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Sample records for alaska california colorado

  1. Stratigraphy of the Colorado Creek mammoth locality, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorson, Robert M.; Guthrie, R. Dale

    1992-03-01

    The Colorado Creek mammoth locality in west-central Alaska contains the remains of two mammoths that were scavenged by carnivores. Sedimentologic interpretations of the reworked eolian deposits surrounding the bones, supplemented by 10 radiocarbon dates, indicate that the lower and upper mammoths died and were buried within separate, but superimposed, thaw gullies about 23,000 and 16,000 yr ago, respectively. From our results, we propose a polycyclic taphonomic model for thaw gullies governed largely by slope aspect, rather than regional climate, and in which mixing between faunal horizons is more likely than not. Variations in the rate of silt influx and the position of the permafrost table provide a paleoclimatic proxy record that can be correlated to other records in eastern Beringia.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  3. Development and Adoption of a Watershed Approach to Compensatory Mitigation: Experiences in Colorado and California

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article, we examine the adoption of the watershed approach and its technical methods into regulatory programs in Colorado and California. Specific steps and motives for the adoption are explained. Through close collaboration, regulators have systematically been made aware...

  4. Where California Meets Alaska: Ecosystem Response in a Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, W.; Pena, A.; Irvine, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Ecosystems along the west coast of Vancouver Island share features with those of the northern California Current and also with the southern part of the Alaska Coastal Current, and provide the richest fisheries of these two regimes. Studies of the past few decades reveal surprisingly consistent biological responses to changes in ocean temperatures, partly due to the extreme warm and cool years since 1998. Zooplankton populations, migrating salmon, and fledgling seabirds are rapidly affected by changing ocean conditions, whereas the biomass of resident fish stocks responds over several years or even decades. The specific mechanisms responsible for these temperature-related changes vary from species to species, and many are unknown. We will present examples of how influx of predators, timing of food availability, and wind and coastal weather contribute to the response of coastal populations. Results are based on statistical analyses of many decades of observations and also on biophysical models. The responses to past temperature variability suggest which species will eventually thrive with climate warming and the speed with which these changes might occur. One unresolved factor is the ability of cold water species to survive and rebound after warm years, and of warm-water species to recover after cold years. These responses will be increasingly important, because the IPCC models suggest increasing local ocean temperature variability during this century.

  5. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  6. Colorado River Floods, Droughts, and Shrimp Fishing in the Upper Gulf of California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    All, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf.

  7. Colorado river floods, droughts, and shrimp fishing in the upper gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    All, John D

    2006-01-01

    Accurate procedures that measure hydrologic variability would have great value for evaluating ecosystem impacts of upstream water use in the Colorado River Basin. Many local extractive income-based stakeholders rely directly or indirectly on ecosystem health and are adversely affected when the river does not flow. This study focuses on the impact of little or no Colorado River flow on the Mexican shrimp industry. Although there have been complaints that U.S. diversions of Colorado River flow have greatly impaired the shrimp fishery, this research demonstrates that freshwater rarely reaches the Gulf even during times of flooding, and that other factors such as overfishing may influence the instability of shrimp populations. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery was used to assess water volumes diverted away from the channel of the Colorado River and ultimately the Gulf of California during flooding periods. Analysis of data demonstrated that little freshwater actually reaches the Gulf even during floods because of its diversion into a large dry lake bed basin known as Laguna Salada. Fuller use of the Colorado River throughout its entire course to the sea is possible and could benefit a large cohort of users without catastrophic habitat destruction in delta ecosystems. Reconstruction of a natural earthen berm, as proposed by Ducks Unlimited, would maximize the use of floodwaters for ecosystem benefits. These findings have profound implications for local economic activities dependent on hydrologic resources in the Colorado River Delta and Upper Gulf.

  8. Paleocurrent evidence for lateral displacement of the Pliocene Colorado River delta by the San Andreas fault system, southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winker, Charles D.; Kidwell, Susan M.

    1986-09-01

    More than 600 paleocurrent measurements from fluvial paleochannels of the early Colorado River delta plain, preserved in the Palm Spring Formation in the Fish Creek Vallecito (FCV) section of southern California, indicate that the FCV section was on the Gulf of California (southeastern) flank of the delta plain as recently as 2.8 Ma. These measurements imply ˜130 km of tectonic translation to the northwest since 2.8 Ma, which can be accounted for by the displacement histories of Baja California and component faults of the San Andreas system. Stratigraphic data from the FCV section and other Neogene localities, when plotted on a palinspastic base, indicate (1) marine transgression of a narrow Gulf of California rift basin and Bouse embayment (site of modern lower Colorado River) by 5.5 Ma, and (2) uplift of the Bouse embayment, initiation of the: lower Colorado River, and southward progradation of the delta to essentially its present position by 4 Ma.

  9. Research on recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry copper deposits on ERTS-1 imagery. [New Guinea, Alaska, and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Many new linear and circular features were found. These features prompted novel tectonic classification and analysis especially in the Ray and Ely areas. Tectonic analyses of the Ok Tedi, Tanacross, and Silvertone areas follow conventional interpretations. Circular features are mapped in many cases and are interpreted as exposed or covered intrusive centers. The small circular features reported in the Ok Tedi test area are valid and useful correlations with tertiary intrusion and volcanism in this remote part of New Guinea. Several major faults of regional dimensions, such as the Denali fault in Alaska and the Colorado mineral belt structures in Colorado are detected in the imagery. Many more faults and regional structures are found in the imagery than exist on present maps.

  10. Colorado

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Spectacular Mountain Views of Northwest Colorado     ... portion of the image (across the top in this orientation) mountain ranges pictured here include the Medicine Bow, Front, Gore and the ...

  11. Spatio-temporal covariability in coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) survival, from California to southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Botsford, Louis W.; Hastings, Alan

    2009-12-01

    One of the motivations of the GLOBEC Northeast Pacific program is to understand the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon catches in the Gulf of Alaska and concurrent declines in the California Current System (CCS). We therefore used coded wire tag (CWT) data to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of covariability in the survival of hatchery coho salmon along the coast from California to southeast Alaska between release years 1980 and 2004. There is substantial covariability in coho salmon survival between neighboring regions along the coast, and there is clear evidence for increased covariability within two main groups - a northern and southern group. The dividing line between the groups lies approximately at the north end of Vancouver Island. However, CWT survivals do not support inverse covariability in hatchery coho salmon survival between southeast Alaska and the CCS over this 25 year time span. Instead, the hatchery coho survival in southeast Alaska is relatively uncorrelated with coho survival in the California Current System on inter-annual time scales. The 50% correlation and e-folding scales (distances at which magnitude of correlations decreases to 50% and e -1 (32.8%), respectively) of pairwise correlations between individual hatcheries were 150 and 217 km, which are smaller than that reported for sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. The 50% correlation scale of coho salmon is also substantially smaller than those reported for upwelling indices and sea surface temperature. There are also periods of 5-10 years with high covariability between adjacent regions on the scale of hundreds of km, which may be of biological and physical significance.

  12. Tertiary basin development and tectonic implications, Whipple detachment system, Colorado River extensional corridor, California and Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, J. E.; Beratan, K. K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic mapping, stratigraphic and structural observations, and radiometric dating of Miocene deposits of the Whipple detachment system, Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. From these data, four regions are distinguished in the study area that correspond to four Miocene depositional basins. It is shown that these basins developed in about the same positions, relative to each other and to volcanic sources, as they occupy at present. They formed in the early Miocene from a segmentation of the upper crust into blocks bounded by high-angle faults that trended both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of extension and which were terminated at middle crustal depths by a low-angle detachment fault.

  13. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units, southeastern California and western Arizona: Implications for the evolution of the proto-Gulf of California and the lower Colorado River

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1990-11-10

    Mio-Pliocene sediments of the lower Colorado River area represent the nothernmost well documented extent of the proto-Gulf of California, a tectonically enigmatic marine incursion that occupied much of what is now the Gulf of California region--including the lower Colorado River area and the Salton Trough--as much as 8 m.y. prior to the onset of spreading-and transform-related subsidence in that area. Syndepositional folding of the Bouse Formation and bracketing units is believed to reflect slumping on oversteepened slopes, perhaps exacerbated by episodic tectonic activity. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units record four stages in the evolution of the northern proto-Gulf/lower Colorado River area: (1) dissection of preexisting, detachment fault-controlled topography and localized, interior-drainage alluvial deposition (about 14-9 Ma); (2) regional subsidence and proto-Gulf transgression (perhaps as early as about 8 Ma; not later than about 5.5 Ma); (3) progradation of ancestral Colorado River delta into the northern end of the proto-Gulf basin (prior to about 4.3 Ma); and (4) arrival of throughgoing Colorado fluvial channel (prior to about 3.5-4 Ma). Outcrop relations between the Osborne Wash strata and the Bouse Formation, and the relationship of these units to modern landforms, indicate that topography in the lower Colorado River area has not changed significantly since middle Miocene time. Subsidence of the Bouse basin is believed to have occurred via broad regional downwarping. Timing suggests that incipient proto-Gulf extension in the lower Colorado River area was arrested by the approximately 5-Ma shift to the modern transtensional regime.

  14. Field observations of bed shear stress and sediment resuspension on continental shelves, Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bed shear stress was estimated using wave and current measurements obtained with the GEOPROBE bottom-tripod system during resuspension events in Norton Sound, Alaska, and on the northern California shelf. The boundary-layer model of Grant and Madsen (1979, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 1797-1808) was used to compute the bed shear stress under combined wave-generated and quasi-steady currents. Resuspension events were identified by sudden, large increases in light scattering at 1.9 m above the sea floor. The shear-stress values were used to compute the Shields parameter (??). The results for Norton Sound are in excellent agreement with the Shields threshold criterion; the data for the California shelf plot somewhat above the Shields threshold curve, though generally within the scatter envelope. Although the surface sediments in each area contain substantial fine-grained fractions (mean diameters were 0.007 cm in Norton Sound and 0.002 cm on the California shelf), the results do not indicate significant cohesion, because the sediment was entrained at bed shear-stress values close to those predicted by the modified Shields curve for cohesionless fine-grained particles. We suspect that frequent wave stirring and observed plowing of the surface sediment by benthonic animals maintain a high water content and contribute to the ease with which these materials are resuspended. ?? 1986.

  15. Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  16. Survey for evidence of Colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in California.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Emmons, R W; Devlin, V; Dondero, D V; Nelson, B C

    1982-07-01

    A virus very similar or identical to Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the University of California, Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California, 1974--79. This is the first reported isolation of a CTF-like virus from L. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern California. Mendocino County is located far outside the known distributional ranges of the most common mammalian hosts of CTF virus and of Dermacentor andersoni, the only proven tick vector for man. The viral isolate is very similar to a CTF-like virus previously recovered from the blood and spleen of a western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) from San Luis Obispo County, an area also outside of the previously-known CTF area. Virus was not isolated from 14 additional species of mammals (354 specimens) or from eight species of ticks (4,487 individuals), but CTF-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 28 of 771 (3.6%) sera from seven of 15 mammalian species including significant titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) in two species and one subspecies not previously reported as natural hosts, i.e., brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), pinyon mouse (P. truei), and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). CTF indirect immunofluorescent antibodies also were detected in 26 of 129 (20.2%) sera belonging to four of five mammalian species tested. Neutralizing antibodies were found in sera of deer from other localities in Mendocino County, from a deer mouse from Napa County, and from a brush rabbit from Monterey County as well. These findings suggest that a virus identical or similar to CTF virus is widespread in northwestern-westcentral California, and that surveillance for human cases of CTF or a similar disease should be extended to cover this region. PMID:7102919

  17. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  18. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  19. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  20. Simulation of metals transport and toxicity at a mine-impacted watershed: California Gulch, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Velleux, Mark L; Julien, Pierre Y; Rojas-Sanchez, Rosalia; Clements, William H; England, John F

    2006-11-15

    The transport and toxicity of metals at the California Gulch, Colorado mine-impacted watershed were simulated with a spatially distributed watershed model. Using a database of observations for the period 1984-2004, hydrology, sediment transport, and metals transport were simulated for a June 2003 calibration event and a September 2003 validation event. Simulated flow volumes were within approximately 10% of observed conditions. Observed ranges of total suspended solids, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were also successfully simulated. The model was then used to simulate the potential impacts of a 1-in-100-year rainfall event. Driven by large flows and corresponding soil and sediment erosion for the 1-in-100-year event, estimated solids and metals export from the watershed is 10,000 metric tons for solids, 215 kg for Cu, 520 kg for Cu, and 15,300 kg for Zn. As expressed by the cumulative criterion unit (CCU) index, metals concentrations far exceed toxic effects thresholds, suggesting a high probability of toxic effects downstream of the gulch. More detailed Zn source analyses suggest that much of the Zn exported from the gulch originates from slag piles adjacent to the lower gulch floodplain and an old mining site located near the head of the lower gulch. PMID:17154007

  1. Evaluation of Skylab (EREP) data for forest and rangeland surveys. [Georgia, South Dakota, Colorado, and California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Dana, R. W.; Greentree, W. J.; Roberts, E. H.; Norick, N. X.; Waite, T. H.; Francis, R. E.; Driscoll, R. S.; Weber, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four widely separated sites (near Augusta, Georgia; Lead, South Dakota; Manitou, Colorado; and Redding, California) were selected as typical sites for forest inventory, forest stress, rangeland inventory, and atmospheric and solar measurements, respectively. Results indicated that Skylab S190B color photography is good for classification of Level 1 forest and nonforest land (90 to 95 percent correct) and could be used as a data base for sampling by small and medium scale photography using regression techniques. The accuracy of Level 2 forest and nonforest classes, however, varied from fair to poor. Results of plant community classification tests indicate that both visual and microdensitometric techniques can separate deciduous, conifirous, and grassland classes to the region level in the Ecoclass hierarchical classification system. There was no consistency in classifying tree categories at the series level by visual photointerpretation. The relationship between ground measurements and large scale photo measurements of foliar cover had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.75. Some of the relationships, however, were site dependent.

  2. Continental margin volcanism at sites of spreading ridge subduction: Examples from southern Alaska and western California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Ronald B.; Stewart, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    Episodes of spreading ridge subduction occurred during late Oligocene to early Miocene time along western California and during late Paleocene to early Eocene time along southern Alaska. In each case, ridge subduction and subsequent slab window formation has had a profound influence on continental margin magmatism. Foremost, in each setting there was a hiatus in arc magmatism following ridge subduction, followed by the onset of volcanism in zones of local extension within arc-front, forearc, and accretionary prism settings. These near-trench volcanic rocks are distinctive from adjacent arc rocks and represent unique episodes of continental margin magmatism. The western California volcanic rocks were erupted into several local extensional basins and form discrete volcanic centers within each basin. The southern Alaska volcanic rocks, which form the Caribou Creek volcanic field, were erupted in a broad zone of extension that trended orthogonally to the continental margin. Basalts from the western California volcanic centers and the Caribou Creek volcanic field are tholeiitic and have depleted Nd and Sr isotope compositions with ɛ Nd( t) as high as + 9.3 and + 10.9 and 87Sr/ 86Sr( t) as low as 0.70258 and 0.70278, respectively. These basalts are unique because they are the most geochemically depleted basalts yet documented along the continental margin of the northern Cordillera. The basalts of each group also have high Ti contents (TiO 2 above 1.5%) and low ratios of fluid-mobile and other large ion lithophile elements compared to high field strength elements. For example, Ba/Ta ratios among the basalts range from about 40 to 600, with most samples below 270, while arc basalts typically have Ba/Ta ratios greater than 450. The basalts also have Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios in the range of mid-ocean-ridge basalts and do not exhibit the typical enrichment in Th/Yb that characterizes arc basalts. The basaltic andesites through dacites and rhyolites have more enriched isotope

  3. Accounting for Consumptive Use of Lower Colorado River Water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Colorado River valley between the east end of Lake Mead and the international boundary with Mexico (see figure), the river is the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power generation, and recreational purposes. Water is stored in surface reservoirs and in the river aquifer---permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that fill the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributary valleys. The hydraulic connection between the river and the river aquifer, overbank flow prior to building of the dams, and infiltration as the reservoirs filled allowed the sediments and sedimentary rocks to become saturated with water from the river. Ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water from wells indicate that most of the water in the river aquifer beneath the flood plain and in many places beneath the adjacent alluvial slopes originated from the river. The water table in the river aquifer extends from the river, beneath the flood plain, and under the alluvial slopes until it intersects bedrock. Precipitation in the surrounding mountains and inflow from tributary valleys also contribute small quantities of water to the river aquifer. Consumptive use of river water in the valley results from evapotranspiration by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain, pumpage from wells to meet domestic and municipal needs, and pumpage from the river for export to areas in California, Arizona, and Nevada outside of the river valley. Most crops are grown on the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the adjacent terraces has been cultivated. Crops were grown on about 70 percent of the total vegetated area in 1984. Phreatophytes---natural vegetation that obtains water from the river aquifer---covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped directly from the river and reservoirs. Most of the water used for domestic and municipal

  4. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2010-10-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically ∑polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ∑DDTs, ∑hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], ∑polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], ∑chlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ∑DDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ∑DDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ∑PCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  7. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units, southeastern California and western Arizona: Implications for the evolution of the Proto-Gulf of California and the lower Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buising, Anna V.

    1990-11-01

    Mio-Pliocene sediments of the lower Colorado River area represent the northernmost well documented extent of the proto-Gulf of California, a tectonically enigmatic marine incursion that occupied much of what is now the Gulf of California region—including the lower Colorado River area and the Salton Trough—as much as 8 m.y. prior to the onset of spreading-and transform-related subsidence in that area. Fanglomerate and volcanic rocks informally referred to here as the Osborne Wash strata interfinger with the conformably overlying Bouse Formation. The Bouse Formation includes carbonate and coarse terrigenous-clastic basin margin deposits that interfinger laterally with basin fill material; basin fill strata comprise a basal estuarine carbonate unit overlain by fine-grained terrigenous-clastic deltaic deposits. The upper portion of the Bouse interfingers with overlying cobble conglomerates here referred to as the Colorado River gravels. Syndepositional folding of the Bouse Formation and bracketing units is believed to reflect slumping on oversteepened slopes, perhaps exacerbated by episodic tectonic activity. Syndepositional faults show both normal and reverse separation; outcrop relations allow but do not prove a strike-slip component of motion on some structures. Contemporaneous minor faults seem to reflect mutually incompatible stress orientations; this suggests that they record either localized stress fields or localized anomalous responses to regional stresses. Alternatively, they may reflect extension in two directions in the sediment pile overlying the subsiding basin floor. The Bouse Formation and bracketing units record four stages in the evolution of the northern proto-Gulf/lower Colorado River area: (1) dissection of preexisting, detachment fault-controlled topography and localized, interior-drainage alluvial deposition (about 14-9 Ma); (2) regional subsidence and proto-Gulf transgression (perhaps as early as about 8 Ma; not later than about 5.5 Ma); (3

  8. A late Pleistocene tephra layer in the southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau derived from Mono Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Thompson, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A newly identified tephra in stratified deposits in southwestern Utah, dated ???14,000 14C yr B.P., may aid in correlating late Pleistocene deposits across parts of the southern Great Basin and west-central Colorado Plateau. Geochemical analyses of the ash suggest the tephra originated from Mono Craters, California, and most probably correlates with Wilson Creek ash #3. Because the ash is 2 mm thick ???550 km from its source, the event may have been larger than others correlated to Mono Craters eruptions. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  9. Breast cancer screening practices and correlates among American Indian and Alaska Native women in California, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Huber, John Charles; Rene, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and their survival rate is the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups. Nevertheless, knowledge of AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices and their correlates is limited. Methods Using the 2003 California Health Interview Survey, we 1) compared the breast cancer screening practices of AI/AN women to other groups and 2) explored the association of several factors known or thought to influence AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices. Findings Compared to other races, AI/AN women had the lowest rate of mammogram screening (ever and within the past 2 years). For clinical breast exam receipt, Asian women had the lowest rate, followed by AI/AN women. Factors associated with AI/AN women’s breast cancer screening practices included older age, having a high school diploma or some college education, receipt of a Pap test within the past 3 years, and having visited a doctor within the past year. Conclusions Significant differences in breast cancer screening practices were noted between races, with AI/AN women often having significantly lower rates. Integrating these epidemiological findings into effective policy and practice requires additional applied research initiatives. PMID:20211430

  10. Food Insecurity and Obesity Among American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in California

    PubMed Central

    JERNIGAN, VALARIE BLUE BIRD; GARROUTTE, EVA; KRANTZ, ELIZABETH M.; BUCHWALD, DEDRA

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is linked to obesity among some, but not all, racial and ethnic populations. We examined the prevalence of food insecurity and the association between food insecurity and obesity among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs) and a comparison group of whites. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, we analyzed responses from 592 AIs/ANs and 7371 white adults with household incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity was measured using a standard 6-item scale. Sociodemographics, exercise, and obesity were all obtained using self-reported survey data. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations. The prevalence of food insecurity was similar among AIs/ANs and whites (38.7% vs 39.3%). Food insecurity was not associated with obesity in either group in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and exercise. The ability to afford high-quality foods is extremely limited for low-income Californians regardless of race. Health policy discussions must include increased attention on healthy food access among the poor, including AIs/ANs, for whom little data exist. PMID:26865900

  11. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (eschichtius robustus) stranded in Alaska, Washington, and California, USA. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.

  12. Comparative zircon tephrochronology: correlating the Pliocene Bouse tephra, lower Colorado River trough, California, with the Lawlor Tuff of the Sonoma volcanic field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Identification, correlation, and absolute dating of glassy volcanic ash and cryptically reworked pyroclastic deposits can be problematic. This is especially the case in strongly weathered samples where primary glass chemistry may not be preserved, or in lacustrine and fluvial environments where detrital materials can heavily bias bulk analysis or produce complex age distributions in single crystal dating approaches. These problems have frustrated numerous attempts to date a singular key ash horizon from the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation in southern California (fine-grained carbonate beds and clastic sediments derived from the Colorado River, deposited in the lower Colorado River Trough). Constraining the depositional age of the Bouse Formation is important for understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system, the uplift history of the Colorado Plateau, and the climate conditions involved in Colorado River evolution. Prior attempts to directly date the ash have been inconclusive. A K-Ar in glass date of 5.47 × 0.20 Ma (Shafiqullah et al., 1980) was questioned because of the potential disturbance of both the parent and daughter products of potassium decay in glass, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on bulk glass and bulk plagioclase separates (Spencer et al., 2000) produced discordant results. Recent glass chemistry correlation of the ash horizon to the 4.83 × 0.011 Ma Lawlor Tuff, Sonoma volcanic field, California (Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2011), has also been contentious, because that age appears to conflict with the proposed onset of the delivery of Colorado River sediment through to the Gulf of California (Dorsey et al., 2007). To resolve the persistent age arguments, comparative zircon tephrochronology has been undertaken utilizing the single-crystal analysis capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Here, U-Pb zircon crystallization age spectra, U and Th abundances, and oxygen isotopic composition are presented which confirm the correlation of the Bouse

  13. Ferroaxinites from the Feather River area, northern California, and from the McGrath and Russian Mission quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hietanen, Anna; Erd, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    In the Feather River area, California, and in the McGrath quadrangle, Alaska, axinite-bearing veins occur as fracture fillings along or near the fault zones, suggesting that boron was introduced along the fractures. An unusual occurrence of axinite as a possible primary constituent of a plutonic rock is in the Russian Mission quadrangle, Alaska. The four analyzed axinites from these widely different localities and from different host rocks are surprisingly similar in chemistry and optics. All are ferroaxinites, having high iron and low manganese and magnesium contents. The number of calcium ions is very close to two, which is in agreement with the idealized formula Ca2 (Fe,Mn,Mg)Al2BSi4O15(OH). The indices of refraction increase slightly with increasing FeO:MgO ratio over the small range studied.

  14. Chronology of Miocene-Pliocene deposits at Split Mountain Gorge, Southern California: A record of regional tectonics and Colorado River evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorsey, R.J.; Fluette, A.; McDougall, K.; Housen, B.A.; Janecke, S.U.; Axen, G.J.; Shirvell, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Late Miocene to early Pliocene deposit at Split Mountain Gorge, California, preserve a record of basinal response to changes in regional tectonics, paleogeography, and evolution of the Colorado River. The base of the Elephant Trees Formation, magnetostratigraphically dated as 8.1 ?? 0.4 Ma, provides the earliest well-dated record of extension in the southwestern Salton Trough. The oldest marine sediments are ca. 6.3 Ma. The nearly synchronous timing of marine incursion in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California region supports a model for localization of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Gulf ca. 6 Ma. The first appearance of Colorado River sand at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) suggests rapid propagation of the river to the Salton Trough, and supports a lake-spillover hypothesis for initiation of the lower Colorado River. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  15. A legacy of change: The lower Colorado River, Arizona-California-Nevada, USA, and Sonora-Baja California Norte, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.A.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The lower Colorado is among the most regulated rivers in the world. It ranks as the fifth largest river in volume in the coterminous United States, but its flow is fully allocated and no longer reaches the sea. Lower basin reservoirs flood nearly one third of the river channel and store 2 years of annual flow. Diverted water irrigates 1.5 million ha of cropland and provides water for industry and domestic use by 22 million people in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The native fish community of the lower Colorado River was among the most unique in the world, and the main stem was home to nine freshwater species, all of which were endemic to the basin. Today, five are extirpated, seven are federally endangered, and three are being reintroduced through stocking. Decline of the native fauna is attributed to predation by nonnative fishes and physical habitat degradation. Nearly 80 alien species have been introduced, and more than 20 now are common. These nonnative species thrived in modified habitats, where they largely eliminated the native kinds. As a result, the lower Colorado River has the dubious distinction of being among the few major rivers of the world with an entirely introduced fish fauna. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. Ubiquitous tar balls with a California-source signature on the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Carlson, P.R.; Rapp, J.B.; Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A.

    1995-01-01

    Although the shorelines of Prince William Sound still bear traces of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, most of the flattened tar balls that can be found today on these shorelines are not residues of Exxon Valdez oil. Instead, the carbon-isotopic and hydrocarbon-biomarker signatures of 61 tar ball samples, collected from shorelines throughout the northern and western parts of the sound, are all remarkably similar and have characteristics consistent with those of oil products that originated from the Monterey Formation source rocks of California. The carbon-isotopic compositions of the tar balls are all closely grouped (??13CPDB = -23.7 ?? 0.2???), within the range found in crude oils from those rocks, but are distinct from isotopic compositions of 28 samples of residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (??13CPDB = -29.4 ?? 0.1???). Likewise, values for selected biomarker ratios in the tar balls are all similar but distinct from values of residues from the 1989 oil spill. Carbon-isotopic and biomarker signatures generally relate the tar balls to oil products used in Alaska before ???1970 for construction and pavements. How these tar balls with such similar geochemical characteristics became so widely dispersed throughout the northern and western parts of the sound is not known with certainty, but the great 1964 Alaska earthquake was undoubtedly an important trigger, causing spills from ruptured storage facilities of California-sourced asphalt and fuel oil into Prince William Sound.

  17. Combining Dynamic Earthquake and Tsunami Models With Case Studies Offshore Alaska and Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kenny

    Earthquakes and their corresponding tsunamis pose significant hazard to popu- lated regions around the world. Therefore, it is critically important that we seek to more fully understand the physics of the combined earthquake-tsunami system. One way to address this goal is through numerical modeling. The work discussed herein focuses on combining dynamic earthquake and tsunami models through the use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). Dynamic earthquake models ac- count for the force that the entire fault system exerts on each individual element of the model for each time step, so that earthquake rupture takes a path based on the physics of the model; dynamic tsunami models can incorporate water height variations to produce water wave formation, propagation, and inundation. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to some important concepts and equations of elastodynamics and fluid dynamics as well as a brief example of the FEM. In Chapter 2, we investigate the 3-D effects of realistic fault dynamics on slip, free surface deformation, and resulting tsunami formation from an Mw 9 megathrust earthquake offshore Southern Alaska. Corresponding tsunami models, which use a FDM to solve linear long-wave equations, match sea floor deformation, in time, to the free surface deformation from the rupture simulations. Tsunamis generated in this region could have large adverse effects on Pacific coasts. In Chapter 3, we construct a 3-D dynamic rupture model of an earthquake on a reverse fault structure offshore Southern California to model the resulting tsunami, with a goal of elucidating the seismic and tsunami hazard in this area. The corresponding tsunami model uses final seafloor displacements from the rupture model as initial conditions to compute local propagation and inundation, resulting in large peak tsunami amplitudes northward and eastward due to site and path effects. In Chapter 4, we begin to evaluate 2-D earthquake source parameters

  18. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    During and after lining the All-American Canal (2007–11), groundwater elevations in the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area declined, while total dissolved solids concentrations remained relatively constant. The total dissolved solids concentrations in well LCWSP-2 ranged from 650 to 800 milligrams per liter during this study. Depth-specific water-quality and isotope sampling at well LCWSP-2 indicated the groundwater pumped from the deeper part of the screened interval (240–280 feet below land surface) contained a greater proportion of historical groundwater than the groundwater pumped from the shallower part of the screened interval (350–385 feet below land surface). Age-tracer data at well LCWSP-2 indicated that all depths of the screened interval had received recent recharge from seepage of Colorado River water from the All-American Canal.

  19. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  20. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Improving Resilience for California from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, W.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We present the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the tsunami scenario. The intended users are those who must make mitigation decisions before and rapid decisions during future tsunamis. Around a half million people would be present in the scenario's inundation area in residences, businesses, public venues, parks and beaches. Evacuation would likely be ordered for the State of California's maximum mapped tsunami inundation zone, evacuating an additional quarter million people from residences and businesses. Some island and peninsula communities would face particular evacuation challenges because of limited access options and short warning time, caused by the distance between Alaska and California. Evacuations may also be a challenge for certain dependent-care populations. One third of the boats in California's marinas could be damaged or sunk, costing at least 700 million in repairs to boats and docks, and potentially much more to address serious issues due to sediment transport and environmental contamination. Fires would likely start at many sites where fuel and petrochemicals are stored in ports and marinas. Tsunami surges and bores may travel several miles inland up coastal rivers. Debris clean-up and recovery of inundated and damaged areas will take days, months, or years depending on the severity of impacts and the available resources for recovery. The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (POLA/LB) would be shut down for a miniμm of two days due to strong currents. Inundation of dry land in the ports would result in 100 million damages to cargo and additional

  1. Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Wilson, R.C.; Bowers, J.C.; Laber, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and floods following wildfires in these settings. This information can provide guidance for warning systems and planning for emergency response in similar settings. Debris flows were produced from 25 recently burned basins in Colorado in response to 13 short-duration, high-intensity convective storms. Debris flows were triggered after as little as six to 10??min of storm rainfall. About 80% of the storms that generated debris flows lasted less than 3??h, with most of the rain falling in less than 1??h. The storms triggering debris flows ranged in average intensity between 1.0 and 32.0??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows sufficiently large to pose threats to life and property from recently burned areas in south-central, and southwestern, Colorado are defined by: I = 6.5D-??0.7 and I = 9.5D-??0.7, respectively, where I = rainfall intensity (in mm/h) and D = duration (in hours). Debris flows were generated from 68 recently burned areas in southern California in response to long-duration frontal storms. The flows occurred after as little as two hours, and up to 16??h, of low-intensity (2-10??mm/h) rainfall. The storms lasted between 5.5 and 33??h, with average intensities between 1.3 and 20.4??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for life- and property-threatening floods and debris

  2. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  3. Use of long-term tritium records from the Colorado River to determine timescales for hydrologic processes associated with irrigation in the Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.; Schoeder, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium records were used to study hydrologic processes associated with irrigation and drainage in the Imperial Valley, a 2000-km2 agricultural area in the southeastern California desert. Tritium was analyzed in surface water, ground water, soil-pore water and drain water, and the results were compared to the historical record of tritium in the Colorado River. The Colorado River record was reconstructed using a simple reservoir model and precipitation data in the Colorado River Basin for the period prior to 1965, and from continuous measurements in the river for 1965-1988. This historical record is especially useful in the arid Imperial Valley because recent agricultural development has been entirely dependent on irrigation water diverted from the Colorado River and local recharge is negligible. Results indicate that it takes about 5 a for irrigation drainage to move through the soil to a depth of 2-3 m. Drainwaters have a wide range in tritium concentrations because of varying degrees of influence from ground-water intrusion, and from rapid percolation of irrigation through preferred pathways. The net result is that drainwater from about 40 fields had a range in tritium concentration similar to that of the Colorado River over the last 9 a (1980-1988), a period during which tritium concentration was declining about 15% annually in the river. ?? 1994.

  4. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  5. Method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River downstream from Laguna Dam in Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Wilson, Richard P.; Carpenter, Michael C.; Fink, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Accounting for the use of Colorado River water is required by the U.S. Supreme Court decree, 1964, Arizona v. California. Water pumped from wells on the flood plain and from certain wells on alluvial slopes outside the flood plain is presumed to be river water and is accounted for as Colorado River water. The accounting-surface method developed for the area upstream from Laguna Dam was modified for use downstream from Laguna Dam to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. Use of the same method provides a uniform criterion of identification for all users pumping water from wells by determining if the static water-level elevation in the well is above or below the elevation of the accounting surface. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation above the accounting surface are presumed to yield river water stored above river level. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The river aquifer consists of permeable sediments and sedimentary rocks that are hydraulically connected to the Colorado River so that water can move between the river and the aquifer in response to withdrawal of water from the aquifer or differences in water-level elevations between the river and the aquifer. The subsurface limit of the river aquifer is the nearly impermeable bedrock of the bottom and sides of the basins that underlie the Yuma area and adjacent valleys. The accounting surface represents the elevation and slope of the unconfined static water table in the river aquifer outside the flood plain of the Colorado River that would exist if the river were the only source of water to the river aquifer. The accounting surface was generated by using water

  6. Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris neiris), Alaska and California, USA.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Pamela A; Murray, Michael J; Garner, Michael M; Goertz, Caroline E C; Nordhausen, Robert W; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Getzy, David M; Nielsen, Ole; Archer, Linda L; Maness, Heather T D; Wellehan, James F X; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-07-01

    Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined.

  7. Novel poxvirus infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris neiris), Alaska and California, USA.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Pamela A; Murray, Michael J; Garner, Michael M; Goertz, Caroline E C; Nordhausen, Robert W; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Getzy, David M; Nielsen, Ole; Archer, Linda L; Maness, Heather T D; Wellehan, James F X; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-07-01

    Small superficially ulcerated skin lesions were observed between October 2009 and September 2011 during captive care of two orphaned sea otter pups: one northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska and one southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California. Inclusions consistent with poxviral infection were diagnosed by histopathology in both cases. Virions consistent with poxvirus virions were seen on electron microscopy in the northern sea otter, and the virus was successfully propagated in cell culture. DNA extraction, pan-chordopoxviral PCR amplification, and sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene revealed that both cases were caused by a novel AT-rich poxvirus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses found that the virus is divergent from other known poxviruses at a level consistent with a novel genus. These cases were self-limiting and did not appear to be associated with systemic illness. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a poxvirus in a mustelid species. The source of this virus, mode of transmission, zoonotic potential, and biological significance are undetermined. PMID:24807180

  8. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. History of earthquakes and tsunamis along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, with implications for tsunami hazards in the California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray E.; Scholl, David W.; Kirby, Stephen; Draut, Amy E.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Dusel-Bacon, C.

    2012-01-01

    During the past several years, devastating tsunamis were generated along subduction zones in Indonesia, Chile, and most recently Japan. Both the Chile and Japan tsunamis traveled across the Pacific Ocean and caused localized damage at several coastal areas in California. The question remains as to whether coastal California, in particular the California Continental Borderland, is vulnerable to more extensive damage from a far-field tsunami sourced along a Pacific subduction zone. Assuming that the coast of California is at risk from a far-field tsunami, its coastline is most exposed to a trans-Pacific tsunami generated along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone. We present the background geologic constraints that could control a possible giant (Mw ~9) earthquake sourced along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. Previous great earthquakes (Mw ~8) in 1788, 1938, and 1946 ruptured single segments of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. However, in order to generate a giant earthquake, it is necessary to rupture through multiple segments of the megathrust. Potential barriers to a throughgoing rupture, such as high-relief fracture zones or ridges, are absent on the subducting Pacific Plate between the Fox and Semidi Islands. Possible asperities (areas on the megathrust that are locked and therefore subject to infrequent but large slip) are identified by patches of high moment release observed in the historical earthquake record, geodetic studies, and the location of forearc basin gravity lows. Global Positioning System (GPS) data indicate that some areas of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, such as that beneath Sanak Island, are weakly coupled. We suggest that although these areas will have reduced slip during a giant earthquake, they are not really large enough to form a barrier to rupture. A key aspect in defining an earthquake source for tsunami generation is determining the possibility of significant slip on the updip end of the megathrust near

  10. Comparison of ground-based measurements of natural radiation to airborne radiation survey data on transects from coastal California to the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.

  11. Method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by Colorado River water in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Richard P.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1994-01-01

    Accounting for the use of Colorado River water is required by the U.S. Supreme Court decree, 1964, Arizona v. California. Water pumped from wells on the flood plain and from certain wells on alluvial slopes outside the flood plain is presumed to be river water and is accounted for as Colorado River water. A method was developed to identify wells outside the f1ood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. The method provides a uniform criterion of identification for all users pumping water from wells. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. Wells that have a static water-level elevation above the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from precipitation and inflow from tributary valleys. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The river aquifer consists of permeable, partly saturated sediments and sedimentary rocks that are hydraulically connected to the Colorado River so that water can move between the river and the aquifer in response to withdrawal of water from the aquifer or differences in water-level elevations between the river and the aquifer. The accounting surface represents the elevation and slope of the unconfined static water table in the river aquifer outside the flood plain and reservoirs that would exist if the river were the only source of water to the river aquifer. Maps at a scale of 1:100,000 show the extent and elevation of the accounting surface from the area surrounding Lake Mead to Laguna Dam near Yuma, Arizona.

  12. Improving attenuation tomography by novel inversions for t* and Q: application to Parkfield, California and Okmok volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesicek, J. D.; Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Standard methods for mapping variations in seismic attenuation (Q) structure using local earthquake data involve a two-step process. First, values of the whole path attenuation operator t* are determined from earthquake data recorded on a seismic array by inverting observed spectra for source and attenuation parameters. Then, these t* data are used to invert tomographically for frequency-independent Q models. The observed earthquake amplitude spectra depend on both source parameters and site effects. However, quantification of site effects is often neglected. Bennington et al. [2008] determined site response jointly with source parameters for small groups of events and then computed each station's site response as the average over all groups. Building on this work, we have adapted the method to model all events simultaneously to more accurately determine site response from the earthquake spectra. This in turn allows us to more accurately determine t*. However, resolution analysis of the results shows that some parameters are not well resolved in the joint inversion. Thus, an alternating inversion scheme is tested and adapted to alleviate poor resolution and parameter trade-offs. The new scheme produces better fits to the earthquake spectra than previous methods, and the resulting t* data should allow for more accurate determination of the Q structure. Because the equation relating t* to Q is nonlinear, the typical approach to determining Q is to solve for changes to a starting model iteratively, similar to methods commonly used in travel time tomography. However, if we instead solve for the inverse of Q, the equation becomes linear and the solution no longer depends on the starting model. This simple modification may allow us to more accurately determine Q. We test these new t* and Q methods using earthquake data from Parkfield, California and Okmok volcano, Alaska. We present the results for real and synthetic data and compare and contrast these results to more

  13. Creating a culturally appropriate web-based behavioral intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native women in Southern California: the healthy women healthy Native nation study.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Clapp, John D; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process resulted in several important program modifications and was essential for fostering partnerships between researchers and the community, engaging community members in research, and identifying community priorities.

  14. The Property Tax and the Voters. An Analysis of State Consitutional Referenda to Revise School Finance Systems in California, Colorado, Michigan and Oregon in 1972 and 1973. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalala, Donna E.; And Others

    In November 1972, electorates in California, Colorado, Michigan, and Oregon decisively rejected consitutional amendments that (according to their supporters) would have reduced or eliminated reliance on the property tax as a means of financing education. School finance reformers were perplexed by these defeats. This study sets out to explain the…

  15. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice--British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington, October 1996.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the Seattle-King County Department of Public Health and the Washington State Department of Health reported an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections epidemiologically associated with drinking Odwalla brand unpasteurized apple juice or Odwalla juice mixtures containing apple juice from a coffee shop chain, grocery stores, or other locations. A case was defined as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or a stool culture yielding E. coli O157:H7 in a person who became ill after September 30, 1996, and drank Odwalla juice within 10 days before illness onset. As of November 6, British Columbia, California, Colorado, and Washington had reported a total of 45 cases. PMID:8965797

  16. Pb-Bi-Ag-Cu-(Hg) chemistry of galena and some associated sulfosalts. A review and some new data from Colorado California and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, Eugene E.; Shawe, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Galena, associated with Pb-Bi-Ag sulfosalts and simple sulfides, contains varied amounts of Ag and Bi in the Dandy vein system, Idarado mine, Ouray, Colorado; the Jackass mine, Darwin District, California; and the Leadville district, Colorado. Silver- and bismuth-bearing galena associated with minor amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite occur at the Pequea mine, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Ag and Bi contents in the Dandy suite of galena range from about 1.4 to 3.4 and 2.5 to 6.5 wt.% respectively, and are comparable or lower in galena from the other localities. Exsolved matildite is present in galena from the Dandy, Jackass and Leadville localities. The presence in significant amounts of both Ag and Bi in a Pb-rich sulfide system is necessary for formation of PbSss (galena solid-solution). If Ag (especially) and Bi (to a lesser extent) are absent, the galena formed will be essentially pure PbS. Some minor Sb may substitute for Bi. Compositional data for all of the galena samples are in agreement with a previously proposed linear relationship between a and Ag-Bi(Sb) content. Matildite and seven additional Pb-Bi-Ag-Cu sulfosalts have been identified from the Dandy vein system, based on electron-microprobe analyses and some X-ray powder-diffraction data.

  17. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, S.; Takahashi, S.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Kannan, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100 ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins ??? total octyltins ??? total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arctic Animals of Alaska. First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Sandra

    The Arctic is covered with ice and snow for most of the year. Animals that live in Alaska's arctic region must be able to survive long winters and very cold temperatures. Surprisingly, many animals live in the harsh, cold climate. This first-grade activity plan helps students learn about the animals of the far north. The plan gives six steps for…

  19. Mental health and substance abuse characteristics among a clinical sample of urban American Indian/Alaska native youths in a large California metropolitan area: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzes descriptive data among a clinical sample of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths receiving mental health services in a large California metropolitan area. Among 118 urban AI/AN youths, mood disorders (41.5%) and adjustment disorder (35.4%) were the most common mental health diagnoses. Alcohol (69.2%) and marijuana (50.0%) were the most commonly used substances. Witnessing domestic violence (84.2%) and living with someone who had a substance abuse problem (64.7%) were reported. The majority of patients demonstrated various behavior and emotional problems. Enhancing culturally relevant mental health and substance abuse treatment and prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is suggested.

  20. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States: Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, 1993-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Paul, Angela P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers consist of many basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Demands for irrigation and drinking water have substantially increased groundwater withdrawals and irrigation return flow to some of these aquifers. These changes have increased the movement of contaminants from geologic and human sources to depths used to supply drinking water in several basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest.

  1. Annual Report upon the geographical explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana: Being Appendix FF of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1874

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1874-01-01

    I [G.M. Wheeler] have the honor to submit the following annual report upon geographical explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Montana for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874. Toward the close of the last fiscal year, the expedition of 1873 had taken the field in three separate divisions from Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Col., and Santa Fé, N. Mex.

  2. Combined Ice and Water Balances of Maclure Glacier, California, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, 1967 Hydrologic Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangborn, Wendell V.; Mayo, Lawrence R.; Scully, David R.; Krimmel, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Combined ice and water balances were measured in the 1967 hydrologic year (October 1-September 30) on four glaciers in western North America ranging in latitude from 37 deg to 63 deg N. This hydrologic year was characterized by heavier than normal winter precipitation in California and Washington and abnormally dry winter conditions in coastal Alaska. In summer the western conterminous states were abnormally dry and central and southern Alaska experienced very wet conditions. Maclure Glacier (lat 37 deg 45' N., 3,650-m (metres) mean equilibrium line altitude) had an above normal winter balance of 3.46 m and a positive annual balance of 1.05 m (metres of water equivalent). South Cascade Glacier (lat 48 deg 22' N., 1900-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 3.28 m, slightly above average. Above normal summer ablation resulted in a final annual balance of -0.58 m, slightly more negative than has been the case for the past decade. Wolverine Glacier's (lat 60 deg 24' N., 1,200-m mean equilibrium line altitude) winter balance was 1.17 m, considerably below normal; the annual balance was -2.04 m. Gulkana Glacier (lat 63 deg 15' N., 1,700-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 1.05 m, approximately normal for this glacier; the final annual balance was -0.30 m.

  3. A hacker's guide to catching a debris flow: Lessons learned from four years of chasing mud in Colorado and southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J.; Leeper, R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurements of natural debris flows provide valuable insights into debris-flow processes and hazards. Yet debris flows are difficult to "catch" because they live in rugged terrain, appear infrequently, and have an appetite for destroying monitoring equipment. We present an overview of some successful (and failed) techniques we have used over the past four years to obtain direct measurements of 40+ debris flows in Colorado and southern California. Following the "MacGyver" theme of the session, we focus on the improvised equipment and methods we use in our hunt for quality data. These include an inexpensive erosion sensor to measure rates of debris-flow entrainment, a custom load cell enclosure for measuring debris-flow normal force, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders, basic pressure transducers to measure debris-flow timing, and standard digital cameras adapted to obtain high-resolution (1936 x 1288 pixels) video footage of debris flows. These techniques are also suitable for catching data on elusive flash floods. In addition, we also share some practical solutions to the logistical problems associated with installing monitoring equipment in rugged debris-flow terrain, such as suspension of non-contact stage gages high above channels.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants associated to water fluxes and sedimentary processes in the Colorado River delta, Baja California, México.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Ibarra, K C; Daesslé, L W; Macías-Zamora, J V; Ramírez-Álvarez, N

    2011-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were studied in sediment cores from two distinctive modern channels of the Colorado River (CR) delta. Their abundance and temporal changes are associated with flood-flows from the CR across the USA-Mexico border. The CR channel is directly exposed to river flood-flows while the Hardy River (HR) is a local channel derived mainly from agricultural runoff, geothermal effluents, and treated urban wastewater. Different headwater compositions and degrees of exposure to flood-flows appear to be the factors controlling the composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Enrichment of OCPs (46 ng g(-1) dwt in HR and 4.37 ng g(-1) dwt in CR) occurred during or a few years after flooding. PCB-138 (4.2 ng g(-1)dwt) is enriched in HR suggesting its origin in dielectric oils from the geothermal power plant. PCB-28 (2.1 ng g(-1)dwt) in CR may be related with atmospheric input and/or re-deposition of upstream sediments. In surficial sediments (0-3 cm), only HR exceeds international sediment quality guidelines (4,4'-DDE=8.16 ng g(-1)dwt and ΣDDT=8.34 ng g(-1)dwt).

  5. Early Pliocene Hiatus in Sand Output by the Colorado River: Evidence From Marine Deposits in the Salton Trough, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Early Pliocene deposits in the western Salton Trough preserve a high-fidelity record of sediment dispersal into the marine realm during initiation and early evolution of the Colorado River (CR). Grain-size fractionation, sediment routing, and transport dynamics of the early CR delta are recorded in sediments of the Fish Creek - Vallecito basin, which was located ~100 km south of Yuma along the transform plate boundary at 5 Ma. Early Pliocene delivery of CR sand to the basin took place in two distinct pulses: (1) deposition of sandy turbidites (Wind Caves Mbr of the Latrania Fm) in a restricted submarine canyon at Split Mt Gorge between ~5.3 and 5.1 Ma; and (2) progradation of a thick, widespread, coarsening-up deltaic sequence of marine mudstone, sandstone, and coquinas (Deguynos Fm) between ~4.8 and 4.2 Ma. Estimated flux of CR sediment during Wind Caves deposition was weak (~3-5 Mt/yr) compared to the long-term average (172±64 Mt/yr). The two pulses of CR sand input are separated by the Coyote Clay (CC, ~5.1-4.8 Ma), a regionally correlable, greenish-yellow-weathering marine claystone unit at the base of the Deguynos Fm. CC gradationally overlies Wind Caves turbidites in the area of the paleocanyon. In contrast, in the Coyote Mts 15-23 km to the south and SE, CC rests on coarse-grained locally-derived late Miocene sedimentary rocks, Alverson volcanics, and metamorphic basement rock along a regional unconformity. Identical claystone facies occur in the NW Indio Hills (restores to Yuma at the mouth of the CR at 5 Ma), and Sierra Cucapa in Mexico (~200 km south of Yuma at 5 Ma). Marine localities outside of the Wind Caves paleocanyon experienced slow to negligible sedimentation along a rugged rocky shoreline until abrupt arrival of CR-derived clay. CC accumulated in a sand-starved, pro-delta marine setting (Winker, 1987) over an inferred N-S distance of ~200 km. We therefore reject an alternate hypothesis that CC accumulated on the muddy slope of the prograding CR

  6. Duration of fuels reduction following prescribed fire in coniferous forests of U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Lalemand, Laura; Keifer, MaryBeth; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is a widely used forest management tool, yet the long-term effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing fuels and fire hazards in many vegetation types is not well documented. We assessed the magnitude and duration of reductions in surface fuels and modeled fire hazards in coniferous forests across nine U.S. national parks in California and the Colorado Plateau. We used observations from a prescribed fire effects monitoring program that feature standard forest and surface fuels inventories conducted pre-fire, immediately following an initial (first-entry) prescribed fire and at varying intervals up to >20 years post-fire. A subset of these plots was subjected to prescribed fire again (second-entry) with continued monitoring. Prescribed fire effects were highly variable among plots, but we found on average first-entry fires resulted in a significant post-fire reduction in surface fuels, with litter and duff fuels not returning to pre-fire levels over the length of our observations. Fine and coarse woody fuels often took a decade or longer to return to pre-fire levels. For second-entry fires we found continued fuels reductions, without strong evidence of fuel loads returning to levels observed immediately prior to second-entry fire. Following both first- and second-entry fire there were increases in estimated canopy base heights, along with reductions in estimated canopy bulk density and modeled flame lengths. We did not find evidence of return to pre-fire conditions during our observation intervals for these measures of fire hazard. Our results show that prescribed fire can be a valuable tool to reduce fire hazards and, depending on forest conditions and the measurement used, reductions in fire hazard can last for decades. Second-entry prescribed fire appeared to reinforce the reduction in fuels and fire hazard from first-entry fires.

  7. A late Miocene-early Pliocene chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River: Evidence from Sr, C, and O isotopes of the Bouse Formation and related units between Grand Canyon and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roskowski, J.A.; Patchett, P.J.; Spencer, J.E.; Pearthree, P.A.; Dettman, D.L.; Faulds, J.E.; Reynolds, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report strontium isotopic results for the late Miocene Hualapai Limestone of the Lake Mead area (Arizona-Nevada) and the latest Miocene to early Pliocene Bouse Formation and related units of the lower Colorado River trough (Arizona-California-Nevada), together with parallel oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses of Bouse samples, to constrain the lake-overflow model for integration of the Colorado River. Sr iso topic analyses on the basal 1-5 cm of marl, in particular along a transect over a range of altitude in the lowest-altitude basin that contains freshwater, brackish, and marine fossils, document the 87Sr/86Sr of first-arriving Bouse waters. Results reinforce the similarity between the 87Sr/86Sr of Bouse Formation carbonates and present-day Colorado River water, and the systematic distinction of these values from Neogene marine Sr. Basal Bouse samples show that 87Sr/86Sr decreased from 0.7111 to values in the range 0.7107-0.7109 during early basin filling. 87Sr/86Sr values from a recently identified marl in the Las Vegas area are within the range of Bouse Sr ratios. 87Sr/86Sr values from the Hualapai Limestone decrease upsection from 0.7195 to 0.7137, in the approach to a time soon after 6 Ma when Hualapai deposition ceased and the Colorado River became established through the Lake Mead area. Bouse Formation ??18O values range from -12.9??? to +1.0??? Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB), and ??13C between -6.5??? and +3.4??? VPDB. Negative ??18O values appear to require a continental origin for waters, and the trend to higher ??18O suggests evaporation in lake waters. Sr and stable isotopic results for sectioned barnacle shells and from bedding planes of the marine fish fossil Colpichthys regis demonstrate that these animals lived in saline freshwater, and that there is no evidence for incursions of marine water, either long-lived or brief in duration. Lack of correlation of Sr and O isotopic variations in the same samples also argue strongly against systematic

  8. Alternative models for Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous paleogeography of the western Cordillera, California to SE Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, D.S. . Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Franciscan-Great Valley-Sierran triad is indisputable evidence for late Mesozoic, west-facing subduction along the California sector of the N. American margin. In the northwestern sector (N of 48[degree]N), however, neither the configuration of plate boundaries, nor the paleogeographic disposition of the Insular and Intermontane superterranes, is confidently established. Models divide into two groups. One set, based entirely on geologic evidence such as the age and nature of deformational events, or putative stratigraphic links among terranes, places the two superterranes exclusively to the north of the Franciscan-Sierran system from 150 to 90 Ma. These hypotheses, which ignore or reject paleomagnetic data from mid-Cretaceous rocks, yield a paleogeography not too different from today's, but they are incompatible with the Franciscan and Great Valley rocks caught between the superterranes in the mid-Cretaceous San Juan-Cascade thrust system. An alternative model fully respecting paleomagnetic data from mid-Cretaceous rocks with paleohorizontal control restores most of the Intermontane superterrane [approximately]1,200 km south of its expected (i.e. present) latitudinal position with respect to North America, and the Insular superterrane [approximately]2,900 km south, at 95--105 Ma. The mid-Cretaceous thrust system along the eastern margin of the Insular superterrane records the collision of Wrangellia et al. with the southern continuation of the Franciscan subduction zone. The thrust system, a silver of hanging wall, and the Insular superterrane were all subsequently translated > 2,500 km northward by post-80, pre-60 Ma coast-parallel dextral slip, accommodated on the proto-Pasayten and proto-Yalakom faults, and along or near the Coast Range shear zone.

  9. Identifying wells downstream from Laguna Dam that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes a comprehensive study and development of the method documented in Owen-Joyce and others (2000). That report and one for the area upstream from Laguna Dam (Wilson and Owen-Joyce, 1994) document the accounting-surface method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Downstream from Laguna Dam, the Colorado River is the source for nearly all recharge to the river aquifer. The complex surface-water and ground-water system that exists in the area is, in part, the result of more than 100 years of water-resources development. Agriculture is the principal economy and is possible only with irrigation. The construction and operation of canals provides the means to divert and distribute Colorado River water to irrigate agricultural lands on the flood plains and mesas along the Colorado and Gila Rivers, in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, and in the area upstream from Dome along the Gila River. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, dewatering, and domestic use. The area downstream from Laguna Dam borders additional areas of agricultural development in Mexico where Colorado River water also is diverted for irrigation.

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the lower-Colorado River valley, Arizona, California, and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, D.B.; Kepner, W.G.; Effertz, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River Valley Irrigation Drainage Project area included the Colorado River and its environs from Davis Dam to just above Imperial Dam. Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled at selected locations within the study area and analyzed for selected inorganic and synthetic organic constituents that are likely to be present at toxic concentrations. With the exceptions of selenium and DDE, this study found sampling locations to be relatively free of large concentrations of toxic constituents that could be a threat to humans, fish, and wildlife. Selenium was the only inorganic constituent to exceed any existing standard, criterion, or guideline for protection of fish and wildlife resources. Concentrations of DDE in double-crested cormorants, however, exceeded the criterion of 1.0 microgram per gram established by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering for DDT and its metabolites for protection of wildlife. Dissolved-selenium concentrations in water from the lower Colorado River appear to be derived from sources above Davis Dam. At this time, therefore , agricultural practices in the lower Colorado River valley do not appear to exacerbate selenium concentrations. This fact, however, does not mean that the aquatic organisms and their predators are not in jeopardy. Continued selenium loading to the lower Colorado environment could severely affect important components of the ecosystem. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Silverton folio, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  12. The development of folds and cleavages in slate belts by underplating in accretionary complexes: A comparison of the Kodiak Formation, Alaska and the Calaveras Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.

    1988-08-01

    The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and

  13. Cost/benefit analysis for the Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations (OASSO). [Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P. A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The total cost associated with satellite snow cover area measurement (SATSCAM) in the Colorado ASVT was $2,050 which equates to 0.22/sq km. When extrapolated to the 2,238,890 km area impacted by snow-survey forecasting in the Western United States, the total yearly cost of employing SATSCAM is approximately $493k. The estimated total benefits to hydroeletric energy production is $10m yearly, with the Pacific Northwest receiving the smallest benefits, and the Rio Grande region the highest. Irrigated agriculture receives a yearly total benefit of $38m, with the Lower Colorado region receiving the largest per acre benefit and the Pacific Northwest receiving the lowest.

  14. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  15. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the

  16. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  17. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  18. Analyzing post-fire topography at the hillslope-channel interface with terrestrial LiDAR: contrasting geomorphic responses from the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire of Colorado and the 2013 Springs Fire of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storesund, R.; Chin, A.; Florsheim, J. L.; O'Hirok, L.; Williams, K.; Austin, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains areas are increasingly susceptible to wildfires because of warming climates. Although knowledge of the hydro-geomorphological impacts of wildfire has advanced in recent years, much is still unknown regarding how environmental fluxes move through burned watersheds. Because of the loss of vegetation and hydrophobic soils, flash floods often accompany elevated runoff events from burned watersheds, making direct process measurements challenging. Direct measurements are also only partly successful at capturing the spatial variations of post-fire effects. Coupled with short temporal windows for observing such responses, opportunities are often missed for collecting data needed for developing predictive models. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) of burned areas allows detailed documentation of the post-fire topography to cm-level accuracy, providing pictures of geomorphic responses not previously possible. This paper reports a comparative study of hillslope-channel interactions, using repeat TLS, in two contrasting environments. Burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire and 2013 Springs Fire, in Colorado and California respectively, the study sites share many similarities including steep erosive slopes, small drainage areas, and step-pool channel morphologies. TLS provided a tool to test the central hypothesis that, dry ravel, distinct in the California Mediterranean environment, would prompt a greater sedimentological response from the Springs Fire compared to the Waldo Canyon Fire. At selected sites in each area, TLS documented baseline conditions immediately following the fire. Repeat scanning after major storms allowed detection of changes in the landscape. Results show a tendency for sedimentation in river channels in the study sites interacting with dry ravel on hillslopes, whereas erosion dominated the response from the Waldo Canyon Fire with an absence of dry ravel. These data provide clues to developing generalizations for post-fire effects at regional scales

  19. Detrital Zircon Record of Colorado River Incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, D.; Grove, M.; Gehrels, G.; Dorsey, R.; House, K. P.; Howard, K.; Pearthree, P. A.; Spencer, J. E.; Mahoney, B.

    2007-05-01

    The Colorado River is a large, youthful, unequilibrated continental drainage system the base-level for which was established rather abruptly between 5 and 6 million years ago in conjunction with Gulf of California rifting and establishment of the modern river course through the western Grand Canyon and lower Colorado river region. New laser ablation ICPMS detrital zircon U-Pb analyses (~3000) from ~40 samples provide insight into details relating to the cause, timing and consequences of river inception. These samples encompass (1) the modern Colorado River delta, (2) major tributaries including the Green, "Grand", San Juan, Little Colorado and Gila rivers (3) late Miocene to Pliocene sediments along the lower Colorado (4) late Miocene to Pleistocene deltaic and fluvial sediments of the Imperial and Palm Spring Groups in the western Salton Trough, and (5) late Miocene- early Pliocene Bidahochi Formation of eastern Arizona. Data from the western Salton Trough and modern delta yield strata yield remarkably homogeneous age distributions that indicate there was little evolution in Colorado River sediment composition since 5.3 Ma. Detrital zircon is dominated by a mix of local southwest US cratonal basement (1.7 and 1.4 Ga) plus reworked supracrustal sequences of the Colorado Plateau that provide Neoproterozoic, 1.1 Ga, and early Paleozoic zircons. A relative paucity of Grenville-age grains in the earliest part of the delta sequence may reflect an early stage of the modern river prior to deep incision through Colorado Plateau erg deposits. The strong homogeneity of the detrital zircon record from late Miocene to the present is consistent with the `lake spillover model' for inception and integration of the modern Colorado River drainage. Abrupt integration of the lower Colorado River after 5.6 Ma is clearly recorded by detrital zircon ages from the laucustrine Bouse Formation and Bullhead alluvium aggradational package. Fluvial-laucustrine deposits of the Bidahochi

  20. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. The influence of local circulations on vertical profiles of NO2 and O3 at semi-rural sites during DISCOVER-AQ campaigns in California, Texas, and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein Zweers, D. C.; Pickering, K. E.; Clark, R. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Flynn, C.; Mazzuca, G.; Spinei, E.

    2014-12-01

    Through use of the Millersville University tethersonde balloon an NO2-sonde, developed at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), profiled the lower boundary layer as part of the larger NASA Earth Venture program funded mission. This campaign known as DISCOVER-AQ stands for 'Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality'. Recent results from the California, Texas, and Colorado deployments of DISCOVER-AQ highlight the importance of semi-continuous, daytime measurement of the vertical distribution of ozone and NO2 in the lower boundary layer. The balloon profiles, typically from the surface to 500m above ground level, fill an important gap between surface measurements and the lowest extent of aircraft measurements. This near-surface region of the atmosphere is highly variable and local circulation features including land-sea breezes and mountain-valley breezes were observed. These circulations altered local transport patterns and led to changes in the chemical regime at each site. These processes were especially apparent at Smith Point, Texas during an extreme pollution event on 25 September 2013. The extent to which these local circulations influenced diurnal variation and vertical distribution of NO2 and ozone is evaluated and compared for each semi-rural site using wind direction and other meteorological data. NO2-sonde profile data is compared to ground station trace gas analyzers and where available, column and profile measurements from PANDORA spectrometer instruments. These data measured in the segment of the near-surface atmosphere most critical for human health are unique and crucial for validation of satellite columns and atmospheric chemical models.

  4. Geometry of miocene extensional deformation, lower Colorado River Region, Southeastern California and Southwestern Arizona: Evidence for the presence of a regional low-angle normal fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosdal, R. M.; Sherrod, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of Miocene extensional deformation, which changes along a 120 km-long, northeast-trending transect from the southestern Chocolate Mountains, southeastern California, to the Trigo and southern Dome Rock Mountains, southwestern Arizona is discussed. Based upon regional differences in the structural response to extension and estimated extensional strain, the transet can be divided into three northwesterly-trending structural domains. From southwest to northeast, these domains are: (1) southestern Chocolate-southernmost Trigo Mountains; (2) central to northern Trigo Mountains; and (3) Trigo Peaks-southern Dome Rock Mountains. All structures formed during the deformation are brittle in style; fault rocks are composed of gouge, cohesive gouge, and local microbreccia. In each structural domain, exposed lithologic units are composed of Mesozoic crystalline rocks unconformably overlain by Oligocene to Early Miocene volcanic and minor interbedded sedimentary rocks. Breccia, conglomerate, and sandstone deposited synchronously with regional extension locally overlie the volcanic rocks. Extensional deformation largely postdated the main phase of volcanic activity, but rare rhyolitic tuff and flows interbedded with the syndeformational clastic rocks suggest that deformation began during the waning stages of valcanism. K-Ar isotopic ages indicate that deformation occurred in Miocene time, between about 22 and m.y. ago.

  5. Colorado amethyst.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michalski, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Of the 20 or so amethyst localities reported in Colorado, four are described in some detail and comments are given on their geology. The Crystal Hill mine, near La Garita, Saguache County, contains rock crystal (long slender prisms with small rhombohedral terminations) and pale lavender amethyst (generally <3 in. in length). The deposit was worked as early as the 1800's as a gold mine and also contains abundant manganese oxides. Amethyst, associated with argentiferous galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite, occurs in the Amethyst mine, in the Creede district, on West Willow Creek, Mineral County. The specimens here consist of small pale pinkish-purple crystals interlayered with milky quartz, some as banded forms ("sowbelly agate') and as geode-like vugs. Amethyst also occurs in Unaweep Canyon south of Grand Junction in Mesa County. Pale to very dark amethyst occurs as crystals dominated by large rhombohedra and small prisms (approx 1 in. across). At Red Feather Lakes, Larimer County, amethyst crystals are medium to dark purple and have prism and rhombohedral faces nearly equally developed; some are doubly terminated. -R.S.M.

  6. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  7. Snow and Ice Climatology of the Western United States and Alaska from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Seidel, F. C.; Burgess, A.; Brodzik, M.

    2013-12-01

    . In the Northwest we use the observations to investigate earlier snowmelt, in the Southwest drought, and in Alaska to measure the change in glacier area. We compare the MODIS retrievals to a time series of AVIRIS retrievals at higher spatial resolution spanning 289km2 and 61km2 in the California's Sierra Nevada and Colorado's Senator Beck Basin. We continue to nest specific investigations of regions and topics that have high priority due to existing or anticipated climate stresses, generally in the context of a variety of other concerns.

  8. The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

    The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

  9. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Update of the Accounting Surface Along the Lower Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; McGuire, Emmet H.

    2008-01-01

    The accounting-surface method was developed in the 1990s by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to identify wells outside the flood plain of the lower Colorado River that yield water that will be replaced by water from the river. This method was needed to identify which wells require an entitlement for diversion of water from the Colorado River and need to be included in accounting for consumptive use of Colorado River water as outlined in the Consolidated Decree of the United States Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. The method is based on the concept of a river aquifer and an accounting surface within the river aquifer. The study area includes the valley adjacent to the lower Colorado River and parts of some adjacent valleys in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah and extends from the east end of Lake Mead south to the southerly international boundary with Mexico. Contours for the original accounting surface were hand drawn based on the shape of the aquifer, water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches, and hydrologic judgment. This report documents an update of the original accounting surface based on updated water-surface elevations in the Colorado River and drainage ditches and the use of simple, physically based ground-water flow models to calculate the accounting surface in four areas adjacent to the free-flowing river.

  11. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  14. Annual Report upon the geographical surveys west of the one-hundredth meridian in the States and Territories of California, Oregon, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming: Being Appendix NN of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1877

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1877-01-01

    I [George M. Wheeler] have the honor to submit the following report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1877: Including the expeditions of 1876-'77, the fields occupied will have embraced parts of the States and Territories of California, Oregon, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The remaining political divisions of the area west of the one-hundredth meridian, into which parties of this expedition have not entered for its survey, are the State of Kansas and the Territories of Washington and Dakota. The work so far has been directed to the most rugged and thinly-settled portions of the western mountain region. As time and means permit, the areas occupied will adjoin the sections of territory already entered and continue toward completion the topographical survey of the entire region.

  15. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval..., Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as follows..., Patrol Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California, and such agencies and...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval..., Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as follows..., Patrol Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Naval Air Station Moffett Field, California, and such agencies and...

  17. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  18. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  19. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  20. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  1. Colorado`s Pollution-Prevention Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, P.

    1994-12-31

    The Colorado Pollution Prevention Partnership is a nonprofit, voluntary alliance of government, business, and public interest groups organized in 1990 to develop and promote pollution prevention and waste minimization in Colorado industries. The partnership started with discussions between two individuals concerning a difficulty in a public-private working relationship. The discussions soon expanded to several individuals meeting on a regular basis, then to informal breakfast meetings with representatives from industry, EPA, and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Eventually, organizations representing the public interest joined the discussions. The goals of the partnership are clear: strengthen the working relationship between the private and public sectors; improve capabilities for anticipating and avoiding environmental problems; pool resources and focus attention on the mutual goal of pollution prevention; and exchange information and expertise, and help transfer these to medium and small companies and the general public.

  2. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  3. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  4. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  5. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  6. Hayman Fire, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hayman forest fire, started on June 8, is continuing to burn in the Pike National Forest, 57 km (35 miles) south-southwest of Denver. According to the U.S. Forest Service, the fire has consumed more than 90,000 acres and has become Colorado's worst fire ever. In this ASTER image, acquired Sunday, June 16, 2002 at 10:30 am MST, the dark blue area is burned vegetation and the green areas are healthy vegetation. Red areas are active fires, and the blue cloud at the top center is smoke. Meteorological clouds are white. The image covers an area of 32.2 x 35.2 km (20.0 x 21.8 miles), and displays ASTER bands 8-3-2 in red, green and blue.

    This image was acquired on June 16, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  7. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations reports, January 1--December 31, 1990. Volume 32

    SciTech Connect

    Olfe, J.; Vernet, M.

    1991-11-01

    This document includes a review of some California fisheries, three fishery oceanography symposium papers, and seven other scientific contributions. Topics include pollock in the western Gulf of Alaska, correlation of California current depth and fish, oceanic response to wind off Central California, fishes of the California current and Gulf of California, and other subjects. Each paper is indexed and entered separately on the Energy Data Base.

  8. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations reports, January 1--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Olfe, J.; Vernet, M.

    1991-11-01

    This document includes a review of some California fisheries, three fishery oceanography symposium papers, and seven other scientific contributions. Topics include pollock in the western Gulf of Alaska, correlation of California current depth and fish, oceanic response to wind off Central California, fishes of the California current and Gulf of California, and other subjects. Each paper is indexed and entered separately on the Energy Data Base.

  9. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  10. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  12. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Exporting Alaska's oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.F.; Copulos, M.; Watkins, D.J.

    1983-02-22

    Federal legislation that prohibits the commercial export of oil and gas is creating a glut and discouraging oil production in California, while raising energy costs by shipping the fuel to the East and Gulf Coasts. The historical security reasons for blocking the export of Alaskan oil no longer exist, yet they continue to impose costs for the taxpayer. The optimum solution appears to be to export liquefied natural gas, using a pipeline paralleling the oil pipeline to Valdez. This would encourage the use and manufacture in Alaska of urea and ammonia fertilizer for export to the Far East, which would enhance US/Japan relations. The possibility of exports of additional oil, bringing a higher return for producers, will encourage production, reduce the need for OPEC oil, and moderate world oil prices. 5 references.

  14. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  15. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  16. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  17. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  18. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  19. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  20. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  1. ECOREGIONS OF COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Colorado have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecor...

  2. Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    An overview of the nature, benefits, and steps involved in Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Program, a process that assures that high school graduates have the knowledge and skills considered essential for entry into employment and postsecondary education, begins this document. A discussion of the portfolio process follows, along with descriptions…

  3. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  4. Colorado's Singular "No"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedeman, Reeves

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…

  5. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  6. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  7. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  8. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  9. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  10. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  11. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  12. California Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of ... from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California. This image was acquired during Terra orbit ...

  13. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  14. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  15. Workforce Brief: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Colorado (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 23 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding some 551,630 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 2,355,290 to 2,906,920. The rate of growth is much higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole.…

  16. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  17. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  18. Colorado Preschool Program: 2003 Report to the Colorado Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) serves at-risk preschool children in community programs, including Head Start programs, private for-profit programs, non-profit programs, and programs within public schools. This report to the Colorado legislature provides information on participation in the program, collaborations of CPP with other early…

  19. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

  20. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  1. Colorado Local History: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Carol M., Comp.; Mood, Terry Ann, Comp.

    This directory lists by county 135 collections of local history to be found in libraries, museums, historical societies, schools, colleges, and private collections in Colorado. The directory includes only collections available in Colorado which contain bibliographic holdings such as books, newspaper files or clippings, letters, manuscripts,…

  2. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  3. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  4. EAGLES NEST WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweto, Ogden; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geologic and mineral survey, a primitive area that constitutes the nucleus of the Eagles Nest Wilderness, Colorado was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Among the additional areas later incorporated in the wilderness, only a strip near a major fault west and northwest of Frisco and Dillon is classed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the silver-lead-zinc or fluorspar types.

  5. RAWAH WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Rawah Wilderness, Colorado and some adjacent lands were studied and their mineral-resource potential was assessed using geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data. Traces of copper, silver, uranium, tungsten, and molybdenum were found in geochemical samples, but there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in this relatively unmineralized area. If our interpretation is valid that the southern Medicine Bow Mountains moved eastward along a gently west dipping thrust fault, it suggests the possibility that potential petroleum reservoir rocks are beneath the granite in at least parts of the area. This possibility could be investigated by seismic surveys or drilling.

  6. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  7. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  8. Population status of California sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

  9. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  10. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  11. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  12. Alaska's Young Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Marilyn R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Edgecumbe Enterprises, a four-year-old fish exporting venture run by Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, Alaska, and the students' meeting with business leaders in Tokyo, Japan. The young entrepreneurs spent two weeks studying the Japanese marketing structure. (JOW)

  13. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  14. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  15. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  16. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  17. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  18. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  19. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  20. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  1. Geologic Map of the Needles 7.5' Quadrangle, California and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    The Needles 7.5' quadrangle straddles the Colorado River in the southern part of the Mohave Valley, in Mohave County, Arizona, and San Bernardino County, California. The quadrangle contains part of the Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, sections of the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation, most of the city of Needles, and several major interstate highways and railroads. The quadrangle is underlain by structurally undeformed sediments of Pliocene and younger age that were deposited by the Colorado River, as well as alluvial fan deposits on the piedmonts that flank the Black Mountains (in Arizona) and the Sacramento Mountains (in California). Multiple cycles of aggradation of the Colorado River, each followed by episodes of downcutting, are recorded by Pliocene through historic deposits on the piedmonts that border the floodplain. Regionally, the complex stratigraphy related to the Colorado River has been the subject of geologic interest for over 150 years. The California and Arizona piedmont portions of the Needles quadrangle expose a subset of this incompletely understood stratigraphic record. Thus, the stratigraphic sequence presented on this map is a version of the stratigraphy of the Colorado River as interpreted locally. The deposits in the recently active Colorado River valley floor support riparian habitat and irrigated agriculture. The distributions of sand-rich channel deposits and mud-rich floodplain deposits in the valley are mapped on the basis of the history of the movement of the Colorado River in the quadrangle, which has been documented in sequential aerial photographs since 1937 and maps dating to 1857.

  2. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... transferred to History Colorado, where they are referred to as Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation... the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation). The remains described above...

  3. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  4. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. Educating medical students for Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fortuine, R; Dimino, M J

    1998-01-01

    Because Alaska does not have its own medical school, it has become part of WAMI (Washington, Alaska, Montana, Idaho), an educational agreement with the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM). Each year, 10 Alaskans are accepted into the entering class of UWSM and spend their first year at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). UWSM third- and fourth-year medical students can obtain some of their clinical experience in Alaska. To meet the needs of Alaska, students are chosen based on academic and personal records, as well as the likelihood of their returning to Alaska for practice. To this end, over the last seven years 30% of accepted students have come from rural communities and 10% are Alaska Natives. The curriculum for the first year includes several sessions dedicated to Alaska health problems, cross-cultural issues, and Alaska's unique rural health care delivery system. Students do two preceptorships--one with a private primary care physician and one with a physician at the Alaska Native Medical Center. Additionally, students have the option to spend a week at a rural site to learn about the community's health care system. An Alaska track is being developed whereby an Alaskan UWSM student can do most of the third year in state via clerkships in family medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, psychiatry, internal medicine, and pediatrics. All UWSM students at the end of their first year can elect to participate for one month in the R/UOP (Rural/Underserved Opportunities Program), which includes several Alaska sites. The overall goals of these approaches are to educate UWSM students, especially Alaskans, about the state's health needs and health care system and to encourage UWSM graduates to practice in the state.

  6. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  7. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  8. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  9. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     ... 105,000 acres (164 square miles) of the Angeles National Forest by mid-day August 31, destroying at least 21 homes and threatening more ...

  10. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  11. Summary of miscellaneous potassium-argon age measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, for the years 1972-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compiled and edited by Berry, A. L.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Von Essen, J. C. and others

    1976-01-01

    Potassium-argon age measurements are reported for 61 mineral separates and rock samples from Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Utah, and Washington. The age report for each sample gives location, analytical data, and a brief geologic interpretation.

  12. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  13. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  14. The Colorado Adoption Project

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Corley, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically-informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated- sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP’s history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP’s initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study’s multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development. PMID:23158098

  15. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood

  16. 75 FR 52935 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... notice that on August 12, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs.... Susan C. Stires, Director, Regulatory Affairs, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado... President and General Counsel, Colorado Interstate Gas Company; P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs,...

  17. Dynamic uplift of the Colorado Rockies and western Colorado Plateau in the last 6 Ma driven by mantle flow and buoyancy: Evidence from the Colorado River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.; Coblentz, D. D.; Ouimet, W. B.; Kirby, E.; van Wijk, J. W.; Schmandt, B.; Crossey, L. J.; Crow, R.; Kelley, S.; McKeon, R. E.; Aslan, A.; Darling, A. L.; Dueker, K. G.; Aster, R. C.; Lazear, G. D.; Hilton, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Colorado River system (CRS), the single river system that drains the western slope of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, is a sensitive gauge of the uplift history and landscape evolution of the western U.S. It has a double concave-up longitudinal profile with a transient knickzone at Lees Ferry, Arizona. This knickzone separates the Lower and Upper CR basins, each with different and interacting uplift histories. The Lower CRS profile has evolved, and Grand Canyon has been incised, since 6 Ma due to drainage integration in response to base level fall associated with opening of the Gulf of California and dynamic uplift of the SW Colorado Plateau. Evidence for ongoing uplift comes from geodynamic models that find that mantle flow induces dynamic topography in the Colorado Plateau region. Mantle-driven tectonism is also recorded by the eastwards sweep of basaltic magmatism and a Neogene change from lithospheric- to asthenospheric-sourced basalts in the W Grand Canyon region. The Upper CR basin profile has been shaped by epeirogenic uplift of the Colorado Rockies.Geomorphic analysis of river profiles along the Green and Colorado rivers reveals steeper (normalized) channel gradients along the upper Colorado, despite greater discharge, and 40% greater topographic roughness of the upper CR relative to the Green River. Both are interpreted to reflect differential rock uplift across the W slope of the Colorado Rockies. Tomographic images show a N-trending low velocity anomaly (Aspen Anomaly) that extends to 200-250 km depth beneath the headwaters of the CRS, whereas the Green River basin in underlain by high velocity mantle. Apatite fission track analyses show rapid exhumation above the Aspen Anomaly beginning 10-5 Ma, preserved at modern elevations ranging from 1.5 to 4 km. This indicates substantial pre-10 Ma relief on a broad epeirogenic uplift. 10-5 Ma upper CRS denudation is not explained by climate change at ~3.5 Ma, nor by upstream propagation of incision driven by

  18. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  19. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  20. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  1. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  2. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  3. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  4. KidsCount in Colorado! 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1995 KidsCount in Colorado report examines challenges and offers examples of how prevention and early intervention strategies can make a difference in the lives of Colorado children. The report looks at the state of child well-being in Colorado in terms of health, early care and education, and primary education. Statistics and descriptions…

  5. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  6. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  7. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary s

  8. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  9. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...Phillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc.,...

  10. COLORADO INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOP PAPERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A COLLECTION OF ARTICLES WRITTEN BY MEMBERS OF THE COLORADO INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOP. THE ARTICLES ARE CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL, CULTURAL, MORAL, EMOTIONAL, AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL CHILDREN, AS A MEANINGFUL CURRICULUM IS DEVELOPED TO CORRELATE WITH THEIR SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT.…

  11. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

  12. Goals for Education in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Eleven goals for public education are set forth by the Colorado State Department of Education: (1) command of the knowledge, skills, habits, and attitudes essential for effective learning throughout life; (2) understanding of man and society and the determination to strive for the welfare of all people; (3) knowledge of self, understanding of…

  13. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  14. Diamond collecting in northern Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of numerous diamond-bearing kimberlite diatremes in the N Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming is of both scientific and economic interest. Species recovered from heavy-mineral concentrates include Cr-diopside, spinel, Mg-ilmenite, pyrope and diamond. A nodule tentatively identified as a graphite-diamond eclogite was also found. -G.W.R.

  15. The Colorado Caravan Workshop Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobin, Martin; And Others

    The second of four related manuals describing the goals and methods of an established developmental theatre project at the University of Colorado, this manual presents a hierarchical framework and practical guidelines for conducting drama workshops for elementary students, secondary students, and adults. It describes four types of…

  16. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  17. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  18. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wildfires Rage in Southern California     ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project:  MISR ...

  19. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  20. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  1. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  2. Effect of Race and Ethnicity Classification on Survey Estimates: Anomaly of the Weighted Totals of American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Satter, Delight E.; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial classification is a paramount concern in data collection and analysis for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and has far-reaching implications in health research. We examine how different racial classifications affect survey weights and consequently change health-related indicators for the AI/AN population in California. Using a…

  3. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  4. Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Reynolds, R.L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Sediment discharge in the Colorado River near De Beque, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine annual-sediment discharge at the site of a proposed reservoir on the Colorado River at Una, located 3 miles upstream from De Beque, Colorado. Eleven suspended sediment samples were collected during 1984 at the De Beque bridge. These data were combined with suspended sediment data collected for the Colorado River at two nearby streamflow gaging stations to define relations between suspended-sediment discharge and stream discharge. Best results were obtained when the data were separated into two periods, March through October, and November through February. The data for March through October were separated into two periods: (1) Rising stream-stage period, which includes data collected prior to the data of the annual peak-stream discharge, and (2) falling stream-stage period, which includes data collected after the date of the annual peak-stream discharge. Nine bedload samples were collected during 1984 to determine the contribution of bedload sediment discharge to total sediment discharge. Bedload accounted for < 2% of total sediment discharge. The best relations describing bedload sediment discharge were obtained when the bedload data were separated into two periods: (1) Data collected prior to the date of the annual peak-stream discharge, and (2) data collected after the date of the annual peak-stream discharge. Mean annual sediment discharge in the Colorado River at the proposed Una reservoir site was estimated to be 1,065,000 tons/year for October 1966 through September 1984. Water storage capacity of the proposed reservoir would decrease about 30% after 100 years at this sediment discharge rate. (USGS)

  6. Size and perspective in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Towle, Jim

    2006-01-01

    By far America's largest state, Alaska has only 350 members, so effective communication matters in overcoming distance. Alaska has led the way in direct reimbursement, diversity in leadership, member involvement, and a distinctive lifestyle for its practitioners. The tripartite structure of organized dentistry is crucial in building understanding the issues involved in providing oral health care to the members of this vast state. PMID:17585733

  7. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  8. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  9. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  10. Gunnison, Colorado, subpile study report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    To protect human health and the environment, the UMTRA project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 Part CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study.

  11. Distribution of high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal resources in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2002-01-01

    California contains, by far, the greatest geothermal generating capacity in the United States, and with the possible exception of Alaska, the greatest potential for the development of additional resources. California has nearly 2/3 of the US geothermal electrical installed capacity of over 3,000 MW. Depending on assumptions regarding reservoir characteristics and future market conditions, additional resources of between 2,000 and 10,000 MWe might be developed (see e.g., Muffler, 1979).

  12. Geochronology Database for Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Evans, K.V.; deWitt, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and some unpublished isotopic and fission track age determinations in central Colorado. The compiled area extends from the southern Wyoming border to the northern New Mexico border and from approximately the longitude of Denver on the east to Gunnison on the west. Data for the tephrochronology of Pleistocene volcanic ash, carbon-14, Pb-alpha, common-lead, and U-Pb determinations on uranium ore minerals have been excluded.

  13. Plate tectonics and the Gulf of California region

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, N.

    1990-11-01

    The geology and tectonism of California have been influenced greatly by the collision and interaction between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The forces generated by this interaction caused substantial horizontal movement along the San Andreas fault system and created the Gulf of California rift zone. This article summarizes the unique features of the gulf, describes the theory of plate tectonics, explains how tectonism may have affected the geologic evolution and physiography of the gulf, and illustrates the process by which the Colorado River became linked to the gulf.

  14. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  15. 78 FR 29321 - Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory... National Forest. Proposals, updates, and other information can be found on the Colorado Recreation...

  16. Ready for College in Colorado: Evaluation of the Colorado SUN and the College Connection Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2007, the state of Colorado received one of four federal grants from the Ready for College (RFC) grant program of the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), U.S. Department of Education. The Colorado (CO) SUN project (where SUN stands for Success UNlimited) was designed to identify and enhance innovative practices from Colorado's…

  17. Colorado Preschool Project. Progress Report: Year 1. A Report to the Colorado General Assembly. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiaston, Rebecca; And Others

    By creating the Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) in 1988, the Colorado General Assembly responded to the needs of 4- and 5-year-old children who are at risk of educational failure in Colorado. This paper is an executive summary of a report to the state's general assembly on the project's first 6 months of progress. The CPP addresses two critical…

  18. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...

  19. 2011 Kids Count in Colorado! The Impact of the Great Recession on Colorado's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource…

  20. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  1. Alaska Native Education Study: A Statewide Study of Alaska Native Values and Opinions Regarding Education in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell Group, Juneau, AK.

    This document contains four reports detailing a four-phase research project on Alaska Natives' attitudes and values toward education. A literature review examines the history of Native education in Alaska, issues in research on American Indian and Alaska Native education, dropout studies, student assessment, language and culture, learning styles,…

  2. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  3. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  4. Estimates of average annual tributary inflow to the lower Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of tributary inflow by basin or area and by surface water or groundwater are presented in this report and itemized by subreaches in tabular form. Total estimated average annual tributary inflow to the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and Mexico, excluding the measured tributaries, is 96,000 acre-ft or about 1% of the 7.5 million acre-ft/yr of Colorado River water apportioned to the States in the lower Colorado River basin. About 62% of the tributary inflow originates in Arizona, 30% in California, and 8% in Nevada. Tributary inflow is a small component in the water budget for the river. Most of the quantities of unmeasured tributary inflow were estimated in previous studies and were based on mean annual precipitation for 1931-60. Because mean annual precipitation for 1951-80 did not differ significantly from that of 1931-60, these tributary inflow estimates are assumed to be valid for use in 1984. Measured average annual runoff per unit drainage area on the Bill Williams River has remained the same. Surface water inflow from unmeasured tributaries is infrequent and is not captured in surface reservoirs in any of the States; it flows to the Colorado River gaging stations. Estimates of groundwater inflow to the Colorad River valley. Average annual runoff can be used in a water budget; although in wet years, runoff may be large enough to affect the calculation of consumptive use and to be estimated from hydrographs for the Colorado River valley are based on groundwater recharge estimates in the bordering areas, which have not significantly changed through time. In most areas adjacent to the Colorado River valley, groundwater pumpage is small and pumping has not significantly affected the quantity of groundwater discharged to the Colorado River valley. In some areas where groundwater pumpage exceeds the quantity of groundwater discharge and water levels have declined, the quantity of discharge probably has decreased and groundwater inflow to the Colorado

  5. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  6. Migration And wintering areas Of Glaucous-winged Gulls From south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.

  7. Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  8. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  9. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  11. Hydrology and management of Lakes Mead and Mohave within the Colorado River Basin: Chapter 3 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holdren, G. Chris; Tietjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Miller, Jennell M.

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin covers parts of seven States: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and California; at 1,450 mi (2,333.5 km) in length, the Colorado River is the seventh longest river in the United States (fig. 3-1). The Bureau of Reclamation has the responsibility for management of this system, in coordination with the seven basin States, within a complex framework of law, regulations, compact, treaty, and policies often referred to collectively as the “Law of the River.” Lake Mead is a critical component of the overall Colorado River management, providing the capacity to store almost 2 years of the average runoff of the river.

  12. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  13. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  14. Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

    In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…

  15. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  16. COLORADO MIGRANT MINISTRY. ANNUAL REPORT, 1961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    MIGRANTS WERE AIDED BY THE COLORADO MIGRANT MINISTRY, WHICH WITH PUBLIC SCHOOL OFFICALS AND HEALTH AND WELFARE AGENCY PERSONNEL, HELPED TO DETERMINE LEGISLATIVE NEEDS, AND PROVIDED DIRECT SERVICES TO MIGRANTS IN THREE AREAS OF COLORADO. IN ROCKY FORD, A SPANISH-SPEAKING EDUCATED HUSBAND-WIFE-DAUGHTER TEAM WORKED WITH VARIOUS GROUPS WHO LED…

  17. The Colorado Scale-Model Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey O.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Colorado Scale-Model Solar System, a display illustrating the sizes and distances to the Sun and the nine planets on the campus of Colorado University. Discusses the model's educational value and uses for the classroom and the community. (MDH)

  18. 33 CFR 117.963 - Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.963 - Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.963 - Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.963 - Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.963 - Colorado River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado River. 117.963 Section 117.963 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.963 Colorado River. The draw of...

  3. Healthy Child Care Colorado, 2002: Outcome Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Susan

    This report describes the impact of nurse consultant services to child care programs in Colorado on the children, parents, and staff of the centers they serve as part of the Healthy Child Care Colorado (HCCC) initiative. Study participants included 25 child care center directors and 24 nurse consultants, representing large and small centers in…

  4. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River: III. Larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 ??g/L from 24-Road, 0.9 ??g/L from Horsethief, 5.5 ??g/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 ??g/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 ??g/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 ??g/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 ??g/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 ??g/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of ???4.6 ??g/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish.

  5. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  6. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River III. Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-06-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 microg/L from 24-Road, 0.9 microg/L from Horsethief, 5.5 microg/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 microg/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 microg/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 microg/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 microg/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 microg/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of 4.6 microg/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish.

  7. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River III. Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-06-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 microg/L from 24-Road, 0.9 microg/L from Horsethief, 5.5 microg/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 microg/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 microg/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 microg/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 microg/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 microg/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of 4.6 microg/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish. PMID:15883090

  8. Conservation paleobiology in near time: Isotopic estimates for restoration flows to the estuary of the Colorado River, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flessa, Karl; Dettman, David; Cintra-Buenrostro, Carlos; Rowell, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    In most years since 1960, the Colorado River has not reached the sea. Upstream dams and diversions in the U.S.A. and Mexico have diverted the river's water for agricultural and municipal use. The river's estuary in the upper Gulf of California, in Mexico, once supported very large populations of Mulinia coloradoensis, a trophically important bivalve mollusk, and Totoaba macdonaldi, a now-endangered scianid fish,. Because Colorado River water is isotopically distinct from Gulf of California seawater, we used the δ18O composition of the pre-dam bivalve shells and fish otoliths to estimate past salinities and river flows. We estimate that five to ten percent of the river's annual flow would be needed to restore M. coloradoensis habitat in the river's mouth and to restore the nursery grounds of T. macdonaldi. The dead can speak to the living.

  9. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  10. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  11. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gitchell, John M.; Palmer, Adam L.

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  12. Biogeochemical characterization of an undisturbed highly acidic, metal-rich bryophyte habitat, east-central Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Giles, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the geochemistry of soil and bryophyte-laden sediment and on the biogeochemistry of willows growing in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range ecoregion of east-central Alaska. We also describe an unusual bryophyte assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area. Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major and trace metal cations (e.g., Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit and we postulate they are influenced by the chemistry of eolian sediments derived from outside the deposit area. The willow, Salix pulchra, growing mostly within and adjacent to the larger streams, has much higher concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, La, Pb, and Zn when compared to the same species collected in non-mineralized areas of Alaska. The Cd levels are especially high and are shown to exceed, by an order of magnitude, levels demonstrated to be toxic to ptarmigan in Colorado. Willow, growing in this naturally occurring metal-rich Red Mountain alteration zone, may adversely affect the health of browsing animals. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  13. A Precise 6 Ma Start Date for Fluvial Incision of the Northeastern Colorado Plateau Canyonlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S. N.; Soreghan, G. S.; Reiners, P. W.; Peyton, S. L.; Murray, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Outstanding questions regarding late Cenozoic Colorado Plateau landscape evolution include: (1) the relative roles of isostatic rebound as result Colorado River incision versus longer-term geodynamic processes in driving overall rock uplift of the plateau; and (2) whether incision was triggered by river integration or by a change in deep-seated mantle lithosphere dynamics. A key to answering these questions is to date more precisely the onset of incision to refine previous estimates of between 6 and 10 Ma. We present new low-temperature thermochronologic results from bedrock and deep borehole samples in the northeastern Colorado Plateau to show that rapid river incision began here at 6 Ma (5.93±0.66 Ma) with incision rates increasing from 15-50 m/Myr to 160-200 m/Myr. The onset time is constrained independently by both inverse time-temperature modeling and by the break-in-slope in fission track age-elevation relationships. This new time constraint has several important implications. First, the coincidence in time with 5.97-5.3 Ma integration of the lower Colorado River through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California strongly favors downstream river integration triggering carving of the canyonlands of the upper Colorado River system. Second, it implies integration of the entire Colorado River system in less than 2 million years. Third, rock uplift of the plateau driven by the flexural isostatic response to river incision is restricted to just the last 6 Ma, as is associated increased sediment budget. Fourth, incision starting at 6 Ma means that previous estimates of upper Colorado River incision rates based on 10-12 Ma basalt datum levels are too low. This also changes the dependency of measured time interval on incision rate from a non-steady-state negative power-law dependence (exponent of -0.24) to a near steady-state dependence (exponent of 0.07) meaning that long-term upper Colorado river incision rates can provide a reliable proxy for rock uplift rates.

  14. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  15. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  16. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  17. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  18. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  19. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  20. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  1. STS-49 Earth observation of the Salton Sea and the Gulf of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, shows the Salton Sea and the Gulf of California. The nearly cloud-free view follows the Colorado River Delta from the Gulf of California (Mexico) to the Salton Sea (California). The Colorado River enters its delta from the right (east), then turns directly south to form saline tidal flats at the edge of the gulf. Nearly all the water is used for irrigation. The United States (U.S.) / Mexican border shows clearly in the different field patterns and the intensity of the greenish color. The irrigated agricultural area offers a sharp contrast to the surrounding desert. The crew used a handheld HASSELBLAD camera with a 100-mm lens to record the image.

  2. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  3. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  4. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  5. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  6. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  7. Colorado geology then and now: following the route of the Colorado Scientific Society's 1901 trip through central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 1901, Charles Van Hise asked Samuel Emmons and Whitman Cross to organize a grand excursion across Colorado as part of the combined meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, GSA, and the Colorado Scientific Society (CSS). This trip replays part of that 10-day excursion across Colorado. Shortened to three days, this trip takes in some of the same sites as the 1901 trip, plus adds others of interest along the route where CSS members are reinventing geological interpretations. The trip will follow the precedent set in 1901; CSS members will serve as “site or stop hosts” in addition to the trip leader and drivers. While walking in the steps of the most famous of our profession we will also see some of the most magnificent scenery of Colorado.

  8. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  9. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  10. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  11. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado. Interim; final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  12. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  13. Late Neogene marine incursions and the ancestral Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    2008-01-01

    The late Neogene section in the Salton Trough, California, and along the lower Colorado River in Arizona is composed of marine units bracketed by nonmarine units. Microfossils from the marine deposits indicate that a marine incursion inundated the Salton Trough during the late Miocene. Water depths increased rapidly in the Miocene and eventually flooded the region now occupied by the Colorado River as far north as Parker, Arizona. Marine conditions were restricted in the Pliocene as the Colorado River filled the Salton Trough with sediments and the Gulf of California assumed its present configuration. Microfossils from the early part of this incursion include a diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa, Uvigerina peregrina, Cassidulina delicata, and Bolivina interjuncta), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, Discoaster aff. Discoaster surculus, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies), whereas microfossils in the final phase contain a less diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers that are diagnostic of marginal shallow-marine conditions (Ammonia, Elphidium, Bolivina, Cibicides, and Quinqueloculina). Evidence of an earlier middle Miocene marine incursion comes from reworked microfossils found near Split Mountain Gorge in the Fish Creek Gypsum (Sphenolithus moriformis) and near San Gorgonio Pass (Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Sphenolithus heteromorphus and planktic foraminifers). The middle Miocene incursion may also be represented by the older marine sedimentary rocks encountered in the subsurface near Yuma, Arizona, where rare middle Miocene planktic foraminifers are found. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  15. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  16. Edible Pot Sends Toddlers to Colorado ERs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Edible Pot Sends Toddlers to Colorado ERs Cannabis-laced candy, baked goods look irresistible to kids, ... being exposed to pot, researchers found. Edible products -- cannabis-laced brownies, cookies, candy and the like -- were ...

  17. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  18. A Cooperative Film Effort in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetnagel, H. T.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The mass communications department of the University of Denver assisted in producing a film on community colleges in Colorado which improved the film students' cinema skills while providing greater exposure for the community college system. (NF)

  19. The Geologic Story of Colorado National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1981-01-01

    From 1946 until about 1956 I carried out fieldwork intermittently on the geology and artesian water supply of the Grand Junction area, Colorado, the results of which have been published. The area mapped geologically contains about 332 square miles in the west-central part of Mesa County and includes all of Colorado National Monument. During the field work several successive custodians or superintendents and several park naturalists urged that upon completion of my professional paper I prepare a brief account of the geology of the Monument in terms understandable by laymen, and which could be sold at the Visitor Center. This I was happy to do and there resulted 'The geologic story of Colorado National Monument', published by the Colorado and Black Canyon Natural History Association in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report contained colored sketches by John R. Stacy and a colored cover, but the photographs and many of the drawings were reproduced in black and white.

  20. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF)...

  1. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  2. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  3. Ordovician "sphinctozoan" sponges from Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Karl, S.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A faunule of silicified hypercalcified "sphinctozoan" sponges has been recovered from a clast of Upper Ordovician limestone out of the Early Devonian Karheen Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included in the faunule are abundant examples of the new genus Girtyocoeliana, represented by Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter), and Corymbospongia adnata Rigby and Potter, along with rare Corymbospongia amplia n. sp., and Girtyocoelia(?) sp., plus common Amblysiphonella sp. 1 and rare Amblysiphonella(?) sp. 2. The assemblage is similar to that from Ordovician clasts from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California. This indicates that the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska is related paleogeographically to the lithologically and paleontologically similar terrane of the eastern Klamath Mountains. This lithology and fossil assemblage of the clast cannot be tied to any currently known local rock units on Prince of Wales Island. Other clasts in the conglomerate appear to have been locally derived, so it is inferred that the limestone clasts were also locally derived, indicating the presence of a previously undocumented Ordovician limestone unit on northern Prince of Wales Island. 

  4. Paleoclimatic significance of chemical weathering in loess-derived paleosols of subarctic central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Skipp, G.; Beann, J.; Budahn, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical weathering in soils has not been studied extensively in high-latitude regions. Loess sequences with modern soils and paleosols are present in much of subarctic Alaska, and allow an assessment of present and past chemical weathering. Five sections were studied in detail in the Fairbanks, Alaska, area. Paleosols likely date to mid-Pleistocene interglacials, the last interglacial, and early-to-mid-Wisconsin interstadiale. Ratios of mobile (Na, Ca, Mg, Si) to immobile (Ti or Zr) elements indicate that modern soils and most interstadial and interglacial paleosols are characterized by significant chemical weathering. Na2O/TiO2 is lower in modern soils and most paleosols compared to parent loess, indicating depletion of plagioclase. In the clay fraction, smectite is present in Tanana and Yukon River source sediments, but is absent or poorly expressed in modern soils and paleosols, indicating depletion of this mineral also. Loss of both plagioclase and smectite is well expressed in soils and paleosols as lower SiO 2/TiO2. Carbonates are present in the river source sediments, but based on CaO/TiO2, they are depleted in soils and most paleosols (with one exception in the early-to-mid-Wisconsin period). Thus, most soil-forming intervals during past interglacial and interstadial periods in Alaska had climatic regimes that were at least as favorable to mineral weathering as today, and suggest boreal forest or acidic tundra vegetation. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. 1979 summary of coal resources in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Colorado, with 8 coal-bearing regions and 20 coal fields, contains at least 11 percent of the total remaining coal resources of the United States to a depth of 6000 feet. Colorado coals range from early Late Cretaceous to Eocene in age. The higher rank bituminous coals and the largest reserves generally are found in the Upper Cretaceous Dakota and Mesa Verde Groups/Formations in western Colorado. The younger coals, generally of lower rank (subbituminous a to lignite), are found in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks in the Green River, North and South Park, Raton Mesa, and Denver coal regions. Marginal and premium grades of coking coal are found in the Carbondale, Crested Butte, and Somerset fields, Uinta coal region; in the Trinidad field, Raton Mesa region; and in the Durango field, San Juan River region. Colorado coals range in rank from lignite to anthracite; over 70 percent of the resource is bituminous, approximately 23 percent is subbituminous, 5 percent lignite, and less than one percent anthracite. Moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents of Colorado coals vary considerably with rank from region to region. According to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Colorado ranks seventh in the total U.S. demonstrated reserve base of coal (16.3 billion short tons) and fourth in the reserve base of bituminous coal. Furthermore, Colorado ranks first in the reserve base of underground-minable low sulphur bituminous coal. The Green River region produced over 9 million tons of the total 1978 state-wide coal production of 14.3 million tons. Projections for Colorado coal production through 1985 is in the order of 32.2 million tons per year.

  6. Seamonster: A Smart Sensor Web in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Heavner, M. J.; Hood, E.; Connor, C.; Nagorski, S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES) program is supporting a wireless sensor network project as part of its Advanced Information Systems Technology "Smart Sensor Web" initiative. The project, entitled Seamonster (for SouthEast Alaska MONitoring Network for Science, Telecomm, and Education Research) is led by the University of Alaska Southeast (Juneau) in collaboration with Microsoft- Vexcel in Boulder Colorado. This paper describes both the data acquisition components and science research objectives of Seamonster. The underlying data acquisition concept is to facilitate geophysics data acquisition by providing a wireless backbone for data recovery. Other researchers would be encouraged to emplace their own sensors together with short-range wireless (ZigBee, Bluetooth, etc). Through a common protocol the backbone will receive data from these sensors and relay them to a wired server. This means that the investigator can receive their data via email on a daily basis thereby cutting cost and monitoring sensor health. With environmental hardening and fairly high bandwidth and long range (100kbps/50km to 5mpbs/15km per hop) the network is intended to cover large areas and operate in harsh environments. Low power sensors and intelligent power management within the backbone are the dual ideas to contend with typical power/cost/data dilemmas. Seamonster science will focus over the next three years on hydrology and glaciology in a succession of valleys near Juneau in various stages of deglaciation, in effect providing a synopsis of a millennium-timescale process in a single moment. The instrumentation will include GPS, geophones, digital photography, met stations, and a suite of stream state and water quality sensors. Initial focus is on the Lemon Creek watershed with expansion to follow in subsequent years. The project will ideally expand to include marine and biological monitoring components.

  7. Sr isotope evidence for a lacustrine origin for the upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation, lower Colorado River trough, and implications for timing of Colorado Plateau uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.; Patchett, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation in the lower Colorado River trough, which consists largely of siltstone with basal tufa and marl, has been interpreted as estuarine on the basis of paleontology. This interpretation requires abrupt marine inundation that has been linked to early rifting in the Gulf of California and Salton trough. New strontium isotope measurements reported here from carbonates and invertebrate shells in the Bouse Formation reveal no evidence of marine water, but are consistent with deposition in a lake or chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River. Furthermore, the absence of a southward decrease in 87Sr/86Sr within the Bouse Formation does not support the estuarine model in which low 87Sr/86Sr marine Sr would have dominated the mouth of the hypothetical Bouse estuary. Elevation of originally marine 87Sr/86Sr in the Bouse Formation to its present level, due to postdepositional interaction with ground water, is unlikely because Sr from secondary calcite above, below, and within the Bouse Formation is consistently less radiogenic, not more, than Bouse marl and shells. In contrast to Bouse Sr, strontium from mollusks in tidal-flat and delta-front paleoenvironments in the contemporaneous Imperial Formation in the Salton trough and from the subsurface south of Yuma was derived from sea water and confirms the dominance of marine strontium near or at the mouth of the late Miocene to early Pliocene Colorado River. Inferred post-early Pliocene uplift of the Bouse Formation from below sea level to modern elevations of up to 550 m has been used to support a late Cenozoic uplift age for the nearby Colorado Plateau. This constraint on uplift timing is eliminated if the Bouse Formation is lacustrine.

  8. Intercontinental migratory connectivity and population structuring of Dunlins from western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Handel, Colleen M.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The Dunlin (Calidris alpina) is a polytypic shorebird with complex patterns of distribution and migration throughout its holarctic range. We analyzed mark-re sighting data obtained between 1977 and 2010 from birds captured at two major staging areas in western Alaska to test the hypothesis that the migration patterns of Alaskan populations are a mixture of parallel and chain, similar to those of Dunlin populations in the western Palearctic. Birds marked on the Yukon—Kuskokwim Delta were found wintering in both Asia and North America, which documented the unexpected mixing of C. a. arcticola from northern Alaska and C. a. pacifica from western Alaska and contradicted our initial prediction of parallel migration pathways for these two subspecies. In its North American winter range C. a. pacifica segregated according to location of marking, confirming our prediction of a chain migration pattern within this population. Individuals of C. a. pacifica marked on the delta were resighted significantly farther north, mostly in southern British Columbia and Washington, than birds marked on the second, more southerly staging area on the Alaska Peninsula, which were resighted primarily in the San Francisco Bay area of northern California. We recommend additional studies use a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic markers to quantify the strength of migratory connectivity between breeding, staging, and wintering areas. Such information is needed to guide conservation efforts because the Dunlin and other waterbirds are losing intertidal habitats at an unprecedented rate and scale, particularly in the Yellow Sea and other parts of Asia.

  9. Unified Ecoregions of Alaska: 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowacki, Gregory J.; Spencer, Page; Fleming, Michael; Brock, Terry; Jorgenson, Torre

    2003-01-01

    Major ecosystems have been mapped and described for the State of Alaska and nearby areas. Ecoregion units are based on newly available datasets and field experience of ecologists, biologists, geologists and regional experts. Recently derived datasets for Alaska included climate parameters, vegetation, surficial geology and topography. Additional datasets incorporated in the mapping process were lithology, soils, permafrost, hydrography, fire regime and glaciation. Thirty two units are mapped using a combination of the approaches of Bailey (hierarchial), and Omernick (integrated). The ecoregions are grouped into two higher levels using a 'tri-archy' based on climate parameters, vegetation response and disturbance processes. The ecoregions are described with text, photos and tables on the published map.

  10. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  11. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  12. Changes in Colorado Subalpine Fen Peat Stratigraphy and Humification During the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    depositional environments, only returning to peat accumulation when cooler/moister conditions reestablished. This stratigraphic change is similar to that found by other researchers working in the Sierra Nevada, California. Higher elevation fens in Colorado persisted as peatlands throughout the Holocene, but warmer periods produced higher rates of peat accumulation and greater humification during these intervals. Peat humifiation and stratigraphic analyses indicate that the subalpine fens in Colorado preserve a sensitive record of Holocene climate change and ecohydrological conditions. Our results suggest that warmer summers over the next century will likely result in earlier snowmelt and the potential loss of lower elevation fens, and changes in peat accumulation in higher elevation fens in the subalpine zone. These changes will have significant impacts on water quality and hydrology in Colorado.

  13. Evaluation of Free To Grow, Phase II: Detailed Profile of the Free To Grow Project in California. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Mary

    The Free to Grow pilot project, developed by the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and its Head Start project, operated between 1994 and 1999. Following a 2-year planning and development stage, 5 project sites went on to complete the 3-year implementation phase in California, Colorado, Kentucky, New York, and Puerto Rico; the…

  14. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-01-01

    Emergingcontaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the UnitedStates. The objective of this study was to evaluate pointsources of ECs along the ColoradoRiver, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the ColoradoRiver Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log Dow values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the ColoradoRiver) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  15. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: source water for the arid Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-07-15

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  16. An Application of Advanced Ensemble Streamflow Prediction Methods to Assess Potential Impacts of the 2015 - 2016 ENSO Event over the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. P.; Lamb, K. W.; Piechota, T. C.; Lakshmi, V.; Santos, N. I.; Tootle, G. A.; Kalra, A.; Fayne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Water resource managers throughout the Western United States have struggled with persistent and severe drought since the early 2000s. In the Colorado River Basin, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) provides forecasts of water supply conditions to resource managers throughout the basin using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) methods that are largely driven by historical observations of temperature and precipitation. Currently, the CBRFC does not have a way to incorporate information from climatic teleconnections such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO describes warming sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean that typically correlate with cool and wet winter precipitation events in California and the Lower Colorado River Basin during an El Niño event. Past research indicates the potential to identify analog ENSO events to evaluate the impact to reservoir storage in the Colorado River Basin. Current forecasts indicate the potential for one of the strongest El Niño events on record this winter. In this study, information regarding the upcoming ENSO event is used to inform water supply forecasts over the Upper Colorado River Basin. These forecasts are then compared to traditionally derived water supply forecast in an attempt to evaluate the possible impact of the El Niño event to water supply over the Colorado River Basin.

  17. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  18. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  19. State summaries: California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohl, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California ranked second behind Arizona among the states in nonfuel mineral production during 2005. It accounted for 7% of the US's total. The market value of mineral production for California amounted to $3.7 billion. During the year, California produced 30 varieties of industrial minerals. The nonfuel minerals came from 820 active mines.

  20. Water use in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    For California, population data used to estimate public water-supply use comes from Urban Water Management Plans, California Department of Water Resources, California Department of Public Health, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data. Population data used to estimate domestic, self-supplied water use came from the difference between the Census population and the public-supply population.

  1. The Status of Spanish-Surnamed Citizens in Colorado. Report to the Colorado General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Spanish-Surnamed Citizens, Denver.

    The purpose of this 1967 report sponsored by the Colorado Commission on Spanish-Surnamed Citizens was to study statistical, sociological, and psychological data pertaining to current problems, conditions, and needs of Spanish-surnamed residents of Colorado. The data were derived primarily from analysis of existing studies and the 1950 and 1960…

  2. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Completion (NICs) published in the Federal Register (69 FR 19232-19233, April 12, 2004, corrected by 74 FR... described in a Notice of Intent to Repatriate (NIR) published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15798, March 16... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado...

  3. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... ladles. The vessel styles are black-on-gray, black-on-white, Tusayan black-on-red, corrugated and gray... collections from The Colorado College Museum, through long-term loans to the Fine Arts Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of...

  4. Colorado School Finance Partnership: Report and Recommendations. Financing Colorado's Future: Assessing Our School Finance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, Colorado has emerged as a national leader in crafting innovative solutions for challenges facing its public school system. From implementing the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reforms to more recent legislation including standards and assessments for a preschool-through-college…

  5. Colorado Preschool Program. 2002 Report. A Report to the Colorado General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) serves at-risk preschool children in community programs, including Head Start programs, private for-profit programs, non-profit programs, and programs within public schools. This 2002 report to the Colorado General Assembly provides information on the effectiveness of major early childhood education programs,…

  6. The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunamis: a modern perspective and enduring legacies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Filson, John R.; Fuis, Gary S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Holzer, Thomas L.; Plafker, George; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m. on Friday, March 27, 1964, is the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history and the second-largest earthquake recorded with modern instruments. The earthquake was felt throughout most of mainland Alaska, as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands some 480 miles away, and at Seattle, Washington, more than 1,200 miles to the southeast of the fault rupture, where the Space Needle swayed perceptibly. The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh as far away as the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Water-level recorders in 47 states—the entire Nation except for Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island— registered the earthquake. It was so large that it caused the entire Earth to ring like a bell: vibrations that were among the first of their kind ever recorded by modern instruments. The Great Alaska Earthquake spawned thousands of lesser aftershocks and hundreds of damaging landslides, submarine slumps, and other ground failures. Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage, located west of the fault rupture, sustained heavy property damage. Tsunamis produced by the earthquake resulted in deaths and damage as far away as Oregon and California. Altogether the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused 129 fatalities and an estimated $2.3 billion in property losses (in 2013 dollars). Most of the population of Alaska and its major transportation routes, ports, and infrastructure lie near the eastern segment of the Aleutian Trench that ruptured in the 1964 earthquake. Although the Great Alaska Earthquake was tragic because of the loss of life and property, it provided a wealth of data about subductionzone earthquakes and the hazards they pose. The leap in scientific understanding that followed the 1964 earthquake has led to major breakthroughs in earth science research worldwide over the past half century. This fact sheet commemorates Great Alaska Earthquake and

  7. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  8. Selenium concentrations in the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): relationship with flows in the upper Colorado River.

    PubMed

    Osmundson, B C; May, T W; Osmundson, D B

    2000-05-01

    A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Because of the endangered status of these fish, sacrificing individuals for tissue residue analysis has been avoided; consequently, little information existed regarding selenium tissue residues. In 1994, muscle plugs were collected from a total of 39 Colorado pikeminnow captured at various Colorado River sites in the Grand Valley for selenium residue analysis. The muscle plugs collected from 16 Colorado pikeminnow captured at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) contained a mean selenium concentration of 17 microg/g dry weight, which was over twice the recommended toxic threshold guideline concentration of 8 microg/g dry weight in muscle tissue for freshwater fish. Because of elevated selenium concentrations in muscle plugs in 1994, a total of 52 muscle plugs were taken during 1995 from Colorado pikeminnow staging at WWSWA. Eleven of these plugs were from fish previously sampled in 1994. Selenium concentrations in 9 of the 11 recaptured fish were significantly lower in 1995 than in 1994. Reduced selenium in fish may in part be attributed to higher instream flows in 1995 and lower water selenium concentrations in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. In 1996, muscle plugs were taken from 35 Colorado squawfish captured at WWSWA, and no difference in mean selenium concentrations were detected from those sampled in 1995. Colorado River flows during 1996 were intermediate to those measured in 1994 and 1995. PMID:10787099

  9. Selenium concentrations in the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): Relationship with flows in the upper Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osmundson, B.C.; May, T.W.; Osmundson, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Because of the endangered status of these fish, sacrificing individuals for tissue residue analysis has been avoided; consequently, little information existed regarding selenium tissue residues. In 1994, muscle plugs were collected from a total of 39 Colorado pikeminnow captured at various Colorado River sites in the Grand Valley for selenium residue analysis. The muscle plugs collected from 16 Colorado pikeminnow captured at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) contained a mean selenium concentration of 17 ??g/g dry weight, which was over twice the recommended toxic threshold guideline concentration of 8 ??g/g dry weight in muscle tissue for freshwater fish. Because of elevated selenium concentrations in muscle plugs in 1994, a total of 52 muscle plugs were taken during 1995 from Colorado pikeminnow staging at WWSWA. Eleven of these plugs were from fish previously sampled in 1994. Selenium concentrations in 9 of the 11 recaptured fish were significantly lower in 1995 than in 1994. Reduced selenium in fish may in part be attributed to higher instream flows in 1995 and lower water selenium concentrations in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. In 1996, muscle plugs were taken from 35 Colorado squawfish captured at WWSWA, and no difference in mean selenium concentrations were detected from those sampled in 1995. Colorado River flows during 1996 were intermediate to those measured in 1994 and 1995.

  10. California rides the tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Revolutions rarely succeed without a struggle. At the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), the move to restructure the state`s electric utility industry is no exception. The stakes are enormous. For starters, annual revenues at the state`s investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) exceed $18 billion, making up 2 percent of California`s gross state product. Competitively priced electricity is vital to California`s $800-billion-a-year economy, one would think. And with its sweeping restructing plan, the CPUC has found itself riding a tiger, hoping it won`t get swallowed whole in the process.

  11. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  12. Solutions for North American Water Security Challenge: Colorado and Bravo transboundary basins cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Pérez, M.

    2013-12-01

    The transboundary basins of Colorado (Baja California) and Rio Bravo (Grande) have low water availability figures and water will be appreciated as a highly valued good. In the Rio Grande basin, the strategies and actions have been developed with the River Basin Council: a new surface water management, new water allocation rules for different rainfall and runoff scenarios (climate change included), new sources of water and establishment of water reserves for human consumption and for environmental purposes. In the Colorado River, with an integrated watershed management vision, Mexican and US federal, state and non-governmental organizations representatives signed Minute 319 for 5 years without changing the 1944 Water Treaty. Concepts and rules for surplus, shortage, Intentionally Created Mexican Water (ICMA), salinity, water for the environment and international projects were included and are been implemented. Parallel drinking water and sanitation services in both sides of the border through the Joint Investment Program, EPA-CONAGUA invested 979.2 million dollars from grants to improve the quality of the environment and the inhabitants. Accomplishments are high and the reduction in river health is a good indicator. The implementation of this binational cooperation actions under the framework of the 1944 Water Treaty are considered global solutions in the field of integrated water management in transboundary basins and for creating water security in highly pressured basins. Keywords: Colorado River, Rio Grande or Bravo River, water security, Transboundary basins, environmental water reserves

  13. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  14. Bill Demmert and Native Education in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the influences of William Demmert's formative years growing up in Alaska and his years as an educator of Native American students upon his career in Native education policy. It focuses on Alaska Native education during a ten-year period between 1980 and 1990 during which time he served as the director of the Center for…

  15. Women's Legal Rights in Alaska. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatter, Sue Ellen; Saville, Sandra K.

    This publication is intended to help women in Alaska learn about their legal rights. Some of the information is of a general nature and will be of interest to women in other states. Some of the laws and resources are relevant to Alaska only. The publication can serve as a model to other states wanting to develop a resource to inform women about…

  16. Culturally Responsive Guidelines for Alaska Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines are predicated on the belief that culturally appropriate service to indigenous peoples is a fundamental principle of Alaska public libraries. While the impetus for developing the guidelines was service to the Alaska Native community, they can also be applied to other cultural groups. A culturally responsive library environment is…

  17. Building a Workforce Development System in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Sally

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Human Resources Investment Council developed a blueprint to guide a system that is needs-driven, accessible, interconnected, accountable, sustainable, and has collaborative governance. Vocational Technical Education Providers (VTEP) representing secondary education, technical schools, proprietary institutions, the University of Alaska,…

  18. Distance Learning in Alaska's Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information. The audio…

  19. 77 FR 16314 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alaska dated 03/13/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  20. 78 FR 39822 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alaska (FEMA-4122-DR... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  1. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  2. 77 FR 21802 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Kongnikilnomuit Yuita Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Bill Moore's Slough, Alaska, and are located... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... hours. Jennifer Noe, Land Law Examiner, Land Transfer Adjudication II Branch. BILLING CODE 4310-JA-P...

  3. Alaska Head Start. Annual Report for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1998. The report begins with a graphic presentation of the locations of Alaska Head Start programs and a table delineating the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service…

  4. Facts & Figures about Education in Alaska, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This collection of tables presents selected facts and figures about education in Alaska. General and district school information about Alaska's 469 public schools in 54 districts and its 276 private and denominational schools is followed by tables of general student information, including average daily membership, enrollment, graduates, and…

  5. Integrating Intercultural Education: The Anchorage Alaska Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    The desire for students to understand and respect each other is a primary motivation for the effort to integrate multicultural education into all aspects of the Anchorage School District (Alaska) curriculum. The Anchorage curriculum emphasizes the cultural heritage of Alaska Natives, other resident ethnic groups and Pacific Rim cultures. In recent…

  6. Viewpoints: Reflections on the Principalship in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David A., Ed.

    In this collection, 32 Alaskan principals, retired principals, assistant principals, and principals-to-be share their experiences as administrators and reflect on their feelings about the nature of the work and about schooling issues in Alaska. Nine of the writings were selected from "Totem Tales," the newsletter of Alaska's Association of…

  7. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado I. Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A; Ken Weston, L; McDonald, Susan F

    2005-05-01

    Adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to various selenium concentrations in ponds and isolated river channels of the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO, to determine effects on their growth and residue accumulation over an 11-month period. Adults at Horsethief ponds were fed a commercial diet, whereas fish at Adobe Creek channel and North Pond foraged on natural food items. Selenium concentrations at Horsethief were 2.2 microg/L in water, 0.1-1.4 microg/g in sediment, and 2.3-3.1 microg/g in food organisms (1.1 microg/g in commercial fish food), at Adobe Creek were 3.8 microg/L in water, 0.5-2.1 microg/g in sediment, and 4-56 microg/g in food organisms, and at North Pond were 9.5 microg/L in water, 7-55 microg/g in sediment, and 20-81 microg/g in food organisms. The selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from adults at Adobe Creek (11.7 microg/g, SD = 0.4, n = 6) and North Pond (16.6 microg/g, SD = 1.0, n = 6) were greater than at Horsethief (4.5 microg/g, SD = 0.2, n = 6). During a depuration period adults from Adobe Creek and North Pond lost 1-2% of their selenium burden in 32 days and 14-19% in 66 days. Selenium accumulated in razorback sucker above toxic thresholds reported in other studies, yet those residues were less than those reported in muscle plugs of 40% of wild razorback sucker caught in the Green River, Utah.

  8. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: I. Adults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.; Weston, L.K.; McDonald, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to various selenium concentrations in ponds and isolated river channels of the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO, to determine effects on their growth and residue accumulation over an 11-month period. Adults at Horsethief ponds were fed a commercial diet, whereas fish at Adobe Creek channel and North Pond foraged on natural food items. Selenium concentrations at Horsethief were 2.2 ??g/L in water, 0.1-1.4 ??g/g in sediment, and 2.3-3.1 ??g/g in food organisms (1.1 ??g/g in commercial fish food), at Adobe Creek were 3.8 ??g/L in water, 0.5-2.1 ??g/g in sediment, and 4-56 ??g/g in food organisms, and at North Pond were 9.5 ??g/L in water, 7-55 ??g/g in sediment, and 20-81 ??g/g in food organisms. The selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from adults at Adobe Creek (11.7 ??g/g, SD=0.4, n=6) and North Pond (16.6 ??g/g, SD=1.0, n=6) were greater than at Horsethief (4.5 ??g/g, SD=0.2, n=6). During a depuration period adults from Adobe Creek and North Pond lost 1-2% of their selenium burden in 32 days and 14-19% in 66 days. Selenium accumulated in razorback sucker above toxic thresholds reported in other studies, yet those residues were less than those reported in muscle plugs of 40% of wild razorback sucker caught in the Green River, Utah.

  9. Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross canyon, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. View of Nevada side of Colorado River Canyon taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada side of Colorado River Canyon taken from Lower Portal Road looking up towards area where new bridge will be located, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  11. View of the Colorado River Canyon showing lower portal road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Colorado River Canyon showing lower portal road in background taken from the rim of Hoover Dam, view south - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. View of Arizona side of Colorado River Canyon taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona side of Colorado River Canyon taken from Lower Portal Road looking up towards area where new bridge will be located, view northeast - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  13. 2. Lake Havasu on left, Colorado River on right below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Lake Havasu on left, Colorado River on right below Parker Dam; View southeast from TV Hill above Whitsett Pump Plant. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  14. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  15. Native Pathways to Education: Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks.

    The Alaska Federation of Natives, in cooperation with the University of Alaska, received funding to implement the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI). Over a 5-year period (1995-2000), AKRSI initiatives are systematically documenting the indigenous knowledge systems of Alaska Native people and developing educational policies and practices…

  16. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  17. The Alaska State Writing Consortium: The First Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parson, Gail

    This booklet documents the first 5 years of the Alaska State Writing Consortium, an association made up of 45 Alaska school districts, the Alaska Department of Education, and the University of Alaska. The Consortium, which oversees the organization and implementation of teacher training programs in writing and the teaching of writing, has five…

  18. Metalliferous lode deposits of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, Henry C.; Cobb, Edward Huntington

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes from repoAs of Federal and State agencies published before August 31, 1965, the geology of Alaska's metal-bearing lodes, including their structural or stratigraphic control, host rock, mode of origin, kinds of .Q minerals, grade, past production, and extent of exploration. In addition, the lists of mineral occurrences that accompany the 35 mineral-deposit location maps constitute an inventory of the State's known lodes. A total of 692 localities where m&alliferous deposits have been found are shown on the maps. The localities include 1,739 mines, prospects, and reported occurrences, of which 821 are described individually or otherwise cited in the text.

  19. 78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan for... implement Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP). This proposed action would modify halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) management in the Gulf of Alaska...

  20. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  1. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  2. Water resources data, Colorado, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.; Boulger, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2004 water year (WY) in this report consist of records of stage and discharge of streams; and stage and contents of one reservoir. This report contains discharge records for 312 gaging stations, stage and contents of 1 lake and reservoir, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, and peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering states, and 34 stations operated by the Colorado Division of Water Resources are included in this report. All records (except as just noted) were collected and computed by the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of J.E. Kircher, Director, USGS Colorado Water Science Center. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  3. From Parched to Pouring: Can the 2015 - 2016 El Niño Event Bring Drought Relief to California and the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, K. W.; Miller, W. P.; Lakshmi, V.; Piechota, T. C.; Tootle, G. A.; Santos, N. I.; Kalra, A.

    2015-12-01

    Water resource managers throughout the Western United States have struggled with persistent and severe drought since the early 2000s. In California, a historic 4-year drought period has resulted in just under 50% of the state experiencing exceptional drought conditions, and record low snowpack levels in the Sierra Nevada region; additionally, the drought has cost the California agricultural community approximately 3 billion in losses. In the Colorado River Basin, nearly 80% of the basin is in drought, as record low levels at Lake Mead threaten to impose the first ever water shortage in the Lower Colorado River Basin and threaten a portion of the nearly 960 billion economy dependent on water from the Colorado River. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) describes warming sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean that typically correlate with cool and wet precipitation events in California and the Lower Colorado River Basin during an El Niño event. Past research indicates the potential to identify analog ENSO events to evaluate the impact to water resources in the Western U.S. Two of California's wettest winters have occurred during the strong El Nino events of 1982 - 1983 and 1997 - 1998. The 1982 - 1983 event also corresponded with one of the wettest years on record in the Colorado River Basin. Current forecasts indicate the potential for one of the strongest El Niño events on record this winter. In this study, remotely sensed precipitation is utilized and compared to past ENSO events in an effort to identify possible hydroclimatic and water supply impacts to California and the Colorado River Basin. Western U.S. snowpack and precipitation events are further compared to streamflows in the region and the potential for extreme (i.e., flooding) events in an effort to inform water resource managers throughout the Western U.S.

  4. 75 FR 30806 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application May 26, 2010. Take notice that on May 17, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... the Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing...

  5. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  6. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  8. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  9. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  10. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  11. Colorado Heat Flow Data from IHFC

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: The International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado IHFC Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: Abstract: This layer contains the heat flow sites and data of the State of Colorado compiled from the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) global heat flow database (www.heatflow.und.edu/index2.html). The data include different items: Item number, descriptive code, name of site, latitude and longitude, elevation, depth interval, number of temperature data, temperature gradient, number of conductivity measurement, average conductivity, number of heat generation measurements, average heat production, heat flow, number of individual sites, references, and date of publication. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4522121.800672 m Left: 165356.134075 m Right: 621836.776246 m Bottom: 4097833.419676 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude Of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  12. Clumped isotope paleothermometry of the Mio-Pliocene freshwater Lake Mohave. Lower ancestral Colorado River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, K. A.; Huntington, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Bouse Formation are an archive of ancestral Colorado River integration in the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. In Mohave Valley along the California-Arizona-Nevada border, exposures of the Bouse Formation are observed ~400 m above the modern river elevation, which has been interpreted as evidence of tectonic uplift following a regionally extensive marine incursion and integration of the ancestral Colorado River by capture. However, recent investigations instead favor a "top-down" process of river integration by sequential infilling of freshwater lakes that does not require subsequent tectonic uplift. Accurate interpretation of the Bouse Formation's depositional environment is needed to test these models and ultimately, constrain the timing and mechanism of southwestern Colorado Plateau uplift. To further constrain interpretations of depositional environment, we present new clumped isotope analyses with major and trace element geochemistry and scanning electron microscopy of carbonate samples from the Bouse Formation in Mohave Valley. Here the Bouse Formation contains three distinct facies: basal marl and limestone overlain by thick beds of calcareous claystone interbedded with siltstone and sandstone and locally overlain by tufa. Bulk geochemistry of all facies is consistent with a similar freshwater source yet each facies is isotopically distinct, potentially indicating a strong influence of facies-specific fractionation processes. Carbonate formation temperatures measured in tufa samples are variable, suggesting multiple generations of calcite precipitation. Formation temperatures from basal marl and claystone samples are generally consistent with near-surface lake temperatures, broadly supporting a lacustrine depositional environment and "top-down" process of ancestral Colorado River integration. More broadly, our results quantify the variability in carbonate formation temperatures with different lacustrine facies and

  13. GREENHORN MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Margo I.; Baskin, G. David

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource studies of the Greenhorn Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Colorado, were done and one area of probable tungsten resource potential was identified. Sediment samples from streams draining into South Apache Creek have anomalously high values of tungsten. Although mineralization was not located in the underlying rock, similar rocks elsewhere in Colorado have known tungsten resources. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas resources because of the geologic setting of the area and little promise for other mineral or energy resources.

  14. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B.

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  15. Colorado as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An oblique westward view, across the wheat fields and cattle pastures, of eastern Colorado to the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is bisected at the center of the right edge of the frame. Pikes Peak and Colorado Springs are left of center, and the Arkansas River Valley with Canyon City and the Royal Gorge are along the left edge of the frame. This view shows the startling contrast between the nearly-flat High Plains and the ancient geological uplift of the Rockies.

  16. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  17. Irrigation in California's Central Valley strengthens the southwestern U.S. water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing climatological and hydrological responses to agricultural irrigation continues to be an important challenge to understanding the full impact of water management on the Earth's environment and hydrological cycle. In this study, we use a global climate model, combined with realistic estimates of regional agricultural water use, to simulate the local and remote impacts of irrigation in California's Central Valley. We demonstrate a clear mechanism that the resulting increase in evapotranspiration and water vapor export significantly impacts the atmospheric circulation in the southwestern United States, including strengthening the regional hydrological cycle. We also identify that irrigation in the Central Valley initiates a previously unknown, anthropogenic loop in the regional hydrological cycle, in which summer precipitation is increased by 15%, causing a corresponding increase in Colorado River streamflow of ~30%. Ultimately, some of this additional streamflow is returned to California via managed diversions through the Colorado River aqueduct and the All-American Canal.

  18. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  19. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Report to the General Assembly: Teach Colorado Grant Final Evaluation, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report is prepared pursuant to Colorado Revised Statute Section 23-3.3-901 to describe the monies allocated as part of the 2009-2010 Teach Colorado Grant Initiative and how the scholarships met the intent of the initiative. Senate Bill 08-133 established the Teach Colorado Grant Initiative (TCGI) to give financial incentives to college…

  20. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  1. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Ruin had multiple owners, including private citizens and the State of New Mexico. It is not known if... with the human remains should contact Bridget Ambler, Curator of Material Culture, Colorado...

  2. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Register on July 2, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 39776-39779). At the request of one-stop operator/partner, the... Foundry Operations Group, Colorado Springs Test Group and the Equipment Engineering Services Group....

  3. Hydrologic data for Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains data used to interpret the hydrology of Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin under the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The study area includes the drainages of the Green and Colorado Rivers from their headwaters to Lees Ferry, Arizona. Hydrologic data presented in this report include artesian yields from wells and springs, and values of porosity, intrinsic permeability, and hydraulic conductivity determined by laboratory analyses and aquifer tests. (USGS)

  4. Synthesis of Geological and Geophysical Data on the Delta of the Colorado River with Relevance to the Evolution of the Grand canyon of Arizona, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Espinosa-Cardena, J. M.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hunt, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    The origin and details of the history of Grand Canyon of Arizona is a classical but still controversial problem in geology. The Delta of Colorado River, which extends from the Imperial Valley of California to the Gulf of California of Mexico, is formed of the detritus eroded from the Grand Canyon. A great deal has been written about the Grand Canyon, however to date no one has attempted to correlate the history of the development of Canyon with the history and development of the Delta. This is mainly because information on the Delta and Northern Gulf of California is sparser and is disseminated among various governmental, educational and industrial organizations. We have therefore begun a binational effort to synthesize available geological and geophysical data from both sides of the international border and use this information to estimate the volume of sediment deposited by the Colorado River. A comparison of this volume with the volume of rocks eroded from the Grand Canyon is a first and necessary step in developing the history of the growth of the Delta as a record of the erosion of the Canyon. This progress report of our on-going project of compiling the available geological and geophysical data from the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys presents a preliminary estimation of the volume of sediments, based on deep wells, seismic reflection/refraction data, and 3D modeling of gravity data, along the crest of the modern Colorado delta.

  5. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  6. Geology of the Alaska-Juneau lode system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenhofel, William Stephens

    1952-01-01

    The Alaska-Juneau lode system for many years was one of the worlds leading gold-producing areas. Total production from the years 1893 to 1946 has amounted to about 94 million dollars, with principal values in contained gold but with some silver and lead values. The principal mine is the Alaska-Juneau mine, from which the lode system takes its name. The lode system is a part of a larger gold-bearing belt, generally referred to as the Juneau gold belt, along the western border of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks of the Alaska-Juneau lode system consist of a monoclinal sequence of steeply northeasterly dipping volcanic, state, and schist rocks, all of which have been metamorphosed by dynamic and thermal processes attendant with the intrusion of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks form a series of belts that trend northwest parallel to the Coast Range. In addition to the Coast Range batholith lying a mile to the east of the lode system, there are numerous smaller intrusives, all of which are sill-like in form and are thus conformable to the regional structure. The bedded rocks are Mesozoic in age; the Coast Range batholith is Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in age. Some of the smaller intrusives pre-date the batholith, others post-date it. All of the rocks are cut by steeply dipping faults. The Alaska-Juneau lode system is confined exclusively to the footwall portion of the Perseverance slate band. The slate band is composed of black slate and black phyllite with lesser amounts of thin-bedded quartzite. Intrusive into the slate band are many sill-like bodies of rocks generally referred to as meta-gabbro. The gold deposits of the lode system are found both within the slate rocks and the meta-gabbro rocks, and particularly in those places where meta-gabbro bodies interfinger with slate. Thus the ore bodies are found in and near the terminations of meta-gabbro bodies. The ore bodies are quartz stringer-lodes composed of a great number of quartz veins from 6

  7. Colorado Oral History Projects: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whistler, Nancy, Comp.

    More than 100 oral history projects in the state of Colorado are described. Information was collected from public libraries, historical societies, public schools, colleges, and universities in order to develop a statewide "locator file" of oral history tapes. This directory lists only those projects which have interview tapes and related oral…

  8. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  11. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  13. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  14. Colorado Career Information System. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Boulder. Colorado Career Information Center.

    Covering the period from October 1, 1975, to September 30, 1976, this annual report contains information on the Colorado Career Information System's (COCIS) administration and organization, information development, delivery vehicle, and marketing and field services. (COCIS is an on-line computerized career information system that has been…

  15. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  16. Providing Location Information for Colorado Library Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This report examines the feasibility of developing a Colorado statewide union data base to support cataloging, acquisitions, and interlibrary loan functions. It concludes that any data base developed should focus on providing location information for the state's library materials to support patron access to available resources. The title location…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  18. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  19. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the aquatic…

  1. Career Education Activities in Colorado Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Stephen, Ed.

    This collection of articles deals with various career educational activities that inform students about the concept of career education as well as activities related to the specific fields of career education study in higher education. The publication is a result of a study of the involvement of Colorado institutions of higher learning in career…

  2. Understanding Mill Levy Stabilization in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2007

    2007-01-01

    On March 13, 2007, Governor Bill Ritter and state Senator Sue Windels announced a proposal they call the "Colorado Children's Amendment." This proposal would "freeze," or stabilize, local property tax mill levies for general education to maintain local funding for public K-12 education. As overall costs for K-12 education grow, and as the state…

  3. Discover a Watershed: The Colorado Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This engaging, informative "Educators Guide" provides detailed background information about the Colorado Watershed. Its reference section contains 25 science-based, multidisciplinary, hands-on activities that teach about hydrology, geography, geology, ecology, tribes, history, cultures, economics, management issues and resource stewardship. In…

  4. Bilingual Bicultural Education: The Colorado Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Lawrence A.; Goldsmith, Ross

    Because a lack of adequate data eliminated the possibility of using control groups or historical comparison groups, Colorado's procedure for evaluating state bilingual/bicultural programs was designed to determine whether children in the bilingual program (K-3) had learned more than they would have learned if they had not been in the program. A…

  5. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

  6. Colorado Agriculture Education Tech Prep Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This guide is intended to provide local agricultural education tech prep programs throughout Colorado with a framework for updating their own curriculum and developing articulation with postsecondary institutions. First, a primer to standards-based education explains the role of the following items in standards-based education in agriculture: (1)…

  7. The Colorado Plateau: High, Wide, and Windswept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Fischman, Shelly; Jacobson, LouAnn; Smith, Shelley; Tisdale, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Explores the natural forces that created the Colorado Plateau, examines a few of the myriad plants and animals inhabiting the six life zones on the plateau, and provides an overview of the challenges faced by land managers seeking to care for the plateau's extraordinary life and land forms. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  8. 78 FR 61441 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00066

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  9. 78 FR 47816 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00061

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  10. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.406 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado. 81.406 Section 81.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.406...

  12. Logistics Handbook, 1976. Colorado Outward Bound School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outward Bound School, Denver.

    Logistics, a support mission, is vital to the successful operation of the Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) courses. Logistics is responsible for purchasing, maintaining, transporting, and replenishing a wide variety of items, i.e., food, mountaineering and camping equipment, medical and other supplies, and vehicles. The Logistics coordinator…

  13. Colorado Outdoor Education Center Teacher's Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outdoor Education Center, Inc., Florissant.

    The Colorado Outdoor Education Center aims to educate the total person by offering programs which help each individual to gain a sense of the earth, of community, and of self. At High Trails the students are brought into direct contact with nature, utilizing small groups and emphasizing direct experiences. The integrated, multi-disciplinary…

  14. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Denver, Colorado, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  15. Colorado's Response to Defense Department Base Closures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartgow, Jerome F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the conversion of Colorado's Lowry Air Force Base from a military training center to a multifaceted educational center. Discusses key components of the center, including an electronic arts associate degree program, a multimedia production facility, advanced machining and manufacturing, graduate and undergraduate courses, and National…

  16. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado... Transportation Planing Study Area as defined in 1989. Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest...) Unclassifiable/Attainment El Paso County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area...

  17. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado... Transportation Planing Study Area as defined in 1989. Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest...) Unclassifiable/Attainment El Paso County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado.... Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest corner of the Study Area at a point on the El Paso... County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area as defined in 1989 Park...

  19. The Effectiveness of Colorado's TASC Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Stephen J.; Klebe, Kelli J.; Arens, Sheila A.; Durham, Robert L.; Hughes, Joel; Moor, Candace J.; O'Keefe, Maureen; Phillips, Janis; Sarno, Julie A.; Stommel, Joe

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of Colorado's Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) program in reducing recidivism rates. Two studies were conducted to investigate parolees' (N=536) return to prison. Results did not demonstrate the effectiveness of TASC: TASC participants did not have a lower recidivism when compared to nonparticipants. (RJM)

  20. Public acceptance of wildlife trapping in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manfredo, M.J.; Pierce, C.L.; Fulton, D.; Pate, J.; Gill, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    In November 1994, the Colorado Division of Wildlife (CDOW) initiated a stakeholder process to develop trapping regulations that would seek to achieve compromise among divergent interests. A telephone survey was conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the Colorado public's acceptance of trapping. A random sample of 900 residents, stratified by geographic region, indicated that the public would vote to ban trapping and that they believed the ban would eliminate a cruel activity and help to preserve endangered wildlife. Most, however, agreed that trapping was acceptable to prevent spread of disease and to protect livestock, but unacceptable on the basis of providing recreation or making money. Beliefs about trapping were found to be rooted in a protection versus use value orientation about wildlife. The regulations subsequently adopted by the CDOW were consistent with survey findings; however, the regulatory process was bypassed by legislative action, giving trapping authority to the Colorado Department of Agriculture. In response, citizen activists succeeded in placing a ballot initiative before voters. In 1996, the ballot initiative passed, banning trapping in Colorado.

  1. Colorado Preschool Program: 2003-2004 Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) provides funding to establish quality early childhood education programs that serve children eligible to enroll in kindergarten the following year. A vital component of CPP is to strengthen families and support them as participants in their child's education. District Councils made up of representatives of key…

  2. Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachman, Mark

    Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river…

  3. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Claude, Jr., Ed.; Moore, Beverly, Ed.

    This master plan for Colorado academic libraries assesses current strengths and weaknesses of public and private academic libraries in the state and forecasts the role of academic libraries in support of higher education. The plan consists of a series of recommendations divided into six related and overlapping sections: access, collection…

  4. Southern Colorado State College Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Antonio A.

    Occurring in six elementary schools in Pueblo, the Teacher Corps Program at Southern Colorado State College features the following components: a) a cross-cultural component for all participants; b) a community-based component designed to assist the community to participate in educational decision making; c) a 2-year undergraduate, field- and…

  5. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  6. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  7. Alaska Simulator - A Journey to Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; Wild, Werner

    The Alaska Simulator is an interactive software tool developed at the University of Innsbruck which allows people to test, analyze and improve their own planning behavior. In addition, the Alaska Simulator can be used for studying research questions in the context of software project management and other related fields. Thereby, the Alaska Simulator uses a journey as a metaphor for planning a software project. In the context of software project management the simulator can be used to compare traditional rather plan-driven project management methods with more agile approaches. Instead of pre-planning everything in advance agile approaches spread planning activities throughout the project and provide mechanisms for effectively dealing with uncertainty. The biggest challenge thereby is to find the right balance between pre-planning activities and keeping options open. The Alaska Simulator allows to explore how much planning is needed under different circumstances.

  8. 76 FR 72212 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... published four times in The Delta Discovery. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the...

  9. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The... decision will also be published once a week for four ] consecutive weeks in the Delta Discovery. DATES:...

  10. 77 FR 20046 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... described below pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The lands being approved for conveyance are lands originally selected under ANCSA in the withdrawal area...

  11. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  12. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  13. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  14. Radiocarbon Depression in Aquatic Foodwebs of the Colorado River, USA: Coupling Between Carbonate Weathering and the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickman, J. O.; Huang, W.; Lucero, D.; Anderson, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 14C isotopic composition of living organisms is generally considered to be in isotopic equilibrium with atmosphere CO2. During the course of investigations of aquatic foodwebs of the Colorado River, we measured substantial radiocarbon depression of organisms within planktonic and benthic foodwebs of Copper Basin Reservoir, a short residence-time water body at the intake to the Colorado River Aqueduct. All trophic levels had depressed radiocarbon content with inferred "age" of ca. 1,200 radiocarbon years (range: 0.85 to 0.87 fraction modern carbon (fmc)). Additional measurements of the radiocarbon content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were made in other major rivers in California (New (near Salton Sea), Santa Ana (near Riverside), San Joaquin (near Fresno) and Salinas (near San Luis Obispo)). In the New River (which is composed primarily of irrigation tailwater derived from the Colorado River), the radiocarbon values for DIC closely matched those found in biota of the Copper Basin Reservoir (0.85 to 0.87 fmc), but radiocarbon values for DOC were slightly higher (0.91 to 0.95 fmc). In the other California rivers, radiocarbon concentrations in DIC were generally below modern and lower than corresponding levels in DOC; in the case of the Santa Ana River, DOC was older than DIC as a result of wastewater inputs from upstream treatment plants. Together these data suggest that the carbonate equilibrium of California rivers is influenced by weathering of carbonate minerals which produces HCO3- with no 14C. We hypothesize that this dead carbon can move into aquatic foodwebs via algae and phytoplankton uptake during photosynthesis, depressing the 14C content of aquatic foodwebs below that of the atmosphere. Based on a simple two-component mixing model incorporating carbonate weathering and atmospheric CO2, we estimate that 15-17% of the carbon in the aquatic foodweb of Copper Basin is derived directly from mineral weathering of

  15. California: Library Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Barbara, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes six information technology projects in California libraries, including Internet access in public libraries; digital library developments at the University of California, Berkeley; the World Wide Web home page for the state library; Pacific Bell's role in statewide connectivity; state government initiatives; and services of the state…

  16. [California State Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jay W.

    The first paper on the California State Archives treats the administrative status, legal basis of the archives program, and organization of the archives program. The problem areas in this States' archival program are discussed at length. The second paper gives a crude sketch of the legal and administrative history of the California State Archives,…

  17. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  18. How California Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public education supports California's economic growth and creates opportunities for the state's youth. Given that, it is important for Californians to understand how much the state is investing in its schools and how that money is being spent. Comparing California with the nation and other similar states can provide a useful perspective in…

  19. Authentic Assessment in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL & PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: US FILTER 3M10C MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the US Filter 3M10C membrane system was conducted over a 44-day test period at the Aqua 2000 Research Center in Chula Vista, California. The test period extended from July 24, 2002 to September 5, 2002. The source water was a blend of Colorado River and ...

  1. Propagation measurements in Alaska using ACTS beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The placement of an ACTS propagation terminal in Alaska has several distinct advantages. First is the inclusion of a new and important climatic zone to the global propagation model. Second is the low elevation look angle from Alaska to ACTS. These two unique opportunities also present problems unique to the location, such as extreme temperatures and lower power levels. These problems are examined and compensatory solutions are presented.

  2. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  3. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  4. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  5. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  6. Geologic Map of Central (Interior) Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Dover, James H.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Weber, Florence R.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction: This map and associated digital databases are the result of a compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and limited 1:125,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 416,000 sq km (134,000 sq mi) and encompasses 25 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in central Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Surveys and Analysis project, whose goal is nationwide assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This map is an early product of an effort that will eventually encompass all of Alaska, and is the result of an agreement with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil And Gas, to provide data on interior basins in Alaska. A paper version of the three map sheets has been published as USGS Open-File Report 98-133. Two geophysical maps that cover the identical area have been published earlier: 'Bouguer gravity map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and others, 1996); and 'Merged aeromagnetic map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and Saltus, 1995). These two publications are supplied in the 'geophys' directory of this report.

  7. Alaska

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... This image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye. It may help to darken the room lights when viewing the image on a computer screen. The Yukon River is ...

  8. New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

  9. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  10. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  11. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  12. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  13. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  14. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  15. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth

  16. Glacier Change and Biologic Succession: a new Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) Science Camp Module for Grades 8-12 in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Drake, J.; Good, C.; Fatland, R.; Hakala, M.; Woodford, R.; Donohoe, R.; Brenner, R.; Moriarty, T.

    2008-12-01

    During the summer of 2008, university faculty and instructors from southeast Alaska joined the University Alaska Fairbanks(UAF)Alaska Summer Research Academy(ASRA)to initiate a 12-day module on glacier change and biologic succession in Glacier Bay National Park. Nine students from Alaska, Colorado, Massachusetts, and Texas, made field observations and collected data while learning about tidewater glacier dynamics, plant succession, post-glacial uplift, and habitat use of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates in this dynamic landscape that was covered by 6,000 km2 of ice just 250 years ago. ASRA students located their study sites using GPS and created maps in GIS and GOOGLE Earth. They deployed salinometers and temperature sensors to collect vertical profiles of seawater characteristics up-bay near active tidewater glacier termini and down-bay in completely deglaciated coves. ASRA student data was then compared with data collected during the same time period by Juneau undergraduates working on the SEAMONSTER project in Mendenhall Lake. ASRA students traversed actively forming, up-bay recessional moraines devoid of vegetation, and the fully reforested Little Ice Age terminal moraine near Park Headquarters in the lower bay region. Students surveyed marine organisms living between supratidal and subtidal zones near glaciers and far from glaciers, and compared up-bay and down-bay communities. Students made observations and logged sightings of bird populations and terrestrial mammals in a linear traverse from the bay's northwestern most fjord near Mt. Fairweather for 120 km to the bay's entrance, south of Park Headquarters at Bartlett Cove. One student constructed an ROV and was able to deploy a video camera and capture changing silt concentrations in the water column as well as marine life on the fjord bottom. Students also observed exhumed Neoglacial spruce forests and visited outcrops of Silurian reef faunas, now fossilized in Alexander terrane

  17. Energy, the Environment, and the California - Baja California Border Region

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Bill

    2005-07-01

    The continued development of Baja California as an electricity and natural gas supply source for California is not in the best public interest of the citizens of Baja California or California. Siting power plants in the badly contaminated Imperial County - Mexicali air basin to serve Southern California load center raises serious environmental justice issues on both sides of the border that are not adequately addressed by existing environmental protection regulations.

  18. A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Ford, B.; Prenni, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the impact of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20-50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m-3) and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m-3) over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (> 1500 km distance) occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2-0.9), indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r2<0.01 and low PM2.5 levels). Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire origin and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the

  19. A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Ford, B.; Prenni, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the impact of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20-50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m-3) and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m-3) over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (>1500 km distance) occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2-0.9), indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r2<0.01 and low PM2.5 levels). Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire origin and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the Colorado

  20. Rock formations in the Colorado Plateau of Southeastern Utah and Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longwell, C.R.; Miser, H.D.; Moore, R.C.; Bryan, Kirk; Paige, Sidney

    1925-01-01

    The field work of which this report is a record was done in the summer and fall of 1921 by members of the United States Geological Survey. A project to build a large storage dam at Lees Ferry, on Colorado River in northern Arizona, called for a detailed topographic survey of the area covered by the project, for the purpose of determining the capacity of the reservoir. This work was undertaken by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southern California Edison Co. Three surveying parties were sent to the field, each accompanied by a geologist, whose specific duty was to study and report on the rock formations within the area to be flooded. One topographic party, under A. T. Fowler, which started at Lees Ferry and worked up stream in Arizona, was accompanied by Kirk Bryan. Another party, under K. W. Trimble, which started near Bluff and worked down the San Juan and thence down the Colorado, was accompanied by H. D. Miser. The third party, under W. R. Chenoweth, worked from Fremont River to the Waterpocket Fold and then returned to Green River, Utah, and traversed Cataract Canyon during the period of low water. C. R. Longwell was with this party until September, when his place was taken by Sidney Paige. Mr. Paige, in company with the Kolb brothers, E. C. La Rue, and Henry Ranch, left the Chenoweth party after Cataract Canyon had been surveyed and rowed down the Colorado to the mouth of the San Juan, where they were joined by Mr. Miser. Then they took a hurried trip by boat down the Colorado to Lees Ferry, making a few short stops and visiting the famous Rainbow Bridge. Thus the geology of the canyons of Colorado and San Juan rivers and of the lower parts of tributary canyons was examined continuously, and reconnaissance work was done in the country back from the rivers. At the same time a fourth party, under R. C. Moore, was mapping parts of Kane, Garfield, and Wayne counties, Utah, to determine whether oil might be found there. The present paper

  1. Late Cenozoic Colorado River Incision and Implications for Neogene Uplift of the Colorado Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, A.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kirby, E.; Heizler, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Basalt flows and volcanic ashes serve as a datum for calculating post-10 Ma river incision rates in western Colorado. The main picture that emerges from the data is one of regional variability of incision rates, which we hypothesize to reflect differential uplift of the Colorado Rockies during the Neogene. Maximum rates (90-180 m/Ma) and magnitudes (750-1500 m) of river incision are recorded between Grand Mesa and Glenwood Canyon, and in the Flat Tops. Minimum rates (<30 m/Ma) and magnitudes (<250 m) of river incision are associated post-Laramide normal faults within the Browns Park-Sand Wash basin in northwestern Colorado and in Middle Park of north-central Colorado. Differential uplift of the Colorado Rockies during the late Cenozoic can be inferred by comparing incision rates and magnitudes at locations upstream and downstream of knickzones. Along the Colorado River, post-10 Ma incision rates and magnitudes incision remain fairly constant (rates >100 m/Ma; magnitudes >1000 m) from Grand Mesa upstream to Gore Canyon, and then decrease markedly in Middle Park (rates <10 m/Ma; magnitudes <100 m) across the Gore Canyon knickzone. Normal-faulting of ca. 10 Ma deposits in Middle Park shows that incision rate variations partly reflect late Cenozoic faulting. Along the Yampa River, post-10 Ma incision rates and magnitudes are low (rates 15-27 m/Ma; magnitudes < 230 m) immediately upstream of Yampa Canyon, and then increase significantly (rates 96-132 m/Ma; magnitudes ~1250 m) upstream near the headwaters. We interpret this upstream increase in river incision rate and magnitude to reflect Neogene uplift of the Yampa River headwaters relative to its lower reaches. Lastly, differential late Cenozoic uplift of the Colorado Rockies is suggested by differences in the timing of regional exhumation and river incision within different drainage basins. Colorado River incision and regional exhumation occurred between 9.8 and 7.8 Ma. In contrast, Yampa River incision began between

  2. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  3. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  4. Deciphering the evolution and origin of the lower Colorado River and uplift of the Colorado Plateau: Preliminary U-Pb carbonate dating results and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, R. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Crossey, L. J.; Polyak, V. J.; Asmerom, Y.; House, K.

    2014-12-01

    Long-standing debate has focused on the timing, mode, and direction of Colorado River integration, either down or up river. Miocene-Pliocene Colorado River deposits are well exposed in the lower Colorado River corridor (i.e. Bouse Fm and Bullhead Alluvium). There, improved geochronologic constraints have the potential to test integration models and improve our understanding of the inception of a continental-scale river system. In addition, timing and magnitude of regional uplift could be estimated if 5-6 Ma paleoelevation of any part of the system can be confidently identified (e.g. paleo sea level). Present data indicate that downward integration occurred in part through a series of lake basins that filled and spilled as fluvial-deltaic sediments prograded towards the Gulf of California. However, a possible marine connection and hence a near sea-level elevation for the lower Blythe basin of the Bouse Fm remains controversial. Non-marine Sr signatures in lower Bouse Fm carbonates are permissibly consistent with mixing in an estuary and conversely, limited assemblages of marine fossils are permissively explained by avian transport to inland saline lakes. Improved geochronology has the potential to discriminate between a < 100 ka episode of downward integration of short-lived lakes from a > 1 Ma longer-lived estuarine system. Improved geochronology can also help resolve controversy about the timing of the arrival of Colorado River sediment and water in each basin and, in particular in the Salton Trough. We present initial U/Pb results on Hualapai Limestone and Bouse Fm carbonates. Hualapai samples give linear 3D isochron ages of 9.3 ± 1.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1 Ma that are consistent with available stratigraphic controls. Preliminary attempts to date Bouse marl have so far yielded imprecise results. However generally high U/Pb ratios and U concentrations in Bouse samples are promising. Efforts are currently underway to date fine-grained banded Bouse tufas from lake margins.

  5. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  6. Gunnison, Colorado subpile study report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    To protect human health and the environment, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison Subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study.

  7. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.G; Meyers, T.R.; Burton, T.O.; Kurath, G.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  8. MOUNT ZIRKEL WILDERNESS AND VICINITY, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified.

  9. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  10. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  11. 76 FR 22686 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... notice that on April 8, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), Post Office Box 1087 Colorado..., Director, Regulatory Affairs, Post Office Box 1087 Colorado Springs, CO 80944; telephone (719)...

  12. 75 FR 3917 - Notice of Public Meeting, Northwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... meeting. ADDRESSES: The Northwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held in Silt, Colorado, at the BLM Field... Frontage Road, Silt, CO, (970) 876-9008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Northwest Colorado RAC advises...

  13. 76 FR 63600 - Notice of Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Forest Service Notice of Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource...

  14. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... will be held on June 4, 2010, in Dolores, Colorado; August 13, 2010, in Gunnison, Colorado; and October... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi,...

  15. The Oxbow School, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Clifford A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the Oxbow School, an art- and design-oriented high school in Napa, California, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, as well as floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  16. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov Websites

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  17. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  18. A History of Schooling for Alaska Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the geographic and demographic contexts of Alaska schooling, federal policies that have affected education in Alaska, and the evolution of schooling for Alaska Native people. Describes the development of a dual federal/territorial system of schools, the initiation of federal and state reform efforts, Native-sponsored educational…

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  20. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  1. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  2. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  3. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  4. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  5. Minorities in Higher Education. The Changing North: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; And Others

    This report examines the educational status of ethnic and racial minorities in Alaska and draws attention to the ways demographic changes in Alaska may affect these groups. The Alaska Native population, as opposed to other ethnic minorities, is the focal point of this study. This is the largest minority group in the state and the one experiencing…

  6. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  7. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  8. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  9. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  10. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  11. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  12. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  13. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  14. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  15. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  16. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  17. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  18. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section... § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within a refuge in Alaska open to leasing shall be available until the Fish and Wildlife Service has first completed compatability determinations....

  19. Anchorage Kindergarten Profile: Implementing the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This paper discusses the development of the Anchorage Kindergarten Developmental Profile in the context of the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile and presents some evaluation results from studies of the Anchorage measure. Alaska mandated the completion of an Alaska Developmental Profile (ADP) on each kindergarten student and each student…

  20. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  1. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  2. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  3. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  4. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  5. Pesticides in surface waters of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-four river, stream, and drain sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado were sampled during 1996?98 to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the basin. In a fixed-station study, 57 surface-water samples were collected from October 1996 through January 1998 at four sites. Each site was sampled approximately monthly for up to a year, with more frequent sampling during the spring and summer growing season. In a synoptic study, surface-water samples were collected at 43 sites in the agricultural areas of the Grand Valley and the Uncompahgre River Valley in May 1998. Each site was sampled once. Pesticide concentrations generally were low and varied seasonally and across land uses. Thirty-five pesticides were detected at least once in the two studies, and 11 pesticides accounted for almost 82 percent of the detections. Herbicides were more commonly detected than insecticides, and only the herbicides alachlor and atrazine were detected in more than 50 percent of the samples. Carbofuran was the most commonly detected insecticide and was detected in 19 percent of the samples. Pesticide detections increased and were measured at higher concentrations in the summer months and at the agriculture sites. All pesticide concentrations were less than drinking-water standards, and most complied with human-health advisories and criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Pesticides in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado were detected slightly less frequently and generally at lower concentrations than in 20 National Water-Quality Assessment Program study-unit basins that collected water-quality data from 1992 through 1996. Results from surface-water sampling conducted during 1996?98 in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado indicate that beneficial uses of water were not being impaired by the presence of pesticides in surface waters in the basin.

  6. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An interesting view down the axis of Baja California, Mexico (26.5N, 113.0W). At the center of the Scene is Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whale. The Sea of Cortez, also known as the Gulf of California, is to the left and the Pacific Ocean is to the right.

  7. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  8. Pillar Mountain Landslide, Kodiak, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Slater, Willard H.

    1978-01-01

    Pillar Mountain landslide on the southeast face of Pillar Mountain is about 915 m (3,000 ft) southwest of the city of Kodiak, Alaska. The landslide is about 520 m (1,700 ft) wide at its base and extends approximately from sea level to an altitude of about 343 m (1,125 ft). The slide developed on an ancient and apparently inactive landslide. Renewed movement was first detected on December 5, 1971, following removal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of material from the base of the slope. Although movement of the landslide has decreased since December, 1971, movement continues and the possibility exists that it could increase as a result of an earthquake, water saturation of the landslide mass, or other causes. In the most extreme case, as much as 3.8 to 7.6 million m (5-10 million ) of debris could fall into the sea at Inner Anchorage. If this took place suddenly, it could generate a wave comparable in height to the tsunami that damaged Kodiak during the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. Therefore, we believe that the Pillar landslide is a potential hazard to the city of Kodiak and its environs that merits a thorough investigation and evaluation.

  9. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-16

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina,41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  10. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  11. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  12. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  13. Preliminary study of solar ponds for salinity control in the Colorado River Basin. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Boegli, W.J.; Dahl, M.M.; Remmers, H.E.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, the Bureau of Reclamation investigates the technical and economic benefits of using solar salt-gradient ponds in the Colorado River Basin to provide salinity control and to produce project power and freshwater. It was assumed that the saline water needed for pond construction would be transported to one of two dry lakebeds in the Basin(Danby Dry Lake in southern California or Sevier Dry Lake in western Utah) as part of a salinity control/coal transport project. The ponds would be used to generate electric power that could be integrated with the Bureau's power grid or used in combination with thermal energy from the ponds to power commercially available desalination systems to produce freshwater. Economic benefits were compiled for two methods of concentrating the necessary brine for the ponds--one representing stage construction using collected brine only and the other using salt at the site to produce the concentrated brine.

  14. Perchlorate exposure from food crops produced in the lower Colorado River region.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Charles A; Barraj, Leila M; Blount, Benjamin C; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Smith, Kimberly M; Krieger, Robert I

    2009-05-01

    The Colorado River shows low levels of perchlorate derived from aerospace- and defense-related fuel industries once located near the Las Vegas Wash. At sufficiently high dosages perchlorate can disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting uptake of iodide. The Colorado River is the primary source of irrigation water for most food crops grown in Southern California and Southwestern Arizona. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential perchlorate exposure from food crops produced in the lower Colorado River region (LCRR). The major food commodities produced in the region were sampled and perchlorate levels were determined by ion chromatography followed by detection using either conductivity or tandem mass spectrometry, depending on analyte levels. The Monte Carlo module of the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model (DEEM) was used to derive an estimate of the 2-day average perchlorate intakes. Data were derived assuming that individuals residing in the LCRR get their fruits and vegetables from within the LCRR as well as from other areas in the United States, or assuming individuals living in the LCRR get their fruits and vegetables from the LCRR only. Perchlorate exposure estimates derived in this study are comparable to exploratory estimates by the US Food and Drug Administration. For infants and children, over 50% of the estimated perchlorate exposure was from milk. The relative impact of vegetables and fruit toward perchlorate exposure increased by age through adulthood. Cumulative perchlorate exposure estimates based on this hypothetical analysis could approach or exceed the NAS reference dose (RfD) for some population groups as drinking water levels exceeded 6 microg/l. However, few individuals are exposed to perchlorate in drinking water at levels above 4 microg/l in the United States and very few would be exposed to perchlorate levels exceeding the RfD, whether consuming food crops from within or outside the LCRR. PMID:18506207

  15. Tectonic/physiographic evolution of the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau, central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Nations, J.D.; Potochnik, A.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Six tectonostratigraphic assemblages along the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau document progressively greater extensional partitioning of the Transition Zone during the Tertiary. (1) In the Eocene, the Mogollon Rim assemblage (>37.6 Ma) was deposited by laterally extensive, northeastward-flowing streams in the Transition Zone and on the Colorado Plateau on an erosion surface cut on Proterozoic through early Permian rocks. Deposition occurred prior to structural lowering in the Transition Zone, predating formation of the Plateau's southern escarpment in this area. (2) The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (>21.5 Ma) Beavertail fluvial assemblage was deposited on a similar erosion surface extending at least 48 km south of the Plateau. Sedimentologic analyses indicate northeastward transport toward the Plateau, then diversion along a strike valley toward the southeast at the base of an ancestral escarpment. (3) The unconformably overlying Early to Middle Miocene (17.9--10 Ma) Hickey assemblage are basalts and fluvial volcaniclastics also deposited within the Transition Zone and south of the ancestral escarpment. Abundant basalt suggests onset of Basin and Range tectonism in the area but distribution beyond the bounds of the Verde Basin indicates deposition prior to subsidence of the Verde basin. Unconformably overlying the Hickey assemblage are basalts and fluvial lacustrine deposits which represent deposition in discrete basins within the Transition Zone. External drainage of these three basins was initiated during Blancan time (2--4 Ma), probably due to headward erosion by Colorado River tributaries following opening of the Gulf of California beginning about 5.5 Ma.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  17. Integrated laboratory and field approach for assessing impacts of heavy metals at the Arkansas River, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.; Kiffney, P.M. . Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology)

    1994-03-01

    This research employed an integrated laboratory and field approach to assess effects of heavy metals at the Arkansas River, a Colorado stream impacted by historic mining operations. Ambient metal levels, chronic toxicity, metal bioaccumulation by benthic organisms, and benthic community structure were examined at stations located upstream and downstream from California Gulch (CG), A US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site near Leadville, Colorado. Although each approach demonstrated effects of metals from CG, important differences among approaches were observed. Ambient metal concentrations and chronic toxicity tests conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated reduced water quality at upstream and downstream stations. Because of temporal variability in metal levels, water samples collected for chronic toxicity tests did not reflect average exposure conditions. Instream monitoring of benthic communities was necessary to characterize metal impacts at the Arkansas River, but this approach had limitations. Levels of metals in periphyton and benthic invertebrates were significantly elevated at stations downstream from CG. Variation in metal levels among taxa and the absence of some taxa from some stations may limit the use of bioaccumulation studies for monitoring metal impacts. Benthic community structure was altered downstream from CG, but some metrics were not affected by heavy metals because of the replacement of sensitive taxa by tolerant taxa. Because each of the approaches employed in this study provided different information on the degree of metal impacts, they recommend an integrated approach for assessing effects of metals on streams.

  18. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  19. Recent distribution and status of nesting bald eagles in Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Conant, B.; Anderson, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in Baja California, Mexico, and vicinity from 1983-1993. The range of nesting Bald Eagles in Baja California has been reduced from a scattering of pairs along both the Pacific and Gulf sides to a remnant population in Magdalena Bay where no more than three pairs were found annually. Low numbers and a restricted distribution make this disjunct population especially vulnerable to human disturbance. Additional protection of present nesting localities and a reintroduction program on remote islands in the Gulf of California where eagles historically nested, are proposed. Limited data on nesting success indicate that the Magdalena Bay population is reproducing successfully with young probably dispersing north following fledging. The Bald Eagles found wintering along the Colorado River Delta in January apparently nest farther north in the United States or Canada.

  20. 77 FR 38013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1. The authority citation for part 679 continues to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BC23 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88; Correction AGENCY:...