. Interview data analysis revealed the emergence of five axial categories. Clients becoming teachers was identified as the core category, as the notion that clients were fundamental to students' understanding of rehabilitation occurred reliably throughout the data and related to all other categories. A theoretical model was proposed that demonstrated successive levels of support to students in the acquisition of their understanding of rehabilitation on practicum. Students' understanding of rehabilitation was derived from client-related interactions and factors experienced on practicum in rehabilitation settings. Rehabilitation practicum provided students with a rich and complex learning environment that may facilitate the development of the "core skills" identified for rehabilitation practice.

  14. Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Research on Speech Motor Control Recovery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.; Hoit, Jeannette; Kent, Raymond; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Strand, Edythe; Yorkston, Kathryn; Sapienza, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To review the principles of neural plasticity and make recommendations for research on the neural bases for rehabilitation of neurogenic speech disorders. Method A working group in speech motor control and disorders developed this report, which examines the potential relevance of basic research on the brain mechanisms involved in neural plasticity and discusses possible similarities and differences for application to speech motor control disorders. The possible involvement of neural plasticity in changes in speech production in normalcy, development, aging, and neurological diseases and disorders was considered. This report focuses on the appropriate use of functional and structural neuroimaging and the design of feasibility studies aimed at understanding how brain mechanisms are altered by environmental manipulations such as training and stimulation and how these changes might enhance the future development of rehabilitative methods for persons with speech motor control disorders. Conclusions Increased collaboration with neuroscientists working in clinical research centers addressing human communication disorders might foster research in this area. It is hoped that this paper will encourage future research on speech motor control disorders to address the principles of neural plasticity and their application for rehabilitation. PMID:18230849

  15. Black Students Prepare for Rehabilitation Careers in Speech Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Bruce M.

    1972-01-01

    A special summer program at Pennsylvania State University was conceived to stimulate career interests in speech pathology and audiology among black students from allied fields and other colleges. (DM)

  16. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  17. Training Effects on Speech Production Using a Hands-Free Electromyographically Controlled Electrolarynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ehab A.; Heaton, James T.; Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The "electrolarynx (EL)" is a widely used device for alaryngeal speech, but it requires manual operation and produces voice that typically has a constant fundamental frequency. An electromyographically controlled EL (EMG-EL) was designed and implemented to provide hands-free control with dynamic pitch modulation. Method: Three…

  18. The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Wan, Catherine Y

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the "SEP" hypothesis, which postulates that (1) "sound envelope processing" and (2) "synchronization and entrainment to pulse" may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations. PMID:25352796

  19. The Role of Rhythm in Speech and Language Rehabilitation: The SEP Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shinya; Wan, Catherine Y.

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years, human beings have engaged in rhythmic activities such as drumming, dancing, and singing. Rhythm can be a powerful medium to stimulate communication and social interactions, due to the strong sensorimotor coupling. For example, the mere presence of an underlying beat or pulse can result in spontaneous motor responses such as hand clapping, foot stepping, and rhythmic vocalizations. Examining the relationship between rhythm and speech is fundamental not only to our understanding of the origins of human communication but also in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this paper, we explore whether rhythm has therapeutic potential for promoting recovery from speech and language dysfunctions. Although clinical studies are limited to date, existing experimental evidence demonstrates rich rhythmic organization in both music and language, as well as overlapping brain networks that are crucial in the design of rehabilitation approaches. Here, we propose the “SEP” hypothesis, which postulates that (1) “sound envelope processing” and (2) “synchronization and entrainment to pulse” may help stimulate brain networks that underlie human communication. Ultimately, we hope that the SEP hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating rhythm-based research in various patient populations. PMID:25352796

  20. Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing things you did before. This process is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation often focuses on Physical therapy to help your ... who has had a stroke may simply want rehabilitation to be able to dress or bathe without ...

  1. Rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of the speech therapy approach

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Gisela Carmona; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: There are an estimated 30,000–40,000 new cases of cerebral palsy per year in Brazil. Motor disorders caused by cerebral palsy can lead to dysphagia as they may alter the preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases. Aim: To identify existing rehabilitation methods of swallowing disorders in cerebral palsy, with emphasis on the pursuit of research using the Bobath concept, the Castillo Morales concept, oral sensorimotor therapy, and continuing education. Summary of the findings: We performed a systematic review of the medical and speech therapy literature on the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy spanning 1977–2010 and from all languages and nations. Among the 310 articles retrieved, only 22 (7.09%) addressed therapeutic rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Of the 22 reports, 12 (54.5%) were from Canada, 3 (13.6%) were from Japan, 2 (9%) were from Brazil, 2 (9%) were from Germany, 1 (4.5%) was from the USA, 1 (4.5%) was from the United Kingdom, and 1 (4.5%) was from Poland. Of these reports, 63.6% used oral sensorimotor therapy as a therapeutic method, 36.3% reported continuing education as a therapeutic approach, and only 18.1% and 9% used the Bobath concept and Castillo Morales concept, respectively. Conclusion: Even with a constantly increasing cerebral palsy population, few studies include (re)habilitation in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in these children. PMID:25991964

  2. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Rehabilitation; Physical rehab; Physiatry ... or developmental disorders Speech disorders and language problems Physical medicine and rehabilitation services also include sports medicine and injury prevention. WHERE REHABILITATION IS DONE People can have ...

  3. Speech, Speech!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComb, Gordon

    1982-01-01

    Discussion focuses on the nature of computer-generated speech and voice synthesis today. State-of-the-art devices for home computers are called text-to-speech (TTS) systems. Details about the operation and use of TTS synthesizers are provided, and the time saving in programing over previous methods is emphasized. (MP)

  4. Speech-Language and swallowing manifestations and rehabilitation in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vandana, V P; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Sonam, Kothari; Taly, Arun B; Gayathri, N; Madhu, N; Sinha, S

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disease. The available studies on MELAS syndrome are limited to evaluation of radiological, audiological, genetic, and neurological findings. Among the various neurological manifestations, speech-language and swallowing manifestations are less discussed in the literature. This report describes the speech-language and swallowing function in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome. The intervention over a period of 6 months is discussed.

  5. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  6. Rehabilitation or Compensation: Time for a Fresh Perspective on Speech and Language Therapy for Dysphagia and Parkinson's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sarah K.; Roddam, Hazel; Sheldrick, Heulwen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and can have negative consequences for physical health and quality of life. A variety of treatment options are available to clinicians working with people who have dysphagia and Parkinson's disease. These options can be broadly categorized as being compensatory or rehabilitative in…

  7. ICRA noises: artificial noise signals with speech-like spectral and temporal properties for hearing instrument assessment. International Collegium for Rehabilitative Audiology.

    PubMed

    Dreschler, W A; Verschuure, H; Ludvigsen, C; Westermann, S

    2001-01-01

    Current standards involving technical specification of hearing aids provide limited possibilities for assessing the influence of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the input signal, and these characteristics have a significant effect on the output signal of many recent types of hearing aids. This is particularly true of digital hearing instruments, which typically include non-linear amplification in multiple channels. Furthermore, these instruments often incorporate additional non-linear functions such as "noise reduction" and "feedback cancellation". The output signal produced by a non-linear hearing instrument relates to the characteristics of the input signal in a complex manner. Therefore, the choice of input signal significantly influences the outcome of any acoustic or psychophysical assessment of a non-linear hearing instrument. For this reason, the International Collegium for Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) has introduced a collection of noise signals that can be used for hearing aid testing (including real-ear measurements) and psychophysical evaluation. This paper describes the design criteria, the realisation process, and the final selection of nine test signals on a CD. Also, the spectral and temporal characteristics of these signals are documented. The ICRA noises provide a well-specified set of speech-like noises with spectra shaped according to gender and vocal effort, and with different amounts of speech modulation simulating one or more speakers. These noises can be applied as well-specified background noise in psychophysical experiments. They can also serve as test signals for the evaluation of digital hearing aids with noise reduction. It is demonstrated that the ICRA noises show the effectiveness of the noise reduction schemes. Based on these initial measurements, some initial steps are proposed to develop a standard method of technical specification of noise reduction based on the modulation characteristics. For this purpose, the

  8. Rehabilitation of an edentulous cleft lip and palate patient with a soft palate defect using a bar-retained, implant-supported speech-aid prosthesis: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Hakan Tuna, S; Pekkan, Gurel; Buyukgural, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of an edentulous cleft lip and palate patient with a combined hard and soft palate defect is a great challenge, due to the lack of retention of the obturator prosthesis as a result of its weight and the inability to obtain a border seal. Dental implants improve the retention, stability, and occlusal function of prostheses when used in carefully selected cleft lip and palate cases. This clinical report presents an edentulous unilateral cleft lip and palate patient who has hard and soft palate defects and an atrophied maxilla, treated with an implant-supported speech-aid prosthesis. PMID:19115799

  9. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  10. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  11. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology services... to properly supervise and administer the services. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech..., physical therapist assistants, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants,...

  12. Rehabilitation of Poststroke Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Shigaki, Cheryl L.; Frey, Scott H.; Barrett, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing rates of stroke and our aging population, it is critical that we continue to foster innovation in stroke rehabilitation. Although there is evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, the set of cognitive domains effectively addressed to date represents only a small subset of the problems experienced by stroke survivors. Further, a gap remains between investigational treatments and our evolving theories of brain function. These limitations present opportunities for improving the functional impact of stroke rehabilitation. The authors use a case example to encourage the reader to consider the evidence base for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, focusing on four domains critical to daily life function: (1) speech and language, (2) functional memory, (3) executive function and skilled learned purposive movements, and (4) spatial-motor systems. Ultimately, they attempt to draw neuroscience and practice closer together by using translational reasoning to suggest possible new avenues for treating these disorders. PMID:25520021

  13. [A method of speech donorship and speech discourse for the speech restoration in aphasia].

    PubMed

    Rudnev, V A; Shteĭnerdt, V V

    2012-01-01

    An objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of speech restoration in aphasia in outpatients using audiovisual samples of the speech of first-degree relatives of the patient with the following transformation of the restoration into the feedback with the own audiovisual material (a method of speech donorship and speech discourse). We studied 53 outpatients with different severity of aphasia (28 patients with moderate severity, 12 patients with mild severity and 13 patients with marked severity) that was pathogenetically associated with stroke or brain injury. We used the following algorithm of speech restoration: 1) the work in the regime of biological feedback with the audiovisual sample of the speech of the close relative (7th-14th days); 2) the DVD recording of the own speech of the patient and the work with the own audiovisual sample (14th-21st days). Sessions were carried out twice a day. After the rehabilitation, there was a significant improvement (p<0,001) in the speech function including the decrease in the frequency of literal and verbal paraphasias, literal perseverations as well as the improvement of speech initiation and nonverbal speech component (intonation and kinesthetic appearances). The results of the restoration were worse in patients with severe aphasia than in those with moderate and mild aphasia, for the latter patients the method was very effective.

  14. Speech Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutoit, Thierry; Bozkurt, Baris

    Text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is the art of designing talking machines. It is often seen by engineers as an easy task, compared to speech recognition.1 It is true, indeed, that it is easier to create a bad, first trial text-to-speech (TTS) system than to design a rudimentary speech recognizer.

  15. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

  16. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services... Optional Hospital Services § 482.56 Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services. If the hospital provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology...

  17. 42 CFR 482.56 - Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services... Optional Hospital Services § 482.56 Condition of participation: Rehabilitation services. If the hospital provides rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, or speech pathology...

  18. 42 CFR 485.58 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the services on its premises. (2) Exceptions. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech... rehabilitation program that includes, at a minimum, physicians' services, physical therapy services, and social... patient and the physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech-language pathologist, as...

  19. 42 CFR 485.58 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the services on its premises. (2) Exceptions. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech... rehabilitation program that includes, at a minimum, physicians' services, physical therapy services, and social... patient and the physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech-language pathologist, as...

  20. 42 CFR 485.58 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the services on its premises. (2) Exceptions. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech... rehabilitation program that includes, at a minimum, physicians' services, physical therapy services, and social... patient and the physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech-language pathologist, as...

  1. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  2. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  3. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Rehabilitation dentistry; (9) Physical therapy; (10) Occupational therapy; (11) Speech pathology and audiology... blind or have vision impairment; (17) Rehabilitation of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing;...

  4. Rehabilitation approaches to stroke.

    PubMed

    Aichner, F; Adelwöhrer, C; Haring, H P

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the state of the science in stroke rehabilitation dealing with three main topics: (1) General approach to stroke rehabilitation (stroke services and stroke units), (2) Neurophysiological and pharmacological interventions (facilitation of brain repair mechanisms) and (3) Experimental approaches (neuronal transplantation). Stroke rehabilitation is an active process beginning during acute hospitalisation, progressing to a systematic program of rehabilitation services and continuing after the individual returns to the community. There is world-wide consensus that stroke patients should be treated at specialised stroke unit with specially trained medical and nursing staff, co-ordinated multidisciplinary rehabilitation and education programs for patients and their families. Stroke Unit has been shown to be associated with a long-term reduction of death and of the combined poor outcomes of death and dependency, independent of patients age, sex, or variations in stroke unit organisations. No study has clearly shown to what extent the beneficial effect is due to specific rehabilitation strategies. New imaging studies in stroke patients indicate altered post stroke activation patterns, which suggest some functional reorganisation. Reorganisation may be the principle process responsible for recovery after stroke. It is assumed that different post ischaemic interventions like physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, electrical stimulation, etc. facilitates such changes. Scientific evidence demonstrating the values of specific rehabilitation interventions after stroke is limited. Comparisons between different methods in current use have so far mostly failed to show that any particular physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy or stroke rehabilitation strategy is superior to another. Clinical data are strongly in favour of early mobilisation and training. Pharmacological interventions in animals revealed that norepinephrine

  5. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  6. Voice rehabilitation of Broca's aphasia following total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Manestar, Dubravko; Tićac, Robert; Starcević, Radan; Sepić, Tatjana; Malvić, Goran; Marijić, Blazen; Bonifacić, David

    2012-03-01

    Total laryngectomy, as a consequence of carcinoma of the larynx, results in loss of speech function. Cerebrovascular stroke is the leading cause of reduced speech production ability, and thereby communication difficulties. The case is presented of a 60-year-old male patient who suffered stroke five years after a total laryngectomy. Speech rehabilitation was hampered due to the depressive state of the patient. Although contraindicated, the secondary voice prosthesis was implanted. Only at that moment the patient showed willingness and motivation for speech rehabilitation. The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate that not all neurological disorders are contraindicated for implantation of voice prostheses. PMID:22816238

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  8. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... of speech disorders may disappear on their own. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or speech ... the disorder. Speech can often be improved with speech therapy. Early treatment is likely to have better results.

  9. Rehabilitation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, George N.; Trotter, Ann Beck

    A total of 97 studies are reported in this review of research in vocational rehabilitation. Projects were selected on the following criteria: (1) pertinence to rehabilitation counseling practice, (2) research approach, (3) broad generalizability, and (4) supported by the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration for a one-to-five-year period and…

  10. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  11. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  12. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  13. Service delivery mechanisms in rehabilitation technology.

    PubMed

    Vanderheiden, G C

    1987-11-01

    Rehabilitation technology is a rapidly advancing area involving professionals from multiple disciplines, including engineers, occupational and physical therapists, speech pathologists, computer programmers, and many others. This paper focuses on the use of computers and other personal assistive devices by disabled persons, but the concepts presented apply to all areas of personal rehabilitation technology. The topics covered include a perspective on the use of advanced technology, technological appliances versus tools, skills or special knowledge needed for the effective delivery of rehabilitation technology, new roles for the service delivery team, sources of training in rehabilitation technology, and issues in qualification or certification of rehabilitation technology professionals. The purpose of this paper is to put the use of advanced technology for rehabilitation in its proper perspective and to present ideas for consideration in building more effective service delivery mechanisms for these technologies.

  14. Rehabilitation of a patient with complete mandibulectomy and partial glossectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerson, M.D.; Johnson, B.H.; Weitzman, R.S.

    1980-05-01

    Following a number of radiologic and surgical procedures for the treatment of oral cancer, a patient with severe facial difigurement and alteration of the vocal tract acquired acceptable speech. Consultation among referring physicians and speech pathologists can aid such a patient by facilitating the rehabilitative process through improvement of communicative skills.

  15. [Current aspects of rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, V V; Bogatyreva, M D; Minullin, T I

    2014-01-01

    Based on the review of literature, the key aspects of stroke rehabilitation (medical, physical, psychological, professional and social) were singled out. Main principles of medical aspects were defined as following: early rehabilitation, systemic and long term measures, their complicity and disciplinary, adequacy of rehabilitation measures and providing the conditions for the active participation of the patient and his/her close friends and relatives. Measures directed to motor, speech and cognitive function recovery are considered. In conclusion, attention is drawn to pharmacological drugs, in particular nicergoline (sermion).

  16. Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes rehabilitation implications associated with psychosocial factors, patient reaction, and family adjustment to coronary heart disease. Patient education and counseling must stress specific long-term care and follow-up and deal with family anxiety and depression. The rehabilitation counselor can help patients incorporate medical…

  17. [Neurological rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Hömberg, V

    2010-10-01

    This article describes state of the art concepts of neurological rehabilitation in Germany. In parallel to enormous growth of knowledge in the neurosciences also neurological rehabilitation has made significant progress. The increasing use of concepts of evidence based medicine and an early translation of knowledge from the neurosciences into clinical rehabilitation practice contribute to therapeutic advances. It is now widely accepted, that rehabilitation should start early and should be organized in a multidisciplinary professional team. Therapeutic procedures selected should be evidence based and have to be modified to find custom tailored solutions for individual patients. General rules derived from neuroscientific knowledge have been shown to be useful to design new therapeutic techniques. Neuromodulatory stimulation and special pharmacological treatments provide further options for enhancing results of rehabilitation.

  18. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  19. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  20. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  1. SCIRehab Project Series: The Speech Language Pathology Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Wendy; Spivak-David, Dana; Adornato, Viki; Dale, Beverly; Brougham, Rebecca; Georgeadis, Amy C; Gassaway, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Outcomes research for speech language pathology (SLP) interventions for acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in the US is difficult because of the lack of a treatment classification system (taxonomy). Objective: To describe a taxonomy developed by speech language pathologists (SLPs) to examine the effects of SLP interventions on SCI rehabilitation outcomes. Methods: The SCIRehab study uses practice-based evidence, a rigorous observational methodology that examines treatment processes without specifying or requiring specific therapeutic interventions. Speech language pathology lead clinicians and researchers at 6 US SCI centers developed a detailed SLP taxonomy documentation process that is comprehensive of SLP interventions for patients with SCI. Results: The SLP taxonomy consists of 7 intervention categories that address deficits (speech production for patients with artificial airway, motor speech and voice, swallowing, cognitive-communication, and communication) and the associated exercises and tasks that patients perform. Time is recorded for each category, and supplementary information focuses on cueing needs and family involvement that helps to describe and guide intervention selection. The SCIRehab project is enrolling 1,500 patients with acute traumatic SCI at 6 inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Conclusions: Speech language pathology taxonomy information is being captured for the SCIRehab patients who are referred for SLP services; this may be the first attempt to document the many details of the SLP rehabilitation process for patients with SCI in the US. PMID:19810632

  2. Stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Langhorne, Peter; Bernhardt, Julie; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-05-14

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics. Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice.

  3. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  4. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  5. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  6. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  7. Apraxia of speech: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Jennifer; Slama, Hilary; Dronkers, Nina; Amici, Serena; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2005-12-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that can occur in the absence of aphasia or dysarthria. AOS has been the subject of some controversy since the disorder was first named and described by Darley and his Mayo Clinic colleagues in the 1960s. A recent revival of interest in AOS is due in part to the fact that it is often the first symptom of neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary progressive aphasia and corticobasal degeneration. This article will provide a brief review of terminology associated with AOS, its clinical hallmarks and neuroanatomical correlates. Current models of motor programming will also be addressed as they relate to AOS and finally, typical treatment strategies used in rehabilitating the articulation and prosody deficits associated with AOS will be summarized. PMID:16393756

  8. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  9. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  10. Outpatient Rehabilitation for Medicaid-insured Children Hospitalized With Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Symons, Rebecca G.; Wang, Jin; Ebel, Beth H.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Buchwald, Dedra; Temkin, Nancy; Jaffe, Kenneth M.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence of postdischarge outpatient rehabilitation among Medicaid-insured children hospitalized with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify factors associated with receipt of services. METHODS Retrospective cohort of children <21 years, hospitalized for a TBI between 2007 and 2012, from a national Medicaid claims database. Outcome measures were receipt of outpatient rehabilitation (physical, occupational, or speech therapies or physician visits to a rehabilitation provider) 1 and 3 years after discharge. Multivariable regression analyses determined the association of demographic variables, injury severity, and receipt of inpatient services with receipt of outpatient rehabilitation at 1 and 3 years. The mean number of services was compared between racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS Among 9361 children, only 29% received any type of outpatient rehabilitation therapy during the first year after injury, although 62% sustained a moderate to severe TBI. The proportion of children receiving outpatient therapies declined to 12% in the second and third years. The most important predictor of receipt of outpatient rehabilitation was receipt of inpatient therapies or consultation with a rehabilitation physician during acute care. Compared with children of other racial/ethnic groups, Hispanic children had lower rates of receipt of outpatient speech therapy. CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized children who received inpatient assessment of rehabilitation needs were more likely to continue outpatient rehabilitation care. Hispanic children with TBI were less likely than non-Hispanics to receive speech therapy. Interventions to increase inpatient rehabilitation during acute care might increase outpatient rehabilitation and improve outcomes for all children. PMID:27244850

  11. Stroke Rehabilitation Using Virtual Environments.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael J; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John

    2015-11-01

    This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge is the inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed, and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches. Therefore, this article also introduces a framework to help define new therapy combinations that may be necessary to address stroke heterogeneity.

  12. Stroke Rehabilitation using Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Michael J.; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This review covers the rationale, mechanisms, and availability of commercially available virtual environment-based interventions for stroke rehabilitation. It describes interventions for motor, speech, cognitive, and sensory dysfunction. Also discussed are the important features and mechanisms that allow virtual environments to facilitate motor relearning. A common challenge facing the field is inability to translate success in small trials to efficacy in larger populations. The heterogeneity of stroke pathophysiology has been blamed and experts advocate for the study of multimodal approaches. Therefore, this article also introduces a framework to help define new therapy combinations that may be necessary to address stroke heterogeneity. PMID:26522910

  13. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  14. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  15. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  16. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R

    1995-10-24

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  17. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  18. Peace Corps in Special Education and Rehabilitation. Case Study CS-2. Appropriate Technologies for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Gregory L.; Davis, Katherine

    The monograph evaluates the efforts of the Peace Corps in special education and rehabilitation. Charts list levels of activity; work sectors (health, education, social service, or vocational); locale; specialty area (special education, occupational, physical, and speech therapy, vocational rehabilitation, and social work); and disabilities served…

  19. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  20. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  1. Ultrasound in Speech Therapy with Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Barbara; Gick, Bryan; Bacsfalvi, Penelope; Adler-Bock, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    The present paper comprises an overview of techniques using ultrasound in speech (re)habilitation. Ultrasound treatment techniques have been developed for English lingual stops, vowels, sibilants, and liquids. These techniques come from a series of small "n" studies with adolescents and adults with severe hearing impairment, residual speech…

  2. Using Telerehabilitation to Assess Apraxia of Speech in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne Jane; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Telerehabilitation is the remote delivery of rehabilitation services via information technology and telecommunication systems. There have been a number of studies that have used videoconferencing to assess speech and language skills in people with acquired neurogenic communication disorders. However, few studies have focused on cases…

  3. Speech research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Atal, B.S.; Rabiner, L.R.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current activities in speech research. The authors discuss the state of the art in speech coding, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition. In the speech coding area, current algorithms perform well at bit rates down to 9.6 kb/s, and the research is directed at bringing the rate for high-quality speech coding down to 2.4 kb/s. In text-to-speech synthesis, what we currently are able to produce is very intelligible but not yet completely natural. Current research aims at providing higher quality and intelligibility to the synthetic speech that these systems produce. Finally, today's systems for speech and speaker recognition provide excellent performance on limited tasks; i.e., limited vocabulary, modest syntax, small talker populations, constrained inputs, etc.

  4. Clinical applications of and experiences with a portable, unlimited text-to-speech synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Rahko, K T; Karjalainen, M; Laine, U; Toivonen, R; Karma, P

    1981-01-01

    An unlimited, portable, text-to-speech synthesizer, Synte 2, is introduced. Since 1977, it has been applied and tested to the rehabilitation of the deaf and others unable to speak as well as to the rehabilitation of the blind. It has been shown to be beneficial to those people. With this system, it seems possible to markedly increase the concept capacity of the deaf. In audiology, it provides a new way to produce objective, everlasting, and ever-repeatable ordinary and sensitized speech tests. Further, the apparatus has innumerable applications in audiological and speech pathological research. This kind of speech synthesizer has come to stay in clinical use. General principles of the use of the synthesizer and experiences over 3 years in rehabilitation and medical research are discussed. PMID:6459259

  5. Cultural competence education in university rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Matteliano, Mary A; Stone, John H

    2014-01-01

    The Center of International Rehabilitation Research, Information, and Exchange (CIRRIE) has prepared curriculum guides for rehabilitation professionals in occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech language pathology, and rehabilitation counseling. The objective is to provide a resource to faculty who wish to include or strengthen cultural competency education in their program and courses. CIRRIE assessed students'cultural needs, and solicited assistance from experts in the field to assist with the development of the guides. After the guides were published CIRRIE conducted surveys to assess their usefulness. Survey responses were highest among occupational therapy faculty. Among faculty who responded, most intended to use the cultural competence activities, case studies, and resources that the guides offer throughout their curriculum.

  6. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  7. [Dysphagia rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Eiichi

    2008-11-01

    Recently, many medical professionals become to realize eating problem affect deeply patient's quality of life (QOL), and they are very interested in dysphagia rehabilitation. I overviewed dysphagia rehabilitation along with the followings; (1) impact of dysphagia, (2) assessment of dysphagia, and (3) management of dysphagia. Eating is the most enjoyable activity. Dysphagia changes this enjoyable activity to the most fearful one. Dysphagia makes three major problems: risk of aspiration pneumonia and suffocation, risk of dehydration and malnutrition, and depriving enjoyable activity. As a recent conceptualization of eating, the Process model is the most important, that reveals eating (chew-swallow) is very different from just chewing plus swallowing in physiologically. In assessment, standardized functional tests such as the Repetitive saliva swallowing test, the Modified water swallowing test, and the Graded food test are used. The most important point in clinical assessment is identifying indication of direct therapy using food or starting period of oral feeding. Videofluorographic and videoendoscopic examinations are used as precise diagnostic and management-oriented assessment tools. In management, exercise, posture adjustment, and modification of food promote eating possibility. Oral care is essential in dysphagic patients. Surgical intervention is effective method if a patient has severe dysphagia. PMID:19198104

  8. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slomine, Beth; Locascio, Gianna

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequent consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) and often require intervention. We review the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive rehabilitation in a variety of treatment domains including attention, memory, unilateral neglect, speech and language, executive functioning, and family involvement/education.…

  9. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... environment and keep external stimuli to a minimum. Speak in a normal tone of voice (this condition ...

  10. A novel speech prosthesis for mandibular guidance therapy in hemimandibulectomy patient: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Adaki, Raghavendra; Shigli, Kamal; Hormuzdi, Dinshaw M.; Gali, Sivaranjani

    2016-01-01

    Treating diverse maxillofacial patients poses a challenge to the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Rehabilitation of hemimandibulectomy patients must aim at restoring mastication and other functions such as intelligible speech, swallowing, and esthetics. Prosthetic methods such as palatal ramp and mandibular guiding flange reposition the deviated mandible. Such prosthesis can also be used to restore speech in case of patients with debilitating speech following surgical resection. This clinical report gives detail of a hemimandibulectomy patient provided with an interim removable dental speech prosthesis with composite resin flange for mandibular guidance therapy. PMID:27041917

  11. Rehabilitation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Biotran, or Fastex as named by Cybex, the company that manufactures it, is a force sensing system that helps physicians and physical therapists treat people with movement deficiencies. Based on NASA sensor technology, it also has applications in sports training and evaluation. Biotran provides a means of testing weight-bearing capabilities that may have been compromised by injury or disease. It also assists in the rehabilitation process by putting patients through a course of computer-directed exercises designed to improve strength and balance reaction time. The system tests and documents progress until maximum medical improvement is achieved. Lewis Research Center also assisted the company in the selection of the material used in the Biotran force sensing platforms. Biotran is currently manufactured by Cybex under the name Fastex.

  12. SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…

  13. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  14. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  15. Speech 7 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7 through 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Speech. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Following the foreward, philosophy and objectives, this guide presents a speech curriculum. The curriculum covers junior high and Speech I, II, III (senior high). Thirteen units of study are presented for junior high, each unit is divided into…

  16. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  17. The Limits of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Colleges and universities are finding it difficult to mold administrative policy concerning freedom of speech on campus. Even when speech or harassment codes mirror federal guidelines for antidiscrimination policy, controversy is common. Potential infringement on rights to free speech is the central issue. (MSE)

  18. Machine Translation from Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  19. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia.

  20. Technologic Advances in Aural Rehabilitation: Applications and Innovative Methods of Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sweetow, Robert W.; Sabes, Jennifer Henderson

    2007-01-01

    The level of interest in aural rehabilitation has increased recently, both in clinical use and in research presentations and publications. Advances in aural rehabilitation have seen previous techniques such as speech tracking and analytic auditory training reappear in computerized forms. These new delivery methods allow for a consistent, cost-effective, and convenient training program. Several computerized aural rehabilitation programs for hearing aid wearers and cochlear implant recipients have recently been developed and were reported on at the 2006 State of the Science Conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Hearing Enhancement at Gallaudet University. This article reviews these programs and outlines the similarities and differences in their design. Another promising area of aural rehabilitation research is the use of pharmaceuticals in the rehabilitation process. The results from a study of the effect of d-amphetamine in conjunction with intensive aural rehabilitation with cochlear implant patients are also described. PMID:17494876

  1. Degraded neural and behavioral processing of speech sounds in a rat model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Borland, Michael S; Buell, Elizabeth P; Centanni, Tracy M; Fink, Melyssa K; Im, Kwok W; Wilson, Linda G; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with Rett syndrome have greatly impaired speech and language abilities. Auditory brainstem responses to sounds are normal, but cortical responses are highly abnormal. In this study, we used the novel rat Mecp2 knockout model of Rett syndrome to document the neural and behavioral processing of speech sounds. We hypothesized that both speech discrimination ability and the neural response to speech sounds would be impaired in Mecp2 rats. We expected that extensive speech training would improve speech discrimination ability and the cortical response to speech sounds. Our results reveal that speech responses across all four auditory cortex fields of Mecp2 rats were hyperexcitable, responded slower, and were less able to follow rapidly presented sounds. While Mecp2 rats could accurately perform consonant and vowel discrimination tasks in quiet, they were significantly impaired at speech sound discrimination in background noise. Extensive speech training improved discrimination ability. Training shifted cortical responses in both Mecp2 and control rats to favor the onset of speech sounds. While training increased the response to low frequency sounds in control rats, the opposite occurred in Mecp2 rats. Although neural coding and plasticity are abnormal in the rat model of Rett syndrome, extensive therapy appears to be effective. These findings may help to explain some aspects of communication deficits in Rett syndrome and suggest that extensive rehabilitation therapy might prove beneficial.

  2. Behavioral treatments for speech in Parkinson's disease: meta-analyses and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Sadat, Jasmin; Pinto, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from neurodegenerative processes leading to alteration of motor functions. Most motor symptoms respond well to pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments, except some axial symptoms such as speech impairment, so-called dysarthria. However, speech therapy is rarely proposed to PD patients. This review aims at evaluating previous research on the effects of speech behavioral therapies in patients with PD. We also performed two meta-analyses focusing on speech loudness and voice pitch. We showed that intensive therapies in PD are the most effective for hypophonia and can lead to some improvement of voice pitch. Although speech therapy is effective in handling PD dysarthria, behavioral speech rehabilitation in PD still needs further validation.

  3. Thinking About Better Speech: Mental Practice for Stroke-Induced Motor Speech Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.; Harnish, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental practice (MP) is a mind-body technique in which physical movements are cognitively rehearsed. It has shown efficacy in reducing the severity of a number of neurological impairments. Aims In the present review, we highlight recent developments in MP research, and the basis for MP use after stroke-induced motor speech disorders. Main Contribution In this review, we: (a) propose a novel conceptual model regarding the development of learned nonuse in people with motor speech impairments; (b) review the rationale and efficacy of MP for reducing the severity of stroke-induced impairments; (c) review evidence demonstrating muscular and neural activations during and following MP use; (d) review evidence showing that MP increases skill acquisition, use, and function in stroke; (e) review literature regarding neuroplasticity after stroke, including MP-induced neuroplasticity and the neural substrates underlying motor and language reacquisition; and (f) based on the above, review the rationale and clinical application of MP for stroke-induced motor speech impairments. Conclusions Support for MP use includes decades of MP neurobiological and behavioral efficacy data in a number of populations. Most recently, these data have expanded to the application of MP in neurological populations. Given increasingly demanding managed care environments, efficacious strategies that can be easily administered are needed. We also encounter clinicians who aspire to use MP, but their protocols do not contain several of the elements shown to be fundamental to effective MP implementation. Given shortfalls of some conventional aphasia and motor speech rehabilitative techniques, and uncertainty regarding optimal MP implementation, this paper introduces the neurophysiologic bases for MP, the evidence for MP use in stroke rehabilitation, and discusses its applications and considerations in patients with stroke-induced motor speech impairments. PMID:22308050

  4. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  5. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  6. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  7. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  8. National Developments in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelley, Thomas J.; TenHoor, William J.

    1980-01-01

    As legislation permits, the state and federal rehabilitation programs have become increasingly involved in rehabilitation of psychiatrically disabled persons. The National Institute of Mental Health and the Rehabilitation Services Administration cooperate to implement federal policy in a number of programs. (JAC)

  9. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  10. Speech Outcome in Oral Cancer Patients – Pre- and Post-operative Evaluation: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Gomathi; Ranganathan, Venkatesan; Gandhi, Anitha; Jaya, V

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The tongue plays a major role in articulation. Speech outcome depends on the site of lesion, extent of resection, and flexibility of the remaining structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the speech outcome measures such as sounds that are misarticulated and speech intelligibility and its connection to tumor site before and after surgery. Methodology: Totally, 24 (12 pre- and 12 post-operative patients) patients who had buccal and tongue cancer underwent speech intelligibility rating and articulation screening. Result: The results show that the speech outcome is worse in postoperative patients when compared to preoperative patients. The articulation errors produced by tongue cancer patients were more than the errors produced in buccal cancer patients. The type of reconstruction also affects the speech outcome. Conclusion: The perceptual analysis of oral cancer patients showed specific articulation issues and reduced intelligibility of speech in regards to site of lesion and type of reconstruction surgery. To reduce the speech errors, effective rehabilitation is recommended. A comprehensive speech evaluation and analysis of error patterns would help us in planning the rehabilitative measures of speech which is the most important factor in re-establishing interpersonal communication and well-being of the individual. PMID:27803574

  11. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  12. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Khan, Andleeb; Hillman, Todd; Chen, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a means to rehabilitate patients with sensorineural hearing loss. It differs from hearing aids in that it uses mechanical energy rather than acoustic sound to deliver better sound quality to the inner ear. The implant's crucial component is a floating mass transducer that is directly fixed to the incus to drive it, which is introduced into the middle ear through a facial recess approach. Although this is a newer technology, studies thus far have demonstrated better hearing results compared with hearing aids in terms of functional gain and speech intelligibility, and better outcomes on subjective assessments.

  13. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Speech-Language Therapy Print ... with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech disorder refers ...

  14. [Cardiac Rehabilitation 2015].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Andreas

    2015-11-25

    The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are (re-)conditioning and secondary prevention in patients with heart disease or an elevated cardiovascular risk profile. Rehabilitation is based on motivation through education, on adapted physical activity, instruction of relaxation techniques, psychological support and optimized medication. It is performed preferably in groups either in outpatient or inpatient settings. The Swiss working group on cardiac rehabilitation provides a network of institutions with regular quality auditing. Positive effects of rehabilitation programs on mortality and morbidity have been established by numerous studies. Although a majority of patients after cardiac surgery are being referred to rehabilitation, these services are notoriously underused after catheter procedures. PMID:26602848

  15. Free Speech Yearbook 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The eleven articles in this collection explore various aspects of freedom of speech. Topics include the lack of knowledge on the part of many judges regarding the complex act of communication; the legislatures and free speech in colonial Connecticut and Rhode Island; contributions of sixteenth century Anabaptist heretics to First Amendment…

  16. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  17. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but apparently inevitable…

  18. Free Speech Yearbook 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The nine articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics discussed include the following: (1) freedom of expression in Thailand and India; (2) metaphors and analogues in several landmark free speech cases; (3) Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas's views of the First Amendment; (4) the San…

  19. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  20. Free Speech Yearbook: 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Editor

    This publication of ten scholarly articles provides perspectives on problems and forces that inhibit freedom of speech. 1) "Freedom of Speech and Change in American Education" suggests that a more communicative society, and increasing academic freedoms, helps schools adapt to social change; 2) "Syllabus and Bibliography for 'Issues in Freedom of…

  1. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976" (William A. Linsley), "'Arnett v.…

  2. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  3. The Discipline of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Loren

    1967-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of subjects subsumed under the generic term speech, all areas of this discipline are based on oral communication with its essential elements--voice, action, thought, and language. Speech may be viewed as a community of persons with a common tradition participating in a common dialog, described in part by the memberships…

  4. Free Speech. No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds Voted For Schorr Inquiry" by Richard Lyons, "Erosion of the…

  5. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  6. Organization of rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Graham, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years there have been many changes in the way that neurological rehabilitation is delivered worldwide. This is in part a reflection of improved acute medical therapies and intensive care and also related to the development of a more holistic approach to recovery, embracing the principles of the WHO International Classification of Functioning as a model for rehabilitation. Traditionally, rehabilitation services have tended to develop piecemeal according to local resources and need. By definition such services should be driven by a patient-centered approach and thus there is wide variety in service provision nationally and internationally. This chapter describes the background to current service set-ups and provision, exploring models of rehabilitation delivery and common presentations in neurological rehabilitation. Relevant legislation and guidance documents are reviewed. The text provides an overview of different aspects of rehabilitation services including acute and inpatient provision, outpatient services, community-based rehabilitation, residential facilities, and vocational services.

  7. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  8. Child Speech, Language and Communication Need Re-Examined in a Public Health Context: A New Direction for the Speech and Language Therapy Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature…

  9. SPEECH FRIGHT IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SPEECH ABILITY AND ITS POSSIBLE IMPLICATION FOR SPEECH READINESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, IRWIN

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SPEECH FRIGHT TO THEIR SPEECH ABILITY, SPEECH ATTITUDES, AND SPEECH READINESS WAS STUDIED. SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA WERE COLLECTED ON SPEECH FRIGHT LEVELS AND SPEECH ABILITY OF 1,166 STUDENTS IN SELECTED ELEMENTARY GRADES. ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS TOWARD SPEECH FRIGHT WERE ALSO…

  10. Auditory and visual information in speech perception: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Fostick, Leah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of audiovisual speech perception from age 4 to 80, analysing the contribution of modality, context and special features of specific language being tested. Data of 77 participants in five age groups is presented in the study. Speech stimuli were introduced via auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. Monosyllabic meaningful and nonsense words were included in a signal-to-noise ratio of 0 dB. Speech perception accuracy in audiovisual and auditory modalities by age resulted in an inverse U-shape, with lowest performance at ages 4-5 and 65-80. In the visual modality, a clear difference was shown between performance of children (ages 4-5 and 8-9) and adults (age 20 and above). The findings of the current study have important implications for strategic planning in rehabilitation programmes for child and adult speakers of different languages with hearing difficulties. PMID:27029217

  11. Educational needs of speech and language therapists in the field of audiology.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    Speech and language therapists have rather diverse educational backgrounds globally. Their qualifications vary from a 1 to 2-year diploma or certificate programme in a non-university educational setting, to a 6-year university graduate education. Although speech and language therapy is generally considered an interdisciplinary profession, both in education and in clinical practice, in some countries the main emphasis may still be on special education, medicine (mainly medical audiology) or, because of a joint qualification, psychology. This article discusses the requirements for audiological education in proper assessment and (re)habilitation of hearing impairments. Future challenges of both the profession and the discipline of speech and language therapy are also highlighted.

  12. Speech Correction in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenson, Jon; Ogilvie, Mardel

    An introduction to the problems and therapeutic needs of school age children whose speech requires remedial attention, the text is intended for both the classroom teacher and the speech correctionist. General considerations include classification and incidence of speech defects, speech correction services, the teacher as a speaker, the mechanism…

  13. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  14. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  15. Speech changes after coordinative training in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tykalova, Tereza; Pospisilova, Mariana; Cmejla, Roman; Jerabek, Jaroslav; Mares, Pavel; Rusz, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Although rehabilitative training is a necessary adjunct in the management of gait ataxia, it remains unknown whether the possible beneficial effect of intensive coordinative training may translate to activities of daily living, which are closely connected with postural alignment. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a 2-week intensive coordinative motor training on speech production. Speech and motor performances in a cohort of ten individuals with cerebellar degeneration were examined three times; before the introduction of training, directly and 4 weeks after the last training session. Each patient was instructed to perform a speaking task of fast syllable repetition and monologue. Objective acoustic analyses were used to investigate six key aspects of speech production disturbed in ataxic dysarthria including accuracy of consonant articulation, accuracy of vowel articulation, irregular alternating motion rates, prolonged phonemes, slow alternating motion rates and inappropriate segmentation. We found that coordinative training had a mild beneficial effect on speech in cerebellar patients. Immediately after the last training session, slight speech improvements were evident in all ten patients. Furthermore, follow-up assessment performed 4 weeks later revealed that 90 % of the patients showed better speech performance than before initiation of the therapy. The present study supports evidence that the intensive rehabilitative training may positively affect fine-motor movements such as speech in patients with cerebellar ataxia.

  16. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  17. [Child neurology and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K

    2000-05-01

    The history of child neurology and the changing pattern of research methods in this field are reviewed with special reference to holoprosencephaly and recent technical advances in sleep research. This is followed by a discussion on the relationship between child neurology and rehabilitation. The majority of child neurologic disorders are developmental disabilities, but acquired child neurological diseases also show chronic progressive course in many cases. Therefore, child neurologist should understand the basis of rehabilitation approach and appreciate the three classes of disabilities; subsequently, a plan needs to be incorporating medical treatment and a program of rehabilitation for the disabled children. It is important that the role of the various rehabilitation specialists (rehabilitation doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and others) are understood in relation to the work of pediatric neurologist. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on the rehabilitation approach of patients with hypoxic encephalopathy and the information of welfare equipment.

  18. Exercise-Based Oncology Rehabilitation: Leveraging the Cardiac Rehabilitation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Kim L.; Lakoski, Susan G.; Savage, Patrick D.; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; O’Brien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose is to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a cardiac rehabilitation model. METHODS We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. RESULTS Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current cardiac rehabilitation models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. CONCLUSIONS Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors. PMID:25407596

  19. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  20. Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... simple as a magnifying glass to improve visual perception or as complex as a computerized communication system. ... aids Independent living aids Mobility aids Prosthetics Rehabilitation robotics Wheelchairs Medical rehabilitative aids and devices Rehabilitative engineering ...

  1. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  2. Auditory speech preprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, G.

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear transmission line model of the cochlea (Zweig 1988) is proposed as the basis for a novel speech preprocessor. Sounds of different intensities, such as voiced and unvoiced speech, are preprocessed in radically different ways. The Q's of the preprocessor's nonlinear filters vary with input amplitude, higher Q's (longer integration times) corresponding to quieter sounds. Like the cochlea, the preprocessor acts as a ''subthreshold laser'' that traps and amplifies low level signals, thereby aiding in their detection and analysis. 17 refs.

  3. Computer-generated speech

    SciTech Connect

    Aimthikul, Y.

    1981-12-01

    This thesis reviews the essential aspects of speech synthesis and distinguishes between the two prevailing techniques: compressed digital speech and phonemic synthesis. It then presents the hardware details of the five speech modules evaluated. FORTRAN programs were written to facilitate message creation and retrieval with four of the modules driven by a PDP-11 minicomputer. The fifth module was driven directly by a computer terminal. The compressed digital speech modules (T.I. 990/306, T.S.I. Series 3D and N.S. Digitalker) each contain a limited vocabulary produced by the manufacturers while both the phonemic synthesizers made by Votrax permit an almost unlimited set of sounds and words. A text-to-phoneme rules program was adapted for the PDP-11 (running under the RSX-11M operating system) to drive the Votrax Speech Pac module. However, the Votrax Type'N Talk unit has its own built-in translator. Comparison of these modules revealed that the compressed digital speech modules were superior in pronouncing words on an individual basis but lacked the inflection capability that permitted the phonemic synthesizers to generate more coherent phrases. These findings were necessarily highly subjective and dependent on the specific words and phrases studied. In addition, the rapid introduction of new modules by manufacturers will necessitate new comparisons. However, the results of this research verified that all of the modules studied do possess reasonable quality of speech that is suitable for man-machine applications. Furthermore, the development tools are now in place to permit the addition of computer speech output in such applications.

  4. [Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

    1991-12-01

    On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child. PMID:1770955

  5. [Rehabilitative measures in hearing-impaired children].

    PubMed

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P

    1991-12-01

    On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child.

  6. Assessing Disordered Speech and Voice in Parkinson's Disease: A Telerehabilitation Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinescu, Gabriella; Theodoros, Deborah; Russell, Trevor; Ward, Elizabeth; Wilson, Stephen; Wootton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease face numerous access barriers to speech pathology services for appropriate assessment and treatment. Telerehabilitation is a possible solution to this problem, whereby rehabilitation services may be delivered to the patient at a distance, via telecommunication and information technologies. A number of…

  7. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions. PMID:27036287

  8. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  9. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training.

  10. Rehabilitation Facility Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Keith A.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the Rehabilitation Facility Training (RFT) project is to develop a short-term training extension series, in response to expressed needs of rehabilitation facility personnel in Hawaii, Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific. These training programs are for agency personnel, including administrators, work evaluators, work…

  11. Rehabilitation in German Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammer, Harry R.

    1996-01-01

    Using interviews, literature reviews, and prison visits, describes three prominent features that promote rehabilitation in one country's prisons: unique environmental conditions, extensive work and training programs, and frequent use of community reintegration programs. Attributes rehabilitation success to its high priority in correctional law and…

  12. Rehabilitation Counseling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stude, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    A 10-week paid summer internship for a rehabilitation counseling faculty in a state vocational rehabilitation agency is described. The benefits of the internship in relation to increasing faculty relevance in and outside the classroom are discussed, and recommendations for improving the internship are presented. (Author)

  13. Rehabilitation of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Rehabilitation of hearing is considered in five conference papers. Two papers come from Poland: "Rehabilitation of Hearing in Children 'Deaf' in First 5 Years of Age" by D. Borkowska-Gaertig and others and "Possibilities of Hearing Improvement in Adults with Conservative Methods" by T. Bystrzanowska. Also included are "Re-Education and…

  14. Rehabilitation of the athlete.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation of an athlete after an injury takes a team approach for a successful return to competition. The five steps of rehabilitation are discussed, including diagnosis, control of inflammation, promote healing, increase fitness, and control abuse. Return to activity can occur once these things are accomplished and everyone is in agreement.

  15. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  16. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    PubMed

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders.

  17. [Phototherapy in rehabilitation medicine].

    PubMed

    Okuni, Ikuko

    2012-07-01

    Rehabilitation can be classified into four types: medical, vocational, educational, and social rehabilitation. The goal of medical rehabilitation is to maintain and improve a patient's physical and mental capabilities. Phototherapy is an important means of treatment in rehabilitation medicine and is usually performed with ultraviolet, infrared, or laser light. Among them, laser light has been shown to have various biological effects, such as increasing blood flow, promoting wound healing, reducing inflammation, and improving immune function. Laser therapy is as important a treatment option as exercise therapy in rehabilitation medicine, and is considered to be worth evaluating as a therapeutic means to relieve pain in musculoskeletal disorders, promote healing in peripheral neuropathy, and alleviate muscle spasticity. PMID:22860298

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  19. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  20. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  1. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  2. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  3. Alleviating speech and deglutition: Role of a prosthodontist in multidisciplinary management of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Sharma, Sunanda; Suryavanshi, Shalini; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of soft palate due to cancer affects the effective functioning of the velopharyngeal mechanism (speech and deglutition). With the loss of speech intelligibility, hyper resonance in voice and impaired function of swallowing (due to nasal regurgitation), there is a depreciation in the quality of life of such an individual. In a multidisciplinary setup, the role of a prosthodontist has been described to rehabilitate such patients by fabrication of speech aid prosthesis. The design and method of fabrication of the prosthesis are simple and easy to perform. The use of prosthesis, together with training (of speech) by a speech pathologist resulted in improvement in speech. Furthermore, an improvement in swallowing had been noted, resulting in an improved nutritional intake and general well-being of an individual. The take-home message is that in the treatment of oral cancer, feasible, and rapid rehabilitation should be endeavored in order to make the patient socially more acceptable. The onus lies on the prosthodontist to practise the same in a rapid manner before the moral of the patient becomes low due to the associated stigma of cancer.

  4. Alleviating speech and deglutition: Role of a prosthodontist in multidisciplinary management of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Sharma, Sunanda; Suryavanshi, Shalini; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of soft palate due to cancer affects the effective functioning of the velopharyngeal mechanism (speech and deglutition). With the loss of speech intelligibility, hyper resonance in voice and impaired function of swallowing (due to nasal regurgitation), there is a depreciation in the quality of life of such an individual. In a multidisciplinary setup, the role of a prosthodontist has been described to rehabilitate such patients by fabrication of speech aid prosthesis. The design and method of fabrication of the prosthesis are simple and easy to perform. The use of prosthesis, together with training (of speech) by a speech pathologist resulted in improvement in speech. Furthermore, an improvement in swallowing had been noted, resulting in an improved nutritional intake and general well-being of an individual. The take-home message is that in the treatment of oral cancer, feasible, and rapid rehabilitation should be endeavored in order to make the patient socially more acceptable. The onus lies on the prosthodontist to practise the same in a rapid manner before the moral of the patient becomes low due to the associated stigma of cancer. PMID:26929526

  5. Alleviating speech and deglutition: Role of a prosthodontist in multidisciplinary management of velopharyngeal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Sharma, Sunanda; Suryavanshi, Shalini; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of soft palate due to cancer affects the effective functioning of the velopharyngeal mechanism (speech and deglutition). With the loss of speech intelligibility, hyper resonance in voice and impaired function of swallowing (due to nasal regurgitation), there is a depreciation in the quality of life of such an individual. In a multidisciplinary setup, the role of a prosthodontist has been described to rehabilitate such patients by fabrication of speech aid prosthesis. The design and method of fabrication of the prosthesis are simple and easy to perform. The use of prosthesis, together with training (of speech) by a speech pathologist resulted in improvement in speech. Furthermore, an improvement in swallowing had been noted, resulting in an improved nutritional intake and general well-being of an individual. The take-home message is that in the treatment of oral cancer, feasible, and rapid rehabilitation should be endeavored in order to make the patient socially more acceptable. The onus lies on the prosthodontist to practise the same in a rapid manner before the moral of the patient becomes low due to the associated stigma of cancer. PMID:26929526

  6. [Pediatric neurology in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Mana

    2007-07-01

    There are some criteria for administering pediatric rehabilitation, such as (1) plasticity of the child's brain sometimes plays an enormous roles in recovery, (2) on the other hand, break-down of the child's brain is sometimes worse than expected, (3) rehabilitation should be continued with the prospect that child grows and develops everyday, (4) family members should join their child's rehabilitation. The team approach is very effective for pediatric rehabilitation. The pediatric neurologist will be one of the best members of the team because he/she can manage a disabled child and his/her family members well, and is familiar with a normal child's development. Rehabilitation should be performed appropriates, which means that the child is evaluated first, a rehabilitation program is developed and rehabilitation is implemented. The World Health Organization published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which moves away from being a "consequence of disease" classification to "components of health". The concept of disability is changing.

  7. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  8. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  9. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  10. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; McCartney, M. L.

    1980-12-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  11. Work With Families in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenberg, Ruth Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Although studies suggest that family influences are significantly related to rehabilitation outcome, rehabilitation practice has generally excluded the family and focused almost exclusively on the individual rehabilitant. The article reviews research and empirical evidence that suggest the rehabilitation process would be greatly enhanced by…

  12. Rehabilitation in Managing MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... tool to locate physiatrists. American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Provides an online directory of psychologists who are board-certified in clinical neuropsychology. American Occupational Therapy Assocation American Speech-Language-Hearing ...

  13. A characterization of clinical questions asked by rehabilitation therapists*†

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea; Bartlett, Joan C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the information needs of rehabilitation therapists (occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists) working with patients who have had strokes in order to characterize their clinical questions, defined as their formalized information needs arising in the context of everyday clinical practice. Methods: The researchers took a constructivist, interpretive approach, in which fifteen rehabilitation therapists working in various settings were recruited. Data were gathered using diaries, followed by diary-guided interviews, and thematically analyzed using template analysis. Results: Rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions were characterized as having one or more of twelve foci and containing one or more of eight possible structural elements. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that the evidence-based practice framework currently applied for questions relating to rehabilitation is inadequate for representing rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions. A new framework that is more comprehensive and descriptive is proposed. Implications: Librarians working with students and clinicians in rehabilitation can employ knowledge of the twelve foci and the question structure for rehabilitation to guide the reference interview. Instruction on question formulation in evidence-based practice can employ the revised structure for rehabilitation, offering students and clinicians an alternative to the traditional patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) structure. Information products, including bibliographic databases and synopsis services, can tailor their interfaces according to question foci and prompt users to enter search terms corresponding to any of the eight possible elements found in rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions. PMID:24860260

  14. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  15. [Neglect rehabilitation after stroke].

    PubMed

    Jehkonen, Mervi; Yliranta, Aino; Rasimus, Susanna; Saunamäki, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Neglect is a common neuropsychological disorder after right hemisphere stroke. Neglect worsens the prognosis of functional recovery but responds well to targeted neuropsychological rehabilitation. Several methods for rehabilitation have been developed and research to-date lends best support to visual scanning training, prism adaptation, limb activation and feedback training. Core features of effective neglect rehabilitation include early initiation, daily held sessions at acute and subacute stages, increasing awareness of deficit and considering the psychosocial status of the patient as well as that of the family.

  16. The stroke rehabilitation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian M; Pangilinan, Percival H; Rodriguez, Gianna M

    2007-11-01

    The matrix of stroke rehabilitation is evolving as we look outside the box of traditional therapy type, timing, and intensity of rehabilitation techniques. For inpatient wards, the goal of medical stability and prompt resolution of complications to maximize participation in therapy remains paramount. In the current medical model, we focus on teaching compensatory strategies and rarely on restorative approaches because of time and financial limitations. Researchers aim to identify new technologic and molecular approaches to improve functional outcomes and more accurately predict disability. This article examines different concepts surrounding the comprehensive rehabilitation paradigm of stroke survivors.

  17. Improving pulmonary rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Beckford, Katy

    The Clinical Audit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation Services in England and Wales was the first national audit of pulmonary rehabilitation services in England and Wales. Forming part of the National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Audit Programme, it was commissioned by Healthcare Quality Improvement Programme and conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society. The audit was undertaken to geographically map pulmonary rehabilitation services and identify how they can improve. This article summarises the key findings of the audit, and its recommendations. PMID:27400620

  18. Equine back rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, K; Harman, J

    1999-04-01

    This article introduces the importance of considering all related physical findings, evaluating the whole horse and determining the root cause in order to achieve the best treatment results, prevent recurrence, and return the patient to full function. The roles of shoeing, turnout, teeth, training aids and devices, compensatory lameness, working surface (footing), longing, ponying, hot walkers, and swimming are discussed in relationship to back dysfunction and rehabilitation. Postural analysis and measures for muscle and postural corrections are also presented. Ground and under saddle rehabilitative exercises are explained as to value, concept, and methodology. Rehabilitative modalities including stretching, massage, magnetic therapy, heat, and cold are explored as adjunctive therapy.

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE IN SPEECH CORRECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEALEY, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN PRIMARILY FOR SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, PRINCIPALS, SPEECH CLINICIANS, AND SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE OUTLINES THE MECHANICS OF ORGANIZING AND CONDUCTING SPEECH CORRECTION ACTIVITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT INCLUDES THE REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION OF A SPEECH CLINICIAN IN MISSOURI AND DESCRIBES ESSENTIAL STEPS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A…

  20. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  1. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  2. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  3. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  4. The challenges of dysphagia management and rehabilitation after extensive thermal burn injury: a complex case.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna F; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cornwell, Petrea L; Bassett, Lynell V; Muller, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The role of the speech pathologist in the burns population is still emerging, with detailed discussion of the assessment and management of dysphagia limited to date. This report describes the case of a 60-year-old man who developed severe contractures of the head and neck and oropharyngeal dysphagia after sustaining 53.5% deep partial- and full-thickness burns. Although some aspects of rehabilitation were confounded by a preexisting mild intellectual disability, the patient was able to participate in an intensive regimen of active and passive exercise to rehabilitate his oropharyngeal dysphagia. Significant oral contractures remained; however, the patient was discharged without tracheostomy and consuming a texture-modified diet with no signs of aspiration. To our knowledge, this is one of a small handful of reports that document speech pathology management of the burns population, and a first that identifies and outlines specific characteristics of, and rehabilitation strategies for, dysphagia in a burned individual.

  5. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  6. Competency Evaluation in Rehabilitation (CEIR): Rehabilitation Counseling Competencies. Michigan Studies in Rehabilitation, Series 1, Monograph II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Don K.; And Others

    The development of competencies for a rehabilitation counselor education program can enable the rehabilitation counselor to assist clients effectively. Survey results of members of the National Rehabilitation Counseling Association (NRCA) agreed that 70% of the Michigan Competencies for Rehabilitation Counselors were a legitimate part of the…

  7. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment.

  8. Pulmonary rehabilitation in adults.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation can help people with long-term lung conditions whose symptoms, such as breathlessness and being easily tired out by daily activities, seriously impact their lives. PMID:27408642

  9. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347

  10. Rehabilitation after amputation.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, A; DiGiacomo, R

    2001-01-01

    The principles of amputee rehabilitation, from preamputation to reintegration into the work force and community, are reviewed. The authors discuss exercise techniques, training programs, and environmental modifications that have been found to be helpful in the rehabilitation of the amputee. The exercise programs presented here are divided into four main components: flexibility, muscle strength, cardiovascular training, and balance and gait. The programs include interventions by the physical, occupational, and recreational therapist under the supervision and guidance of a physician. PMID:11196327

  11. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  12. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  13. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... SLP) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the ... ASHA | American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Information in Spanish | Información en español. 1.800.638.8255 | actioncenter@ ...

  14. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  15. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  16. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  17. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  18. From the Speech Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can Vocat J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In a speech, Looking Ahead in Vocational Education", to a group of Hamilton educators, D.O. Davis, Vice-President, Engineering, Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited, Hamilton, Ontario spoke of the challenge of change and what educators and industry must do to help the future of vocational education. (Editor)

  19. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  20. Measuring Speech Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin C.

    Improving the quality of undergraduate speech communication education depends to a large extent on effectively measuring student achievement in college level communication skills. While formal tests are not as well developed for speaking skills as for other areas of the curriculum, they are available. The two used most frequently are the…

  1. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  2. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  3. Final priority; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program--rehabilitation specialty areas. Final priority.

    PubMed

    2014-07-23

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years in order to fund any of the rehabilitation specialty areas listed in this notice. The specific rehabilitation specialty areas to be funded in a given year will be listed in a notice inviting applications. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality rehabilitation programs in the following nine rehabilitation specialty areas of national need: Rehabilitation Administration (84.129C); Rehabilitation Technology (84.129E); Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment (84.129F); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill (84.129H); Rehabilitation Psychology (84.129J); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Blind or Have Vision Impairments (84.129P); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (84.129Q); Job Development and Job Placement Services (84.129R); and Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (84.129W). These programs must meet rigorous standards in order to provide rehabilitation professionals the training and qualifications necessary to meet the current challenges facing State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies and related agencies and assist individuals with disabilities in achieving high-quality employment outcomes.

  4. 78 FR 66344 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training Program--Vocational... Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long- Term Training... Program: The Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program provides financial assistance for-- (1)...

  5. Effects of Voice Rehabilitation After Radiation Therapy for Laryngeal Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, Lisa; Andréll, Paulin

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer often experience voice problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of voice rehabilitation for laryngeal cancer patients after having undergone radiation therapy and to investigate whether differences between different tumor localizations with regard to rehabilitation outcomes exist. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine male patients irradiated for laryngeal cancer participated. Voice recordings and self-assessments of communicative dysfunction were performed 1 and 6 months after radiation therapy. Thirty-three patients were randomized to structured voice rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist and 36 to a control group. Furthermore, comparisons with 23 healthy control individuals were made. Acoustic analyses were performed for all patients, including the healthy control individuals. The Swedish version of the Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer and self-ratings of voice function were used to assess vocal and communicative function. Results: The patients who received vocal rehabilitation experienced improved self-rated vocal function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors who received voice rehabilitation had statistically significant improvements in voice quality and self-rated vocal function, whereas the control group did not. Conclusion: Voice rehabilitation for male patients with laryngeal cancer is efficacious regarding patient-reported outcome measurements. The patients experienced better voice function after rehabilitation. Patients with supraglottic tumors also showed an improvement in terms of acoustic voice outcomes. Rehabilitation with a speech-language pathologist is recommended for laryngeal cancer patients after radiation therapy, particularly for patients with supraglottic tumors.

  6. Dysphagia outcomes in patients with brain tumors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wesling, Michele; Brady, Susan; Jensen, Mary; Nickell, Melissa; Statkus, Donna; Escobar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare functional dysphagia outcomes following inpatient rehabilitation for patients with brain tumors with that of patients following a stroke. Group 1 (n = 24) consisted of consecutive admissions to the brain injury program with the diagnosis of brain tumor and dysphagia. Group 2 (n = 24) consisted of matched, consecutive admissions, with the diagnosis of acute stroke and dysphagia. Group 2 was matched for age, site of lesion, and initial composite cognitive FIM score. The main outcome measures for this study included the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Outcome Measurement System (NOMS) swallowing scale, length of stay, hospital charges, and medical complications. Results showed that swallowing gains made by both groups as evaluated by the admission and discharge ASHA NOMS levels were considered to be statistically significant. The differences for length of stay, total hospital charges, and speech charges between the two groups were not considered to be statistically significant. Three patients in the brain tumor group (12.5%) demonstrated dysphagia complications of either dehydration or pneumonia during their treatment course as compared to 0% in the stroke group. This study confirms that functional dysphagia gains can be achieved for patients with brain tumors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and that they should be afforded the same type and intensity of rehabilitation for their swallowing that is provided to patients following a stroke.

  7. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2013-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22851346

  8. Predicting the intelligibility of deaf children's speech from acoustic measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Geers, Ann E.; Brenner, Christine M.; Tobey, Emily A.

    2001-05-01

    A weighted combination of speech-acoustic measures may provide an objective assessment of speech intelligibility in deaf children that could be used to evaluate the benefits of sensory aids and rehabilitation programs. This investigation compared the accuracy of two different approaches, multiple linear regression and a simple neural net. These two methods were applied to identical sets of acoustic measures, including both segmental (e.g., voice-onset times of plosives, spectral moments of fricatives, second formant frequencies of vowels) and suprasegmental measures (e.g., sentence duration, number and frequency of intersentence pauses). These independent variables were obtained from digitized recordings of deaf children's imitations of 11 simple sentences. The dependent measure was the percentage of spoken words from the 36 McGarr Sentences understood by groups of naive listeners. The two predictive methods were trained on speech measures obtained from 123 out of 164 8- and 9-year-old deaf children who used cochlear implants. Then, predictions were obtained using speech measures from the remaining 41 children. Preliminary results indicate that multiple linear regression is a better predictor of intelligibility than the neural net, accounting for 79% as opposed to 65% of the variance in the data. [Work supported by NIH.

  9. Telerehabilitation, virtual therapists, and acquired neurologic speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Leora R; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2012-08-01

    Telerehabilitation (telerehab) offers cost-effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  11. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  12. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by...

  13. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by...

  14. [Free sorting task of speech disorders by expert and non-expert listeners].

    PubMed

    Woisard, V; Gaillard, P; Duez, D

    2012-01-01

    Understood the strategies underlying the perception of speech motor disorders (SMD) is useful for the management of people with this kind of disorders. Our hypothesis was that intelligibility of speech is a dramatic decision factor for the classification of speech production independently of the type of listeners. Two types of listeners: 15 experts (logopedists and phoniatricians), and 15 non experts (students in the field of heath care without any experience) participated at this study performing a free sorting task of 33 stimuli. The stimuli are a sentence readed by 13 control subjects and 20 subjects with a SMD of several kinds of etiologies. The methodology used for the analysis is the visualization of proximity trees by a sorting mathematical algorithm and the analysis of the free commentaries as a discourse. The results confirm that the degree of alteration of intelligibility is the main factor distributed in the sorts, but the reference to the "normality" is an other strong criteria and this notion is frequently associated with a description of the stimuli at a level of voice more than a level of speech. These results lead to a new hypothesis of a classification of perception of speech included a speech disorders, determined at an extremity by a comparison with a "prototype of normality" and at the other extremity by the characteristic of "intelligibility or understandibility" reinforcing some concepts of speech rehabilitation.

  15. [Speech and regulation of behavior: the works of LS Vygosty and AR Luria].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The role of speech in the regulation of behavior was described in child psychology by LS Vygotsky and AR Luria in the Soviet Union during the twenties, and extended to neuropsychology by Luria after the World War II. According to Vygotsky, man built up « psychological tools » on the model of material tools to extend his natural capacities. Psychological tools, such as language, are symbolic systems from social origin, which control activity and behavior, and convert natural cognitive processes into higher cortical functions. Therefore child's development is embedded into particular social relationships. First communicational speech then inner speech plays a major role in the regulation of behavior in man: at first it goes with action, then precedes it, and finally replaces it. A willful action is thus an action largely controlled by inner speech, especially in novel and complex tasks, but the properties of inner speech differ from those of communicational speech. Assessment of the role of speech on the regulation of action and behavior should be part of the neuropsychological examination of frontal lobe functions. It also could be useful to assess the ability of patients to participate in cognitive rehabilitation, particularly in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21896438

  16. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined. Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production. PMID:25060583

  17. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Frederic J.

    1970-01-01

    The more severely involved the stroke patient is or the greater is the pre-existing physical disability, the greater is the need for special rehabilitation services to restore him to his optimal level of performance. The availability of resources in the family and community are important factors in determining whether or not the patient will need to be treated in a rehabilitation center. There is no contraindication to early initiation of rehabilitation and those patients for whom rehabilitation is initiated immediately after the stroke have the most rapid and optimal recovery. Ninety to 95 percent of hemiplegics can learn to walk. Forty percent of hemiplegics get good return of function in their upper extremity. Sixty-five percent of hemiplegics become independent in self-care and ambulation. For the stroke patient who does not have complicating disabilities independence in self-care and ambulation can be accomplished in 4 to 8 weeks. Intellectual or emotional problems indicate the need for a carefully planned rehabilitation program. The families of stroke patients need counseling and training regarding their responsibilities and duties to the patient. Imagesp47-aFigure 2Figure 3Figure 6Figure 8 PMID:20468595

  19. Hate Speech: Power in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jack B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of hate speech and freedom of speech on college campuses examines the difference between hate speech from normal, objectionable interpersonal comments and looks at Supreme Court decisions on the limits of student free speech. Two cases specifically concerning regulation of hate speech on campus are considered: Chaplinsky v. New…

  20. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  1. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  2. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  3. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  4. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  5. Speech audiometry by a speech synthesizer. I. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rahko, T; Karjalainen, M A; Laine, U K; Lavonen, S

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report on speech test results with a portable, text-to-speech synthesizer is presented. The differentiation scores achieved at speed 80 words/min vary. So far the best mean differentiation scores in normal material are 75%. The increase of the presentation level improves the differentiation score, as does the decrease of word speed and training. The future and present uses of this system are discussed. These include: devices for the handicapped, e.g. to produce speech for the mute, man-machine communication through speech in industry control, data processing systems and uses in audiological diagnostics. The study is continued. PMID:435169

  6. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000435.htm Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities To use the sharing features ... facility. Who Needs to go to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility? Your health care provider may ...

  7. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  8. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  9. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  10. Rehabilitation Nutrition for Possible Sarcopenic Dysphagia After Lung Cancer Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Uwano, Rimiko

    2016-06-01

    Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by the loss of swallowing muscle mass and function associated with generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this report, the authors describe a patient with possible sarcopenic dysphagia after lung cancer surgery and was treated subsequently by rehabilitation nutrition. A 71-year-old man with lung cancer experienced complications of an acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia after surgery. He was ventilated artificially, and a tracheotomy was performed. The patient received diagnoses of malnutrition, severe sarcopenia, and possible sarcopenic dysphagia. His dysphagia was improved by a combination of dysphagia rehabilitation including physical and speech therapy and an improvement in nutrition initiated by a nutrition support team. Finally, he no longer had dysphagia and malnutrition. Sarcopenic dysphagia should be considered in patients with sarcopenia and dysphagia. Rehabilitation nutrition using a combination of both rehabilitation and nutritional care management is presumptively useful for treating sarcopenic dysphagia. PMID:26829095

  11. [Rehabilitation after periprosthetic fractures].

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Sody, M; Valle, C

    2016-03-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the upper and lower extremities not only represent a challenge for surgeons but also for the rehabilitation team. The sometimes multimorbid patients have often undergone several surgical operations and need special planning and cooperation between an interdisciplinary team in order to achieve the best possible functional result and social reintegration. A structured rehabilitation planning after surgical treatment is a prerequisite for the patient to return to life as normal as possible. The aim is always rapid mobilization to achieve independence in activities of daily living. Special attention should be paid to postoperative immobilization and weight bearing. PMID:26923872

  12. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  13. Rehabilitation for the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, R; Hawkins, R; Dillman, C J; Atkins, J; Hagerman, G

    1993-08-01

    Rehabilitation of the shoulder of the overhead athlete has undergone significant changes during the past few years. This article illustrates shoulder problems related to repetitive overhead activities, such as throwing. Additionally, we present basic science contributions in this area, principles of shoulder rehabilitation, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program for the symptomatic or asymptomatic athlete based on these principles.

  14. [Evaluation of hearing aid rehabilitation using the Freiburg Monosyllabic Test].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    The benefit of hearing aids is not always directly subjectively perceivable. Therefore, objective and quantifiable speech audiometric measurements are required. Beside acoustic gain measurements and structured interviews, speech audiometry in quiet and in noise is one of the three pillars of hearing aid evaluation.The Freiburg monosyllabic test has been used for decades for hearing aid prescription and evaluation in German speaking countries. Relative and absolute targets can be individually defined for the rehabilitation of speech perception by hearing aids as assessed by the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet and at conversational levels.The general applicability of speech audiometric measurements in noise is limited. Alternative ("modern") methods and the definitions of noise situations relevant to everyday life have been discussed for years. However, the introduction of these methods into everyday use has proven difficult. On one hand, there is comparatively little practical experience; on the other, it has not yet been demonstrated what additional benefits these more complicated measurements might have for standard hearing aid evaluations and hearing aid users.

  15. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex.

    PubMed

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T

    2016-03-16

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca's area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  16. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca’s area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  17. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  18. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  19. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the course of the disease. What do speech-language pathologists do when working with people with Huntington's ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  20. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development Birth to 2 Years Encourage your baby ... or light) of the packages. Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  1. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Development What Is Language? What Is Speech? [ en Español ] Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard time ...

  2. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  3. Dysphagia in the elderly: focus on rehabilitation strategies.

    PubMed

    Di Pede, C; Mantovani, M E; Del Felice, A; Masiero, S

    2016-08-01

    Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia among the elderly is high, but underestimated and underdiagnosed. It may give raise to relevant complications impacting on morbidity, hospital length of stay and health care costs. Dysphagia evaluation and management is a multidisciplinary task; it includes a detailed history taking, clinical and instrumental exams, and identification of the risk of aspiration. Long-standing individual abilities and impairments determine the goals of an ad hoc rehabilitation program. Currently there are no standard algorithmic approaches for the management of dysphagia in the elderly. Education of health professionals on early diagnosis and improvement of therapeutic strategies are mainstays to allow maximal recovery potential in this population. This narrative review summarizes the current rehabilitation approaches for dysphagia in the elderly. The aim is to inform the treating health care professionals, whether caring physician, physical medicine doctor, speech/swallowing therapist or nurse, on the state-of-the-art and stimulate discussion in the scientific community. PMID:26589905

  4. [Effectiveness of music in brain rehabilitation. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Leo, Vera; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for diseases causing brain injury. Music causes extensive activation of the brain, promoting the repair of neural systems. Addition of music listening to rehabilitation enhances the regulation or motor functions in Parkinson and stroke patients, accelerates the recovery of speech disorder and cognitive injuries after stroke, and decreases the behavioral disorders of dementia patients. Music enhances the ability to concentrate and decreases mental confusion. The effect of music can also be observed as structural and functional changes of the brain. The effect is based, among other things, on lessening of physiologic stress and depression and on activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. PMID:25558627

  5. [Effectiveness of music in brain rehabilitation. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Leo, Vera; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for diseases causing brain injury. Music causes extensive activation of the brain, promoting the repair of neural systems. Addition of music listening to rehabilitation enhances the regulation or motor functions in Parkinson and stroke patients, accelerates the recovery of speech disorder and cognitive injuries after stroke, and decreases the behavioral disorders of dementia patients. Music enhances the ability to concentrate and decreases mental confusion. The effect of music can also be observed as structural and functional changes of the brain. The effect is based, among other things, on lessening of physiologic stress and depression and on activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system.

  6. The Perceptions of Students in the Allied Health Professions towards Stroke Rehabilitation Teams and the SLP's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insalaco, Deborah; Ozkurt, Elcin; Santiago, Dign

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of final-year speech-language pathology (SLP), physical and occupational therapy (PT, OT) students toward stroke rehabilitation teams and the SLPs' roles on them. The investigators adapted a survey developed by (Felsher & Ross, 1994) and administered it to 35 PT, 35 OT, and…

  7. Rehabilitation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, the disability community in Russia has battled for its rights. In 1995, a disability rights law was passed that covered multiple areas, such as environmental access, education, and work. This article focuses on Russian rehabilitation philosophy and practice. It is written from a mixture of perspectives?personal experience,…

  8. [Quality in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Jäckel, W H

    2010-12-01

    Particularly in the context of introduction of quality assurance programmes 15 years ago, "quality" became a central issue for rehabilitation, and its importance is bound to grow in the years to come. After giving a general definition of quality, this article deals more closely with 3 aspects of quality: quality development, quality assurance, and data on quality. Quality development in rehabilitation centres demands an atmosphere that supports change, encourages creativity, courage, transparency and involvement, and reduces fear. The creation of such an atmosphere is, in particular, the responsibility of a centre's management. Routine interviews regarding patient as well as employee satisfaction, and the use of strategic planning and management systems have proven successful instruments in the practice of quality development. Compared with other sectors of the health system, quality assurance in rehabilitation is marked by its comprehensive approach, intense patient orientation, scientific underpinning, and nationwide implementation. Regarding the benefits of these programmes for the health system at large, however, no clear scientific proof is available yet. Data gained from quality assurance programmes on the whole show a high amount of patient satisfaction, good quality of structures and processes as well as an improvement of the patients' health status. Between centres, however, there are marked differences of quality in a number of cases, and long-term effectiveness could be improved in some indications. Finally, suggestions are offered concerning further development of quality in rehabilitation as well as of the quality assurance programmes.

  9. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  10. Speech-in-Speech Recognition: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify aspects of speech-in-noise recognition that are susceptible to training, focusing on whether listeners can learn to adapt to target talkers ("tune in") and learn to better cope with various maskers ("tune out") after short-term training. Listeners received training on English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise…

  11. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  12. Educated parent as a key member of rehabilitation team.

    PubMed

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development.

  13. Educated parent as a key member of rehabilitation team.

    PubMed

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development. PMID:22649875

  14. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  15. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  16. Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.F.

    1997-05-01

    This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

  17. Patient safety considerations in the rehabilitation of the individual with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Brad T; Pham, Martha T; Brown, Natashia T; Mayer, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning are associated with many safety concerns, including difficulties performing activities of daily living, medication errors, motor vehicle accidents, impaired awareness of deficits, decision-making capacity, falls, and travel away from home. Preventing adverse safety outcomes is particularly relevant in rehabilitation patients. Integration of information and recommendations stemming from allied disciplines, such as rehabilitation medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and neuropsychology, is the most effective way to limit poor outcomes. Education and prevention counseling by health care professionals is an important approach in limiting adverse safety outcomes in patients with cognitive impairment.

  18. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  19. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  20. Taking a Stand for Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne D.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that freedom of speech issues were among the first major confrontations in U.S. constitutional law. Maintains that lessons from the controversies surrounding the Sedition Act of 1798 have continuing practical relevance. Describes and discusses the significance of freedom of speech to the U.S. political system. (CFR)

  1. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  2. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  3. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  4. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  5. Perceptual Aspects of Cluttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Myers, Florence L.; Faragasso, Kristine; Townsend, Paula S.; Gallaher, Amanda J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to explore perceptual judgments of speech naturalness, compared to judgments of articulation, language, disfluency, and speaking rate, in the speech of two youths who differed in cluttering severity. Two groups of listeners, 48 from New York and 48 from West Virginia, judged 93 speaking samples on…

  6. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  7. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  8. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  9. Hate Speech or Free Speech: Can Broad Campus Speech Regulations Survive Current Judicial Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Gregory M.; Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    Federal courts have found speech regulations overbroad in suits against the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin System. Attempts to assess the theoretical justification and probable fate of broad speech regulations that have not been explicitly rejected by the courts. Concludes that strong arguments for broader regulation will…

  10. [Rehabilitation and algodystrophies].

    PubMed

    Simon, L; Blotman, F; Leroux, J L; Claustre, J; Azema, M J; Brun-Meyer, M

    1982-12-01

    Based on 20 years experience, and a personal series of 272 cases of reflex dystrophy (84 cases involving upper limbs, 188 cases involving lower limbs) admitted under a rheumatology unit equipped with all the available techniques of rehabilitative medicine, the authors stress the value of well conducted functional rehabilitation which, even alone, can obtain excellent results in the treatment of this disease, whatever the stage. The authors detail the modalities of this treatment. A local intra-articular or intra-canal injection of corticosteroids permits pain-free physiotherapy. The mobilisation of the lower limb is an urgent priority. Non-aggressive physiotherapeutic techniques should be adapted to the stage and the site of reflex dystrophy. Hydrokinesitherapy and the adaptation of craft techniques to occupational therapy also play an important part.

  11. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System.

    PubMed

    Chonnaparamutt, Winai; Supsi, Witsarut

    2016-01-01

    SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic) rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM). The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC), Patient Communication (PC), Training with Game (TG), Progress Monitoring (PM), and Patient Supervision (PS). These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE.

  12. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System.

    PubMed

    Chonnaparamutt, Winai; Supsi, Witsarut

    2016-01-01

    SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic) rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM). The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC), Patient Communication (PC), Training with Game (TG), Progress Monitoring (PM), and Patient Supervision (PS). These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE. PMID:27578961

  13. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System

    PubMed Central

    Supsi, Witsarut

    2016-01-01

    SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic) rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM). The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC), Patient Communication (PC), Training with Game (TG), Progress Monitoring (PM), and Patient Supervision (PS). These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE. PMID:27578961

  14. [Rehabilitation in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Skoumal, Martin; Haberhauer, Guenther; Strehblow, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Modern treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis consists of therapies according to the ASAS criteria. Rehabilitation is a necessary process for enabling persons with disabilities caused by inflammatory destructions. The goal is to reach optimal physical, sensory, psychiatric and social health to reach higher levels of independence. It includes a wide range of measures and activities for changing the behaviour and increases activity, participation, strength, stability and coordination. PMID:20632148

  15. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement.

  16. [New approaches in the treatment of speech disorders in children with an organic brain lesion].

    PubMed

    Dubovtseva, O A; Evtushenko, S K; Omel'ianenko, A A; Sazhneva, I A

    1999-01-01

    Speech disorders encountered in children presenting with neurological pathology make their medical and social rehabilitation a real challenge. Overall sixty children were examined. Of these, 38 had infantile cerebral paralysis, 22 that being presented with sequelae of the hypoxic affection of the brain in ante- and perinatal period, who exhibited speech disorders (alalia, dysarthria, retarded speech development). Described in the paper are features of bloodflow disorders in intracranial and vertebral arteries as evidenced by ultrasonic Doppler technique and changes in brain bioelectrical activity according to findings from electroencephalomapping. In 53 patients, a positive effect was obtained as a result of therapy conducted in accordance with the stimulation type techniques (electroscalp therapy against the background of intramuscular administration of nicotinic acid plus laser therapy, transcutaneous electrostimulation, employment of such drug preparations as cogitum, nero-force, sirdalud). PMID:10474956

  17. 38 CFR 21.70 - Vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vocational rehabilitation...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.70 Vocational rehabilitation. (a) General. The goal of...

  18. 38 CFR 21.70 - Vocational rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vocational rehabilitation...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.70 Vocational rehabilitation. (a) General. The goal of...

  19. [Rehabilitation in Alzheimer's dementia].

    PubMed

    Cicconetti, P; Fionda, A; Zannino, G; Ettorre, E; Marigliano, V

    2000-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes a progressive decline of cognitive and behavioural functions. The simultaneous presence of these disorders requires a treatment not only for cognitive decline, but also for behavioural symptoms, depression and caregiver's stress. Research has made many efforts to develop a wide range of treatments, different from current pharmacological therapy, which is not resolutive, owing to the absence of an exact etiopathogenetic mechanism. Since new drugs have not been shown to be really effective in slowing cognitive impairment, various forms of rehabilitative interventions have been proposed in order to treat Alzheimer's disease. Their efficacy in the improvement of cognitive functions is still not completely clear. Surely, interesting results have been obtained from studies about Reality Orientation Therapy, Occupational Therapy and Memory Training. Music therapy might provide a new form of rehabilitative intervention, especially acting on the reducing of behavioural symptoms. These alternative forms of non pharmacological treatment may have a positive effect on caregiver. The heavy emotional burden of seeing a loved one becoming confused and isolated and of having to accept new responsibilities, may be reduced by rehabilitative supports, complementary to the pharmacological therapy. Caregiver stress could be reduced in two ways: by promoting the hope that something is being done for the patient and providing free time for himself. PMID:11021168

  20. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them." PMID:959329

  1. Access to postacute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes

    2007-11-01

    Each year, more than 10 million Medicare beneficiaries are discharged from acute care hospitals into postacute care (PAC) settings, including inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, and homes with services from home health agencies. These beneficiaries include very frail and vulnerable elders, many of whom have suffered from an acute event such as a stroke or a fall resulting in hip fracture, all of whom are judged unable to return to their homes without further care. Whether beneficiaries receive PAC and the type and intensity of care they receive is influenced not only by clinical factors, but by nonclinical factors including provider supply and financing, especially Medicare's methods of payment. This article provides a definition of PAC and discusses the wide cross-sectional variation in the use of postacute rehabilitation. It then discusses recent changes to PAC provider payment that have raised concerns about access to postacute rehabilitation, trends in the use of PAC, and what these trends imply about the appropriateness of PAC as it is now delivered. It concludes by identifying issues about the policy and research implications of recent developments and the PAC literature reviewed.

  2. Hate Speech/Free Speech: Using Feminist Perspectives To Foster On-Campus Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Nancy; Orbe, Mark P.; Warren, Kiesha

    1999-01-01

    Explores the complex issues inherent in the tension between hate speech and free speech, focusing on the phenomenon of hate speech on college campuses. Describes the challenges to hate speech made by critical race theorists and explains how a feminist critique can reorient the parameters of hate speech. (SLD)

  3. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. PMID:26944220

  4. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  5. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  6. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  7. Linguistic Units and Speech Production Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeilage, Peter F.

    This paper examines the validity of the concept of linguistic units in a theory of speech production. Substantiating data are drawn from the study of the speech production process itself. Secondarily, an attempt is made to reconcile the postulation of linguistic units in speech production theory with their apparent absence in the speech signal.…

  8. Multifractal nature of unvoiced speech signals

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyemi, O.A.; Hartt, K.; Boudreaux-Bartels, G.F.

    1996-06-01

    A refinement is made in the nonlinear dynamic modeling of speech signals. Previous research successfully characterized speech signals as chaotic. Here, we analyze fricative speech signals using multifractal measures to determine various fractal regimes present in their chaotic attractors. Results support the hypothesis that speech signals have multifractal measures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  10. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  11. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  12. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  13. [Organization of pedagogical rehabilitation for the children with a cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Shmatko, N D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the peculiarities oforganization of pedagogical rehabilitation for the children with a cochlear implant and to demonstrate the most effective forms of their upbringing and education. Special attention is given to the organization ofsuch work during the preschool period with reference to potential difficulties encountered in the education of the children suffering a delay in the speech development. PMID:26288205

  14. Vocational rehabilitation: a multidisciplinary intervention.

    PubMed

    Gobelet, C; Luthi, F; Al-Khodairy, A T; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-09-15

    Vocational rehabilitation is by definition a multidisciplinary intervention in a process linked to the facilitation of return to work or to the prevention of loss of the work. Clinical staff in contact with a person who has lost his job (general practitioner, specialized physician) must promote vocational rehabilitation. Medical rehabilitation for those with disabilities, whether new or old, has to be followed without delay by vocational rehabilitation. It is even better if these two intertwined processes are overlapping. They involve many professionals including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, vocational trainers, job counsellors, teachers, case-managers, job placement agencies. Vocational rehabilitation has a financial cost, borne by many state organizations (security, social system, social affairs) as well as by employers and private insurances, which are in case of accident, concerned by this process. However, the evidence suggests that this is recouped 2- to 10-fold as suggested by the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine.

  15. [Experiences with ambulatory cardiologic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Augusta, K

    1999-04-01

    Since the founding of the Düsseldorf Outpatient Cardiologic Rehabilitation Center (Berliner Allee) in 1990 approximately 500 outpatient rehabilitation measures were performed, predominantly as follow-up treatment. The Center is currently participating in 2 pilot programs in outpatient cardiologic rehabilitation initiated by pension scheme providers and health insurance companies. A holistic approach to the concept of therapy is fundamental to an intensive rehabilitation of the heart patients. In conjunction with physiotherapeutic exercise, a health education program and extensive psychological care form the basis of the broader therapy program. An on-going implementation of measures designed to assure the maintenance of structural and procedural quality is fundamental to the creation of a positive subjective experience on the part of the person undergoing rehabilitation as well as the attainment of the individual's specified rehabilitation goals. PMID:10372307

  16. Biofeedback in rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-time ultrasound imaging (RTUS) biofeedback. EMG biofeedback is the most widely investigated method of biofeedback and appears to be effective in the treatment of many musculoskeletal conditions and in post cardiovascular accident (CVA) rehabilitation. RTUS biofeedback has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cardiovascular biofeedback methods have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, asthma, fibromyalgia and even psychological disorders however a systematic review in this field has yet to be conducted. Similarly, the number of large scale studies examining the use of respiratory biofeedback in rehabilitation is limited. Measurements of movement, postural control and force output can be made using a number of different devices and used to deliver biomechanical biofeedback. Inertial based sensing biofeedback is the most widely researched biomechanical biofeedback method, with a number of studies showing it to be effective in improving measures of balance in a number of populations. Other types of biomechanical biofeedback include force plate systems, electrogoniometry, pressure biofeedback and camera based systems however the evidence for these is limited. Biofeedback is generally delivered using visual displays, acoustic or haptic signals, however more recently virtual reality (VR) or exergaming technology have been used as biofeedback

  17. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  18. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  19. New tools in pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wijkstra, P J; Wempe, J B

    2011-12-01

    In patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the benefits of rehabilitation might not be clear and, therefore, new treatment options have been developed to increase the benefits of rehabilitation. This review provides an overview of new approaches being developed as an addition to exercise training. In turn, the benefits of adding ventilatory support, oxygen, anabolics or neuromuscular stimulation to a rehabilitation programme will be discussed. While positive benefits for a number of these approaches have been found, many questions remain unsolved. Therefore, at present, we cannot recommend these new tools as part of the routine management of patients with COPD who start a rehabilitation programme. PMID:21828026

  20. Speech processing: An evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crochiere, R.E.; Flanagan, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    As we enter the information age, speech processing is emerging as an important technology for making machines easier and more convenient for humans to use. It is both an old and a new technology - dating back to the invention of the telephone and forward, at least in aspirations, to the capabilities of HAL in 2001. Explosive advances in microelectronics now make it possible to implement economical real-time hardware for sophisticated speech processing - processing that formerly could be demonstrated only in simulations on main-frame computers. As a result, fundamentally new product concepts - as well as new features and functions in existing products - are becoming possible and are being explored in the marketplace. As the introductory piece to this issue, the authors draw a brief perspective on the evolving field of speech processing and assess the technology in the the three constituent sectors: speech coding, synthesis, and recognition.

  1. Turbo Processing for Speech Recognition.

    PubMed

    Moon, Todd K; Gunther, Jacob H; Broadus, Cortnie; Hou, Wendy; Nelson, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Speech recognition is a classic example of a human/machine interface, typifying many of the difficulties and opportunities of human/machine interaction. In this paper, speech recognition is used as an example of applying turbo processing principles to the general problem of human/machine interface. Speech recognizers frequently involve a model representing phonemic information at a local level, followed by a language model representing information at a nonlocal level. This structure is analogous to the local (e.g., equalizer) and nonlocal (e.g., error correction decoding) elements common in digital communications. Drawing from the analogy of turbo processing for digital communications, turbo speech processing iteratively feeds back the output of the language model to be used as prior probabilities for the phonemic model. This analogy is developed here, and the performance of this turbo model is characterized by using an artificial language model. Using turbo processing, the relative error rate improves significantly, especially in high-noise settings.

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis: vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, G M

    1982-01-01

    The consequences of inflation and accelerating introduction of automation and microprocessors into industry are a shift from unskilled to skilled work, the lessening of opportunities for the unskilled worker, and growing unemployment. If disabled people are competing for employment they must take every opportunity to extend education and acquire skills. Juvenile chronic arthritis presents one set of problems in vocational rehabilitation at the beginning of a working career and adult rheumatoid arthritis another, commonly in those over 45 years old and previously established in work. The prevalence of severe disability in juvenile chronic arthritis is about 1 in 20 000 of the population, females are affected twice as often as males and 1 in 10 has defective vision or blindness due to chronic iridocyclitis. At school, besides education, there must be emphasis on encouraging independence, self-confidence, mobility and determination. A School Leavers' Conference early in the last year at school gives the adolescent the best chance of choosing a career. Rheumatoid arthritis is three times more common in women and increasingly, over the last 40 years, women are working besides home-making. Morning stiffness, fatigue, immobility and pain are the common symptoms of widespread involvement of joints and systemic disturbance. The principal determinant in the success of vocational rehabilitation is personality, and the social and environmental factors are more significant than the degree of disability. The Disablement Resettlement Officer can assure continuity of rehabilitation between the health and employment services: a favourable outcome is work, self-derived income independence and freedom of movement using whatever technical aids are required to achieve this.

  3. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  4. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  5. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  6. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Agarwal, Surendra; Bhoyar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis. PMID:26929525

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Agarwal, Surendra; Bhoyar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis. PMID:26929525

  8. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  9. Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This volume of 12 lessons provides expert information on a variety of medical and psychological issues in rehabilitative counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Integration of Psychiatric Treatment and Rehabilitation" (Jeanne Steiner, Larry Davidson, Michael A. Hoge, and Selby Jacobs); (2)…

  10. Rehabilitation Technologies for Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents on-going research work for the USEPA Research Project on “Rehabilitation of Water and Wastewater Systems.” It will compare various renewal methods (i.e. replacement, rehabilitation and repair technologies that are available in the market). The paper discusse...

  11. Learning Disabilities and Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Carol A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the definitions, diagnostic criteria, and eligibility criteria used by vocational rehabilitation agencies in serving adults with learning disabilities. The paper emphasizes that the focus of all vocational rehabilitation services is on employment and that counseling is at the core of the service program for persons with…

  12. Statistical Prediction in Proprietary Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kurt L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Applied statistical methods to predict case expenditures for low back pain rehabilitation cases in proprietary rehabilitation. Extracted predictor variables from case records of 175 workers compensation claimants with some degree of permanent disability due to back injury. Performed several multiple regression analyses resulting in a formula that…

  13. Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions in Rehabilitation Counseling, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This volume of 12 lessons--each one written by either a medical or a mental health professional--provides expert information on a variety of medical and psychological issues in rehabilitative counseling. The lessons, each of which concludes with a few multiple-choice questions, are as follows: (1) "Rehabilitation of the Seriously Mentally Ill"…

  14. Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Dunbar.

    This volume consisting of state of the art reviews, suggestions and guidelines for practitioners, and program descriptions deals with the current and potential applications of computers in the delivery of services for vocational rehabilitation (VR). Discussed first are current applications of computer technology in rehabilitative service delivery.…

  15. [Long-term cardiac rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Tormo Alfonso, V

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation for life-time in a patient who has suffered coronary pathology is considered as appropriate. The reasons for such an opinion are given, as well as the two most indicated courses of action, being this rehabilitation at home and coronary clubs.

  16. Rehabilitation with a Future Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Rehabilitation, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A question-answer interview with Carl Schleicher, cofounder and technical director of the Center for Preventive Therapy and Rehabilitation, Inc. (CEPTAR) and president and research/development director of Mankind Research Unlimited, Inc. (MRU), Washington, D. C., provides explicit information on recent developments in the rehabilitation field and…

  17. Infant perception of atypical speech signals.

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M

    2013-05-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how visual context influences infant speech perception. Nine-month-olds heard speech and nonspeech sounds produced by either a human or a parrot, concurrently with 1 of 2 visual displays: a static checkerboard or a static image of a human face. Using an infant-controlled looking task, we examined infants' preferences for speech and nonspeech sounds. Infants listened equally to parrot speech and nonspeech when paired with a checkerboard. However, in the presence of faces, infants listened longer to parrot speech than to nonspeech sounds, such that their preference for parrot speech was similar to their preference for human speech sounds. These data are consistent with the possibility that infants treat parrot speech similarly to human speech relative to nonspeech vocalizations but only in some visual contexts. Like adults, infants may perceive a range of signals as speech.

  18. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  19. Neurobiology of Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation aims to lessen the physical and cognitive impairments and disabilities of patients with stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord or brain injury, and other neurologic diseases. Conventional approaches beyond compensatory adjustments to disability may be augmented by applying some of the myriad experimental results about mechanisms of intrinsic biological changes after injury and the effects of extrinsic manipulations on spared neuronal assemblies. The organization and inherent adaptability of the anatomical nodes within distributed pathways of the central nervous system offer a flexible substrate for treatment strategies that drive activity-dependent plasticity. Opportunities for a new generation of approaches are manifested by rodent and non-human primate studies that reveal morphologic and physiologic adaptations induced by injury, by learning-associated practice, by the effects of pharmacologic neuromodulators, by the behavioral and molecular bases for enhancing activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and by cell replacement, gene therapy, and regenerative biologic strategies. Techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation will help determine the most optimal physiologic effects of interventions in patients as the cortical representations for skilled movements and cognitive processes are modified by the combination of conventional and biologic therapies. As clinicians digest the finer details of the neurobiology of rehabilitation, they will translate laboratory data into controlled clinical trials. By determining how much they can influence neural reorganization, clinicians will extend the opportunities for neurorestoration. PMID:15838110

  20. Effects of site-specific level adjustments on speech recognition with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) vary across stimulation sites in a cochlear implant electrode array in a manner that is subject and ear specific. Previous studies have demonstrated that speech recognition with a cochlear implant can be improved by site-selection strategies, where selected stimulation sites with poor modulation sensitivity are removed from a subject’s processor MAP1. Limitations of site-selection strategies are that they can compromise spectral resolution and distort frequency-place mapping since the frequencies assigned to the removed sites are usually reallocated to other sites and site bandwidths are broadened. The objective of the current study was to test an alternative approach for rehabilitation that aimed at improving the across-site mean (ASM) MDTs by adjusting stimulation parameters at the poorly-performing sites. Based on previous findings that modulation detection contributes to speech recognition and improves significantly with stimulus level, we hypothesized that modulation sensitivity at the poor sites can be improved by artificially increasing stimulation levels at those sites in the speech processor, which then leads to improved speech recognition. Design Nine postlingually deafened ears implanted with Nucleus cochlear implants were evaluated for MDTs, absolute-detection threshold levels (T levels) and the maximum loudness levels (C levels) on each of the available stimulation sites. For each ear, the minimum stimulation level settings in the speech processor MAP were raised by 5%, and alternatively by 10%, of the dynamic range (DR) from true thresholds on 5 stimulation sites with the poorest MDTs. For comparison, a 5% level raise was globally applied to all stimulation sites. The C levels were fixed during these level manipulations. MDTs at the 5 poorest stimulation sites were compared at 20% DR before and after the level adjustments. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs), i.e., signal to noise ratios (SNRs

  1. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  2. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech.

    PubMed

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R

    2010-08-01

    It has been reported that listeners can benefit from a release in masking when the masker speech is spoken in a language that differs from the target speech compared to when the target and masker speech are spoken in the same language [Freyman, R. L. et al. (1999). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 3578-3588; Van Engen, K., and Bradlow, A. (2007), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 519-526]. It is unclear whether listeners benefit from this release in masking due to the lack of linguistic interference of the masker speech, from acoustic and phonetic differences between the target and masker languages, or a combination of these differences. In the following series of experiments, listeners' sentence recognition was evaluated using speech and noise maskers that varied in the amount of linguistic content, including native-English, Mandarin-accented English, and Mandarin speech. Results from three experiments indicated that the majority of differences observed between the linguistic maskers could be explained by spectral differences between the masker conditions. However, when the recognition task increased in difficulty, i.e., at a more challenging signal-to-noise ratio, a greater decrease in performance was observed for the maskers with more linguistically relevant information than what could be explained by spectral differences alone. PMID:20707455

  3. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  4. Spectrogram Analysis of Complete Dentures with Different Thickness and Palatal Rugae Materials on Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Zaki Mahross, Hamada; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of reproduction of different thickness and palatal rugae materials on complete dentures speech using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). Materials and Methods. Three completely edentulous male patients (aged 50–60 years) were selected for reading a paragraph. Twelve upper dentures were constructed, four for each patient. The patients' speech groups were divided into five groups, Group I: patients without dentures; Group II: patients rehabilitated with conventional acrylic dentures; Group III: patients with conventional acrylic dentures with rugae reproduction; Group IV: patients with dentures with metallic framework of minimal thickness and direct ragged metallic palatal surface at rugae area; Group V: patients with dentures with palatal rugae constructed from resilient acrylic resin material with thickness less than conventional denture. Speech samples were recorded after insertion of each denture for groups using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). The sounds selected were lingopalatal /s/z/sh/t/d/ and /l/. Results. Group III produced high mean significant difference with /sh/t/ sound. For Group IV, the difference was noticed with /s/z/sh/t/ and /d/ sounds, while for Group V the difference was shown with /z/l/ sound (P < 0.05). Conclusion. It is recommended to reproduce the rugae area in complete denture because the phonetic quality of complete denture with rugae is superior to the conventional denture. PMID:25883655

  5. Spectrogram analysis of complete dentures with different thickness and palatal rugae materials on speech production.

    PubMed

    Zaki Mahross, Hamada; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of reproduction of different thickness and palatal rugae materials on complete dentures speech using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). Materials and Methods. Three completely edentulous male patients (aged 50-60 years) were selected for reading a paragraph. Twelve upper dentures were constructed, four for each patient. The patients' speech groups were divided into five groups, Group I: patients without dentures; Group II: patients rehabilitated with conventional acrylic dentures; Group III: patients with conventional acrylic dentures with rugae reproduction; Group IV: patients with dentures with metallic framework of minimal thickness and direct ragged metallic palatal surface at rugae area; Group V: patients with dentures with palatal rugae constructed from resilient acrylic resin material with thickness less than conventional denture. Speech samples were recorded after insertion of each denture for groups using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL) (spectrogram). The sounds selected were lingopalatal /s/z/sh/t/d/ and /l/. Results. Group III produced high mean significant difference with /sh/t/ sound. For Group IV, the difference was noticed with /s/z/sh/t/ and /d/ sounds, while for Group V the difference was shown with /z/l/ sound (P < 0.05). Conclusion. It is recommended to reproduce the rugae area in complete denture because the phonetic quality of complete denture with rugae is superior to the conventional denture. PMID:25883655

  6. Revisiting speech interference in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Picard, M; Bradley, J S

    2001-01-01

    A review of the effects of ambient noise and reverberation on speech intelligibility in classrooms has been completed because of the long-standing lack of agreement on preferred acoustical criteria for unconstrained speech accessibility and communication in educational facilities. An overwhelming body of evidence has been collected to suggest that noise levels in particular are usually far in excess of any reasonable prescription for optimal conditions for understanding speech in classrooms. Quite surprisingly, poor classroom acoustics seem to be the prevailing condition for both normally-hearing and hearing-impaired students with reported A-weighted ambient noise levels 4-37 dB above values currently agreed upon to provide optimal understanding. Revision of currently proposed room acoustic performance criteria to ensure speech accessibility for all students indicates the need for a guideline weighted for age and one for more vulnerable groups. For teens (12-year-olds and older) and young adults having normal speech processing in noise, ambient noise levels not exceeding 40 dBA are suggested as acceptable, and reverberation times of about 0.5 s are concluded to be optimum. Younger students, having normal speech processing in noise for their age, would require noise levels ranging from 39 dBA for 10-11-year-olds to only 28.5 dBA for 6-7-year-olds. By contrast, groups suspected of delayed speech processing in noise may require levels as low as only 21.5 dBA at age 6-7. As one would expect, these more vulnerable students would include the hearing-impaired in the course of language development and non-native listeners. PMID:11688542

  7. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  8. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  9. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  10. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  11. [Failures and tongue rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Arnaud-Pellet, Noëlle

    2016-03-01

    When confronted with difficult-to-eradicate dysfunctions and parafunctions, speech therapy most often proves a reliable ally to control the functional environment of the dental arches. However, a number of factors ranging from psychological issues to anatomical ENT obstructions, from genetic anomalies to iatrogenic procedures, account for the occasional mixed results achieved using this approach. In addition, our own treatment results can also be jeopardized or even obliterated by a recalcitrant tongue or one which has been inadequately provided for. The author will analyze the different factors involved through a series of clinical cases in order to outline her thinking regarding this organ, which can be either a driving force behind our treatments or a force for destruction. PMID:27083229

  12. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either “pure” background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials. PMID:24993234

  13. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  14. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases.

    PubMed

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-18

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients' sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability.

  15. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

  16. [Challenges and trends in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Bautz-Holter, Erik; Sveen, Unni; Søberg, Helene; Røe, Cecilie

    2007-02-01

    The definition of rehabilitation is debated, but the true sense of the word is "reinstatement in dignity." There is often a need for rehabilitation after diseases and injuries. Rehabilitation is founded on the individual's right to participate in society and to have equal opportunities in general, and can be considered both in a medical and a sociological perspective. WHO has developed "International Classification of Functioning, disability and health"-ICF. ICF reflects an understanding of function and disability in a bio-psychosocial model. The issues discussed in this article will be limited to rehabilitation within the Norwegian healthcare system. Rehabilitation is based on the individual's loss of function, irrespective of the injury or disease, and should focus on resources. Its main issue is the subject's own goals and wishes with respect to quality of life and total life situation. Many groups that have, or are in danger of acquiring reduced function are in need of rehabilitation, if this can prevent or reduce loss of function or participation. The measures taken can be directed over a wide spectrum, directed towards function and activity, and often with participation in a variety of life aspects as the main goal. Rehabilitation is presented with many challenges caused by the general development in society, including implementation of the medical and technological development and demand of scientific documentation.

  17. Stroke rehabilitation: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; McClure, Andrew; Pan, Cheng; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    There is a revolution underway in stroke rehabilitation. International comparative studies coupled with an impressive evidence base have provided a platform from which an ideal system for stroke rehabilitation can be envisioned. Using the concepts of structure and process of care, different systems of stroke rehabilitation can be compared and evaluated against best evidence. Two structures of care are examined: specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units and outpatient programs. Although specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units remain the "gold standard" of care, access to them is often limited. Outpatient programs are essential to stroke rehabilitation systems of care; however, while some countries are investing in outpatient programs, others are scaling back. Even though structures of care have been shown to affect processes of care, it is the processes of care that have proven to be more influential in altering patient outcomes. Four key processes of care are examined: time to admission, intensity of therapy, task-specific therapy, and discharge planning. Within international stroke rehabilitation systems, differences in these processes have resulted in significant differences in outcomes. This allows for "real-world" comparisons of how differing processes affect patient outcomes. Those systems whose structures and processes of care best reflect current best evidence appear to achieve better outcomes.

  18. Rehabilitation of patients with glioma.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Mary; Henriksson, Roger; Salander, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Disabling sequelae occur in a majority of patients diagnosed with brain tumor, including glioma, such as cognitive deficits, weakness, and visual perceptual changes. Often, multiple impairments are present concurrently. Healthcare staff must be aware of the "biographic disruption" the patient with glioma has experienced. While prognostic considerations factor into rehabilitation goals and expectations, regardless of prognosis the treatment team must offer cohesive support, facilitating hope, function, and quality of life. Awareness of family and caregiver concerns plays an important role in the overall care. Inpatient rehabilitation, especially after surgical resection, has been shown to result in functional improvement and homegoing rates on a par with individuals with other neurologic conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. Community integration comprises a significant element of life satisfaction, as has been shown in childhood glioma survivors. Employment is often affected by the glioma diagnosis, but may be ameliorated, when appropriate, by addressing modifiable factors such as depression, fatigue, or sleep disturbance, or by workplace accommodations. Further research is needed into many facets of rehabilitation in the setting of glioma, including establishing better care models for consistently identifying and addressing functional limitations in this population, measuring outcomes of various levels of rehabilitation care, identifying optimal physical activity strategies, delineating the long-term effects of rehabilitation interventions, and exploring impact of rehabilitation interventions on caregiver burden. The effective elements of cognitive rehabilitation, including transition of cognitive strategies to everyday living, need to be better defined. PMID:26948361

  19. 38 CFR 21.283 - Rehabilitated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Induction into A Rehabilitation Program § 21.283 Rehabilitated. (a) General. For purposes of chapter 31 a... of the veteran's rehabilitation program under this chapter; and (ii) Achievement of employment..., including a veteran in a rehabilitation program consisting solely of employment services, is considered...

  20. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  1. Determining the threshold for usable speech within co-channel speech with the SPHINX automated speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.

    2004-10-01

    Much research has been and is continuing to be done in the area of separating the original utterances of two speakers from co-channel speech. This is very important in the area of automated speech recognition (ASR), where the current state of technology is not nearly as accurate as human listeners when the speech is co-channel. It is desired to determine what types of speech (voiced, unvoiced, and silence) and at what target to interference ratio (TIR) two speakers can speak at the same time and not reduce speech intelligibility of the target speaker (referred to as usable speech). Knowing which segments of co-channel speech are usable in ASR can be used to improve the reconstruction of single speaker speech. Tests were performed using the SPHINX ASR software and the TIDIGITS database. It was found that interfering voiced speech with a TIR of 6 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech. It was further found that interfering unvoiced speech with a TIR of 18 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech.

  2. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  3. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: A case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E.; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. However, the exact role of the motor system in auditory speech processing remains elusive. Here we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. The patient’s spontaneous speech was marked by frequent phonological/articulatory errors, and those errors were caused, at least in part, by motor-level impairments with speech production. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two nonwords that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the nonword stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labeling impairment. These data suggest that the identification (i.e. labeling) of nonword speech sounds may involve the speech motor system, but that the perception of speech sounds (i.e., discrimination) does not require the motor system. This means that motor processes are not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, and suggest that the motor system may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  4. The Contribution of Sensitivity to Speech Rhythm and Non-Speech Rhythm to Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2010-01-01

    Both sensitivity to speech rhythm and non-speech rhythm have been associated with successful phonological awareness and reading development in separate studies. However, the extent to which speech rhythm, non-speech rhythm and literacy skills are interrelated has not been examined. As a result, five- to seven-year-old English-speaking children…

  5. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  6. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  7. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  8. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  9. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  10. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  11. Women's compliance with cardiac rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, A R

    1996-01-01

    As the incidence of cardiovascular disease in women increases, the process of cardiac rehabilitation in women is becoming increasingly important to nurses. Specifically, the issue of women's compliance with cardiac rehabilitation needs to be addressed by nurses. Most past and current research on cardiac rehabilitation and compliance with rehabilitation programs has been conducted on male subjects and cannot be accurately generalized to the female population. This article reviews current literature which addresses the issues of heart disease in women, cardiac rehabilitation and compliance in the general population, gender differences in cardiac rehabilitation, and compliance of women in cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:8657707

  12. An overview of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Whitney, S L; Alghwiri, A A; Alghadir, A

    2016-01-01

    Data related to the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation and its evolution as an intervention are provided. Concepts and various treatment strategies are described, with explanations of why people with uncompensated peripheral and central vestibular disorders might improve with rehabilitation. Various tests and measures are described that are commonly used to examine patients and determine their level of ability to participate in their environment. Factors that affect recovery, both positively and negatively, are described in order to better prognosticate recovery. A case utilizing many of the principles discussed is included to provide insight into how to utilize vestibular rehabilitation with a person with an uncompensated peripheral vestibular loss. PMID:27638071

  13. [Surgical rehabilitation of stomal disease].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Persico Stella, L; Nicolai, A P; Nicastro, A; Gasparrini, M; de Anna, L; Lucidi, V; Montori, A

    1997-10-01

    The Authors report their experience in the surgical rehabilitation of patients with complicated ileo- or colostomy. Mechanical and psychosocial implications as well as different rehabilitative methods are discussed. The results of a surgical protocol in the treatment of stomal diseases observed in 63 patients are herein reported. In 14 patients the surgical treatment was performed in general anaesthesia, while in 49 local anaesthesia was used. The latter was better tolerated by the patients. In conclusion, surgery should play a major role in this rehabilitation protocol, either in terms of prevention or definitive treatment.

  14. Pediatric family-centered rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hostler, S L

    1999-08-01

    Family-centered rehabilitation programs are derived from a philosophy of heath care delivery known as family-centered care. The principles of family-centered care are presented with clinical examples. Its origins are reviewed, and the 10-year process of implementation of family-centered care practice and policy at a children's rehabilitation center are described. Profound changes in behavior are required of the health care professionals as meaningful collaboration with families develops. Key elements of a family-centered rehabilitation program include meaningful participation by families in medical decision making and an institutional culture flexible enough to respond to the ongoing collaboration between families and practitioners.

  15. Baha-mediated rehabilitation of patients with unilateral deafness: selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Saroul, N; Akkari, M; Pavier, Y; Gilain, L; Mom, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify clinical criteria for optimizing rehabilitation of patients with unilateral deafness using the Baha device. We made a retrospective study of 102 patients with unilateral deafness requesting auditory rehabilitation over a period of 5 years. All subjects underwent a series of stereo audiometric tests, with and without Baha worn on a headband, and were then referred to a hearing care specialist for a real life trial of 15 days. The Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI) questionnaire was administered. Patients refusing the implantation were retrospectively submitted to a questionnaire specifically designed to ask the reasons for refusal. We measured stereo audiometric test results, age, aetiology of deafness, duration of auditory deprivation on the rehabilitated ear, and GHSI score. At the conclusion of testing, the implantation rate was 29%. During preoperative testing, the improvement in understanding of speech-in-noise was 22 ± 11% for patients agreeing to the implantation versus 13 ± 11% for patients refusing the implantation. Age, aetiology of deafness and duration of auditory deprivation had no influence on the implantation decision. Speech-in-noise testing and aided stereo audiometric gain were the only two measures showing statistically significant differences between the groups agreeing to and refusing the implantation. There were multiple reasons for refusal of the implantation. Among these, the four principal reasons were: absence of perceived benefit during stereo audiometric testing (59%), requirement for surgery (35%), cost of the solution (44%), and aesthetics (41%). Hence, no other criteria except the preoperative improvement in understanding of speech-in-noise and the aided gain from Baha worn on a headband were found to be predictive of the patient's acceptance of surgical implantation of a bone-anchored implant/abutment for Baha. Speech-in-noise testing with and without Baha worn on a headband has a role to

  16. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  17. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  18. Amplitude-temporal method of speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababii, Victor; Sudacevschi, Viorica

    2005-02-01

    A method of speech coding and decoding is proposed. The speech coding algorithm is based on first derivate calculation of input speech signal, identification of critical points and input signal amplitude in these points, time period measurement between critical points. The result of codification represents a sequence of amplitudes and time periods. The decoding algorithm utilizes values of COS or SIN functions for reconstruction on the input speech. The codec structure that consists from encoder and decoder units is proposed.

  19. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  20. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  1. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  2. Strength Is in Numbers: Can Concordant Artificial Listeners Improve Prediction of Emotion from Speech?

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Mencattini, Arianna; Daprati, Elena; Di Natale, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate their emotions by modulating facial expressions or the tone of their voice. Albeit numerous applications exist that enable machines to read facial emotions and recognize the content of verbal messages, methods for speech emotion recognition are still in their infancy. Yet, fast and reliable applications for emotion recognition are the obvious advancement of present 'intelligent personal assistants', and may have countless applications in diagnostics, rehabilitation and research. Taking inspiration from the dynamics of human group decision-making, we devised a novel speech emotion recognition system that applies, for the first time, a semi-supervised prediction model based on consensus. Three tests were carried out to compare this algorithm with traditional approaches. Labeling performances relative to a public database of spontaneous speeches are reported. The novel system appears to be fast, robust and less computationally demanding than traditional methods, allowing for easier implementation in portable voice-analyzers (as used in rehabilitation, research, industry, etc.) and for applications in the research domain (such as real-time pairing of stimuli to participants' emotional state, selective/differential data collection based on emotional content, etc.). PMID:27563724

  3. Strength Is in Numbers: Can Concordant Artificial Listeners Improve Prediction of Emotion from Speech?

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Mencattini, Arianna; Di Natale, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate their emotions by modulating facial expressions or the tone of their voice. Albeit numerous applications exist that enable machines to read facial emotions and recognize the content of verbal messages, methods for speech emotion recognition are still in their infancy. Yet, fast and reliable applications for emotion recognition are the obvious advancement of present ‘intelligent personal assistants’, and may have countless applications in diagnostics, rehabilitation and research. Taking inspiration from the dynamics of human group decision-making, we devised a novel speech emotion recognition system that applies, for the first time, a semi-supervised prediction model based on consensus. Three tests were carried out to compare this algorithm with traditional approaches. Labeling performances relative to a public database of spontaneous speeches are reported. The novel system appears to be fast, robust and less computationally demanding than traditional methods, allowing for easier implementation in portable voice-analyzers (as used in rehabilitation, research, industry, etc.) and for applications in the research domain (such as real-time pairing of stimuli to participants’ emotional state, selective/differential data collection based on emotional content, etc.). PMID:27563724

  4. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    PubMed Central

    GONÇALVES, Rosa de Fátima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background : The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim : Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method : Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and quality of life of 70 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty, and a group of 35 obese suffered speech therapy. Results : In the evaluation of mastication for group 1 (pre and post speech therapy), the results show that, except for the lack of chewing, the other variables, such as food court, type of mastication, mastication rhythm, jaw movements, bolus size, excessive mastication and fluid intake, demonstrate statistical insignificance. In evaluating the quality of life when compared groups 1 and 2, the results from the questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL - Quality of Life in Swallowing) total and 11 domains assessed in the questionnaire, were statistically significant. With these results, the group 2 presented unfavorable conditions for quality of life . Conclusion : The stimulation protocol, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food of these patients in the postoperative period, applied in these conditions of the study, was not the distinguishing factor of the rehabilitation process for the observed period. PMID:27120739

  5. Speech Communication and Telephone Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlich, H. W.

    Speech communication over telephone networks has one major constraint: The communication has to be “real time”. The basic principle since the beginning of all telephone networks has been to provide a communication system capable of substituting the air path between two persons having a conversation at 1-m distance. This is the so-called orthotelephonic reference position [7]. Although many technical compromises must be made to enable worldwide communication over telephone networks, it is still the goal to achieve speech quality performance which is close to this reference.

  6. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  7. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  9. NEW SPEECH PATTERNS IN THE FRENCH QUARTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRADDOCK, CLAYTON

    BUSINESSMEN IN NEW ORLEANS CITED POOR SPEECH AMONG NEGRO APPLICANTS FOR SECRETARIAL AND STENOGRAPHIC POSITIONS AS THE MAJOR REASON FOR NOT HIRING THEM. AS A RESULT, ST. MARY'S DOMINICAN COLLEGE EMBARKED ON AN 8-MONTH PROGRAM IN 1965 TO TEACH STANDARD SPEECH TO 90 YOUNG WOMEN, 75 OF WHOM WERE NEGRO. STANDARD SPEECH WAS TAUGHT AS A SECOND LANGUAGE.…

  10. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  11. Hate Speech on Campus: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Looks at arguments concerning hate speech and speech codes on college campuses, arguing that speech codes are likely to be of limited value in achieving civil rights objectives, and that there are alternatives less harmful to civil liberties and more successful in promoting civil rights. Identifies specific goals, and considers how restriction of…

  12. Intelligibility of Speech Produced during Simultaneous Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert L.; Schiavetti, Nicholas; MacKenzie, Douglas J.; Metz, Dale Evan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the overall intelligibility of speech produced during simultaneous communication (SC). Four hearing, experienced sign language users were recorded under SC and speech alone (SA) conditions speaking Boothroyd's (1985) forced-choice phonetic contrast material designed for measurement of speech intelligibility. Twelve…

  13. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  14. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  15. Audiovisual Speech Integration and Lipreading in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth G.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: During speech perception, the ability to integrate auditory and visual information causes speech to sound louder and be more intelligible, and leads to quicker processing. This integration is important in early language development, and also continues to affect speech comprehension throughout the lifespan. Previous research shows that…

  16. Free Speech in the College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    This book discusses freedom of speech issues affecting the college community, in light of "speech codes" imposed by some institutions, new electronic technology such as the Internet, and recent court decisions. Chapter 1 addresses campus speech codes, the advantages and disadvantages of such codes, and their conflict with the First Amendment of…

  17. Syllable Structure in Dysfunctional Portuguese Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candeias, Sara; Perdigao, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate whether children with speech dysfunctions (SD) show a deficit in planning some Portuguese syllable structures (PSS) in continuous speech production. Knowledge of which aspects of speech production are affected by SD is necessary for efficient improvement in the therapy techniques. The case-study is focused…

  18. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  19. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  20. Vygotskian Inner Speech and the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of Vygotskian influenced inner speech research in relation to the reading process. Those few studies which have examined Vygotskian inner speech from a reading perspective tend to support the notion that inner speech is an important covert function that is crucial to the reading process and to reading acquisition in general.…

  1. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  2. Speech Synthesis Applied to Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The experimental addition of speech output to computer-based Esperanto lessons using speech synthesized from text is described. Because of Esperanto's phonetic spelling and simple rhythm, it is particularly easy to describe the mechanisms of Esperanto synthesis. Attention is directed to how the text-to-speech conversion is performed and the ways…

  3. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  4. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  5. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  6. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  7. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  8. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made lexical…

  9. 78 FR 76131 - Applications for New Awards; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers AGENCY: Office... Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers (RERCs... authorized under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (Rehabilitation Act). Rehabilitation...

  10. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  11. Cardiac Rehabilitation: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Philip K.

    1988-01-01

    As more and more patients survive a coronary event, the need for cardiac rehabilitation will increase. The author reviews the history and current status of this field and predicts what lies ahead. (JD)

  12. [The rehabilitation of elderly amputees].

    PubMed

    Welraeds, D

    1998-06-01

    Rehabilitation of elderly amputees raises several issues. Taking into account that amputations are frequently performed in elderly patients, with vascular diseases, it seems relevant to ask whether it is preferable to perform an amputation and quickly rehabilitate the patient or to attempt revascularisation and save the patient's limb. The knowledge of the outcome of amputation is crucial for the choice of treatment. Therefore, we discuss limb amputation in old patients in terms of epidemiology, aetiology, functional characteristics, specific problems and results with regards to expectations. Types and characteristics of prostheses, as well as rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness are briefly discussed. It is concluded that amputation is a mutilating procedure which carries for the elderly a poor outcome in terms of rehabilitation. Consequently any surgical procedure that may spare the limb should be preferred. PMID:9697394

  13. Rehabilitation and the Veterans' Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, F.

    1974-01-01

    The Veteran's Administration health care system provides prosthetic and sensory aids for the rehabilitation of neurologically handicapped veterans. Research and development centers include prosthetic clinic teams, orthopedic shops, restoration clinics, bioengineering services, orthotics, etc.

  14. MedlinePlus: Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... available Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources Reference Desk Find an Expert For You Patient Handouts Summary Pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have chronic breathing problems, including COPD ( ...

  15. MedlinePlus: Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... available Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources Reference Desk Find an Expert For You Patient Handouts Summary Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or ...

  16. Rehabilitation of the thrower's elbow.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Reinold, Michael M; Andrews, James R

    2003-12-01

    The elbow joint is susceptible to injuries in the overhead athlete due to the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing. Injuries often occur due to repetitive microtrauma nature of throwing. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether post-injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order to ensure that healing tissues are not overstressed. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of a multiphased rehabilitation program for the thrower's elbow. In addition, rehabilitation for specific nonoperative and postoperative pathologies often observed in the throwing athlete is discussed.

  17. Rehabilitation of the thrower's elbow.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Reinold, Michael M; Andrews, James R

    2004-10-01

    The elbow joint is frequently injured in the overhead athlete, due to the large amount of forces in throwing. Injuries often occur due to repetitive microtrauma, especially in pitching. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery is vital to fully restore normal elbow function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Elbow rehabilitation must follow a progressive and sequential order to ensure that healing tissues have not been compromised. Emphasis is on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control, and gradually applying loads to healing tissue. This article provides an overview of a multiphased rehabilitation program for the thrower's elbow. Rehabilitation for specific nonoperative and postoperative pathologies often observed in the throwing athlete is also discussed.

  18. Speech Perception in Children with Speech Output Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception disorders, thus lower-order production problems…

  19. Critical Thinking in Speech Communication: Survey of Speech Communication Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruminski, Henry; And Others

    The interests of all communication educators would best be served if those educators could agree on a single broad definition of critical thinking that incorporates a variety of perspectives. Toward this end, questionnaires were sent to a ramdom sampling of 300 members of the Speech Communication Association; 88 were returned. The questionnaire…

  20. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  1. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  2. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  3. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  4. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  5. Current trends in stroke rehabilitation. A review with focus on brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B B

    2011-03-01

    Current understanding of brain plasticity has lead to new approaches in ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Stroke units that combine good medical and nursing care with task-oriented intense training in an environment that provides confidence, stimulation and motivation significantly improve outcome. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are applied in rehabilitation of motor function. The long-term effect, optimal way of stimulation and possibly efficacy in cognitive rehabilitation need evaluation. Methods based on multisensory integration of motor, cognitive, and perceptual processes including action observation, mental training, and virtual reality are being tested. Different approaches of intensive aphasia training are described. Recent data on intensive melodic intonation therapy indicate that even patients with very severe non-fluent aphasia can regain speech through homotopic white matter tract plasticity. Music therapy is applied in motor and cognitive rehabilitation. To avoid the confounding effect of spontaneous improvement, most trials are preformed ≥3 months post stroke. Randomized controlled trials starting earlier after strokes are needed. More attention should be given to stroke heterogeneity, cognitive rehabilitation, and social adjustment and to genetic differences, including the role of BDNF polymorphism in brain plasticity.

  6. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout's adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  7. Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Maria Daniela; Riganello, Francesco; Arcuri, Francesco; Pignataro, Luigina Maria; Buglione, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (with an incidence of 38%), with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Effective approaches are crucial for devising an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, including amongst those with a neurobehavioral approach the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT). Van Eeckhout’s adaptation of MIT to French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT) has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing French prosody. The purpose of this study was to adapt MRT rehabilitation procedures to Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of six chronic patients (five males) with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments during the previous 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30–40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up). The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy. PMID:26441615

  8. Global availability of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Turk-Adawi, Karam; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Grace, Sherry L

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most-prevalent noncommunicable disease and leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of deaths from CVD occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To limit the socioeconomic impact of CVD, a comprehensive approach to health care is needed. Cardiac rehabilitation delivers a cost-effective and structured exercise, education, and risk reduction programme, which can reduce mortality by up to 25% in addition to improving a patient's functional capacity and lowering rehospitalization rates. Despite these benefits and recommendations in clinical practice guidelines, cardiac rehabilitation programmes are grossly under-used compared with revascularization or medical therapy for patients with CVD. Worldwide, only 38.8% of countries have cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Specifically, 68.0% of high-income and 23% of LMICs (8.3% for low-income and 28.2% for middle-income countries) offer cardiac rehabilitation programmes to patients with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation density estimates range from one programme per 0.1 to 6.4 million inhabitants. Multilevel strategies to augment cardiac rehabilitation capacity and availability at national and international levels, such as supportive public health policies, systematic referral strategies, and alternative models of delivery are needed. PMID:25027487

  9. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  10. Development and validation of Australian aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    Power, Emma; Thomas, Emma; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; Togher, Leanne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Hersh, Deborah; Godecke, Erin; O'Halloran, Robyn; Lamont, Sue; O'Connor, Claire; Clarke, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a national set of best practice statements for use in post-stroke aphasia rehabilitation. Design Literature review and statement validation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). Participants A national Community of Practice of over 250 speech pathologists, researchers, consumers and policymakers developed a framework consisting of eight areas of care in aphasia rehabilitation. This framework provided the structure for the development of a care pathway containing aphasia rehabilitation best practice statements. Nine speech pathologists with expertise in aphasia rehabilitation participated in two rounds of RAND/UCLA appropriateness ratings of the statements. Panellists consisted of researchers, service managers, clinicians and policymakers. Main outcome measures Statements that achieved a high level of agreement and an overall median score of 7–9 on a nine-point scale were rated as ‘appropriate’. Results 74 best practice statements were extracted from the literature and rated across eight areas of care (eg, receiving the right referrals, providing intervention). At the end of Round 1, 71 of the 74 statements were rated as appropriate, no statements were rated as inappropriate, and three statements were rated as uncertain. All 74 statements were then rated again in the face-to-face second round. 16 statements were added through splitting existing items or adding new statements. Seven statements were deleted leaving 83 statements. Agreement was reached for 82 of the final 83 statements. Conclusions This national set of 82 best practice statements across eight care areas for the rehabilitation of people with aphasia is the first to be validated by an expert panel. These statements form a crucial component of the Australian Aphasia Rehabilitation Pathway (AARP) (http://www.aphasiapathway.com.au) and provide the basis for more consistent implementation of evidence-based practice in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26137883

  11. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  12. Feasibility of Technology Enabled Speech Disorder Screening.

    PubMed

    Duenser, Andreas; Ward, Lauren; Stefani, Alessandro; Smith, Daniel; Freyne, Jill; Morgan, Angela; Dodd, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    One in twenty Australian children suffers from a speech disorder. Early detection of such problems can significantly improve literacy and academic outcomes for these children, reduce health and educational burden and ongoing social costs. Here we present the development of a prototype and feasibility tests of a screening and decision support tool to assess speech disorders in young children. The prototype incorporates speech signal processing, machine learning and expert knowledge to automatically classify phonemes of normal and disordered speech. We discuss these results and our future work towards the development of a mobile tool to facilitate broad, early speech disorder screening by non-experts. PMID:27440284

  13. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and "sat-in"…

  14. Speech Errors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in error…

  15. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  16. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to provide a…

  17. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  18. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  19. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  20. Linguistic aspects of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1995-10-24

    The conversion of text to speech is seen as an analysis of the input text to obtain a common underlying linguistic description, followed by a synthesis of the output speech waveform from this fundamental specification. Hence, the comprehensive linguistic structure serving as the substrate for an utterance must be discovered by analysis from the text. The pronunciation of individual words in unrestricted text is determined by morphological analysis or letter-to-sound conversion, followed by specification of the word-level stress contour. In addition, many text character strings, such as titles, numbers, and acronyms, are abbreviations for normal words, which must be derived. To further refine these pronunciations and to discover the prosodic structure of the utterance, word part of speech must be computed, followed by a phrase-level parsing. From this structure the prosodic structure of the utterance can be determined, which is needed in order to specify the durational framework and fundamental frequency contour of the utterance. In discourse contexts, several factors such as the specification of new and old information, contrast, and pronominal reference can be used to further modify the prosodic specification. When the prosodic correlates have been computed and the segmental sequence is assembled, a complete input suitable for speech synthesis has been determined. Lastly, multilingual systems utilizing rule frameworks are mentioned, and future directions are characterized. PMID:7479807

  1. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  2. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers’ Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, E. Niki; Smith, Peter M.; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy) by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences. Methods A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers’ compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors. Results Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female), 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users. Conclusions Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26982491

  3. Prosthodontic Management in Conjunction with Speech Therapy in Cleft Lip and Palate: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhakshaini, M R; Pushpavathi, M; Garhnayak, Mirna; Dhal, Angurbala

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP), a congenital disturbance needs a lot of attention with respect to its rehabilitation as a person suffering from this defect can lead a normal life given with the right type of treatment at the right time. However, if a patient cannot get surgical treatment at the appropriate time either due to availability or economic constraints, it is still possible to improve their social and psychological well-being with prosthodontic rehabilitation. The literature search was carried out through PubMed and Google scholar and manual search. The articles related to prosthodontic treatment in congestion with speech therapy and some articles on psychological assessment were considered The available prosthodontic treatment options for improvement of speech is discussed and highlighted the importance of prosthetic management of such patients along with a speech therapist. Also, a review of the available prosthetic treatment options is discussed in detail. Finally, a case report of a CLP patient treated prosthodontically with the assistance of speech pathologist is presented. PMID:26668496

  4. Achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, R. S.; Parsons, N.; Underwood, M.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The evidence base to inform the management of Achilles tendon rupture is sparse. The objectives of this research were to establish what current practice is in the United Kingdom and explore clinicians’ views on proposed further research in this area. This study was registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN68273773) as part of a larger programme of research. Methods We report an online survey of current practice in the United Kingdom, approved by the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and completed by 181 of its members. A total of ten of these respondents were invited for a subsequent one-to-one interview to explore clinician views on proposed further research in this area. Results The survey showed wide variations in practice, with patients being managed in plaster cast alone (13%), plaster cast followed by orthoses management (68%), and orthoses alone (19%). Within these categories, further variation existed regarding the individual rehabilitation facets, such as the length of time worn, the foot position within them and weight-bearing status. The subsequent interviews reflected this clinical uncertainty and the pressing need for definitive research. Conclusions The gap in evidence in this area has resulted in practice in the United Kingdom becoming varied and based on individual opinion. Future high-quality randomised trials on this subject are supported by the clinical community. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:65–9 PMID:25868938

  5. Pavement evaluation and rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, N.A.; Khosla, N.P.; Johnson, E.G.; Hicks, R.G.; Uzan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The 20 papers in this report deal with the following areas: determination of layer moduli using a falling weight deflectometer; evaluation of effect of uncrushed base layers on pavement performance; the effect of contact area shape and pressure distribution on multilayer systems response; sensitivity analysis of selected backcalculation procedures; performance of a full-scale pavement design experiment in Jamaica; subsealing and load-transfer restoration; development of a demonstration prototype expert system for concrete pavement evaluation; numerical assessment of pavement test sections; development of a distress index and rehabilitation criteria for continuously reinforced concrete pavements using discriminant analysis; a mechanistic model for thermally induced reflection cracking of portland cement concrete pavement with reinforced asphalt concrete overlay; New Mexico study of interlayers used in reflective crack control; status of the South Dakota profilometer; incorporating the effects of tread pattern in a dynamic tire excitation mechanism; external methods for evaluating shock absorbers for road-roughness measurements; factor analysis of pavement distresses for surface condition predictions; development of a utility evaluation for nondestructive-testing equipment used on asphalt-concrete pavements; estimating the life of asphalt overlays using long-term pavement performance data; present serviceability-roughness correlations using rating panel data; video image distress analysis technique for Idaho transportation department pavement-management system; acceptability of shock absorbers for road roughness-measuring trailers.

  6. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  7. Phrase-programmable digital speech system

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

  8. Speech Motor Learning in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs — audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles, and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input on its own may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that with training implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation. Moreover, the corrections we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimetres, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is significantly dependent on somatosensory input. PMID:18794839

  9. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  10. Speaker identification utilizing noncontemporary speech.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; Schwartz, R

    2001-01-01

    The noncontemporariness of speech is important to both of the two general approaches to speaker identification. Ear-witness identification is one of them; in that instance, the time at which the identification is made is noncontemporary. A substantial amount of research has been carried out on this relationship and it now is well established that an auditor's memory for a voice decays sharply over time. It is the second approach to speaker identification which is of present interest. In this case, samples of a speaker's utterances are obtained at different points in time. For example, a threat call will be recorded and then sometime later (often very much later), a suspect' s exemplar recording will be obtained. In this instance, it is the speech samples that are noncontemporary and they are the materials that are subjected to some form of speaker identification. Prevailing opinion is that noncontemporary speech itself poses just as difficult a challenge to the identification process as does the listener's memory decay in earwitness identification. Accordingly, series of aural-perceptual speaker identification projects were carried out on noncontemporary speech: first, two with latencies of 4 and 8 weeks followed by 4 and 32 weeks plus two more with the pairs separated by 6 and 20 years. Mean correct noncontemporary identification initially dropped to 75-80% at week 4 and this general level was sustained for up to six years. It was only after 20 years had elapsed that a significant drop (to 33%) was noted. It can be concluded that a listener's competency in identifying noncontemporary speech samples will show only modest decay over rather substantial periods of time and, hence, this factor should have only a minimal negative effect on the speaker identification process.

  11. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  12. Adaptive Redundant Speech Transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on Estimation of Perceived Speech Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Ah; Kim, Hong Kook

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive redundant speech transmission (ARST) approach to improve the perceived speech quality (PSQ) of speech streaming applications over wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach estimates the PSQ as well as the packet loss rate (PLR) from the received speech data. Subsequently, it decides whether the transmission of redundant speech data (RSD) is required in order to assist a speech decoder to reconstruct lost speech signals for high PLRs. According to the decision, the proposed ARST approach controls the RSD transmission, then it optimizes the bitrate of speech coding to encode the current speech data (CSD) and RSD bitstream in order to maintain the speech quality under packet loss conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed ARST approach is then demonstrated using the adaptive multirate-narrowband (AMR-NB) speech codec and ITU-T Recommendation P.563 as a scalable speech codec and the PSQ estimation, respectively. It is shown from the experiments that a speech streaming application employing the proposed ARST approach significantly improves speech quality under packet loss conditions in WMSNs. PMID:22164086

  13. Intelligibility of laryngectomees' substitute speech: automatic speech recognition and subjective rating.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Maria; Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Lohscheller, Jörg; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Substitute speech after laryngectomy is characterized by restricted aero-acoustic properties in comparison with laryngeal speech and has therefore lower intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility has not existed, although the intelligibility can serve as a global outcome parameter of voice restoration after laryngectomy. An automatic speech recognition system was applied on recordings of a standard text read by 18 German male laryngectomees with tracheoesophageal substitute speech. The system was trained with normal laryngeal speakers and not adapted to severely disturbed voices. Substitute speech was compared to laryngeal speech of a control group. Subjective evaluation of intelligibility was performed by a panel of five experts and compared to automatic speech evaluation. Substitute speech showed lower syllables/s and lower word accuracy than laryngeal speech. Automatic speech recognition for substitute speech yielded word accuracy between 10.0 and 50% (28.7+/-12.1%) with sufficient discrimination. It complied with experts' subjective evaluations of intelligibility. The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone did not differ from the multi-rater kappa of experts and the recognizer. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of laryngectomees. For clinical use, the speech recognition system will be adapted to disturbed voices and can also be applied in other languages. PMID:16001246

  14. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  15. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  16. Esteem® middle ear device versus conventional hearing aids for rehabilitation of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Monini, Simonetta; Biagini, Michela; Atturo, Francesca; Barbara, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Esteem(®) middle ear implant in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) of different degree as well as to compare it with that obtained with conventional hearing aids. Fifteen out of 30 adults patients who received an Esteem(®) middle ear device for rehabilitation of sensorineural hearing loss met the primary eligibility criterion of prior, continuous use of conventional hearing aids. Study population included moderate-to-severe SNHL (8 patients) and severe-to-profound SNHL (7 patients). Audiometric measurements included free-field pure-tone and speech audiometry in Esteem(®)-aided, HA-aided, and baseline threshold. For speech audiometry, speech reception threshold (SRT) and word recognition score (WRS) were assessed. Subjective benefit was evaluated by Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI) questionnaire. In all the subjects, SRT and WRS showed improvement both with conventional HA and Esteem(®) in respect to the unaided situation. Although not statistically significant, a slight prevalence of the Esteem(®) performances was recorded both audiometrically and as subjective satisfaction score. The Esteem(®) middle ear device demonstrated appreciable benefit for rehabilitation of SNHL of different degree, comparable to what can be achieved by conventional hearing aids. In addition, this rehabilitative process may enable also individuals presenting with severe-to-profound SNHL to achieve remarkable functional outcomes.

  17. Changing Speech Styles: Strategies in Read Speech and Casual and Careful Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    A study examined segmental and suprasegmental elements which contribute to an impression of one speaking style as opposed to another. A corpus containing three styles of speech, casual, careful, and read, for the same linguistic content was gathered. Thirteen speakers from Paris, France (aged 24-35) were given a scenario to be acted out over the…

  18. Teaching speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka: issues in curriculum, culture and language.

    PubMed

    Wickenden, Mary; Hartley, Sally; Kariyakaranawa, Sunil; Kodikara, Somadasa

    2003-01-01

    This paper draws on the experiences of the authors in designing and teaching a new course to educate speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka. This was the first speech and language therapist course in the country and was the result of collaboration between two universities, one in the UK and one in Sri Lanka. Rather than replicating established programmes elsewhere it was more appropriate to design a new course, suited to providing a comprehensive model of service, encompassing both social and medical approaches to rehabilitation. Issues about developing teaching and learning approaches to match pre-existing knowledge and experience of both staff and students are addressed. The particular ways of designing the programme to take account of cultural and language aspects of the Sri Lankan context are discussed.

  19. [Curriculum development in speech-language therapy and audiology: basis and principles].

    PubMed

    Hugo, S R; Uys, I C

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some of the important issues that form the basis of curriculum development for education in speech-language therapy and audiology. The demands of the profession are such that a horizontal occupational structure is no longer adequate in the multicultural, multilingual RSA context. It is therefore necessary to investigate alternative educational options to accommodate current needs. These may include diploma training for technicians, certificate programmes for community rehabilitation workers and professionally directed masters courses. It is also apparent that the professional functions of the speech-language therapist and audiologist have extended to the point where aspects such as computer literacy, management functions, community work and consultation should play a greater role in the curriculum than is the case at present.

  20. Speech and language therapies to improve pragmatics and discourse skills in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Marilyne; Bonneau, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-06-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia display speech and language impairments that greatly impact their integration to the society. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the importance of speech and language therapy (SLT) as part of rehabilitation curriculums for patients with schizophrenia emphasizing on the speech and language abilities assessed, the therapy setting and the therapeutic approach. This article reviewed 18 studies testing the effects of language therapy or training in 433 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results showed that 14 studies out of 18 lead to improvements in language and/or speech abilities. Most of these studies comprised pragmatic or expressive discursive skills being the only aim of the therapy or part of it. The therapy settings vary widely ranging from twice daily individual therapy to once weekly group therapy. The therapeutic approach was mainly operant conditioning. Although the evidence tends to show that certain areas of language are treatable through therapy, it remains difficult to state the type of approach that should be favoured and implemented to treat language impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:27092861

  1. Speech and language therapies to improve pragmatics and discourse skills in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Marilyne; Bonneau, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-06-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia display speech and language impairments that greatly impact their integration to the society. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the importance of speech and language therapy (SLT) as part of rehabilitation curriculums for patients with schizophrenia emphasizing on the speech and language abilities assessed, the therapy setting and the therapeutic approach. This article reviewed 18 studies testing the effects of language therapy or training in 433 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results showed that 14 studies out of 18 lead to improvements in language and/or speech abilities. Most of these studies comprised pragmatic or expressive discursive skills being the only aim of the therapy or part of it. The therapy settings vary widely ranging from twice daily individual therapy to once weekly group therapy. The therapeutic approach was mainly operant conditioning. Although the evidence tends to show that certain areas of language are treatable through therapy, it remains difficult to state the type of approach that should be favoured and implemented to treat language impairments in schizophrenia.

  2. A hardware preprocessor for use in speech recognition: Speech Input Device SID3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, R. E.; Manning, D. R.

    1983-05-01

    A device which reduces the amount of data sent to the computer for speech recognition, by extracting from the speech signal the information that conveys the meaning of the speech, all other data being discarded is presented. The design includes signal to noise ratios as low as 10 dB, public telephone frequency bandwidth and unconstrained speech. It produces continuously at its output 64 bits of digital information, which represents the way 16 speech parameters vary. The parameters cover speech quality, voice pitch, resonant frequency, level of resonance and unvoiced spectrum color. The receiving computer must have supporting software containing recognition algorithms adapted to SID3 parameters.

  3. Creating engaging experiences for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McClusky, John F

    2008-01-01

    The traditional model of rehabilitation center design based on usability and function falls short of addressing the aspirations of those who use them. To better serve the motivational needs of both patients and therapists, we need to reconsider the gymnasium-inspired designs of current rehabilitation centers. Designers Patricia Moore and David Guynes have drawn inspiration from the everyday to create more engaging rehabilitation experiences with their Easy Street, Independence Square, Rehab 1-2-3, Our Town, and WorkSyms rehabilitation environments. Their designs simulate real-life situations to motivate patients by helping them connect their therapy to the life in which they aspire to return. Utilizing an empathic research process, Moore and Guynes build a deeper understanding of both patients' and therapists' values and apply that understanding to designs that are more directly connected to patients' aspirational goals while still meeting their functional rehabilitation needs. This same research-based design approach is utilized in all of their design work that has included, most recently, the design of the Phoenix Valley Transit Authority's Metro Light Rail Train. The train and stations have won awards for accessibility and will begin public operation in late 2008.

  4. Value-sensitive psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Kalian, Moshe; Witztum, Eliezer

    2010-09-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation contains value-laden concepts that may be unacceptable to certain cultures and many individuals. The concepts of independence and work are examined in a clash between mental health professionals in charge of national policies in psychiatric rehabilitation in Israel and a rehabilitation center for the severely mentally ill within the ultra-orthodox Jewish community. The government professionals considered that having the living quarters and work site in the same building deemed it unsuitable for rehabilitation, and too few progressed to independent living and working. As such, they ordered the center to be closed. Clients' families turned to the Supreme Court and the claims and counter claims reveal value-laden positions. The bases for misunderstanding and lack of cooperation between the government professionals and the rehabilitation center are explained in the context of everyday life and values in the ultra-orthodox Jewish community and attitudes in the general population. Fruitful cooperation is based on appreciating core values, identifying and working with the community's figures of authority, and accepting that the role of the mental health professional is to advise the community, within which the professional has no status.

  5. Making pulmonary rehabilitation a success in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J

    2010-01-01

    A truly successful pulmonary rehabilitation entails implementing physical activity maintenance. This article reviews the current knowledge on pulmonary rehabilitation and the expected benefits, the setting, the relationship between self-management and pulmonary rehabilitation, in order to develop and implement clinically-effective physical activity maintenance interventions. The effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation is well-established. However, access to pulmonary rehabilitation is limited. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to be an effective, equivalent alternative to outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. The opportunity to offer different pulmonary rehabilitation settings tailored to individual needs should improve accessibility to this intervention. Sustained long-term physical activity remains the most important challenge for COPD patients. We need a dependable system of coordinated health care interventions and communication, and components that include self-management support. Self-management should be an integrated part of pulmonary rehabilitation and remain long after the pulmonary rehabilitation is completed. By early identification of patients who may have difficulty maintaining exercise and implementing appropriate self-management interventions during and after the rehabilitation program, it may be possible to promote better long-term involvement in physical activity. Pulmonary rehabilitation should not stand alone; the best program is that which can be maintained to translate into a continuous increase in the activities of daily living. Future research should evaluate the effect of self-management interventions combined with pulmonary rehabilitation to improve long-term activity and exercise maintenance. PMID:20809435

  6. [Total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction with a jejunum speech siphon : A case report].

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Sheppard, K; Dogan, Z A; Remmert, S

    2014-06-01

    Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis and a pronounced loss of quality of life due to impairment of the swallowing and voice function. The fundamental therapeutic challenge is successful tumor control with concomitant rehabilitation of swallowing and voice functions. Further objectives are a low complications rate (fistula, aspiration) and prompt transfer to the adjuvant radio-oncologic therapy. With these factors in mind, the microvascular anastomosed jejunum speech siphon with a biventer rein has proven to be an effective method of reconstruction following extensive circular laryngopharyngeal resections. In this case report, a typical operative and postoperative course is presented, as are the functional results.

  7. Use of Orbital Conformer to Improve Speech in Patients with Confluent Maxillectomy and Orbital Defects.

    PubMed

    Colebeck, Amanda C; Kase, Michael T; Nichols, Cindy B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    The basic objective in prosthetic restoration of confluent maxillary and orbital defects is to achieve a comfortable, cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that restores speech, deglutition, and mastication. It is a challenging task complicated by the size and shape of the defects. The maxillary obturator prosthesis often satisfies the objective of adequate deglutition; however, orbital defects that are not obturated in the medial, septal, or posterior walls allow air to escape, negatively impacting phonation. This article describes a technique to achieve favorable prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with a maxillectomy and ipsilateral orbital exenteration. The prosthetic components include maxillary obturator, orbital conformer, and orbital prosthesis connected using rigid magnetic attachments. PMID:25953143

  8. Use of Orbital Conformer to Improve Speech in Patients with Confluent Maxillectomy and Orbital Defects.

    PubMed

    Colebeck, Amanda C; Kase, Michael T; Nichols, Cindy B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    The basic objective in prosthetic restoration of confluent maxillary and orbital defects is to achieve a comfortable, cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that restores speech, deglutition, and mastication. It is a challenging task complicated by the size and shape of the defects. The maxillary obturator prosthesis often satisfies the objective of adequate deglutition; however, orbital defects that are not obturated in the medial, septal, or posterior walls allow air to escape, negatively impacting phonation. This article describes a technique to achieve favorable prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with a maxillectomy and ipsilateral orbital exenteration. The prosthetic components include maxillary obturator, orbital conformer, and orbital prosthesis connected using rigid magnetic attachments.

  9. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca's Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca's aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT's generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca's aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID:25157222

  10. The Combination of Rhythm and Pitch Can Account for the Beneficial Effect of Melodic Intonation Therapy on Connected Speech Improvements in Broca’s Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a structured protocol for language rehabilitation in people with Broca’s aphasia. The main particularity of MIT is the use of intoned speech, a technique in which the clinician stylizes the prosody of short sentences using simple pitch and rhythm patterns. In the original MIT protocol, patients must repeat diverse sentences in order to espouse this way of speaking, with the goal of improving their natural, connected speech. MIT has long been regarded as a promising treatment but its mechanisms are still debated. Recent work showed that rhythm plays a key role in variations of MIT, leading to consider the use of pitch as relatively unnecessary in MIT. Our study primarily aimed to assess the relative contribution of rhythm and pitch in MIT’s generalization effect to non-trained stimuli and to connected speech. We compared a melodic therapy (with pitch and rhythm) to a rhythmic therapy (with rhythm only) and to a normally spoken therapy (without melodic elements). Three participants with chronic post-stroke Broca’s aphasia underwent the treatments in hourly sessions, 3 days per week for 6 weeks, in a cross-over design. The informativeness of connected speech, speech accuracy of trained and non-trained sentences, motor-speech agility, and mood was assessed before and after the treatments. The results show that the three treatments improved speech accuracy in trained sentences, but that the combination of rhythm and pitch elicited the strongest generalization effect both to non-trained stimuli and connected speech. No significant change was measured in motor-speech agility or mood measures with either treatment. The results emphasize the beneficial effect of both rhythm and pitch in the efficacy of original MIT on connected speech, an outcome of primary clinical importance in aphasia therapy. PMID:25157222

  11. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  12. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment. PMID:25989443

  13. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  14. Speech and language delay in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  15. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  16. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  17. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  18. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment.

  19. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  20. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  1. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  2. Approaches to the rehabilitation of dysphagia in acute poststroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Robbins, Joanne

    2013-08-01

    Dysphagia occurs frequently following stroke and may result in serious health consequences including pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and mortality. Prevention of these negative health outcomes requires early identification and treatment of dysphagia. The speech-language pathologist, as part of a multidisciplinary team, holds the primary responsibility for selection of an effective dysphagia rehabilitation program for these patients. Because much research has focused on patients with chronic dysphagia, this review will focus on treatment of patients within the acute phase of recovery poststroke. Although some acute patients may experience transient dysphagia that resolves spontaneously, many will go on to develop chronic dysphagia that may be prevented with provision of early and intensive treatment. An overview of dysphagia following stroke will be provided with information regarding incidence, complications, evaluation, and causes of dysphagia. A thorough discussion of evidence supporting varying approaches to dysphagia rehabilitation will follow with inclusion of several current, novel, and experimental techniques. The importance of the multidisciplinary team and regular reevaluation will be emphasized as well.

  3. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  4. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  5. 36 CFR 910.63 - Rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.63 Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation means the process of adapting improvements on real property to make possible an efficient contemporary use achieved by means of a...

  6. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Payment System Rule Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Rule Outpatient Prospective Payment System/Ambulatory Surgical ... Payment System Rule Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Rule Outpatient Prospective Payment System/Ambulatory Surgical ...

  7. What Are Some Types of Rehabilitative Technologies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Publications What are some types of rehabilitative technologies? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rehabilitative technologies are any technologies that help people recover function ...

  8. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... sponsors grantees to generate new disability and rehabilitation knowledge and promote its use and adoption. Promoting the use and adoption of new disability and rehabilitation knowledge by various stakeholders helps people with disabilities in ...

  9. Vocational Rehabilitation: Outlook for Persons with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Richard T.

    1977-01-01

    Incidence, treatment methods, psychological rehabilitation, and vocational rehabilitation considerations are reviewed for cancer of the head and neck, cancer of the digestive organs, breast cancer, lymphomas, and cancer of the genital organs. (CL)

  10. Prerequisites for Computer-Aided Cognitive Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Colette

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation for mentally deficient persons. It lists motor, cognitive, emotional, and educational prerequisites to such rehabilitation and states advantages and disadvantages in using the prerequisites. (JDD)

  11. Stroke Rehabilitation: What Research is Being Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / Spring ... of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation medlineplus.gov/strokerehabilitation.html National Institute of Neurological ...

  12. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland.

  13. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  14. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  15. Rehabilitation: strategic, proactive, flexible, risky?

    PubMed

    Green, R H

    2000-12-01

    Rehabilitation after armed conflict is a direct intellectual descendant of thinking about rehabilitation after natural calamity. It is related, generally, to poverty reduction and, operationally, to associated action at the micro level. This history has limited its strategic conceptualisation and, in particular, its links with reconciliation and state re-legitimation and also with macro-economic stabilisation and renewed growth. In post-war--or more generally, a lull in conflict with the potential to become permanent--a country's rapid, focused, prioritised action within a strategic framework is urgent. It is not risk-free for political and natural disasters as well as for those with economic and social bases. Flexibility, learning from initial experience and asking intended household beneficiaries about their needs in advance can reduce risk as can pre-positioning of contingency or standby resources to avert post-war calamities (for example, drought, flood) and catastrophes (renewed violence) from delaying and discrediting rehabilitation efforts.

  16. Occupational therapy and rehabilitation engineering.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R E; Kozole, K P

    1984-01-01

    Occupational therapists in clinical settings are often challenged with difficult problems in the selection, application and modification of complex mechanical, electrical or structural aids for persons with severe disability who wish to improve their levels of independence. At the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, solutions to such situations are facilitated by interaction between the occupational therapist and the rehabilitation engineer. In this paper, following the identification of the population served and their specialized needs, the working relationship between the occupational therapist and rehabilitation engineer will be discussed through presentation of two case studies. Various commercially available equipment will be considered along with modifications possible, and finally, customer design solutions will be given for some problems. Given the growing store of resources for assisting clients who have special needs, many creative systems can be developed in therapists and engineers combine their respective knowledge and skills in problem solving.

  17. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  18. 24 CFR 572.100 - Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. 572.100 Section 572.100 Housing and Urban Development... § 572.100 Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. (a)...

  19. 24 CFR 572.100 - Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. 572.100 Section 572.100 Housing and Urban Development... § 572.100 Acquisition and rehabilitation of eligible properties; rehabilitation standards. (a)...

  20. A Tough-Love Pedagogy in Rehabilitation: Integration of Rehabilitation Ideology with Local Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jye

    2009-01-01

    This study problematizes a unique therapeutic relationship in rehabilitation and how the interaction reflects the integration of rehabilitation ideology with local cultures. The data drew from a larger ethnographic study of a rehabilitation unit in Taiwan. Participants included 21 patient-caregiver pairs and their rehabilitation professionals.…

  1. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Bernd J.; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  2. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  3. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  4. Vocational rehabilitation process and work life.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Rick; Paquette, Sonia

    2013-08-01

    This article describes the evolution of vocational rehabilitation and the development of the rehabilitation counselor's role as the generally accepted expert in forensic vocational rehabilitation assessment. The vocational rehabilitation process is discussed within an empirically derived structural model of forensic vocational assessment. The concept of work-life expectancy is discussed as a key feature in estimating the duration of time vocational damages are likely to occur based on a person's remaining work participation. PMID:23910489

  5. Rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Halling, A H; Howard, M E; Cawley, P W

    1993-04-01

    Rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament absent or reconstructed knee is becoming a true artform. Accelerated, but controlled rehabilitation, is becoming more commonplace. Scientific-based data along with clinical experiences are the basis of the rehabilitation guidelines brought forth in this article. Anterior cruciate ligament strain and implications for exercise, continuous passive motion, proprioceptive exercise, and the role of knee bracing are all discussed in relation to the overall rehabilitation program.

  6. Medication safety in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Dinescu, Laurentiu Iulius; Todorov, Darko; Biglow, Michael; Toderika, Yuliana; Cohen, Henry; Patel, Karishma

    2012-05-01

    Rehabilitation medicine is practiced in a variety of settings. Physiatrists are an integral part of the care provided in many of these settings and are often consulted to provide diagnostic and therapeutic services and expertise to individuals with a variety of diagnoses. In this role, it is imperative that physiatrists have a working knowledge of various medications as well as the principles of medication safety. This article provides a foundation in the general and specific aspects of medication safety as they apply to the practice of rehabilitation medicine.

  7. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  8. Effects of gaze and speech rate on receivers' evaluations of persuasive speech.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hitomi; Daibo, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    This study examined how gaze and speech rate affect perceptions of a speaker. Participants viewed a video recording of one of four persuasive messages delivered by a female speaker. Analysis of speech rate, gaze, and listener's sex revealed that when combined with a small amount of gaze, slow speech rate decreased trustworthiness as compared to a fast speech rate. For women, slow speech rate was thought to be indicative of less expertise as compared to a fast speech rate, again when combined with low gaze. There were no significant interactions, but there were main effects of gaze and speech rate on persuasiveness. High levels of gaze and slow speech rate each enhanced perceptions of the speaker's persuasiveness.

  9. Discriminating between auditory and motor cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth sounds

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, Z.K.; McGettigan, C.; Scott, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Several perspectives on speech perception posit a central role for the representation of articulations in speech comprehension, supported by evidence for premotor activation when participants listen to speech. However no experiments have directly tested whether motor responses mirror the profile of selective auditory cortical responses to native speech sounds, or whether motor and auditory areas respond in different ways to sounds. We used fMRI to investigate cortical responses to speech and non-speech mouth (ingressive click) sounds. Speech sounds activated bilateral superior temporal gyri more than other sounds, a profile not seen in motor and premotor cortices. These results suggest that there are qualitative differences in the ways that temporal and motor areas are activated by speech and click sounds: anterior temporal lobe areas are sensitive to the acoustic/phonetic properties while motor responses may show more generalised responses to the acoustic stimuli. PMID:21812557

  10. Effects of profession and facility type on research utilization by rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Pain, Kerrie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Darrah, Johanna; Hagler, Paul; Warren, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Information about the use of research by rehabilitation professionals to make clinical decisions in everyday practice is limited. This study compared perceived research use and knowledge sources across professions, practice situations, and work environments. Participants were 165 randomly selected Canadian occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists. Self-report ratings during an interview, an interviewer rating, and questionnaire scores (Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, General Use of Research, Knowledge Acquisition Survey) were compared. Speech-language pathologists had the most education and the highest research use ratings. Research use was highest during program planning. Programs to encourage research use must consider the research available to guide practice and therapists' education level. Facility size and location (rural, urban) do not affect perceived research use. PMID:15053214

  11. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  12. The Levels of Speech Usage Rating Scale: Comparison of Client Self-Ratings with Speech Pathologist Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Christina; Baylor, Carolyn; Eadie, Tanya; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background: The term "speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to fulfil the communication demands in their life roles. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) need to know about clients' speech usage to plan appropriate interventions to meet their life participation goals. The Levels of Speech Usage is a categorical…

  13. The Neural Bases of Difficult Speech Comprehension and Speech Production: Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti

    2012-01-01

    The role of speech production mechanisms in difficult speech comprehension is the subject of on-going debate in speech science. Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were conducted on neuroimaging studies investigating difficult speech comprehension or speech production. Meta-analysis 1 included 10 studies contrasting comprehension…

  14. Self-Evaluation and Pre-Speech Planning: A Strategy for Sharing Responsibility for Progress in the Speech Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Linda A.

    Speech class teachers can implement a pre- and post-speech strategy, using pre-speech and self-evaluation forms, to help students become active in directing their own progress, and acknowledge their own accomplishments. Every speech is tape-recorded in class. Students listen to their speeches later and fill in the self-evaluation form, which asks…

  15. Cardiac Rehabilitation. A Handbook for Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammell, H. L.; And Others

    Basic information about heart disease and functional capacity assessment and its application to activity/job counseling are presented in this handbook for vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sections include the following: impact of heart disease; basic anatomy and physiology (e.g., the heart, pulmonary circulation, causes of cardiac pain, and…

  16. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  17. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  18. 36 CFR 910.63 - Rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation. 910.63 Section 910.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.63 Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation means the process of...

  19. 44 CFR 208.43 - Rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rehabilitation. 208.43... Agreements § 208.43 Rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs incurred to return System equipment and... Activation. (3) Personnel costs associated with equipment cache rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse...

  20. 40 CFR 35.927-3 - Rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation. 35.927-3 Section 35.927... Rehabilitation. (a) Subject to State concurrence, the Regional Administrator may authorize the grantee to perform minor rehabilitation concurrently with the sewer system evaluation survey in any step under a grant...