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Sample records for alaska earthquake information

  1. Real-Time Data Processing Systems and Products at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) receives data from over 400 seismic sites located within the state boundaries and the surrounding regions and serves as a regional data center. In 2007, the AEIC reported ~20,000 seismic events, with the largest event of M6.6 in Andreanof Islands. The real-time earthquake detection and data processing systems at AEIC are based on the Antelope system from BRTT, Inc. This modular and extensible processing platform allows an integrated system complete from data acquisition to catalog production. Multiple additional modules constructed with the Antelope toolbox have been developed to fit particular needs of the AEIC. The real-time earthquake locations and magnitudes are determined within 2-5 minutes of the event occurrence. AEIC maintains a 24/7 seismologist-on-duty schedule. Earthquake alarms are based on the real- time earthquake detections. Significant events are reviewed by the seismologist on duty within 30 minutes of the occurrence with information releases issued for significant events. This information is disseminated immediately via the AEIC website, ANSS website via QDDS submissions, through e-mail, cell phone and pager notifications, via fax broadcasts and recorded voice-mail messages. In addition, automatic regional moment tensors are determined for events with M>=4.0. This information is posted on the public website. ShakeMaps are being calculated in real-time with the information currently accessible via a password-protected website. AEIC is designing an alarm system targeted for the critical lifeline operations in Alaska. AEIC maintains an extensive computer network to provide adequate support for data processing and archival. For real-time processing, AEIC operates two identical, interoperable computer systems in parallel.

  2. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  3. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  4. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.; Kachadoorian, Reuben; Coulter, Henry W.; Migliaccio, Ralph R.; Waller, Roger M.; Stanley, Kirk W.; Lemke, Richard W.; Plafker, George; Eckel, Edwin B.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    1969-01-01

    This is the second in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 542, in 7 parts, describes the effects of the earthquake on Alaskan communities.

  5. Repeating coupled earthquakes at Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Petersen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Since it last erupted in 1999, Shishaldin Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has produced hundreds to thousands of long-period (1-2 Hz; LP) earthquakes every day with no other sign of volcanic unrest. In 2002, the earthquakes also exhibited a short-period (4-7 Hz; SP) signal occurring between 3 and 15 s before the LP phase. Although the SP phase contains higher frequencies than the LP phase, its spectral content is still well below that expected of brittle failure events. The SP phase was never observed without the LP phase, although LP events continued to occur in the absence of the precursory signal. The two-phased events are termed "coupled events", reflecting a triggered relationship between two discrete event types. Both phases are highly repetitive in time series, suggestive of stable, non-destructive sources. Waveform cross-correlation and spectral coherence are used to extract waveforms from the continuous record and determine precise P-wave arrivals for the SP phase. Although depths are poorly constrained, the SP phase is believed to lie at shallow (<4 km) depths just west of Shishaldin's summit. The variable timing between the SP and LP arrivals indicates that the trigger mechanism between the phases itself moves at variable speeds. A model is proposed in which the SP phase results from fluid moving within the conduit, possibly around an obstruction and the LP phase results from the coalescence of a shallow gas bubble. The variable timing is attributed to changes in gas content within the conduit. The destruction of the conduit obstacle on November 21, 2002 resulted in the abrupt disappearance of the SP phase.

  6. Diurnal periodicity of the flow of Alaska earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    The Alaska earthquake catalog has been analyzed in detail to find and study the diurnal periodicity of earthquake events. For this purpose, a set of spatially and temporally homogeneous samples of earthquakes with the well-known magnitude of completeness ( M c) has been prepared. For each sample, the spectra have been considered, the average diurnal variations in the number of earthquakes have been calculated, and their amplitudes were determined. The average diurnal variations were compared. For representative earthquakes in Alaska, no significant diurnal variation has been found. In subrepresentative samples, either the diurnal variation is insignificant or the signal-to-noise ratio only slightly exceeds 1.3-1.9. The diurnal variation is significant (a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.0-4.5) only for the samples of weak earthquakes with magnitudes of no more than 1.4, which is 0.5 units less than the strong (i.e., guaranteed for the entire sample area) completeness threshold. The results are consistent with the hypothesis explaining the diurnal periodicity of earthquakes by noise-discrimination effects. However, a comparative analysis of the diurnal variation parameters estimated over a large number of spatially and temporally homogeneous samples of earthquakes in the Alaska, southern California, and Greece catalogs shows that all of these results cannot be explained by this model.

  7. Earthquake Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

  8. 2014 Earthquake Swarm in Northwest Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    An unusual sequence of earthquakes in NW Brooks Range region of Alaska began with two magnitude 5.7 earthquakes within minutes of each other on April 18, 2014. These events were followed by a vigorous aftershock sequence with many aftershocks reaching magnitude 4 and higher. Later, three more magnitude 5.7 earthquakes occurred in the same source region on May 3, June 7 and June 16. Earthquake source mechanisms indicate normal faulting on SE-NW striking fault planes. The source region is located ~20 km NE of the Noatak village and ~40 km S of the Red Dog Mine. A magnitude 5.5 occurred in this area in 1981. The 1981 sequence also exhibited a swarm-like behavior over the course of 6 months. Detection and reporting of these earthquakes is complicated by sparseness of seismic network in NW Alaska. At the time of April 18 earthquake the nearest seismic site was located at the Red Dog Mine, with the next nearest station 350 km away. Following the May 3 event, the Alaska Earthquake Center installed two additional temporary stations, one in Noatak and another in Kotzebue, 85 km S of the source area. Overall, 450 events were reported in this sequence through end of July. The catalog magnitude of completeness with the additional stations was about ~2.2. We applied waveform template matching algorithm to detect additional events in this sequence that could not be detected with the standard network processing. The template matching resulted in ~600 additional event detections. The waveform cross-correlation indicates that most of the events are not repeating sources. From the catalogued events, only 6% of event pairs have correlation coefficients of 0.75 or higher. We were able to identify only a few families of repeating events. Only one family seemed to be present throughout the entire sequence, while other event families were mostly short-lived. We find preliminary evidence that the earthquakes migrated to shallower depths throughout the sequence, consistent with the

  9. Why the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake matters 50 years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Michael E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ruppert, Natalia A.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Alaska Seismic Hazards Safety Commission

    2014-01-01

    Spring was returning to Alaska on Friday 27 March 1964. A two‐week cold snap had just ended, and people were getting ready for the Easter weekend. At 5:36 p.m., an earthquake initiated 12 km beneath Prince William Sound, near the eastern end of what is now recognized as the Alaska‐Aleutian subduction zone. No one was expecting this earthquake that would radically alter the coastal landscape, influence the direction of science, and indelibly mark the growth of a burgeoning state.

  10. Changes in crustal seismic deformation rates associated with the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doser, D.I.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Haeussler, P.J.; Saltus, R.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated seismic moment rates from crustal earthquake information for the upper Cook Inlet region, including Anchorage, Alaska, for the 30 yr prior to and 36 yr following the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. Our results suggest over a factor of 1000 decrease in seismic moment rate (in units of dyne centimeters per year) following the 1964 mainshock. We used geologic information on structures within the Cook Inlet basin to estimate a regional geologic moment rate, assuming the structures extend to 30 km depth and have near-vertical dips. The geologic moment rates could underestimate the true rates by up to 70% since it is difficult determine the amount of horizontal offset that has occurred along many structures within the basin. Nevertheless, the geologic moment rate is only 3-7 times lower than the pre-1964 seismic moment rate, suggesting the 1964 mainshock has significantly slowed regional crustal deformation. If we compare the geologic moment rate to the post-1964 seismic moment rate, the moment rate deficit over the past 36 yr is equivalent to a moment magnitude 6.6-7.0 earthquake. These observed differences in moment rates highlight the difficulty in using seismicity in the decades following a large megathrust earthquake to adequately characterize long-term crustal deformation.

  11. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  12. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, J; Bodin, P; Larson, K; Dragert, H

    2004-02-12

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered widespread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable. PMID:14961117

  13. Earthquake nucleation by transient deformations caused by the M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Larson, K.; Dragert, H.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent and dynamic (transient) stress changes inferred to trigger earthquakes are usually orders of magnitude smaller than the stresses relaxed by the earthquakes themselves, implying that triggering occurs on critically stressed faults. Triggered seismicity rate increases may therefore be most likely to occur in areas where loading rates are highest and elevated pore pressures, perhaps facilitated by high-temperature fluids, reduce frictional stresses and promote failure. Here we show that the 2002 magnitude M = 7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake triggered wide-spread seismicity rate increases throughout British Columbia and into the western United States. Dynamic triggering by seismic waves should be enhanced in directions where rupture directivity focuses radiated energy, and we verify this using seismic and new high-sample GPS recordings of the Denali mainshock. These observations are comparable in scale only to the triggering caused by the 1992 M = 7.4 Landers, California, earthquake, and demonstrate that Landers triggering did not reflect some peculiarity of the region or the earthquake. However, the rate increases triggered by the Denali earthquake occurred in areas not obviously tectonically active, implying that even in areas of low ambient stressing rates, faults may still be critically stressed and that dynamic triggering may be ubiquitous and unpredictable.

  14. The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunamis: a modern perspective and enduring legacies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Filson, John R.; Fuis, Gary S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Holzer, Thomas L.; Plafker, George; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m. on Friday, March 27, 1964, is the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history and the second-largest earthquake recorded with modern instruments. The earthquake was felt throughout most of mainland Alaska, as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands some 480 miles away, and at Seattle, Washington, more than 1,200 miles to the southeast of the fault rupture, where the Space Needle swayed perceptibly. The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh as far away as the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Water-level recorders in 47 states—the entire Nation except for Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island— registered the earthquake. It was so large that it caused the entire Earth to ring like a bell: vibrations that were among the first of their kind ever recorded by modern instruments. The Great Alaska Earthquake spawned thousands of lesser aftershocks and hundreds of damaging landslides, submarine slumps, and other ground failures. Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage, located west of the fault rupture, sustained heavy property damage. Tsunamis produced by the earthquake resulted in deaths and damage as far away as Oregon and California. Altogether the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused 129 fatalities and an estimated $2.3 billion in property losses (in 2013 dollars). Most of the population of Alaska and its major transportation routes, ports, and infrastructure lie near the eastern segment of the Aleutian Trench that ruptured in the 1964 earthquake. Although the Great Alaska Earthquake was tragic because of the loss of life and property, it provided a wealth of data about subductionzone earthquakes and the hazards they pose. The leap in scientific understanding that followed the 1964 earthquake has led to major breakthroughs in earth science research worldwide over the past half century. This fact sheet commemorates Great Alaska Earthquake and

  15. Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuthill, Samuel J.; Laird, Wilson M.

    1966-01-01

    The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10) gravel-coated snow cones, (11) lake ice fractures, and (12) uplift accompanied the earthquake. In addition to geomorphic effects, the earthquake affected the animal populations of the area. These include migratory fish, terrestrial mollusks, fur-bearing animals, and man. The Alaska earthquake clearly delineated areas of alluvial fill, snow and rock avalanche corridors, and deltas of the deeper lakes as unsuitable for future construction.

  16. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; Burton, Lynn R.; Eckel, Edwin B.; Kachadoorian, Reuben; McCulloch, David S.; Bonilla, Manuel G.

    1967-01-01

    This is the forth in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 545, in 4 parts, describes the effects on transportation, communications, and utilities.

  17. Source and progression of a submarine landslide and tsunami: The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake at Valdez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Geist, Eric L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Lee, Homa J.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lynett, Patrick; Hart, Patrick E.; Sliter, Ray; Roland, Emily

    2014-11-01

    Like many subduction zone earthquakes, the deadliest aspects of the 1964 M = 9.2 Alaska earthquake were the tsunamis it caused. The worst of these were generated by local submarine landslides induced by the earthquake. These caused high runups, engulfing several coastal towns in Prince William Sound. In this paper, we study one of these cases in detail, the Port Valdez submarine landslide and tsunami. We combine eyewitness reports, preserved film, and careful posttsunami surveys with new geophysical data to inform numerical models for landslide tsunami generation. We review the series of events as recorded at Valdez old town and then determine the corresponding subsurface events that led to the tsunami. We build digital elevation models of part of the pretsunami and posttsunami fjord-head delta. Comparing them reveals a ~1500 m long region that receded 150 m to the east, which we interpret as the primary delta landslide source. Multibeam imagery and high-resolution seismic reflection data identify a ~400 m wide chute with hummocky deposits at its terminus, which may define the primary slide path. Using these elements we run hydrodynamic models of the landslide-driven tsunamis that match observations of current direction, maximum inundation, and wave height at Valdez old town. We speculate that failure conditions at the delta front may have been influenced by manmade changes in drainage patterns as well as the fast retreat of Valdez and other glaciers during the past century.

  18. Periodically triggered seismicity at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, after the Sumatra earthquake.

    PubMed

    West, Michael; Sánchez, John J; McNutt, Stephen R

    2005-05-20

    As surface waves from the 26 December 2004 earthquake in Sumatra swept across Alaska, they triggered an 11-minute swarm of 14 local earthquakes near Mount Wrangell, almost 11,000 kilometers away. Earthquakes occurred at intervals of 20 to 30 seconds, in phase with the largest positive vertical ground displacements during the Rayleigh surface waves. We were able to observe this correlation because of the combination of unusually long surface waves and seismic stations near the local earthquakes. This phase of Rayleigh wave motion was dominated by horizontal extensional stresses reaching 25 kilopascals. These observations imply that local events were triggered by simple shear failure on normal faults. PMID:15905395

  19. Slip on the Suckling Hills splay fault during the 1964 Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Elliott, Julie; Doser, Diane I.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    2014-12-01

    The Suckling Hills in southern Alaska experienced localized, anomalously large coseismic uplift in the Mw 9.2, 1964 Alaska earthquake. Large uplift at the Suckling Hills can be explained by increased slip, or an asperity, on the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust; however, this paper suggests that increased uplift may be a result of slip on the Suckling Hills splay fault. We present a series of models that demonstrate how the inclusion of the Suckling Hills fault improves the fit between modeled vertical displacement and measured coseismic uplift in comparison to slip on the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust alone. Our results suggest that ~ 3 m of average slip on the Suckling Hills fault during the 1964 earthquake can help explain the large coseismic uplift data. These results are consistent with recent studies indicating Pleistocene slip on the Suckling Hills fault and together highlight the potential seismic and tsunami risk associated with this segment of the Alaskan subduction complex.

  20. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: field investigations and reconstruction effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.; Eckel, Edwin B.; Schaem, William E.; Lyle, Robert E.; George, Warren; Chance, Genie

    1966-01-01

    One of the greatest geotectonic events of our time occurred in southern Alaska late in the afternoon of March 27, 1964. Beneath a leaden sky, the chill of evening was just settling over the Alaskan countryside. Light snow was falling on some communities. It was Good Friday, schools were closed, and the business day was ending. Suddenly without warning half of Alaska was rocked and jarred by the most violent earthquake to occur in North America this century. The descriptive summary that follows is based on the work of many investigators. A large and still-growing scientific literature has accumulated since the earthquake, and this literature has been freely drawn upon here. In particular, the writers have relied upon the findings of their colleagues in the Geological Survey. Some of these findings have been published, but some are still being prepared for publication. Moreover, some field investigations are still in progress. This is the first in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 541, in 1 part, describes Field Investigations and Reconstruction Effort.

  1. Block rotation in east-central Alaska: a framework for evaluating earthquake potential?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.; Plafker, G.; Pulpan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Geologic and seismic data reveal a set of parallel, active, strike-slip faults in east-central Alaska between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The faults strike northeast to north-northeast, at a high angle to the bounding dextral fault systems, and exhibit sinistral slip. This hypothesizes that this set of faults divides the crust into long blocks that are rotating clockwise in response to northerly compression resulting from Pacific-North American plate convergence. It is suggested that these faults have produced most of the large historical earthquakes in east-central Alaska between the Alaska Range and the Yukon River. -Authors

  2. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  3. Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. J.; Tolstoy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant tidal triggering of earthquakes has been observed precursory to the Tohoku and Sumatra megathrust earthquakes (Tanaka 2010; 2012). The appearance of high correlation between tidally-induced stresses and earthquake occurrence frequency several to ten years before these megathrust earthquakes suggests that such statistical analysis could be useful in improving forecasting of future subduction zone earthquakes. Using this statistical method, we analyzed the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone which has been known to produce devastating tsunamigenic earthquakes, and specifically the Semidi Segment that is probably late in its earthquake cycle (Davies et. al. 1981). Our study aims to understand if significant tidal triggering of earthquakes were present precursory to historical great earthquakes in this region. We also aim to understand if any segment along the subduction zone is currently displaying statistically significant tidal triggering of earthquakes and whether such observations are indicative of the stress state of the segment. Finally, we test if the strength of tidal triggering captured by this statistical method is sensitive to the tidal stress azimuth used. Such sensitivity could be indicative of the predominant fault slip direction in the specific segment.

  4. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  5. Simulating Tsunami Inundation in Southern Oregon, USA Using Hypothetical Cascadia and Alaska Earthquake Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, R. C.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, K.; Priest, G. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Stimely, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    We develop 15 full-margin rupture models for Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes that define vertical seafloor deformation used to simulate tsunami inundation at Bandon, Oregon. We consider rupture models that include slip partitioned to a splay fault in the accretionary wedge and models that vary the updip limit of slip on the megathrust. The design of coseismic slip models is based on the interpretation of paleoseismic and paleotsunami data, especially turbidite records offshore and a tsunami deposit sequence at Bradley Lake in southern Oregon. Alternative scenarios are evaluated using a logic tree that ranks model consistency with geophysical and geological data. The hydrodynamic computer model, SELFE, is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation and inundation for the 15 Cascadia earthquake sources and two Alaska earthquake sources: the 1964 Mw 9.2 Prince William Sound earthquake and a maximum hypothetical earthquake beneath the Gulf of Alaska. Results describe levels of confidence (in percent) that a Cascadia tsunami will not exceed simulated wave runup. Maximum Cascadia tsunami wave elevations at the shoreline vary between ˜4 and ˜25 m above the model tide (mean higher high water) for earthquakes with 9 to 44 m slip and moment magnitude (Mw) 8.7 to 9.2. The simulated inundation for all Cascadia scenarios is consistent with minimum constraints from the spatial extent of deposits left by the AD 1700 Cascadia tsunami and older predecessors. Simulations of the 1964 Alaska tsunami agree with limited historical observations of wave heights and runup in Bandon. We recommend using the maximum Cascadia tsunami scenario and the maximum Alaska tsunami scenario for delineating evacuation zones for the Oregon coast. The tsunami scenario most consistent with paleoseismic data or the larger splay fault scenario, which encompass ~80 to 95 percent of the hazard, should be considered for land use planning and future revisions to building codes along the coast.

  6. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  7. Interim report on the St. Elias, Alaska earthquake of 28 February 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.; Plafker, George; Stephens, C.D.; Foglean, K.A.; Blackford, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    On 28 February 1979 an earthquake with surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 7.7 (W. Person, personal communication, 1979) occurred beneath the Chugach and St. Elias mountains of southern Alaska (fig. 1). This is a region of complex tectonics resulting from northwestward convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. To the east, the northwest-trending Fairweather fault accommodates the movement with dextral slip of about 5.5 cm/yr (Plafker, Hudson, and others, 1978); to the west, the Pacific plate underthrusts Alaska at the Aleutian trench, which trends southwestward (Plafker 1969). The USGS has operated a telemetered seismic network in southern Alaska since 1971 and it was greatly expanded along the eastern Gulf of Alaska in September 1974. The current configuration of stations is shown in Figure 9. Technical details of the network are available in published earthquake catalogs (Lahr, Page, and others, 1974; Fogleman, Stephens, and others, 1978). Preliminary analysis of the data from this network covering the time period September 1, 1978 through March 10, 1979, as well as worldwide data for the main shock will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Crustal Deformation in Southcentral Alaska: The 1964 Prince William Sound Earthquake Subduction Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2003-01-01

    This article, for Advances in Geophysics, is a summary of crustal deformation studies in southcentral Alaska. In 1964, southcentral Alaska was struck by the largest earthquake (moment magnitude 9.2) occurring in historical times in North America and the second largest earthquake occurring in the world during the past century. Conventional and space-based geodetic measurements have revealed a complex temporal-spatial pattern of crustal movement. Numerical models suggest that ongoing convergence between the North America and Pacific Plates, viscoelastic rebound, aseismic creep along the tectonic plate interface, and variable plate coupling all play important roles in controlling both the surface and subsurface movements. The geodetic data sets include tide-gauge observations that in some cases provide records back to the decades preceding the earthquake, leveling data that span a few decades around the earthquake, VLBI data from the late 1980s, and GPS data since the mid-1990s. Geologic data provide additional estimates of vertical movements and a chronology of large seismic events. Some of the important features that are revealed by the ensemble of studies that are reviewed in this paper include: (1) Crustal uplift in the region that subsided by up 2 m at the time of the earthquake is as much as 1 m since the earthquake. In the Turnagain Arm and Kenai Peninsula regions of southcentral Alaska, uplift rates in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake reached 150 mm/yr , but this rapid uplift decayed rapidly after the first few years following the earthquake. (2) At some other locales, notably those away the middle of the coseismic rupture zone, postseismic uplift rates were initially slower but the rates decay over a longer time interval. At Kodiak Island, for example, the uplift rates have been decreasing at a rate of about 7mm/yr per decade. At yet other locations, the uplift rates have shown little time dependence so far, but are thought not to be sustainable

  9. Diverse Approaches USED to Characterize the Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Along the Southern Alaska Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Witter, R. C.; Liberty, L. M.; Brothers, D. S.; Briggs, R. W.; Armstrong, P. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Parsons, T.; Ryan, H. F.; Lee, H. J.; Roland, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are the principal geohazards of southern Alaska. The entire margin has ruptured in megathrust earthquakes, including the M9.2 1964 event, and these earthquakes have launched deadly local and trans-Pacific tsunamis. Tsunamis have been by far the largest killer in these earthquakes. Moreover, the subduction zone displays a range in locking behavior from completely locked beneath Prince William Sound, to ­­­­nearly freely slipping beneath the Shumagin Islands. Characterizing earthquake-related tsunami sources requires a diverse set of methods, and we discuss several examples. One important source for tsunamis is from megathrust splay faults. The Patton Bay splay fault system ruptured during the 1964 earthquake and generated a tsunami that impacted coastlines tens of minutes after the earthquake. A combination of multibeam mapping, high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data, thermochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology show focused exhumation along this splay fault system for the last 2-3 Ma. Moreover, this long term pattern of exhumation mimics the pattern of uplift in 1964. Submarine landslides are another example of a tsunami source. Numerous devastating slides were triggered by the 1964 earthquake. Multibeam bathymetry, bathymetry difference maps, high-resolution seismic data, and records of paleotsunamis in coastal marshes reveal a long history of submarine landsliding in the coastal fjords of Alaska. The Little Ice Age appears to have had a significant influence on the submarine landslides in the 1964 earthquake through increased sediment production, transport to fjord margins, and, locally, compaction by glacier advances. Glacial retreat before 1964 gave rise to over-steepened slopes susceptible to dynamic failure. Numerous blocks in the submarine landslides were particularly effective in generating high tsunami run up. Finally, regional tectonic displacements of the seafloor have launched trans-Pacific tsunamis. Coastal

  10. Splay faults and tsunamigenic sources across the continental shelf from 1964 great Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Moeller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Using tsunami run up, seismic reflection and bathymetric data, we identify tsunamigenic sea floor ruptures that resulted from the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. These sea floor lineaments are rooted in megathrust splay faults that appear across the 500-km wide Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Based on estimated tsunami travel times, we identify two splay faults that produced 5-10 m wave heights in the coastal town of Seward and remote settlements along the Kenai Peninsula. These faults splay from the megathrust along the trailing edge of the subducted Yakutat terrane that is sandwiched between the Pacific and North American plates. Duplexing along the megathrust likely transferred lateral motion along the decollement to vertical splay fault motion that resulted in multi-meter sea floor uplifts. We identify the Cape Cleare fault as the source of the earliest tsunami arrival for Seward, Puget Bay and Whidbey Bay. Sparker seismic data, pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry and crustal seismic data characterize the along-strike Holocene motion on this 70-km long fault that parallels the Patton Bay fault that ruptured on nearby Montague Island. We define a strand of the Middleton Island fault system as the source of the second arrival in Puget and Whidbey Bays and the earliest tsunami source on Middleton Island and other sites in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Sea floor displacements of more than 20 m suggest both of these faults have repeatedly ruptured during Holocene earthquakes. Additionally, we identify a series of active thrust faults along the length of the Gulf of Alaska to Kodiak Island that likely initiated tsunami waves from smaller sea floor displacements. Sea floor offsets and splay faults that are mapped along the length of the continental shelf suggest Holocene coseismic rupture patterns are not reflected in interseismic GPS measurements along the Kenai Peninsula, but are consistent with seismic, tsunami, and geodetic measurements from the 1964 earthquake

  11. Massive submarine slope failures during the 1964 earthquake in Port Valdez, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; Ryan, H. F.; Suleimani, E.; Haeussler, P. A.; Kayen, R. E.; Hampton, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, resulting in a total of 32 deaths. Most of the damage and deaths in Valdez were caused by submarine-landslide generated tsunamis that occurred immediately after the earthquake. Some post-earthquake investigations were conducted in the 1960's. Dramatic changes in bathymetry were observed, including several hundred meters of deepening below the head of Port Valdez fjord, and these were attributed to submarine landsliding. Recent multibeam surveys of Port Valdez provide much more information about the morphology of landslide deposits. Also, we collected high-resolution (chirp) surveys over apparent landslide debris to evaluate the chronology and three-dimensional character of the deposits, and we performed quantitative evaluations of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetric data. Landslide morphologies include several forms. In the western part of the fjord, there is a field of large blocks (up to 40-m high) on the fjord floor near the location of the greatest tsunami-wave runup estimated for the 1964 earthquake (~50 m). The runup direction for the waves (northeast) is consistent with the failure of these blocks being the trigger. Surrounding the fields of blocks are lobes from two debris flows that likely occurred at the same time as the block slides. Both debris flows and block slides appear to have resulted from the failure of a large moraine front, formed by Shoup Glacier on the northwest side of Port Valdez. At the fjord head, near the location of the badly damaged old town of Valdez, is an intricate series of gullies, channels, and talus, although these features display little evidence for the large-scale mass movement that occurred. However, near the center of the fjord is the front of a large debris lobe that flowed from the east end of the fjord half-way down the fjord and stopped. This huge deposit represents material that failed at the fjord head, mobilized into a

  12. Massive submarine slope failures during the 1964 earthquake in Port Valdez, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.; Ryan, H.F.; Suleimani, E.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, resulting in a total of 32 deaths. Most of the damage and deaths in Valdez were caused by submarine-landslide generated tsunamis that occurred immediately after the earthquake. Some post-earthquake investigations were conducted in the 1960's. Dramatic changes in bathymetry were observed, including several hundred meters of deepening below the head of Port Valdezfjord, and these were attributed to submarine landsliding. Recent multibeam surveys of Port Valdez provide much more information about the morphology of landslide deposits. Also, we collected high-resolution (chirp) surveys over apparent landslide debris to evaluate the chronology and three-dimensional character of the deposits, and we performed quantitative evaluations of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetric data. Landslide morphologies include several forms. In the western part of the fjord, there is a field of large blocks (up to 40-m high) on the fjord floor near the location of the greatest tsunami-wave runup estimated for the 1964 earthquake (~50 m). The runup direction for the waves (northeast) is consistent with the failure of these blocks being the trigger. Surrounding the fields of blocks are lobes from two debris flows that likely occurred at the same time as the block slides. Both debris flows and block slides appear to have resulted from the failure of a large moraine front, formed by Shoup Glacier on the northwest side of Port Valdez. At the fjord head, near the location of the badly damaged old town of Valdez, is an intricate series of gullies, channels, and talus, although these features display little evidence for the large-scale mass movement that occurred. However, near the center of the fjord is the front of a large debris lobe that flowed from the east end of the fjord half-way down the fjord and stopped. This huge deposit represents material that failed at the fjord head

  13. Rapid Ice Mass Loss: Does It Have an Influence on Earthquake Occurrence in Southern Alaska?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    The glaciers of southern Alaska are extensive, and many of them have undergone gigatons of ice wastage on time scales on the order of the seismic cycle. Since the ice loss occurs directly above a shallow main thrust zone associated with subduction of the Pacific-Yakutat plate beneath continental Alaska, the region between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers is an excellent test site for evaluating the importance of recent ice wastage on earthquake faulting potential. We demonstrate the influence of cumulative glacial mass loss following the 1899 Yakataga earthquake (M=8.1) by using a two dimensional finite element model with a simple representation of ice fluctuations to calculate the incremental stresses and change in the fault stability margin (FSM) along the main thrust zone (MTZ) and on the surface. Along the MTZ, our results indicate a decrease in FSM between 1899 and the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) of 0.2 - 1.2 MPa over an 80 km region between the coast and the 1979 aftershock zone; at the surface, the estimated FSM was larger but more localized to the lower reaches of glacial ablation zones. The ice-induced stresses were large enough, in theory, to promote the occurrence of shallow thrust earthquakes. To empirically test the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared the seismic rate from a reference background time period (1988-1992) against other time periods (1993-2006) with variable ice or tectonic change characteristics. We found that the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region increased in 2002-2006 relative to the background seismic rate. We hypothesize that this was due to a significant increase in the rate of ice wastage in 2002-2006 instead of the M=7.9, 2002 Denali earthquake, located more than 100km away.

  14. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    The great earthquake that struck Alaska about 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, Friday, March 27, 1964 (03:36:1.3.0, Greenwich mean time, March 28, 1964), severely crippled the highway system in the south-central part of the State. All the major highways and most secondary roads were impaired. Damage totaled more than $46 million, well over $25 million to bridges and nearly $21 million to roadways. Of the 204 bridges in south-central Alaska, 141 were damaged; 92 were severely damaged or destroyed. The earthquake damaged 186 of the 830 miles of roadway in south-central Alaska, 83 miles so severely that replacement or relocation was required. Earthquake damage to the roadways and bridges was chiefly by (1) seismic shaking, (2) compaction of fills as well as the underlying sediments, (3) lateral displacement of the roadway and bridges, (4) fractures, (5) landslides, (6) avalanches, (7) inundation by seismic sea waves, (8) scouring by seismic sea waves, (9) regional tectonic subsidence, causing inundation and erosion by high tides in subsided areas. The intensity of damage was controlled primarily by the geologic environment (including the depth of the water table) upon which the highway structures rested, and secondarily by the engineering characteristics of the structures. Structures on bedrock were only slightly damaged if at all, whereas those on unconsolidated sediments were slightly to severely damaged, or were completely destroyed by seismic shaking. The low-lying areas underlain by saturated sediments, such as the Snow River Crossing and Turnagain Arm sections of the Seward-Anchorage Highway, were the most severely damaged stretches of the highway system in south-central Alaska. At Snow River and Turnagain Arm, the sediments underlying the roadway are fine grained and the water table is shallow. These factors were responsible for the intense damage along this stretch of the highway. All the bridges on the Copper River Highway except for one on bedrock were

  15. 76 FR 59420 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Guide Service Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Guide Service Evaluation AGENCY: Fish... Service Evaluation) to help us evaluate commercial guide services on our national wildlife refuges in the.... Data OMB Control Number: 1018-0141. Title: Alaska Guide Service Evaluation. Service Form Number(s):...

  16. Why so few? Landslides triggered by the 2002 Denali earthquake, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorum, Tolga; Korup, Oliver; van Westen, Cees J.; van der Meijde, Mark; Xu, Chong; van der Meer, Freek D.

    2014-07-01

    The 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, Alaska, provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate in quantitative detail the regional hillslope mass-wasting response to strong seismic shaking in glacierized terrain. We present the first detailed inventory of ∼1580 coseismic slope failures, out of which some 20% occurred above large valley glaciers, based on mapping from multi-temporal remote sensing data. We find that the Denali earthquake produced at least one order of magnitude fewer landslides in a much narrower corridor along the fault ruptures than empirical predictions for an M ∼8 earthquake would suggest, despite the availability of sufficiently steep and dissected mountainous topography prone to frequent slope failure. In order to explore potential controls on the reduced extent of regional coseismic landsliding we compare our data with inventories that we compiled for two recent earthquakes in periglacial and formerly glaciated terrain, i.e. at Yushu, Tibet (Mw 6.9, 2010), and Aysén Fjord, Chile (2007 Mw 6.2). Fault movement during these events was, similarly to that of the Denali earthquake, dominated by strike-slip offsets along near-vertical faults. Our comparison returns very similar coseismic landslide patterns that are consistent with the idea that fault type, geometry, and dynamic rupture process rather than widespread glacier cover were among the first-order controls on regional hillslope erosional response in these earthquakes. We conclude that estimating the amount of coseismic hillslope sediment input to the sediment cascade from earthquake magnitude alone remains highly problematic, particularly if glacierized terrain is involved.

  17. The January 2006 Volcanic-Tectonic Earthquake Swarm at Mount Martin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Power, John A.

    2009-01-01

    On January 8, 2006, a swarm of volcanic-tectonic earthquakes began beneath Mount Martin at the southern end of the Katmai volcanic cluster. This was the first recorded swarm at Mount Martin since continuous seismic monitoring began in 1996. The number of located earthquakes increased during the next four days, reaching a peak on January 11. For the next two days, the seismic activity decreased, and on January 14, the number of events increased to twice the previous day's total. Following this increase in activity, seismicity declined, returning to background levels by the end of the month. The Alaska Volcano Observatory located 860 earthquakes near Mount Martin during January 2006. No additional signs of volcanic unrest were noted in association with this earthquake swarm. The earthquakes in the Mount Martin swarm, relocated using the double difference technique, formed an elongated cluster dipping to the southwest. Focal mechanisms beneath Mount Martin show a mix of normal, thrust, and strike-slip solutions, with normal focal mechanisms dominating. For earthquakes more than 1 km from Mount Martin, all focal mechanisms showed normal faulting. The calculated b-value for the Mount Martin swarm is 0.98 and showed no significant change before, during, or after the swarm. The triggering mechanism for the Mount Martin swarm is unknown. The time-history of earthquake occurrence is indicative of a volcanic cause; however, there were no low-frequency events or observations, such as increased steaming associated with the swarm. During the swarm, there was no change in the b-value, and the distribution and type of focal mechanisms were similar to those in the period before the anomalous activity. The short duration of the swarm, the similarity in observed focal mechanisms, and the lack of additional signs of unrest suggest this swarm did not result from a large influx of magma within the shallow crust beneath Mount Martin.

  18. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964 in the Copper River Basin area, Alaska: Chapter E in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrians, Oscar J., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    The Copper River Basin area is in south-central Alaska and covers 17,800 square miles. It includes most of the Copper River Basin and parts of the surrounding Alaska Range and the Talkeetna, Chugach, and Wrangell Mountains. On March 27, 1964, shortly after 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time, a great earthquake having a Richter magnitude of about 8.5 struck south-central Alaska. Computations by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey place the epicenter of the main shock at lat 61.1° N. and long 147.7° W., and the hypocenter, or actual point of origin, from 20 to 50 kilometers below the surface. The epicenter is near the western shore of Unakwik Inlet in northern Prince William Sound; it is 30 miles from the closest point within the area of study and 180 miles from the farthest point. Releveling data obtained in 1964 after the earthquake indicates that broad areas of south-central Alaska were warped by uplift and subsidence. The configuration of these areas generally parallels the trend of the major tectonic elements of the region. Presumably a large part of this change took place during and immediately after the 1964 earthquake. The water level in several wells in the area lowered appreciably, and the water in many became turbid; generally, however, within a few days after the earthquake the water level returned to normal and the suspended sediment settled out. Newspaper reports that the Copper River was completely dammed and Tazlina Lake drained proved erroneous. The ice on most lakes was cracked, especially around the margins of the lakes where floating ice broke free from the ice frozen to the shore. Ice on Tazlina, Klutina, and Tonsina Lakes was intensely fractured by waves generated by sublacustrine landslides off the fronts of deltas. These waves stranded large blocks of ice above water level along the shores. River ice was generally cracked in the southern half of the area and was locally cracked in the northern half. In the area of study, the majority of the

  19. Uplift of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, since the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven; Holdahl, Sandford; Caprette, Douglas; Hilla, Stephen; Safford, Robert; Schultz, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.

  20. Effects of the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, on shore processes and beach morphology: Chapter J in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Kirk W.

    1968-01-01

    Some 10,000 miles of shoreline in south-central Alaska was affected by the subsidence or uplift associated with the great Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The changes in shoreline processes and beach morphology that were suddenly initiated by the earthquake were similar to those ordinarily caused by gradual changes in sea level operating over hundreds of years, while other more readily visible changes were similar to some of the effects of great but short-lived storms. Phenomena became available for observation within a few hours which would otherwise not have been available for many years. In the subsided areas—including the shorelines of the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and Cook Inlet—beaches tended to flatten in gradient and to recede shoreward. Minor beach features were altered or destroyed on submergence but began to reappear and to stabilize in their normal shapes within a few months after the earthquake. Frontal beach ridges migrated shoreward and grew higher and wider than they were before. Along narrow beaches backed by bluffs, the relatively higher sea level led to vigorous erosion of the bluff toes. Stream mouths were drowned and some were altered by seismic sea waves, but they adjusted within a few months to the new conditions. In the uplifted areas, generally around Prince William Sound, virtually all beaches were stranded out of reach of the sea. New beaches are gradually developing to fit new sea levels, but the processes are slow, in part because the material on the lower parts of the old beaches is predominantly fine grained. Streams were lengthened in the emergent areas, and down cutting and bank erosion have increased. Except at Homer and a few small villages, where groins, bulkheads, and cobble-filled baskets were installed, there has been little attempt to protect the postearthquake shorelines. The few structures that were built have been only partially successful because there was too little time to study the habits of the new shore

  1. Site velocities before and after the Loma Prieta and Gulf of Alaska earthquakes determined from VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    We use geodetic data from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to determine the pre- and postseismic velocities of two sites. We then place limits on variations in interseismic strain buildup. The 1987 and 1988 Gulf of Alaska earthquakes (each Ms = 7.6) broke the Pacific plate interior. During the earthquakes the Cape Yakataga site moved 78 mm toward southwest. During the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Ms = 7.1) the Fort Ord site moved 48 mm toward north. Baselines (a) from Fairbanks to Cape Yakataga and (b) from Mojave to Fort Ord change at nearly the same rate before and after the earthquakes. Postseismic transients, which we determine from differences between post- and preseismic rates, are minor: at Cape Yakataga the transient is 3 +/- 4 mm in a postseismic interval of 23 months, and at Fort Ord the transient is 6 +/- 5 mm in 21 months. The slip beneath the Loma Prieta rupture needed to generate the Fort Ord transient is 0.22 +/- 0.19 m, one-tenth the coseismic slip (2 m). We analyze elastic lithosphere-viscous asthenosphere models to determine that the characteristic time describing exponential decay in deep fault slip is longer than 6 years. The VLBI measurements are consistent with uniform interseismic strain buildup. They disagree with fast postseismic rates caused by an asthenosphere with very low viscosity.

  2. Submarine slope failures near Seward, Alaska, during the M9.2 1964 earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, P.J.; Lee, H.J.; Ryan, H.F.; Labay, K.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Suleimani, E.

    2007-01-01

    Following the 1964 M9.2 megathrust earthquake in southern Alaska, Seward was the only town hit by tsunamis generated from both submarine landslides and tectonic sources. Within 45 seconds of the start of the earthquake, a 1.2-km-long section of waterfront began sliding seaward, and soon after, ~6-8-m high waves inundated the town. Studies soon after the earthquake concluded that submarine landslides along the Seward waterfront generated the tsunamis that occurred immediately after the earthquake. We analyze pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry data to assess the location and extent of submarine mass failures and sediment transport. New NOAA multibeam bathymetry shows the morphology of the entire fjord at 15 m resolution. We also assembled all older soundings from smooth sheets for comparison to the multibeam dataset. We gridded the sounding data, applied corrections for coseismic subsidence, post-seismic rebound, unrecovered co-seismic subsidence, sea-level rise (vertical datum shift), and measurement errors. The difference grids show changes resulting from the 1964 earthquake. We estimate the total volume of slide material to be about 211 million m3. Most of this material was transported to a deep, flat area, which we refer to as “the bathtub”, about 6 to 13 km south of Seward. Sub-bottom profiling of the bathtub shows an acoustically transparent unit, which we interpret as a sediment flow deposit resulting from the submarine landslides. The scale of the submarine landslides and the distance over which sediment was transported is much larger than previously appreciated.

  3. Seismic and Geodetic Investigation of the 1996-1998 Earthquake Swarm at Strandline Lake, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgore, W.; Roman, D. C.; Power, J. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Biggs, J.

    2009-12-01

    Microearthquake (< M3.0) swarms occur frequently in volcanic environments, but do not always culminate in an eruption. Such non-eruptive swarms may be caused by stresses induced by magma intrusion, hydrothermal fluid circulation, or regional tectonic processes, such as slow-slip earthquakes. Strandline Lake, located 30 km northeast of Mount Spurr volcano in south-central Alaska, experienced a strong earthquake swarm between August 1996 and August 1998. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) catalog indicates that a total of 2,999 earthquakes were detected during the swarm period, with a maximum magnitude of Mw 3.1 and a depth range of 0-30 km below sea level (with the majority of catalog hypocenters located between 5-10 km BSL). The cumulative seismic moment of the swarm was 2.03e15 N m, equivalent to a cumulative magnitude of Mw 4.2. Because of the swarm's distance from the nearest Holocene volcanic vent, seismic monitoring was poor and gas and deformation data for the swarm period do not exist. However, combined waveforms from a dense seismic network on Mount Spurr and from several regional seismic stations allowed us to re-analyze the swarm earthquakes. We first developed a new 1-D velocity model for the Strandline Lake region by re-picking and inverting precise arrival times for 27 large Strandline Lake earthquakes. The new velocity model reduced the average RMS for these earthquakes from 0.16 to 0.11s, and the average horizontal and vertical location errors from 3.3 to 2.5 km and 4.7 to 3.0 km, respectively. Depths of the 27 earthquakes ranged from 10.5 to 22.1 km with an average depth of 16.6 km. A moderately high b-value of 1.33 was determined for the swarm period, possibly indicative of magmatic activity. However, a similarly high b-value of 1.25 was calculated for the background period. 28 well-constrained fault plane solutions for both swarm and background earthquakes indicate a diverse mixture of strike-slip, dip-slip, and reverse faulting beneath

  4. Earthquake locations determined by the Southern Alaska seismograph network for October 1971 through May 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogleman, Kent A.; Lahr, John C.; Stephens, Christopher D.; Page, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the instrumentation and evolution of the U.S. Geological Survey's regional seismograph network in southern Alaska, provides phase and hypocenter data for seismic events from October 1971 through May 1989, reviews the location methods used, and discusses the completeness of the catalog and the accuracy of the computed hypocenters. Included are arrival time data for explosions detonated under the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) in 1984 and 1985. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated a regional network of seismographs in southern Alaska from 1971 to the mid 1990s. The principal purpose of this network was to record seismic data to be used to precisely locate earthquakes in the seismic zones of southern Alaska, delineate seismically active faults, assess seismic risks, document potential premonitory earthquake phenomena, investigate current tectonic deformation, and study the structure and physical properties of the crust and upper mantle. A task fundamental to all of these goals was the routine cataloging of parameters for earthquakes located within and adjacent to the seismograph network. The initial network of 10 stations, 7 around Cook Inlet and 3 near Valdez, was installed in 1971. In subsequent summers additions or modifications to the network were made. By the fall of 1973, 26 stations extended from western Cook Inlet to eastern Prince William Sound, and 4 stations were located to the east between Cordova and Yakutat. A year later 20 additional stations were installed. Thirteen of these were placed along the eastern Gulf of Alaska with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program to investigate the seismicity of the outer continental shelf, a region of interest for oil exploration. Since then the region covered by the network remained relatively fixed while efforts were made to make the stations more reliable through improved electronic

  5. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Redoubt Volcano and Mt. Spurr, Alaska: October 12, 1989 - December 31, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.; March, Gail D.; Lahr, John C.; Jolly, Arthur D.; Cruse, Gina R.

    1993-01-01

    Following a 23 year period of quiescence, Redoubt Volcano erupted between December 14,1989 and April 21,1990. The eruption was accompanied by thousands of earthquakes (Alaska Volcano Observatory Staff, 1990). Throughout the eruption sequence, data from the PC/AT system provided the primary means of determining earthquake hypocenters. This report catalogs the earthquake hypocenters and magnitudes calculated from data collected between October 12, 1989 and December 31, 1990 on the PC/AT acquisition system, provides station locations, statistics, and calibrations, and outlines which stations were recorded and used in triggering the PC/AT system.

  6. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  7. Coupled afterslip and viscous flow following the 2002 Denali, Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. M.; Burgmann, R.; Freymueller, J.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the processes of postseismic deformation following the 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska earthquake using 4.5 years of continuous and campaign GPS data. Afterslip is modeled on a fault in an elastic lithosphere overlying a Maxwell (linear) viscoelastic asthenosphere. We assume afterslip is governed by a nonlinear velocity- strengthening friction law. Postseismic GPS time-series are best explained by a combination of two mechanisms: viscous flow in the lower crust and upper mantle with viscosity of about 1019 Pa s, and afterslip on the fault above 30-40 km depth. Models with afterslip only (no distributed viscous flow) underestimate displacements at sites more than 100 km from the fault. The rate-state frictional parameter a-b, is estimated to be in the range 10-3-10-2, consistent experimental values for granite at conditions near the transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening. It has been suggested previously that nonlinear rheology of the upper mantle is necessary to explain the observed evolution of surface displacement rates with time. However, the displacement rates at continuous GPS sites are reproduced remarkably well by our model with afterslip in a fault zone with nonlinear rheology and a linear viscous upper mantle. The Denali earthquake may have caused increased locking at the interface of the subducting Pacific plate south of the Denali Fault. Northeast directed horizontal surface velocities at GPS sites over 100 km south of the Denali fault increased following the earthquake. The magnitude of the acceleration at these sites in southern Alaska cannot be explained with our simple models of postseismic deformation associated with afterslip and viscous flow directly below the Denali fault. The Denali earthquake reduced the reverse-sense of shear stress on the subduction interface, promoting increased coupling on the interface. Simple spring-slider models with rate-state friction confirm the possibility of increased coupling of the

  8. An information infrastructure for earthquake science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Scec/Itr Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute,IRIS, and the USGS, has received a large five-year grant from the NSF's ITR Program and its Geosciences Directorate to build a new information infrastructure for earthquake science. In many respects, the SCEC/ITR Project presents a microcosm of the IT efforts now being organized across the geoscience community, including the EarthScope initiative. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the experience gained by the project thus far and lay out the challenges that lie ahead; our hope is to encourage cross-discipline collaboration in future IT advancements. Project goals have been formulated in terms of four "computational pathways" related to seismic hazard analysis (SHA). For example, Pathway 1 involves the construction of an open-source, object-oriented, and web-enabled framework for SHA computations that can incorporate a variety of earthquake forecast models, intensity-measure relationships, and site-response models, while Pathway 2 aims to utilize the predictive power of wavefield simulation in modeling time-dependent ground motion for scenario earthquakes and constructing intensity-measure relationships. The overall goal is to create a SCEC "community modeling environment" or collaboratory that will comprise the curated (on-line, documented, maintained) resources needed by researchers to develop and use these four computational pathways. Current activities include (1) the development and verification of the computational modules, (2) the standardization of data structures and interfaces needed for syntactic interoperability, (3) the development of knowledge representation and management tools, (4) the construction SCEC computational and data grid testbeds, and (5) the creation of user interfaces for knowledge-acquisition, code execution, and visualization. I will emphasize the increasing role of standardized

  9. Anisotropy, repeating earthquakes, and seismicity associated with the 2008 eruption of Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Jessica H.; Prejean, Stephanie; Savage, Martha K.; Townend, John

    2010-01-01

    We use shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis and double-difference relocation to examine temporal variations in seismic properties prior to and accompanying magmatic activity associated with the 2008 eruption of Okmok volcano, Alaska. Using bispectrum cross-correlation, a multiplet of 25 earthquakes is identified spanning five years leading up to the eruption, each event having first motions compatible with a normal fault striking NE–SW. Cross-correlation differential times are used to relocate earthquakes occurring between January 2003 and February 2009. The bulk of the seismicity prior to the onset of the eruption on 12 July 2008 occurred southwest of the caldera beneath a geothermal field. Earthquakes associated with the onset of the eruption occurred beneath the northern portion of the caldera and started as deep as 13 km. Subsequent earthquakes occurred predominantly at 3 km depth, coinciding with the depth at which the magma body has been modeled using geodetic data. Automated SWS analysis of the Okmok catalog reveals radial polarization outside the caldera and a northwest-southeast polarization within. We interpret these polarizations in terms of a magma reservoir near the center of the caldera, which we model with a Mogi point source. SWS analysis using the same input processing parameters for each event in the multiplet reveals no temporal changes in anisotropy over the duration of the multiplet, suggesting either a short-term or small increase in stress just before the eruption that was not detected by GPS, or eruption triggering by a mechanism other than a change of stress in the system.

  10. Ground motion in Anchorage, Alaska, from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake: Site response and Displacement Pulses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake recorded at 26 sites in and near Anchorage, Alaska, show a number of systematic features important in studies of site response and in constructing long-period spectra for use in earthquake engineering. The data demonstrate that National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes are a useful way of grouping stations according to site amplification. In general, the sites underlain by lower shear-wave velocities have higher amplification. The amplification on NEHRP class D sites exceeds a factor of 2 relative to an average of motions on class C sites. The amplifications are period dependent. They are in rough agreement with those from previous studies, but the new data show that the amplifications extend to at least 10 sec, periods longer than considered in previous studies. At periods longer than about 14 sec, all sites have motion of similar amplitude, and the ground displacements are similar in shape, polarization, and amplitude for all stations. The displacement ground motion is dominated by a series of four pulses, which are associated with the three subevents identified in inversion studies (the first pulse is composed of P waves from the first subevent). Most of the high-frequency ground motion is associated with the S waves from subevent 1. The pulses from subevents 1 and 2, with moment releases corresponding to M 7.1 and 7.0, are similar to the pulse of displacement radiated by the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. The signature from the largest subevent (M 7.6) is more subdued than those from the first two subevents. The two largest pulses produce response spectra with peaks at a period of about 15 sec. The spectral shape at long periods is in good agreement with the recent 2003 NEHRP code spectra but is in poor agreement with the shape obtained from Eurocode 8.

  11. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  12. Tectonic Origin of the 1899 Yakutat Bay Earthquakes, Alaska, and Insights into Future Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. S.; LeVoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    On September 10th the largest of four earthquakes (Mw 8.2) that occurred in southeast Alaska on 1899 produced a 6 m tsunami and may have produced as much as 14 m of co-seismic uplift. This earthquake had an epicenter somewhere near Yakutat or Disenchantment Bays. These bays lie at the transition between the Fairweather Fault (the Pacific-North American strike-slip plate boundary), and the Yakutat Terrane-North American subduction zone. The deformation front of this subduction zone is thought to include the eastern fault in the Pamplona Zone offshore, the Malaspina Fault onshore, and the Esker Creek Fault near Yakutat Bay. The 10 September 1899 event could have taken place on a Yakutat-North American megathrust that daylights in Yakutat or Disenchantment Bay. Alternatively, the 10 September 1899 earthquake could have originated from the Fairweather-Boundary and Yakutat faults, transpressive components of the Fairweather strike-slip system present in the Yakutat Bay region, or from thrusting along the Yakutat and Otemaloi Faults on the southeast flank of Yakutat Bay. Characterizing fault slip during the Alaskan earthquakes of 1899 is vital to assessing both subduction zone structure and seismic hazards in the Yakutat Bay area. Each possible fault model has a different implication for modern hazards. These results will be used to update seismic hazard and fault maps and assess future risk to the Yakutat Bay and surrounding communities. During Aug. 6-17th, we anticipate acquiring high-resolution, marine multichannel seismic data aboard the USGS vessel Alaskan Gyre in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays to search for evidence of recent faulting and directly test these competing theories for the 10 September 1899 event. This survey uses the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' mini-GI gun, 24-channel seismic streamer, portable seismic compressor system, and associated gun control and data acquisition system to acquire the data. The profiles have a nominal common

  13. Inverse kinematic and forward dynamic models of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oglesby, D.D.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Harris, R.A.; Ratchkovski, N.; Hansen, R.

    2004-01-01

    We perform inverse kinematic and forward dynamic models of the M 7.9 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake to shed light on the rupture process and dynamics of this event, which took place on a geometrically complex fault system in central Alaska. We use a combination of local seismic and Global Positioning System (GPS) data for our kinematic inversion and find that the slip distribution of this event is characterized by three major asperities on the Denali fault. The rupture nucleated on the Susitna Glacier thrust fault, and after a pause, propagated onto the strike-slip Denali fault. Approximately 216 km to the east, the rupture abandoned the Denali fault in favor of the more southwesterly directed Totschunda fault. Three-dimensional dynamic models of this event indicate that the abandonment of the Denali fault for the Totschunda fault can be explained by the Totschunda fault's more favorable orientation with respect to the local stress field. However, a uniform tectonic stress field cannot explain the complex slip pattern in this event. We also find that our dynamic models predict discontinuous rupture from the Denali to Totschunda fault segments. Such discontinuous rupture helps to qualitatively improve our kinematic inverse models. Two principal implications of our study are (1) a combination of inverse and forward modeling can bring insight into earthquake processes that are not possible with either technique alone, and (2) the stress field on geometrically complex fault systems is most likely not due to a uniform tectonic stress field that is resolved onto fault segments of different orientations; rather, other forms of stress heterogeneity must be invoked to explain the observed slip patterns.

  14. 75 FR 5945 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Cooperatives in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) groups, and western Alaska subsistence salmon user groups is... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska... ownership standards that had been exploited under the Anti-reflagging Act, to provide Alaska's BSAI...

  15. Alaska earthquake source for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter B in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen; Scholl, David; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Tsunami modeling has shown that tsunami sources located along the Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone have the greatest impacts on southern California shorelines by raising the highest tsunami waves for a given source seismic moment. The most probable sector for a Mw ~ 9 source within this subduction segment is between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands in what we call the Semidi subduction sector; these bounds represent the southwestern limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture and the northeastern edge of the Shumagin sector that recent Global Positioning System (GPS) observations indicate is currently creeping. Geological and geophysical features in the Semidi sector that are thought to be relevant to the potential for large magnitude, long-rupture-runout interplate thrust earthquakes are remarkably similar to those in northeastern Japan, where the destructive Mw 9.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of 11 March 2011 occurred. In this report we propose and justify the selection of a tsunami source seaward of the Alaska Peninsula for use in the Tsunami Scenario that is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) Project. This tsunami source should have the potential to raise damaging tsunami waves on the California coast, especially at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Accordingly, we have summarized and abstracted slip distribution from the source literature on the 2011 event, the best characterized for any subduction earthquake, and applied this synoptic slip distribution to the similar megathrust geometry of the Semidi sector. The resulting slip model has an average slip of 18.6 m and a moment magnitude of Mw = 9.1. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was not anticipated, despite Japan having the best seismic and geodetic networks in the world and the best historical record in the world over the past 1,500 years. What was lacking was adequate paleogeologic data on prehistoric earthquakes

  16. Providing Seismotectonic Information to the Public Through Continuously Updated National Earthquake Information Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, M. J.; Hayes, G. P.; Dannemann, F.; Benz, H.

    2012-12-01

    summaries provide the public with immediate background information useful for teaching and media related purposes and are an essential component to many NEIC products. As part of the NEIC's earthquake response, rapid earthquake summary posters are created in the hours following a significant global earthquake. These regional tectonic summaries are included in each earthquake summary poster along with a discussion of the event, written by research scientists at the NEIC, often with help from regional experts. Now, through the efforts of this and related studies, event webpages will automatically contain a regional tectonic summary immediately after an event has been posted. These new summaries include information about plate boundary interactions and other associated tectonic elements, trends in seismicity and brief descriptions of significant earthquakes that have occurred in a region. The tectonic summaries for the following regions have been updated as part of this work: South America, the Caribbean, Alaska and the Aleutians, Kuril-Kamchatka, Japan and vicinity, and Central America, with newly created summaries for Sumatra and Java, the Mediterranean, Middle East, and the Himalayas. The NEIC is currently planning to integrate concise stylized maps with each tectonic summary for display on the USGS website.

  17. Effects of the March 1964 Alaska earthquake on the hydrology of the Anchorage area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects hydrologic regimen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.

    1966-01-01

    The Anchorage hydrologic system was greatly affected by the seismic shock. Immediate but temporary effects included increased stream discharge, seiche action on lakes, and fluctuations in ground-water levels. Generally, ground-water levels were residually lowered after the initial period of fluctuation. This lowering is attributed either to changes in the discharge zones offshore or to a change in the permeability of the aquifers by seismically induced strain. Water supplies were disrupted temporarily by snowslides on streams and by sanding or turbidity in wells. Salt-water encroachment to wells on Fire Island seems to have increased. The approximate 3.7-foot lowering of land level and the diminished artesian head may permit further salt-water encroachment. Increased pore pressure in the Pleistocene Bootlegger Cove Clay led to liquefaction in silt and sand lenses that contributed to the disastrous bluff landslides. Measurements after the earthquake indicate that most pore pressures are declining, whereas some remain high or are increasing. Subsidence in the area was caused principally by tectonic readjustment, but differential compaction within the Bootlegger Cove Clay contributed to subsidences estimated to be as much as 0.6 foot beneath Anchorage.

  18. 78 FR 29331 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Service monitors the reported catch to assure that quotas are not being exceeded. Information is collected... Alaska Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... current information collection. The Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program is...

  19. Erosion and deposition on a beach raised by the 1964 earthquake, Montague Island, Alaska: Chapter H in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkby, M.J.; Kirkby, Anne V.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, tectonic deformation uplifted the southern end of Montague Island as much as 33 feet or more. The uplifted shoreline is rapidly being modified by subaerial and marine processes. The new raised beach is formed in bedrock, sand, gravel, and deltaic bay-head deposits, and the effect of each erosional process was measured in each material. Fieldwork was concentrated in two areas—MacLeod Harbor on the northwest side and Patton Bay on the southeast side of Montague Island. In the unconsolidated deltaic deposits of MacLeod Harbor, 97 percent of the erosion up to June 1965, 15 months after the earthquake, was fluvial, 2.2 percent was by rainwash, and only 0.8 percent was marine; 52 percent of the total available raised beach material had already been removed. The volume removed by stream erosion was proportional to low-flow discharge raised to the power of 0.75 to 0.95, and this volume increased as the bed material became finer. Stream response to the relative fall in base level was very rapid, most of the downcutting in unconsolidated materials occurring within 48 hours of the uplift for streams with low flows greater than 10 cubic feet per second. Since then, erosion by these streams has been predominantly lateral. Streams with lower discharges, in unconsolidated materials, still had knickpoints after 15 months. No response to uplift could be detected in stream courses above the former preearthquake sea level. Where the raised beach is in bedrock, it is being destroyed principally by marine action but at such a low rate that no appreciable erosion of bedrock was found 15 months after the earthquake. A dated rock platform raised earlier has eroded at a mean rate of 0.49 foot per year. In this area the factor limiting the rate of erosion was rock resistance rather than the transporting capacity of the waves. The break in slope between the top of the raised beach and the former seacliff is being obliterated by debris which is

  20. Bridge Structure, Foundation and Approach Embankment Performance for the October-November 2002 Earthquake Sequence on the Denali Fault, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, T. S.; Hulsey, L.; Ma, J.; Connor, B.; Brooks, T. E.

    2002-12-01

    More than two dozen major bridges were subjected to severe ground motions during the October-November 2002 Earthquake Sequence on the Denali Fault, Alaska. The bridges represented a number of conventional designs constructed over the past three to four decades. The objective of the field investigation presented herein was to determine the extent of the damage, if any, to the bridge structures, foundations and approach embankments. This was accomplished by direct inspection of the bridges by the authors (or employees of their organizations) along the Richardson, Alaska, Parks, and Denali Highways, the Tok Cutoff, and the railroad bridges for the railroad alignment between Trapper Creek and Fairbanks. More specifically, the members of the investigation team (represented by the authors) conducted more than three days of field inspections of bridges within the zone of severe ground shaking during the M6.7 and M7.9 Denali fault events. The primary conclusion noted was that while a substantial number of bridges were subjected to intense shaking they all performed very well and were not damaged to the extent that remedial repairs to the bridge structure were necessary. There were occurrences of lateral spreading/liquefaction related damage to the approach embankments and slight separation of the approach embankment from the abutment foundation systems. Overall, considering the severity of ground shaking, much greater damage to the bridge structures, foundations and approach embankments would be predicted. Had the earthquakes occurred during winter when the ground was frozen and the ductility of the structures was substantially reduced events comparable to the October-November 2002 Earthquake Sequence on the Denali Fault, Alaska could have resulted in significant damage to bridges. This reconnaissance was supported by the National Science Foundation, Alaska Dept. of Transportation and Public Facilities, and the Alaska Railroad Corporation.

  1. Harnessing the Collective Power of Eyewitnesses for Improved Earthquake Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Lefebvre, S.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) operates the second global earthquake information website (www.emsc-csem.org) which attracts 2 million visits a month from about 200 different countries. We collect information about earthquakes' effects from eyewitnesses such as online questionnaires, geolocated pics to rapidly constrain impact scenario. At the beginning, the collection was purely intended to address a scientific issue: the rapid evaluation of earthquake's impact. However, it rapidly appears that the understanding of eyewitnesses' expectations and motivations in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake was essential to optimise this data collection. Crowdsourcing information on earthquake's effects does not apply to a pre-existing community. By definition, eyewitnesses only exist once the earthquake has struck. We developed a strategy on social networks (Facebook, Google+, Twitter...) to interface with spontaneously emerging online communities of eyewitnesses. The basic idea is to create a positive feedback loop: attract eyewitnesses and engage with them by providing expected earthquake information and services, collect their observations, collate them for improved earthquake information services to attract more witnesses. We will present recent examples to illustrate how important the use of social networks is to engage with eyewitnesses especially in regions of low seismic activity where people are unaware of existing Internet resources dealing with earthquakes. A second type of information collated in our information services is derived from the real time analysis of the traffic on our website in the first minutes following an earthquake occurrence, an approach named flashsourcing. We show, using the example of the Mineral, Virginia earthquake that the arrival times of eyewitnesses of our website follows the propagation of the generated seismic waves and then, that eyewitnesses can be considered as ground motion sensors. Flashsourcing discriminates felt

  2. Stable isotope values in coastal sediment estimate subsidence near Girdwood during the 1964 great Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Rogers, M.; Saenger, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Subsidence during the Mw 9.2, 1964 great Alaska earthquake lowered Turnagain Arm near Girdwood, Alaska by ~1.5m and caused rapid relative sea-level (RSL) rise that shifted estuary mud flats inland over peat-forming wetlands. Sharp mud-over-peat contacts record these environment shifts at sites along Turnagain Arm including Bird Point, 11km west of Girdwood. Transfer functions based on changes in intertidal microfossil populations across these contacts accurately estimate earthquake subsidence at Girdwood, but poor preservation of microfossils hampers this method at other sites in Alaska. We test a new method that employs compositions of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in intertidal sediments as proxies for elevation. Because marine sediment sources are expected to have higher δ13C and δ15N than terrestrial sources, we hypothesize that these values should decrease with elevation in modern intertidal sediment, and should also be more positive in estuarine mud above sharp contacts that record RSL rise than in peaty sediment below. We relate δ13C and δ15N values above and below the 1964 mud/peat contact to values in modern sediment of known elevation, and use these values qualitatively to indicate sediment source, and quantitatively to estimate the amount of RSL rise across the contact. To establish a site-specific sea level datum, we deployed a pressure transducer and compensatory barometer to record a 2-month tide series at Bird Point. We regressed the high tides from this series against corresponding NOAA verified high tides at Anchorage (~50km west of Bird Point) to calculate a high water datum within ×0.14m standard error (SE). To test whether or not modern sediment isotope values decrease with elevation, we surveyed a 60-m-long modern transect, sampling surface sediment at ~0.10m vertical intervals. Results from this transect show a decrease of 4.64‰ in δ13C and 3.97‰ in δ15N between tide flat and upland sediment. To evaluate if δ13C and δ15N

  3. Utility of radiocarbon-dated stratigraphy in determining late Holocene earthquake recurrence intervals, upper Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    During the great 1964 earthquake, parts of coastal southern Alaska subsided tectonically as much as 2 m, and this led to burial of high-intertidal organic-rich marshes by low-intertidal and tidal silt. In the tectonically active parts of upper Cook Inlet, the presence of stratigraphic sections containing numerous prehistoric interbedded layers of peat and silt suggests that such stratigraphy resulted when marshes and forests were similarly inundated and buried by intertidal and tidal sediment as a result of great, prehistoric earthquakes. This study tests the feasibility of using buried, radiocarbon-dated, late Holocene peat layers that are exposed in the intertidal zone of upper Cook Inlet to determine earthquake recurrence intervals. Because of problems associated with conventional radiocarbon dating, the complex stratigraphy of the study area, the tectonic setting, and regional changes in sea level, conclusions from the study do not permit precise identification of the timing and recurrence of paleoseismic events. -from Authors

  4. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Two Volcanoes in Alaska Following the Mw7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Moran, S. C.; Power, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Mw7.9 Denali Fault earthquake provided an opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors 24 volcanoes with seismic networks. We examined one station for each volcano, generally the closest (typically 5 km from the vent) unless noise, site response, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally bandpass filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to reduce noise from microseisms and wind. Data for the period three days before to three days after the Mw7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Shishaldin volcano, which has a background rate of several hundred seismic events per day on station SSLS, showed no change from before to after the earthquake. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of several dozen seismic events per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity at the time of the earthquake by a factor of 2.5; this lasted for 15 days. We tested this result using a different station, VNSS, and a different method of counting (non-filtered data on helicorder records) and found the same result. We infer that Veniaminof's activity was modified by the Mw7.9 earthquake. Wrangell, the closest volcano, had a background rate of about 10 events per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 8 days after the Mw7.9 earthquake because the large number of aftershocks precluded identification of local seismicity. For the following eight days, however, its seismicity rate was 30 percent lower than before. While subtle, we infer that this may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms7.1 St. Elias earthquake of 1979. The other 21 volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity from 3 days before to 3 days after the Mw7.9 event. We conclude that intermediate

  5. The 23 June 2014 Mw 7.9 Rat Islands archipelago, Alaska, intermediate depth earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2014-09-01

    On 23 June 2014, the largest intermediate depth earthquake (Mw 7.9) of the last 100 years ruptured within the subducting Pacific plate about 100 km below the Rat Islands archipelago of the Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The unusual faulting orientation, strike = 206°, dip = 24°, and rake = -14°, is possibly related to curvature of the underthrust slab and high obliquity of the relative plate motions. The first ~15 s of the rupture generated relatively weak seismic waves, followed by strong energy release for the next 25 s. The seismic moment is 1.0 × 1021 Nm, and slip of up to ~10 m is concentrated within a 50 km × 50 km region. The radiated energy is 1.1 to 2.7 × 1016 J, assuming attenuation t* of 0.4 to 0.7 s. This type of intraplate faulting can be very damaging for populated regions above subduction zones such as Japan, Taiwan, Chile, and Indonesia.

  6. Geophysical data reveal the crustal structure of the Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical information, including deep-crustal seismic reflection, magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data, cross the aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. These data and aftershock seismicity, jointly interpreted, reveal the crustal structure of the right-lateral-slip Denali fault and the eastern Alaska Range orogen, as well as the relationship between this structure and seismicity. North of the Denali fault, strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen show features that dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal crustal structures, probably ductile shear zones, that most likely formed during the Late Cretaceous, but these structures appear to be inactive, having produced little seismicity during the past 20 years. Furthermore, seismic reflections mainly dip north, whereas alignments in aftershock hypocenters dip south. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but modeling of MT, gravity, and magnetic data suggests that the Denali fault dips steeply to vertically. However, in an alternative structural model, the Denali fault is defined by one of the reflection bands that dips to the north and flattens into the middle crust of the Alaska Range orogen. Modeling of MT data indicates a rock body, having low electrical resistivity (>10 ??-m), that lies mainly at depths greater than 10 km, directly beneath aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake. The maximum depth of aftershocks along the Denali fault is 10 km. This shallow depth may arise from a higher-than-normal geothermal gradient. Alternatively, the low electrical resistivity of deep rocks along the Denali fault may be associated with fluids that have weakened the lower crust and helped determine the depth extent of the after-shock zone.

  7. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on air and water transport, communications, and utilities systems in south-central Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1967-01-01

    The earthquake of March 27, 1964, wrecked or severely hampered all forms of transportation, all utilities, and all communications systems over a very large part of south-central Alaska. Effects on air transportation were minor as compared to those on the water, highway, and railroad transport systems. A few planes were damaged or wrecked by seismic vibration or by flooding. Numerous airport facilities were damaged by vibration or by secondary effects of the earthquake, notably seismic sea and landslide-generated waves, tectonic subsidence, and compaction. Nearly all air facilities were partly or wholly operational within a few hours after the earthquake. The earthquake inflicted enormous damage on the shipping industry, which is indispensable to a State that imports fully 90 percent of its requirements—mostly by water—and whose largest single industry is fishing. Except for those of Anchorage, all port facilities in the earthquake-affected area were destroyed or made inoperable by submarine slides, waves, tectonic uplift, and fire. No large vessels were lost, but more than 200 smaller ones (mostly crab or salmon boats) were lost or severely damaged. Navigation aids were destroyed, and hitherto well-known waterways were greatly altered by uplift or subsidence. All these effects wrought far-reaching changes in the shipping economy of Alaska, many of them to its betterment. Virtually all utilities and communications in south-central Alaska were damaged or wrecked by the earthquake, but temporary repairs were effected in remarkably short times. Communications systems were silenced almost everywhere by loss of power or by downed lines; their place was quickly taken by a patchwork of self-powered radio transmitters. A complex power-generating system that served much of the stricken area from steam, diesel, and hydrogenerating plants was disrupted in many places by vibration damage to equipment and by broken transmission lines. Landslides in Anchorage broke gas

  8. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  9. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska Railroad: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloch, David S.; Bonilla, Manuel G.

    1970-01-01

    In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the federally owned Alaska Railroad sustained damage of more than $35 million: 54 percent of the cost for port facilities; 25 percent, roadbed and track; 9 percent, buildings and utilities; 7 percent, bridges and culverts; and 5 percent, landslide removal. Principal causes of damage were: (1) landslides, landslide-generated waves, and seismic sea waves that destroyed costly port facilities built on deltas; (2) regional tectonic subsidence that necessitated raising and armoring 22 miles of roadbed made susceptible to marine erosion; and (3), of greatest importance in terms of potential damage in seismically active areas, a general loss of strength experienced by wet waterlaid unconsolidated granular sediments (silt to coarse gravel) that allowed embankments to settle and enabled sediments to undergo fiowlike displacement toward topographic depressions, even in fiat-lying areas. The term “landspreading” is proposed for the lateral displacement and distension of mobilized sediments; landspreading appears to have resulted largely from liquefaction. Because mobilization is time dependent and its effects cumulative, the long duration of strong ground motion (timed as 3 to 4 minutes) along the southern 150 miles of the rail line made landspreading an important cause of damage. Sediments moved toward natural and manmade topographic depressions (stream valleys, gullies, drainage ditches, borrow pits, and lakes). Stream widths decreased, often about 20 inches but at some places by as much as 6.5 feet, and sediments moved upward beneath stream channels. Landspreading toward streams and even small drainage ditches crushed concrete and metal culverts. Bridge superstructures were compressed and failed by lateral buckling, or more commonly were driven into, through, or over bulkheads. Piles and piers were torn free of superstructures by moving sediments, crowded toward stream channels, and lifted in the center. The lifted piles arched the

  10. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  12. Tectonic Deformation Associated with the 1964 Alaska Earthquake: The earthquake of 27 March 1964 resulted in observable crustal deformation of unprecedented areal extent.

    PubMed

    Plafker, G

    1965-06-25

    Alaska's Good Friday earthquake of 27 March 1964 was accompanied by vertical tectonic deformation over an area of 170,000 to 200,000 square kilometers in south-central Alaska. The deformation included two major northeast-trending zones of uplift and subsidence situated between the Aleutian Trench and the Aleutian Volcanic Arc; together they are 700 to 800 kilometers long and from 150 to 250 kilometers wide. The seaward zone is one in which uplift of as much as 10 meters on land and 15 meters on the sea floor has occurred as a result of both crustal warping and local faulting. Submarine uplift within this zone generated a train of seismic sea waves with half-wave amplitudes of more than 7 meters along the coast near the source. The adjacent zone to the northwest is one of subsidence that averages about 1 meter and attains a measured maximum of 2.3 meters. A second zone of slight uplift may exist along all or part of the Aleutian and Alaska ranges northwest of the zone of subsidence. PMID:17819412

  13. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization: Performance Assessment of Tsunamigenic Earthquake Discrimination System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Lomax, A.; Hellman, S. B.; Whitmore, P.; Weinstein, S.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Knight, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami warning centers must rapidly decide whether an earthquake is likely to generate a destructive tsunami in order to issue a tsunami warning quickly after a large event. For very large events (Mw > 8 or so), magnitude and location alone are sufficient to warrant an alert. However, for events of smaller magnitude (e.g., Mw ~ 7.5), particularly for so-called "tsunami earthquakes", magnitude alone is insufficient to issue an alert and other measurements must be rapidly made and used to assess tsunamigenic potential. The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). We (ISTI) are responsible for implementing the seismic monitoring components in this new system, including real-time seismic data collection and seismic processing. The seismic data processor includes a variety of methods aimed at real-time discrimination of tsunamigenic events, including: Mwp, Me, slowness (Theta), W-phase, mantle magnitude (Mm), array processing and finite-fault inversion. In addition, it contains the ability to designate earthquake scenarios and play the resulting synthetic seismograms through the processing system. Thus, it is also a convenient tool that integrates research and monitoring and may be used to calibrate and tune the real-time monitoring system. Here we show results of the automated processing system for a large dataset of subduction zone earthquakes containing recent tsunami earthquakes and we examine the accuracy of the various discrimation methods and discuss issues related to their successful real-time application.

  14. Measuring Ice Mass Fluctuations in Southern Alaska and Evaluating the Potential Influence on Tectonic Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J.; Ruppert, N.; Muskett, R.

    2007-12-01

    In southern Alaska between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers large ice fluctuations occur directly above a shallow main thrust zone associated with subduction of the Pacific-Yakutat plate beneath continental Alaska. Recently the southern Alaskan glaciers have shown a tendency toward earlier glacier melt onset and longer ablation season resulting in increased glacier wastage. Although these glaciers are generally undergoing ice mass loss, the temporal and spatial pattern of surface elevation change is complex and many of the larger glaciers undergo quasi-periodic surges. We have used ICESat-derived elevations along with InSAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM), such as the SRTM-C,-X DEMs, to detect general patterns in ice elevation change for surfaces with variable slope and roughness with exact and near-repeat ICESat tracks. Rather than averaging over large regions or relying on crossovers, we exploited the potential of individual ICESat waveform returns to estimate glacier elevations and surface characteristics. Careful interpretation of the ICESat waveforms must take into account the potential effects of signal saturation, forward scattering due to clouds, and field of view shadowing on pulse shape and the resulting errors in elevation and relief measurements. We have used our ICESat minus ICESat and ICESat minus InSAR-derived DEM elevation change results, along with earlier ice change studies, to estimate ice load changes from 1988-2006 for the southern coastal Alaska glaciers between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers. The ice load changes were input to finite element models to calculate displacement rates, incremental stresses, and change in the fault stability margin. In 2002-2006, for instance, the predicted displacement rates of the solid Earth due to average annual change in ice loads were up to 20 mm/yr for the vertical and 3 mm/yr for the horizontal. To empirically evaluate the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared

  15. The 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska Earthquake of November 3, 2002: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kore, K. R.

    2003-04-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located ~20 km to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. The geologists mapped a ~300-km-long rupture and measured maximum offsets of 8.8 meters. The 7.9 event ruptured three different faults. The rupture began on the northeast trending Susitna Glacier Thrust fault, a splay fault south of the Denali fault. Then the rupture transferred to the Denali fault and propagated eastward for 220 km. At about 143W the rupture moved onto the adjacent southeast-trending Totschunda fault and propagated for another 55 km. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock zones along the Denali and Totschunda faults is about 380 km. The earthquakes were recorded and processed by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). The AEIC acquires and processes data from the Alaska Seismic Network, consisting of over 350 seismograph stations. Nearly 40 of these sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which also have strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary seismic network of 6 instruments following the 6.7 earthquake and an additional 20 stations following the 7.9 earthquake. Prior to the 7.9 Denali Fault event, the AEIC was locating 35 to 50 events per day. After the event, the processing load increased to over 300 events per day during the first week following the event. In this presentation, we will present and interpret the aftershock location patterns, first motion focal mechanism solutions, and regional seismic

  16. Source model for the Mw 6.7, 23 October 2002, Nenana Mountain Earthquake (Alaska) from InSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Tim J.; Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    The 23 October 2002 Nenana Mountain Earthquake (Mw ∼ 6.7) occurred on the Denali Fault (Alaska), to the west of the Mw ∼ 7.9 Denali Earthquake that ruptured the same fault 11 days later. We used 6 interferograms, constructed using radar images from the Canadian Radarsat-1 and European ERS-2 satellites, to determine the coseismic surface deformation and a source model. Data were acquired on ascending and descending satellite passes, with incidence angles between 23 and 45 degrees, and time intervals of 72 days or less. Modeling the event as dislocations in an elastic half space suggests that there was nearly 0.9 m of right-lateral strike-slip motion at depth, on a near-vertical fault, and that the maximum slip in the top 4 km of crust was less than 0.2 m. The Nenana Mountain Earthquake increased the Coulomb stress at the future hypocenter of the 3 November 2002, Denali Earthquake by 30–60 kPa.

  17. Near-field ground motion of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake recorded at pump station 10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, W.L.; Celebi, M.; Evans, J.R.; Jensen, E.G.; Kayen, R.; Metz, M.C.; Nyman, D.J.; Roddick, J.W.; Spudich, P.; Stephens, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A free-field recording of the Denali fault earthquake was obtained by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company 3 km from the surface rupture of the Denali fault. The instrument, part of the monitoring and control system for the trans-Alaska pipeline, was located at Pump Station 10, approximately 85 km east of the epicenter. After correction for the measured instrument response, we recover a seismogram that includes a permanent displacement of 3.0 m. The recorded ground motion has relatively low peak acceleration (0.36 g) and very high peak velocity (180 cm/s). Nonlinear soil response may have reduced the peak acceleration to this 0.36 g value. Accelerations in excess of 0.1 g lasted for 10 s, with the most intense motion occurring during a 1.5-s interval when the rupture passed the site. The low acceleration and high velocity observed near the fault in this earthquake agree with observations from other recent large-magnitude earthquakes. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  18. A teleseismic study of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong-motion estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake are derived rapidly from global teleseismic waveform data. In phases, three models improve matching waveform data and recovery of rupture details. In the first model (Phase I), analogous to an automated solution, a simple fault plane is fixed based on the preliminary Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor mechanism and the epicenter provided by the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters. This model is then updated (Phase II) by implementing a more realistic fault geometry inferred from Digital Elevation Model topography and further (Phase III) by using the calibrated P-wave and SH-wave arrival times derived from modeling of the nearby 2002 M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake. These models are used to predict the peak ground velocity and the shaking intensity field in the fault vicinity. The procedure to estimate local strong motion could be automated and used for global real-time earthquake shaking and damage assessment. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

  20. Intraplate Splay Faults and Near-field Tsunami Generation during Giant Megathrust Earthquakes in Chile, Alaska, and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival

  1. Regional vertical tectonic displacement of shorelines in south- central Alaska during and between great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the setting of the 1964 earthquake and the unprecedented tectonic deformation that accompanied it. Outlines research directed towards defining the deformation that occurs between great earthquakes (interseismic part of the seismic cycle) and the longterm history of deformation over repeated seismic cycles in the earthquake-affected region, emphasizing work in progress. An understanding of this record of deformation is basic for evaluating how frequently 1964-type events recur in this same region, for improved understanding for the earthquake cycle in great subduction-zone seismotectonic events, and for predicting future great earthquakes in this and tectonically similar regions elsewhere. -from Author

  2. 76 FR 71600 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reindeer in Alaska; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reindeer in Alaska; Request for... Reindeer in Alaska. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0047... of the approval for the information collection conducted under 25 CFR part 243, Reindeer in...

  3. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1987-01-01

    A learning unit about earthquakes includes activities for primary grade students, including making inferences and defining operationally. Task cards are included for independent study on earthquake maps and earthquake measuring. (CB)

  4. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a ...

  5. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  6. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  7. The M=7.9 Alaska Earthquake of 3 November 2002: Felt Reports and Unusual Effects Across Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Rogers, G. C.; Bird, A. L.; Mulder, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    The 3 November 2002 M=7.9 Alaska earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes recorded in North America during the past 100 years. This earthquake occurred at 2:12 p.m. PST (on a Sunday) and was located 330 km to the west of the Yukon-Alaska border. Surface rupture and aftershocks extended to within about 100 km of the Canadian border. More than 250 "felt" reports were submitted to the Geological Survey of Canada website (http://www.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca/seismo/table.htm) within a few days of the earthquake. Here, we summarize those reports which include typical high-frequency shaking effects to distances of about 1500 km, as well as numerous long-period effects, such as human effects (nausea), swaying highrises, telephone poles and chandeliers, seiches in lakes and inlets, water sloshing from swimming pools, and instances of dirty well-water to distances of nearly 3500 km across Western Canada. Felt intensities (MMI)of about IV were observed across the Yukon Territory at distances of 350 km to 750 km. There were a few reports of minor damage in this region, as well as numerous reports of items knocked from shelves and parked vehicles rocking noticeably. The most distant felt reports in western Canada were from southern Alberta (2400 km distance) where people in highrises felt the swaying. More than 30 reports of human effects were received. These ranged from people feeling dizzy, seasick or nauseated (to distances of 2400 km), to difficulty standing and maintaining balance (to distances of 1000 km). Long-period effects of houses "swaying", large signs flexing, and telephone poles and tall trees swaying were reported to distances of more than 1000 km. Swinging of chandeliers, hanging plants and lights were reported to distances of 2400 km. There were more than 30 reports of seiches. Most reports came from southern British Columbia (2200-2400 km) where, although no ground shaking was noticed, water surges up to 1 m were observed. In one case a cabin held by cables near

  8. A Synthesis of Characteristics of Submarine Landslides Generated by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake in Six Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Parsons, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ryan, H. F.; Brothers, D. S.; Liberty, L. M.; Hart, P. E.; Geist, E. L.; Roland, E. C.; Witter, R. C.; Kayen, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslide-generated tsunamis were the single largest cause of fatalities in the Mw9.2 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. In the last decade, we studied the submarine slope failures in six fjords: Resurrection Bay, Port Valdez, Passage Canal, southern Dangerous Passage, Aialik Bay, and Harris Bay. The six fjords lie 20 to 30 km above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust, which provides an ideal landslide trigger mechanism. To characterize the landslides, we used multibeam bathymetry data, pre- and post-event bathymetry differencing, sparker and chirp seismic data, wave runup directions and heights, shear wave velocity profiles, the onland sedimentary record of the tsunamis, observations during the earthquake, and tsunami models. All slides originated at the margins of the fjords, mostly in unconsolidated sediment of the fjord-head deltas(?), and transported sediment to the deepest part of the fjords. The slides transported material up to ~15 km, resulting in slide deposits up to 20 m thick, and a subsequent megaturbidite deposit up to 15 m thick. These slides resurfaced the entire fjord bottom and the resultant flow of sediment and water brought numerous deep dwelling fish to the surface, killed by the sudden pressure changes. Typical fjord sedimentation resulted in conditions primed for slope failures. Fjord-head deltas deposited unconsolidated sediment at the upper margins of the fjords, which composed the majority of sediment that failed during the earthquake. We find that the highest tsunami runups were correlated with blocky landslides that required unique depositional conditions. The Little Ice Age (LIA) occurred between the penultimate megathrust earthquake ~900 yr ago and 1964, with the most recent maximum extent around 1875AD. The LIA glacial expansion led to significant sedimentation at the margins of the fjords. Near Shoup Bay in Port Valdez, in Passage Canal, and probably in southern Dangerous Passage, ice overrode till and sediment deposited in front of

  9. The USGS National Earthquake Information Center's Response to the Wenchuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Benz, H.; Sipkin, S.; Dewey, J.; Allen, T.; Jaiswal, K.; Buland, R.; Choy, G.; Hayes, G.; Hutko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Immediately after detecting the May 12th, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) began a coordinated effort to understand and communicate the earthquake's seismological characteristics, tectonic context, and humanitarian impact. NEIC's initial estimates of magnitude and location were distributed within 30 minutes of the quake by e-mail and text message to 70,000 users via the Earthquake Notification System. The release of these basic parameters automatically triggered the generation of more sophisticated derivative products that were used by relief and government agencies to plan their humanitarian response to the disaster. Body-wave and centroid moment tensors identified the earthquake's mechanism. Predictive ShakeMaps provided the first estimates of the geographic extent and amplitude of shaking. The initial automated population exposure estimate generated and distributed by the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system stated that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater), indicating a large-scale disaster had occurred. NEIC's modeling of the mainshock and aftershocks was continuously refined and expanded. The length and orientation of the fault were determined from aftershocks, finite-fault models, and back-projection source imaging. Firsthand accounts of shaking intensity were collected and mapped by the "Did You Feel It" system. These results were used to refine our ShakeMaps and PAGER exposure estimates providing a more accurate assessment of the extent and enormity of the disaster. The products were organized and distributed in an event-specific summary poster and via the USGS Earthquake Program web pages where they were viewed by millions and reproduced by major media outlets (over 1/2 billion hits were served that month). Rather than just a point showing magnitude and epicenter, several of the media's schematic maps

  10. Large rock avalanches triggered by the M 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Harp, E.L.; Schulz, W.; Keefer, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The moment magnitude (M) 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 triggered thousands of landslides, primarily rock falls and rock slides, that ranged in volume from rock falls of a few cubic meters to rock avalanches having volumes as great as 20 ?? 106 m3. The pattern of landsliding was unusual: the number and concentration of triggered slides was much less than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude, and the landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone about 30-km wide that straddled the fault-rupture zone over its entire 300-km length. Despite the overall sparse landslide concentration, the earthquake triggered several large rock avalanches that clustered along the western third of the rupture zone where acceleration levels and ground-shaking frequencies are thought to have been the highest. Inferences about near-field strong-shaking characteristics drawn from interpretation of the landslide distribution are strikingly consistent with results of recent inversion modeling that indicate that high-frequency energy generation was greatest in the western part of the fault-rupture zone and decreased markedly to the east. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Teleseismically recorded seismicity before and after the May 7, 1986, Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Billington, S.; Kisslinger, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Andreanof Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) is the largest event to have occurred in that section of the Aleutian arc since the March 9, 1957, Aleutian Islands earthquake (Mw 8.6). Teleseismically well-recorded earthquakes in the region of the 1986 earthquake are relocated with a plate model and with careful attention to the focal depths. The data set is nearly complete for mb???4.7 between longitudes 172??W and 179??W for the period 1964 through April 1987 and provides a detailed description of the space-time history of moderate-size earthquakes in the region for that period. Additional insight is provided by source parameters which have been systematically determined for Mw???5 earthquakes that occurred in the region since 1977 and by a modeling study of the spatial distribution of moment release on the mainshock fault plane. -from Authors

  12. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: earthquake locations and source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Natalia G.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field.

  13. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: Earthquake locations and source parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, N.A.; Prejean, S.; Hansen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. The 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska: A large magnitude, slip-partitioned event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Haeussler, P.J.; Freymueller, J.T.; Frankel, A.D.; Rubin, C.M.; Craw, P.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Anderson, G.; Carver, G.A.; Crone, A.J.; Dawson, T.E.; Fletcher, H.; Hansen, R.; Harp, E.L.; Harris, R.A.; Hill, D.P.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jibson, R.W.; Jones, L.M.; Kayen, R.; Keefer, D.K.; Larsen, C.F.; Moran, S.C.; Personius, S.F.; Plafker, G.; Sherrod, B.; Sieh, K.; Sitar, N.; Wallace, W.K.

    2003-01-01

    The MW (moment magnitude) 7.9 Denali fault earthquake on 3 November 2002 was associated with 340 kilometers of surface rupture and was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America in almost 150 years. It illuminates earthquake mechanics and hazards of large strike-slip faults. It began with thrusting on the previously unrecognized Susitna Glacier fault, continued with right-slip on the Denali fault, then took a right step and continued with right-slip on the Totschunda fault. There is good correlation between geologically observed and geophysically inferred moment release. The earthquake produced unusually strong distal effects in the rupture propagation direction, including triggered seismicity.

  15. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  16. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  17. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  18. Ground breakage and associated effects in the Cook Inlet area, Alaska, resulting from the March 27, 1964 earthquake: Chapter F in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen L.; Karlstrom, Thor N.V.

    1967-01-01

    The great 1964 Alaska earthquake caused considerable ground breakage in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska. The breakage occurred largely in thick deposits of unconsolidated sediments. The most important types of ground breakage were (1) fracturing or cracking and the extrusion of sand and gravel with ground water along fractures in various types of landforms, and (2) slumping and lateral extension of unconfined faces, particularly along delta fronts. The principal concentration of ground breakage within the area covered by this report was in a northeast-trending zone about 60 miles long and 6 miles wide in the northern part of the Kenai Lowland. The zone cut across diverse topography and stratigraphy. Cracks were as much as 30 feet across and 25 feet deep. Sand, gravel, and pieces of coal and lignite were extruded along many fissures. It is suggested that the disruption in this zone may be due to movement along a fault in the underlying Tertiary rocks. The outwash deltas of Tustumena and Skilak Lakes in the Kenai Lowland, of Eklutna Lake and Lake George in the Chugach Mountains, of Bradley Lake in the Kenai Mountains, and at the outlet of upper Beluga Lake at the base of the Alaska Range showed much slumping, as did the delta of the Susitna River. Parts of the flood plains of the Skilak River, Fox River, and Eagle River were extensively cracked. A few avalanches and slumps occurred along the coast of Cook Inlet in scattered localities. Some tidal flats were cracked. However, in view of the many thick sections of unconsolidated sediments and the abundance of steep slopes, the cracking was perhaps less than might have been expected. Observations along the coasts indicated changes in sea level which, although caused partly by compaction of unconsolidated sediments, may largely be attributed to crus1tal deformation accompanying the earthquake. Most of the Cook Inlet area was downwarped, although the northwest side of Cook Inlet may have been slightly unwarped

  19. Beach ridges as paleoseismic indicators of abrupt coastal subsidence during subduction zone earthquakes, and implications for Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone paleoseismology, southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Briggs, Richard; Nelson, Alan R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2015-01-01

    The Kenai section of the eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone straddles two areas of high slip in the 1964 great Alaska earthquake and is the least studied of the three megathrust segments (Kodiak, Kenai, Prince William Sound) that ruptured in 1964. Investigation of two coastal sites in the eastern part of the Kenai segment, on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, identified evidence for two subduction zone earthquakes that predate the 1964 earthquake. Both coastal sites provide paleoseismic data through inferred coseismic subsidence of wetlands and associated subsidence-induced erosion of beach ridges. At Verdant Cove, paleo-beach ridges record the paleoseismic history; whereas at Quicksand Cove, buried soils in drowned coastal wetlands are the primary indicators of paleoearthquake occurrence and age. The timing of submergence and death of trees mark the oldest earthquake at Verdant Cove that is consistent with the age of a well documented ∼900-year-ago subduction zone earthquake that ruptured the Prince William Sound segment of the megathrust to the east and the Kodiak segment to the west. Soils buried within the last 400–450 years mark the penultimate earthquake on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. The penultimate earthquake probably occurred before AD 1840 from its absence in Russian historical accounts. The penultimate subduction zone earthquake on the Kenai segment did not rupture in conjunction with the Prince William Sound to the northeast. Therefore the Kenai segment, which is presently creeping, can rupture independently of the adjacent Prince William Sound segment that is presently locked.

  20. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  1. Wetlands & Wildlife: Alaska Wildlife Curriculum Teacher Information Manual, Parts I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Marilyn; And Others

    This document consists of a teacher manual and a set of information cards. The teacher manual is designed to educate Alaskan students about the important functions of Alaska's wetlands and about the fish and wildlife that live there. Part I of the manual explores Alaska's wetland habitats, the plants and animals that live there, and the…

  2. 78 FR 3447 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Submitted for OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... notice (77 FR 50712) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval. The notice provided... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... networks in coastal Alaska. This notice provides the public a second opportunity to comment on...

  3. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Geographic Information Network of Alaska: Real-Time Synoptic Satellite Data for Alaska and the High Arctic, Best Available DEMs, and Highest Available Resolution Imagery for Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, T. A.; Sharpton, V. L.; Engle, K. E.; Ledlow, L. L.; Seman, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    In support of the International Polar Year, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) intends to make available to researchers three important Arctic data sets. The first is near-real-time synoptic scale data from GINA and NOAA/NESDIS satellite ground stations. GINA operates ground stations that receive direct readout from the AVHRR (1.1-km per pixel resolution) and MODIS (250- to 1000-meter) sensors carried on NOAA and NASA satellites. GINA works in partnership with NOAA/NESDIS's Fairbanks Command and Data Acquisition Station (FCDAS) to distribute real-time data captured by FCDAS facilities in Fairbanks and Barrow, Alaska. AVHRR and Feng Yun 1D (1.1-km) sensors are captured in Fairbanks by FCDAS and distributed by GINA. AVHRR data is captured by FCDAS in Barrow and distributed by GINA. Due to its high latitude, the station mask of the Barrow station extends well beyond the Pole, showing the status in real-time of Arctic basin cloud and sea ice conditions. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) for Alaska vary greatly in quality and availability. The best available DEMs for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. Third, the best available imagery for more than three quarters of Alaska is 15-meter pan-sharpened Landsat data. Less than a quarter of the state is covered by 5-meter or better data. The best available imagery for Alaska will be combined and served through a GINA gateway. In accordance with the IPY Subcommittee on Data Policy and Management recommendations, all data will be made available via Open Geospatial Consortium protocols, including Web Mapping, Feature, and Coverage Services. Data will also be made available for download in georeferenced formats such as GeoTIFF, MrSID, or GRID. Metadata will be available though the National Spatial Data Infrastructure via Z39.50 GEO protocols and through evolving web-based metadata standards.

  5. An Advanced Real-Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, I.; Nakamura, H.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Aoi, S.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    J-RISQ (Japan Real-time Information System for earthquake) has been developing in NIED for appropriate first-actions to big earthquakes. When an earthquake occurs, seismic intensities (SI) are calculated first at each observation station and sent to the Data Management Center in different timing. The system begins the first estimation when the number of the stations observing the SI of 2.5 or larger exceeds the threshold amount. It estimates SI distribution, exposed population and earthquake damage on buildings by using basic data for estimation, such as subsurface amplification factors, population, and building information. It has been accumulated in J-SHIS (Japan Seismic Information Station) developed by NIED, a public portal for seismic hazard information across Japan. The series of the estimation is performed for each 250m square mesh and finally the estimated data is converted into information for each municipality. Since October 2013, we have opened estimated SI, exposed population etc. to the public through the website by making full use of maps and tables.In the previous system, we sometimes could not inspect the information of the surrounding areas out of the range suffered from strong motions, or the details of the focusing areas, and could not confirm whether the present information was the latest or not without accessing the website. J-RISQ has been advanced by introducing the following functions to settle those problems and promote utilization in local areas or in personal levels. In addition, the website in English has been released.・It has become possible to focus on the specific areas and inspect enlarged information.・The estimated information can be downloaded in the form of KML.・The estimated information can be updated automatically and be provided as the latest one.・The newest information can be inspected by using RSS readers or browsers corresponding to RSS.・Exclusive pages for smartphones have been prepared.The information estimated

  6. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  7. EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Miner, J.; Bierma, R. M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. As the array doubles in Alaska, IRIS continues to collaborate closely with other network operators, universities and research consortia in Alaska and Canada including the Alaska Earthquake Center (AEC), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), Canadian Hazard Information Service (CHIS), the Yukon Geologic Survey (YGS), the Pacific Geoscience Center of the Geologic Survey, Yukon College and others. During FY14 and FY15 the TA has completed upgrade work at 20 Alaska Earthquake Center stations and 2 AVO stations, TA has co-located borehole seismometers at 5 existing PBO GPS stations to augment the EarthScope observatory. We present an overview of deployment plan and the status through 2015. The performance of new Alaska TA stations including improvements to existing stations is described.

  8. An Earthquake Information Service with Free and Open Source Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüngling, Sebastian; Schroeder, Matthias; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Woith, Heiko; Wächter, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    At the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, the working group Earthquakes and Volcano Physics examines the spatiotemporal behavior of earthquakes. In this context also the hazards of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are explored. The aim is to collect related event parameters after the occurrence of extreme events and make them available for science and public as quick as possible. However, the overall objective of this research is to reduce geological risks that emanate from such natural hazards. In order to meet the stated objectives and to get a quick overview about the seismicity of a particular region and to compare the situation to historical and current events, a comprehensive visualization is necessary. Based on the web-accessible data from the famous GFZ GEOFON network a user-friendly interactive web mapping application could be realized. Further, this web service tool integrates historical and current earthquake information from the USGS earthquake database NEIC, and more historical events from various other catalogues like Pacheco, International Seismological Centre (ISC) and others. This compilation of data sources is unique in Earth sciences. Additionally, information about historical and current occurrences of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are retrievable too. Another special feature in the application is the limitation of time spans via a time shifting tool. Users can interactively vary the visualization by moving the time slider. In addition, the events can be narrowed down based on the magnitude, the wave height of tsunamis or the volcanic explosion index. Furthermore, the use of the latest JavaScript libraries makes it possible to display the application on all screen sizes and devices. With this application, information on current and historical earthquakes and other extreme events can be obtained based on the spatio-temporal context, such as the concomitant visualization of seismicity of a particular region.

  9. Scientific Information Platform for the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post

  10. Sharing Ideas. Southeast Alaska Cultures: Teaching Ideas and Resource Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Kay, Comp.; Kleinert, Jean, Comp.

    The product of two 1975 workshops held in Southeastern Alaska (Fairbanks and Sitka), this publication presents the following: (1) papers (written by the educators in attendance at the workshops) which address education methods and concepts relevant to the culture of Southeastern Alaska ("Tlingit Sea Lion Parable"; "Using Local Knowledge in…

  11. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  12. History of earthquakes and tsunamis along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, with implications for tsunami hazards in the California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray E.; Scholl, David W.; Kirby, Stephen; Draut, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    During the past several years, devastating tsunamis were generated along subduction zones in Indonesia, Chile, and most recently Japan. Both the Chile and Japan tsunamis traveled across the Pacific Ocean and caused localized damage at several coastal areas in California. The question remains as to whether coastal California, in particular the California Continental Borderland, is vulnerable to more extensive damage from a far-field tsunami sourced along a Pacific subduction zone. Assuming that the coast of California is at risk from a far-field tsunami, its coastline is most exposed to a trans-Pacific tsunami generated along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone. We present the background geologic constraints that could control a possible giant (Mw ~9) earthquake sourced along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. Previous great earthquakes (Mw ~8) in 1788, 1938, and 1946 ruptured single segments of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. However, in order to generate a giant earthquake, it is necessary to rupture through multiple segments of the megathrust. Potential barriers to a throughgoing rupture, such as high-relief fracture zones or ridges, are absent on the subducting Pacific Plate between the Fox and Semidi Islands. Possible asperities (areas on the megathrust that are locked and therefore subject to infrequent but large slip) are identified by patches of high moment release observed in the historical earthquake record, geodetic studies, and the location of forearc basin gravity lows. Global Positioning System (GPS) data indicate that some areas of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, such as that beneath Sanak Island, are weakly coupled. We suggest that although these areas will have reduced slip during a giant earthquake, they are not really large enough to form a barrier to rupture. A key aspect in defining an earthquake source for tsunami generation is determining the possibility of significant slip on the updip end of the megathrust near

  13. Gravity survey and regional geology of the Prince William Sound epicentral region, Alaska: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Barnes, D.F.; Plafker, George; Robbins, S.L.

    1966-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Mesozoic and early Tertiary age form a roughly arcuate pattern in and around Prince William Sound, the epicentral region of the Alaska earthquake of 1964. These rocks include the Valdez Group, a predominantly slate and graywacke sequence of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, and the Orca Group, a younger sequence of early Tertiary age. The Orca consists of a lower unit of dense-average 2.87 g per cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter) pillow basalt and greenstone intercalated with sedimentary rocks and an upper unit of lithologically variable sandstone interbedded with siltstone or argillite. Densities of the clastic rocks in both the Valdez and Orca Groups average about 2.69 g per cm3. Granitic rocks of relatively low density (2.62 g per cm3) cut the Valdez and Orca Groups at several localities. Both the Valdez and the Orca Groups were complexly folded and extensively faulted during at least three major episodes of deformation: an early period of Cretaceous or early Tertiary orogeny, a second orogeny that probably culminated in late Eocene or early Oligocene time and was accompanied or closely followed by emplacement of granitic batholiths, and a third episode of deformation that began in late Cenozoic time and continued intermittently to the present. About 500 gravity stations were established in the Prince William Sound region in conjunction with postearthquake geologic investigations. Simple Bouguer anomaly contours trend approximately parallel to the arcuate geologic structure around the sound. Bouguer anomalies decrease northward from +40 mgal (milligals) at the southwestern end of Montague Island to -70 mgal at College and Harriman Fiords. Most of this change may be interpreted as a regional gradient caused by thickening of the continental crust. Superimposed on the gradient is a prominent gravity high of as much as 65 mgal that extends from Elrington Island on the southwest, across Knight and Glacier Islands to the Ellamar Peninsula

  14. Calibration of PS09, PS10, and PS11 trans-Alaska pipeline system strong-motion instruments, with acceleration, velocity, and displacement records of the Denali fault earthquake, 03 November 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.; Jensen, E. Gray; Sell, Russell; Stephens, Christopher D.; Nyman, Douglas J.; Hamilton, Robert C.; Hager, William C.

    2006-01-01

    In September, 2003, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) embarked on a joint effort to extract, test, and calibrate the accelerometers, amplifiers, and bandpass filters from the earthquake monitoring systems (EMS) at Pump Stations 09, 10, and 11 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). These were the three closest strong-motion seismographs to the Denali fault when it ruptured in the MW 7.9 earthquake of 03 November 2002 (22:12:41 UTC). The surface rupture is only 3.0 km from PS10 and 55.5 km from PS09 but PS11 is 124.2 km away from a small rupture splay and 126.9 km from the main trace. Here we briefly describe precision calibration results for all three instruments. Included with this report is a link to the seismograms reprocessed using these new calibrations: http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/data_sets/20021103_2212_taps.html Calibration information in this paper applies at the time of the Denali fault earthquake (03 November 2002), but not necessarily at other times because equipment at these stations is changed by APSC personnel at irregular intervals. In particular, the equipment at PS09, PS10, and PS11 was changed by our joint crew in September, 2003, so that we could perform these calibrations. The equipment stayed the same from at least the time of the earthquake until that retrieval, and these calibrations apply for that interval.

  15. An Earthquake Information Service with Free and Open Source Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, M.; Stender, V.; Jüngling, S.

    2015-12-01

    At the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, the working group Earthquakes and Volcano Physics examines the spatiotemporal behavior of earthquakes. In this context also the hazards of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are explored. The aim is to collect related information after the occurrence of such extreme event and make them available for science and partly to the public as quickly as possible. However, the overall objective of this research is to reduce the geological risks that emanate from such natural hazards. In order to meet the stated objectives and to get a quick overview about the seismicity of a particular region and to compare the situation to historical events, a comprehensive visualization was desired. Based on the web-accessible data from the famous GFZ GEOFON network a user-friendly web mapping application was realized. Further, this web service integrates historical and current earthquake information from the USGS earthquake database, and more historical events from various other catalogues like Pacheco, International Seismological Centre (ISC) and more. This compilation of sources is unique in Earth sciences. Additionally, information about historical and current occurrences of volcanic eruptions and tsunamis are also retrievable. Another special feature in the application is the containment of times via a time shifting tool. Users can interactively vary the visualization by moving the time slider. Furthermore, the application was realized by using the newest JavaScript libraries which enables the application to run in all sizes of displays and devices. Our contribution will present the making of, the architecture behind, and few examples of the look and feel of this application.

  16. Geophysical investigation of the Denali fault and Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the October-November 2002, M = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Booker, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002, M = 7.9 earthquake that ruptured along the right-slip Denali fault in south-central Alaska has been investigated by using gravity and magnetic, magnetotelluric, and deep-crustal, seismic reflection data as well as outcrop geology and earthquake seismology. Strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25°N and extend to depths as great as 20 km. These reflections outline a relict crustal architecture that in the past 20 yr has produced little seismicity. The Denali fault is nonreflective, probably because this fault dips steeply to vertical. The most intriguing finding from geophysical data is that earthquake aftershocks occurred above a rock body, with low electrical resistivity (>10 Ω·m), that is at depths below ∼10 km. Aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake have mainly occurred shallower than 10 km. A high geothermal gradient may cause the shallow seismicity. Another possibility is that the low resistivity results from fluids, which could have played a role in locating the aftershock zone by reducing rock friction within the middle and lower crust.

  17. Imaging the transition from Aleutian subduction to Yakutat collision in central Alaska, with local earthquakes and active source data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Christensen, D.H.; Brocher, T.M.; Hansen, R.; Ruppert, N.A.; Haeussler, P.J.; Abers, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    In southern and central Alaska the subduction and active volcanism of the Aleutian subduction zone give way to a broad plate boundary zone with mountain building and strike-slip faulting, where the Yakutat terrane joins the subducting Pacific plate. The interplay of these tectonic elements can be best understood by considering the entire region in three dimensions. We image three-dimensional seismic velocity using abundant local earthquakes, supplemented by active source data. Crustal low-velocity correlates with basins. The Denali fault zone is a dominant feature with a change in crustal thickness across the fault. A relatively high-velocity subducted slab and a low-velocity mantle wedge are observed, and high Vp/Vs beneath the active volcanic systems, which indicates focusing of partial melt. North of Cook Inlet, the subducted Yakutat slab is characterized by a thick low-velocity, high-Vp/Vs, crust. High-velocity material above the Yakutat slab may represent a residual older slab, which inhibits vertical flow of Yakutat subduction fluids. Alternate lateral flow allows Yakutat subduction fluids to contribute to Cook Inlet volcanism and the Wrangell volcanic field. The apparent northeast edge of the subducted Yakutat slab is southwest of the Wrangell volcanics, which have adakitic composition consistent with melting of this Yakutat slab edge. In the mantle, the Yakutat slab is subducting with the Pacific plate, while at shallower depths the Yakutat slab overthrusts the shallow Pacific plate along the Transition fault. This region of crustal doubling within the shallow slab is associated with extremely strong plate coupling and the primary asperity of the Mw 9.2 great 1964 earthquake. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. A tectonic earthquake sequence preceding the April-May 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Stihler, S.D.; Power, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 March 1999, a shallow ML 5.2 earthquake occurred beneath Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc. This earthquake was located 10-15 km west of Shishaldin Volcano, a large, frequently active basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. A Strombolian eruption began at Shishaldin roughly 1 month after the mainshock, culminating in a large explosive eruption on 19 April. We address the question of whether or not the eruption caused the mainshock by computing the Coulomb stress change caused by an inflating dike on fault planes oriented parallel to the mainshock focal mechanism. We found Coulomb stress increases of ???0.1 MPa in the region of the mainshock, suggesting that magma intrusion prior to the eruption could have caused the mainshock. Satellite and seismic data indicate that magma was moving upwards beneath Shishaldin well before the mainshock. indicating that, in an overall sense, the mainshock cannot be said to have caused the eruption. However, observations of changes at the volcano following the mainshock and several large aftershocks suggest that the earthquakes may, in turn, have influenced the course of the eruption.

  19. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  20. Everyday Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes methods to access current earthquake information from the National Earthquake Information Center. Enables students to build genuine learning experiences using real data from earthquakes that have recently occurred. (JRH)

  1. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project, Anchorage, Alaska, with a section on television examination of earthquake damage to underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; with a section on Television Examination of Earthquake Damage to Underground Communication and Electrical Systems in Anchorage by Burton, Lynn R.

    1967-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake and its associated aftershocks caused damage requiring several million dollars worth of repair to the Eklwtna Hydroelectric Project, 34 miles northeast of Anchorage. Electric service from the Eklutna powerplant was interrupted during the early phase of the March 27 earthquake, built was restored (intermittently) until May 9,1964, when the plant was closed for inspection and repair. Water for Eklutna project is transported from Eklutna Lake to the powerplant at tidewater on Knik Arm of Cook Inlet by an underwater intake connected to a 4.46-mile tunnel penstock. The primary damage caused by the earthquake was 1at the intake structure in Eklutna Lake. No damage to the power tunnel was observed. The piles-supported powerplant and appurtenant structures, Anchorage and Palmer substations, and the transmission lines suffered minor dammage. Most damage occurred to facilities constructed on un-consolidated sediments and overburden which densified and subsided during the earthquake. Structures built on bedrock experienced little or no damage. Underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage were examined with a small-diameter television camera to locate damaged areas requiring repair. Most of the damage was concentrated at or near valley slopes. Those parts of the systems within the major slide areas of the city were destroyed.

  2. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  3. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, P. M.; Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Cubley, J. F.; Samolczyk, M. A.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Transportable Array is deploying about 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute, and Yukon College to spread awareness of earthquakes in Alaska and western Canada and the benefits of the Transportable Array for people living in these regions. We provide an update of ongoing education and outreach activities in Alaska and Canada as well as continued efforts to publicize the Transportable Array in the Lower 48. Nearly all parts of Alaska and portions of western Canada are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska, in particular, requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaskan and western Canadian villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Meetings and interviews with Alaska Native Elders and tribal councils discussing past earthquakes has led to a better understanding of how Alaskans view and understand earthquakes. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska and the Yukon. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor emphasizes the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offers not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan and Canadian understanding of the seismic hazard and

  4. A distal earthquake cluster concurrent with the 2006 explosive eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Ruppert, N.A.; White, R.A.; Wilson, F.H.; Comer, D.; Sliter, R.W.; Wong, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    Clustered earthquakes located 25??km northeast of Augustine Volcano began about 6??months before and ceased soon after the volcano's 2006 explosive eruption. This distal seismicity formed a dense cluster less than 5??km across, in map view, and located in depth between 11??km and 16??km. This seismicity was contemporaneous with sharply increased shallow earthquake activity directly below the volcano's vent. Focal mechanisms for five events within the distal cluster show strike-slip fault movement. Cluster seismicity best defines a plane when it is projected onto a northeast-southwest cross section, suggesting that the seismogenic fault strikes northwest. However, two major structural trends intersect near Augustine Volcano, making it difficult to put the seismogenic fault into a regional-geologic context. Specifically, interpretation of marine multichannel seismic-reflection (MCS) data shows reverse faults, directly above the seismicity cluster, that trend northeast, parallel to the regional geologic strike but perpendicular to the fault suggested by the clustered seismicity. The seismogenic fault could be a reactivated basement structure.

  5. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  6. 77 FR 19315 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reindeer in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... in response to the Federal Register notice (76 FR 71600) which did not address the information... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reindeer in Alaska AGENCY: Bureau... Management and Budget (OMB) a request for renewal for the collection of information for Reindeer in...

  7. 77 FR 47371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Interagency Electronic Reporting System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska... opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the...

  8. Numerical study of tsunami generated by multiple submarine slope failures in Resurrection Bay, Alaska, during the MW 9.2 1964 earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.; Haeussler, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations to study tsunami waves in Resurrection Bay, in south-central Alaska. The town of Seward, located at the head of Resurrection Bay, was hit hard by both tectonic and local landslide-generated tsunami waves during the MW 9.2 1964 earthquake with an epicenter located about 150 km northeast of Seward. Recent studies have estimated the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay during the earthquake to be about 211 million m3. Resurrection Bay is a glacial fjord with large tidal ranges and sediments accumulating on steep underwater slopes at a high rate. Also, it is located in a seismically active region above the Aleutian megathrust. All these factors make the town vulnerable to locally generated waves produced by underwater slope failures. Therefore it is crucial to assess the tsunami hazard related to local landslide-generated tsunamis in Resurrection Bay in order to conduct comprehensive tsunami inundation mapping at Seward. We use numerical modeling to recreate the landslides and tsunami waves of the 1964 earthquake to test the hypothesis that the local tsunami in Resurrection Bay has been produced by a number of different slope failures. We find that numerical results are in good agreement with the observational data, and the model could be employed to evaluate landslide tsunami hazard in Alaska fjords for the purposes of tsunami hazard mitigation. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  9. Ground deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1996 an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (???3000 felt by local residents, Mmax = 5.1, cumulative moment of 2.7 ??1018 N m) beneath Akutan Island in the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, produced extensive ground cracks but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Synthetic aperture radar interferograms that span the time of the swarm reveal complex island-wide deformation: the western part of the island including Akutan volcano moved upward, while the eastern part moved downward. The axis of the deformation approximately aligns with new ground cracks on the western part of the island and with Holocene normal faults that were reactivated during the swarm on the eastern part of the island. The axis is also roughly parallel to the direction of greatest compressional stress in the region. No ground movements greater than 2.83 cm were observed outside the volcano's summit caldera for periods of 4 years before or 2 years after the swarm. We modeled the deformation primarily as the emplacement of a shallow, east-west trending, north dipping dike plus inflation of a deep, Mogi-type magma body beneath the volcano. The pattern of subsidence on the eastern part of the island is poorly constrained. It might have been produced by extensional tectonic strain that both reactivated preexisting faults on the eastern part of the island and facilitated magma movement beneath the western part. Alternatively, magma intrusion beneath the volcano might have been the cause of extension and subsidence in the eastern part of the island. We attribute localized subsidence in an area of active fumaroles within the Akutan caldera, by as much as 10 cm during 1992-1993 and 1996-1998, to fluid withdrawal or depressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. 77 FR 65201 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... 703-358- 2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of... Department of the Interior as the key agency responsible for managing migratory bird populations...

  11. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  12. A digital social network for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. H.; Nie, G. Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-02-01

    Acquiring disaster information quickly after an earthquake is crucial for disaster and emergency rescue management. This study examines a digital social network - an earthquake disaster information reporting network - for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information. Based on the network, the disaster information rapid collection method is expounded in this paper. The structure and components of the reporting network are introduced. Then the work principles of the reporting network are discussed, in which the rapid collection of disaster information is realised by using Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) messages to report the disaster information and Geographic information system (GIS) to analyse and extract useful disaster information. This study introduces some key technologies for the work principles, including the methods of mass sending and receiving of SMS for disaster management, the reporting network grouping management method, brief disaster information codes, and the GIS modelling of the reporting network. Finally, a city earthquake disaster information quick reporting system is developed and with the support of this system the reporting network obtained good results in a real earthquake and earthquake drills. This method is a semi-real time disaster information collection method which extends current SMS based method and meets the need of small and some moderate earthquakes.

  13. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Improving Resilience for California from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, W.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a hypothetical but plausible tsunami, created by an Mw9.1 earthquake occurring offshore from the Alaskan peninsula, and its impacts on the California coast. We present the likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management, and policy implications for California associated with the tsunami scenario. The intended users are those who must make mitigation decisions before and rapid decisions during future tsunamis. Around a half million people would be present in the scenario's inundation area in residences, businesses, public venues, parks and beaches. Evacuation would likely be ordered for the State of California's maximum mapped tsunami inundation zone, evacuating an additional quarter million people from residences and businesses. Some island and peninsula communities would face particular evacuation challenges because of limited access options and short warning time, caused by the distance between Alaska and California. Evacuations may also be a challenge for certain dependent-care populations. One third of the boats in California's marinas could be damaged or sunk, costing at least 700 million in repairs to boats and docks, and potentially much more to address serious issues due to sediment transport and environmental contamination. Fires would likely start at many sites where fuel and petrochemicals are stored in ports and marinas. Tsunami surges and bores may travel several miles inland up coastal rivers. Debris clean-up and recovery of inundated and damaged areas will take days, months, or years depending on the severity of impacts and the available resources for recovery. The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (POLA/LB) would be shut down for a miniμm of two days due to strong currents. Inundation of dry land in the ports would result in 100 million damages to cargo and additional

  14. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  15. The California Post-Earthquake Information Clearinghouse: A Plan to Learn From the Next Large California Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, R.; Walter, S.; Fenton, J.; Tubbesing, S.; Greene, M.

    2008-12-01

    In the rush to remove debris after a damaging earthquake, perishable data related to a wide range of impacts on the physical, built and social environments can be lost. The California Post-Earthquake Information Clearinghouse is intended to prevent this data loss by supporting the earth scientists, engineers, and social and policy researchers who will conduct fieldwork in the affected areas in the hours and days following the earthquake to study these effects. First called for by Governor Ronald Reagan following the destructive M6.5 San Fernando earthquake in 1971, the concept of the Clearinghouse has since been incorporated into the response plans of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (USGS Circular 1242). This presentation is intended to acquaint scientists with the purpose, functions, and services of the Clearinghouse. Typically, the Clearinghouse is set up in the vicinity of the earthquake within 24 hours of the mainshock and is maintained for several days to several weeks. It provides a location where field researchers can assemble to share and discuss their observations, plan and coordinate subsequent field work, and communicate significant findings directly to the emergency responders and to the public through press conferences. As the immediate response effort winds down, the Clearinghouse will ensure that collected data are archived and made available through "lessons learned" reports and publications that follow significant earthquakes. Participants in the quarterly meetings of the Clearinghouse include representatives from state and federal agencies, universities, NGOs and other private groups. Overall management of the Clearinghouse is delegated to the agencies represented by the authors above.

  16. 75 FR 5760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Alaska Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Commerce, Room 6625, 14th and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at dHynek... patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Community Development Quota...

  17. 77 FR 31637 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the American Indian and Alaska Native Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Native Population and Labor Force Report AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the American Indian and Alaska Native Population and Labor Force Report. The survey instrument that is... seeking comments on a survey instrument to collect information for the American Indian Population...

  18. 76 FR 32142 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Saltwater Sportfishing Economic Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in... economic analyses of marine sport fishing in Alaska. This survey is necessary to understand the factors... trip value. The Federal Government is responsible for the management of the Pacific halibut...

  19. 76 FR 62374 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Recreational Charter Vessel Guide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... information technology. ] Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in... sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central... between the guided sport (i.e., the charter sector) and the commercial halibut fishery. To assess...

  20. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions (ANNH) Programs; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  1. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  2. 76 FR 53412 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... currently approved information collection. The Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) is a report... Administrative Code (AAC), chapter 5 AAC 39.130. In addition, any person or company who receives an...

  3. Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

    1994-04-01

    On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

  4. ShakeMap Implementation in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosyan, A.; Hansen, R.; Robinson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The ShakeMap (SM) system was developed by the USGS for generating and distributing real-time ground- shaking maps in the aftermath of significant earthquakes. SMs provide vital information within minutes after an earthquake to emergency response agencies, the media and the general public. It is also a tool to produce earthquake planning scenarios and to estimate losses from hypothetical strong earthquakes. SM production in Alaska is based on observed ground motion data (maximum peak ground accelerations and velocities of two horizontal components) and complemented by calculated values using empirical attenuation relationships. These data are collected from more than 80 broadband and 25 strong motion stations throughout the state. The real-time seismic operations in Alaska, including the SM system, are maintained at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) of the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks. The earthquake parameters and waveform measurements are obtained within the Antelope seismic monitoring system. Currently, SMs are produced for events with magnitudes greater that M3.5 with at least 10 associated arrival picks. Moreover, the calculated intensity of the eligible events should be greater than 2.5 at the epicenter. With these settings, about 20 to 30 SMs are triggered in Alaska per month. The maps are generated and posted on the AEIC website 2-3 minutes after the event. The processing time mostly depends on the number of waveforms utilized in the calculation. Several SM updates may be issued for the same event as more reliable data become available. A manual run may be executed afterwards for significant events in order to utilize any additional information, such as extended source geometry or data from external sources.

  5. Preparing for an Earthquake: Information for Schools and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Dean, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, catastrophic earthquakes have garnered international attention regarding the need for improving immediate and ongoing support services for disrupted communities. Following the December 26, 2004 Indonesian earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami was responsible for displacing millions and taking the lives of an estimated 320,000…

  6. Spatial Based Integrated Assessment of Bedrock and Ground Motions, Fault Offsets, and Their Effects for the October-November 2002 Earthquake Sequence on the Denali Fault, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, T. S.; Carlson, R.; Hansen, R.; Hulsey, L.; Ma, J.; White, D.; Barnes, D.; Shur, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A National Science Foundation (NSF) Small Grant Exploratory Research Grant was awarded to the University of Alaska Fairbanks to archive bedrock and ground motions and fault offsets and their effects for the October-November 2002 earthquake sequence on the Denali Fault, Alaska. The scope of work included the accumulation of all strong motion records, satellite imagery, satellite remote sensing data, aerial and ground photographs, and structural response (both measured and anecdotal) that would be useful to achieve the objective. Several interesting data sets were archived including ice cover, lateral movement of stream channels, landslides, avalanches, glacial fracturing, "felt" ground motions, and changes in water quantity and quality. The data sources may be spatially integrated to provide a comprehensive assessment of the bedrock and ground motions and fault offsets for the October-November 2002 earthquake sequence. In the aftermath of the October-November 2002 earthquake sequence on the Denali fault, the Alaskan engineering community expressed a strong interest to understand why their structures and infrastructure were not substantially damaged by the ground motions they experienced during the October-November 2002 Earthquake Sequence on the Denali Fault. The research work proposed under this NSF Grant is a necessary prerequisite to this understanding. Furthermore, the proposed work will facilitate a comparison of Denali events with the Loma Prieta and recent Kocelli and Dozce events in Turkey, all of which were associated with strike-slip faulting. Finally, the spatially integrated data will provide the basis for research work that is truly innovative. For example, is may be possible to predict the observed (1) landsliding and avalanches, (2) changes in water quantity and quality, (3) glacial fracturing, and (4) the widespread liquefaction and lateral spreading, which occurred along the Tok cutoff and Northway airport, with the bedrock and ground motions and

  7. Rupture process of the M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake: Subevents, directivity, and scaling of high-frequency ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Displacement waveforms and high-frequency acceleration envelopes from stations at distances of 3-300 km were inverted to determine the source process of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. Fitting the initial portion of the displacement waveforms indicates that the earthquake started with an oblique thrust subevent (subevent # 1) with an east-west-striking, north-dipping nodal plane consistent with the observed surface rupture on the Susitna Glacier fault. Inversion of the remainder of the waveforms (0.02-0.5 Hz) for moment release along the Denali and Totschunda faults shows that rupture proceeded eastward on the Denali fault, with two strike-slip subevents (numbers 2 and 3) centered about 90 and 210 km east of the hypocenter. Subevent 2 was located across from the station at PS 10 (Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station #10) and was very localized in space and time. Subevent 3 extended from 160 to 230 km east of the hypocenter and had the largest moment of the subevents. Based on the timing between subevent 2 and the east end of subevent 3, an average rupture velocity of 3.5 km/sec, close to the shear wave velocity at the average rupture depth, was found. However, the portion of the rupture 130-220 km east of the epicenter appears to have an effective rupture velocity of about 5.0 km/ sec, which is supershear. These two subevents correspond approximately to areas of large surface offsets observed after the earthquake. Using waveforms of the M 6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake as empirical Green's functions, the high-frequency (1-10 Hz) envelopes of the M 7.9 earthquake were inverted to determine the location of high-frequency energy release along the faults. The initial thrust subevent produced the largest high-frequency energy release per unit fault length. The high-frequency envelopes and acceleration spectra (>0.5 Hz) of the M 7.9 earthquake can be simulated by chaining together rupture zones of the M 6.7 earthquake over distances from 30 to 180 km east of the

  8. Tsunami Modeling and Inundation Mapping in Southcentral Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, D.; Suleimani, E.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential tsunami inundation of coastal Alaska. We evaluate potential tsunami hazards for several coastal communities near the epicenter of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and numerically model the extent of their inundation due to tsunamis generated by earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as hypothetical tsunamis generated by an extended 1964 rupture, a Cascadia megathrust earthquake, earthquakes from the Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and a hypothetical Tohoku-type rupture in the Gulf of Alaska region. Local underwater landslide events in several communities are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the source scenarios using AEIC's recently developed and tested numerical model of tsunami wave propagation and runup. Results of the numerical modeling are verified by simulating the tectonic and landslide-generated tsunamis observed during the 1964 earthquake. The tsunami scenarios are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies in tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning, and public education for reducing future casualties and damage from tsunamis. During the 1964 earthquake, locally generated waves of unknown origin were identified at several communities, located in the western part of Prince William Sound. The waves appeared shortly after the shaking began and swept away most of the buildings while the shaking continued. We model the tectonic tsunami assuming different tsunami generation processes and claim the importance of including both vertical and horizontal displacement into the 1964 tsunami generation process.

  9. Information Theoric Framework for the Earthquake Recurrence Models : Methodica Firma Per Terra Non-Firma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmer, Özcan

    2006-11-01

    This paper first evaluates the earthquake prediction method (1999 ) used by US Geological Survey as the lead example and reviews also the recent models. Secondly, points out the ongoing debate on the predictability of earthquake recurrences and lists the main claims of both sides. The traditional methods and the "frequentist" approach used in determining the earthquake probabilities cannot end the complaints that the earthquakes are unpredictable. It is argued that the prevailing "crisis" in seismic research corresponds to the Pre-Maxent Age of the current situation. The period of Kuhnian "Crisis" should give rise to a new paradigm based on the Information-Theoric framework including the inverse problem, Maxent and Bayesian methods. Paper aims to show that the information- theoric methods shall provide the required "Methodica Firma" for the earthquake prediction models.

  10. An overview of the National Earthquake Information Center acquisition software system, Edge/Continuous Waveform Buffer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, John M.; Ketchum, David C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the capabilities, design, and use cases of the data acquisition and archiving subsystem at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. The Edge and Continuous Waveform Buffer software supports the National Earthquake Information Center’s worldwide earthquake monitoring mission in direct station data acquisition, data import, short- and long-term data archiving, data distribution, query services, and playback, among other capabilities. The software design and architecture can be configured to support acquisition and (or) archiving use cases. The software continues to be developed in order to expand the acquisition, storage, and distribution capabilities.

  11. Testing the use of bulk organic δ13C, δ15N, and Corg:Ntot ratios to estimate subsidence during the 1964 great Alaska earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Adrian M; Witter, Robert C.; Rogers, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    During the Mw 9.2 1964 great Alaska earthquake, Turnagain Arm near Girdwood, Alaska subsided 1.7 ± 0.1 m based on pre- and postearthquake leveling. The coseismic subsidence in 1964 caused equivalent sudden relative sea-level (RSL) rise that is stratigraphically preserved as mud-over-peat contacts where intertidal silt buried peaty marsh surfaces. Changes in intertidal microfossil assemblages across these contacts have been used to estimate subsidence in 1964 by applying quantitative microfossil transfer functions to reconstruct corresponding RSL rise. Here, we review the use of organic stable C and N isotope values and Corg:Ntot ratios as alternative proxies for reconstructing coseismic RSL changes, and report independent estimates of subsidence in 1964 by using δ13C values from intertidal sediment to assess RSL change caused by the earthquake. We observe that surface sediment δ13C values systematically decrease by ∼4‰ over the ∼2.5 m increase in elevation along three 60- to 100-m-long transects extending from intertidal mud flat to upland environments. We use a straightforward linear regression to quantify the relationship between modern sediment δ13C values and elevation (n = 84, R2 = 0.56). The linear regression provides a slope–intercept equation used to reconstruct the paleoelevation of the site before and after the earthquake based on δ13C values in sandy silt above and herbaceous peat below the 1964 contact. The regression standard error (average = ±0.59‰) reflects the modern isotopic variability at sites of similar surface elevation, and is equivalent to an uncertainty of ±0.4 m elevation with respect to Mean Higher High Water. To reduce potential errors in paleoelevation and subsidence estimates, we analyzed multiple sediment δ13C values in nine cores on a shore-perpendicular transect at Bird Point. Our method estimates 1.3 ± 0.4 m of coseismic RSL rise across the 1964 contact by taking the arithmetic mean of the

  12. 88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul; Briggs, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

  13. Turning the rumor of May 11, 2011 earthquake prediction In Rome, Italy, into an information day on earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Cultrera, G.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; INGVterremoti Team

    2011-12-01

    A devastating earthquake had been predicted for May 11, 2011 in Rome. This prediction was never released officially by anyone, but it grew up in the Internet and was amplified by media. It was erroneously ascribed to Raffaele Bendandi, an Italian self-taught natural scientist who studied planetary motions. Indeed, around May 11, 2011, a planetary alignment was really expected and this contributed to give credibility to the earthquake prediction among people. During the previous months, INGV was overwhelmed with requests for information about this supposed prediction by Roman inhabitants and tourists. Given the considerable mediatic impact of this expected earthquake, INGV decided to organize an Open Day in its headquarter in Rome for people who wanted to learn more about the Italian seismicity and the earthquake as natural phenomenon. The Open Day was preceded by a press conference two days before, in which we talked about this prediction, we presented the Open Day, and we had a scientific discussion with journalists about the earthquake prediction and more in general on the real problem of seismic risk in Italy. About 40 journalists from newspapers, local and national tv's, press agencies and web news attended the Press Conference and hundreds of articles appeared in the following days, advertising the 11 May Open Day. The INGV opened to the public all day long (9am - 9pm) with the following program: i) meetings with INGV researchers to discuss scientific issues; ii) visits to the seismic monitoring room, open 24h/7 all year; iii) guided tours through interactive exhibitions on earthquakes and Earth's deep structure; iv) lectures on general topics from the social impact of rumors to seismic risk reduction; v) 13 new videos on channel YouTube.com/INGVterremoti to explain the earthquake process and give updates on various aspects of seismic monitoring in Italy; vi) distribution of books and brochures. Surprisingly, more than 3000 visitors came to visit INGV

  14. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods PSAs Hurricanes Before a Hurricane ... Other Related Links Information for Professionals and Response Workers Health Care Professionals Response and Cleanup Workers Hurricanes PSAs ...

  15. The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

  16. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  17. Haiti Earthquake Underscores Need for Better Use of Seismic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-01-01

    When Eric Calais, professor of geophysics in Purdue University's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, first learned about the 12 January strikeslip earthquake along a portion of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) in Haiti, he knew right away that it would be a shallow event and a large event, very close to the capital city of Port-au-Prince. Having worked in Haiti, he also was aware that the poor nation lacks seismic and building construction codes. “My immediate reaction was, ‘This is going to be a total nightmare and a huge disaster for Haiti,’” Calais, who also is a researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research, told Eos. The main earthquake, currently estimated at magnitude 7.0, occurred at 2153:10 UTC at a depth of 13 kilometers, just 25 kilometers outside of Port-au-Prince, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports. Since then, there have been dozens of aftershocks, many of them above magnitude 5.0; these aftershocks could continue for weeks or even months, according to USGS (see Figure 1). In recent decades, there had not been a major earthquake along the approximately 600-kilometer-long EPGFZ (named after the end points in Jamaica and the Dominican Republic), although seismologists indicate that large earthquakes in 1860, 1770, and earlier likely originated along that system.

  18. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing.

  19. Information, Communication, and Educational Technologies in Rural Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, G. Andrew; Hill, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Information, communication, and educational technologies hold promise to connect geographically isolated rural communities, offering adults greater access to educational, financial, and numerous other resources. The Internet and computer-based network technologies are often seen as remedies for communities in economic decline, but they also have…

  20. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information and interactions between seismologists and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Fréderic; Caroline, Etivant

    2015-04-01

    Historical earthquakes are only known to us through written recollections and so seismologists have a long experience of interpreting the reports of eyewitnesses, explaining probably why seismology has been a pioneer in crowdsourcing and citizen science. Today, Internet has been transforming this situation; It can be considered as the digital nervous system comprising of digital veins and intertwined sensors that capture the pulse of our planet in near real-time. How can both seismology and public could benefit from this new monitoring system? This paper will present the strategy implemented at Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) to leverage this new nervous system to detect and diagnose the impact of earthquakes within minutes rather than hours and how it transformed information systems and interactions with the public. We will show how social network monitoring and flashcrowds (massive website traffic increases on EMSC website) are used to automatically detect felt earthquakes before seismic detections, how damaged areas can me mapped through concomitant loss of Internet sessions (visitors being disconnected) and the benefit of collecting felt reports and geolocated pictures to further constrain rapid impact assessment of global earthquakes. We will also describe how public expectations within tens of seconds of ground shaking are at the basis of improved diversified information tools which integrate this user generated contents. A special attention will be given to LastQuake, the most complex and sophisticated Twitter QuakeBot, smartphone application and browser add-on, which deals with the only earthquakes that matter for the public: the felt and damaging earthquakes. In conclusion we will demonstrate that eyewitnesses are today real time earthquake sensors and active actors of rapid earthquake information.

  1. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters for Augustine, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Mount Spurr volcanoes, Alaska: January 1, 1991 - December 31, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Power, John A.; Stihler, Scott D.; Rao, Lalitha N.; Davidson, Gail; Paskievitch, John F.; Estes, Steve; Lahr, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The 1992 eruptions at Mount Spurr's Crater Peak vent provided the highlight of the catalog period. The crisis included three sub-plinian eruptions, which occurred on June 27, August 18, and September 16-17, 1992. The three eruptions punctuated a complex seismic sequence which included volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, tremor, and both deep and shallow long period (LP) earthquakes. The seismic sequence began on August 18, 1991, with a small swarm of volcano-tectonic events beneath Crater Peak, and spread throughout the volcanic complex by November of the same year. Elevated levels of seismicity persisted at Mount Spurr beyond the catalog time period.

  2. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  3. Combined effects of tectonic and landslide-generated Tsunami Runup at Seward, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Hansen, R.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a recently developed and validated numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup to study the inundation of Resurrection Bay and the town of Seward by the 1964 Alaska tsunami. Seward was hit by both tectonic and landslide-generated tsunami waves during the Mw 9.2 1964 mega thrust earthquake. The earthquake triggered a series of submarine mass failures around the fjord, which resulted in land sliding of part of the coastline into the water, along with the loss of the port facilities. These submarine mass failures generated local waves in the bay within 5 min of the beginning of strong ground motion. Recent studies estimate the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay to be about 211 million m3 (Haeussler et al. in Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 269-278, 2007). The first tectonic tsunami wave arrived in Resurrection Bay about 30 min after the main shock and was about the same height as the local landslide-generated waves. Our previous numerical study, which focused only on the local land slide generated waves in Resurrection Bay, demonstrated that they were produced by a number of different slope failures, and estimated relative contributions of different submarine slide complexes into tsunami amplitudes (Suleimani et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 166:131-152, 2009). This work extends the previous study by calculating tsunami inundation in Resurrection Bay caused by the combined impact of landslide-generated waves and the tectonic tsunami, and comparing the composite inundation area with observations. To simulate landslide tsunami runup in Seward, we use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (J Phys Oceanogr 24(3):559-572, 1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations. The input data set includes a high resolution multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR topography grid of Resurrection Bay, and an initial thickness of slide material based on pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry difference maps. For

  4. The Canterbury Tales: Lessons from the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence to Inform Better Public Communication Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, S.; Tilley, E. N.; Johnston, D. M.; Becker, J.; Orchiston, C.

    2015-12-01

    This research evaluates the public education earthquake information prior to the Canterbury Earthquake sequence (2010-present), and examines communication learnings to create recommendations for improvement in implementation for these types of campaigns in future. The research comes from a practitioner perspective of someone who worked on these campaigns in Canterbury prior to the Earthquake Sequence and who also was the Public Information Manager Second in Command during the earthquake response in February 2011. Documents, specifically those addressing seismic risk, that were created prior to the earthquake sequence, were analyzed, using a "best practice matrix" created by the researcher, for how closely these aligned to best practice academic research. Readability tests and word counts are also employed to assist with triangulation of the data as was practitioner involvement. This research also outlines the lessons learned by practitioners and explores their experiences in regards to creating these materials and how they perceive these now, given all that has happened since the inception of the booklets. The findings from the research showed these documents lacked many of the attributes of best practice. The overly long, jargon filled text had little positive outcome expectancy messages. This probably would have failed to persuade anyone that earthquakes were a real threat in Canterbury. Paradoxically, it is likely these booklets may have created fatalism in publics who read the booklets. While the overall intention was positive, for scientists to explain earthquakes, tsunami, landslides and other risks to encourage the public to prepare for these events, the implementation could be greatly improved. This final component of the research highlights points of improvement for implementation for more successful campaigns in future. The importance of preparedness and science information campaigns can be not only in preparing the population but also into development of

  5. Formal and informal material aid following the 2010 Haiti earthquake as reported by camp dwellers.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, more than two million people moved to temporary camps, most of which arose spontaneously in the days after the earthquake. This study focuses on the material assistance people in five Port-au-Prince camps reported receiving, noting the differences between assistance from formal aid agencies and from 'informal' sources such as family. Seven weeks after the earthquake, 32% of camp dwellers reported receiving no assistance whatsoever; 55% had received formal aid, typically a tent or tarpaulins; and 40% had received informal aid, usually in the form of cash transfers from family living abroad. While people were grateful for any material aid, cash was more frequently considered timely and more effective than aid-in-kind. Should this study be indicative of the greater displaced population, aid agencies should consider how they might make better use of cash transfers as an aid modality. PMID:24601934

  6. Surface deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan Island, Alaska, revealed by C-band ERS and L-band JERS radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Kwoun, O.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    In March 1996, an intense earthquake swarm beneath Akutan Island, Alaska, was accompanied by extensive ground cracking but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Radar interferograms produced from L-band JERS-1 and C-band ERS-1/2 images show uplift associated with the swarm by as much as 60 cm on the western part of the island. The JERS-1 interferogram has greater coherence, especially in areas with loose surface material or thick vegetation. It also shows subsidence of similar magnitude on the eastern part of the island and displacements along faults reactivated during the swarm. The axis of uplift and subsidence strikes about N70??W, which is roughly parallel to a zone of fresh cracks on the northwest flank of the volcano, to normal faults that cut the island and to the inferred maximum compressive stress direction. A common feature of models that fit the deformation is the emplacement of a shallow dike along this trend beneath the northwest flank of the volcano. Both before and after the swarm, the northwest flank was uplifted 5-20 mm/year relative to the southwest flank, probably by magma intrusion. The zone of fresh cracks subsided about 20 mm during 1996-1997 and at lesser rates thereafter, possibly because of cooling and degassing of the intrusion. ?? 2005 CASI.

  7. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  8. The U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Summary Posters: A GIS-based Education and Communication Product for Presenting Consolidated Post-Earthquake Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarr, A.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), a new product of the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Program, are produced at the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden. The posters consist of rapidly-generated, GIS-based maps made following significant earthquakes worldwide (typically M>7.0, or events of significant media/public interest). ESP's consolidate, in an attractive map format, a large-scale epicentral map, several auxiliary regional overviews (showing tectonic and geographical setting, seismic history, seismic hazard, and earthquake effects), depth sections (as appropriate), a table of regional earthquakes, and a summary of the reional seismic history and tectonics. The immediate availability of the latter text summaries has been facilitated by the availability of Rapid, Accurate Tectonic Summaries (RATS) produced at NEIC and posted on the web following significant events. The rapid production of ESP's has been facilitated by generating, during the past two years, regional templates for tectonic areas around the world by organizing the necessary spatially-referenced data for the map base and the thematic layers that overlay the base. These GIS databases enable scripted Arc Macro Language (AML) production of routine elements of the maps (for example background seismicity, tectonic features, and probabilistic hazard maps). However, other elements of the maps are earthquake-specific and are produced manually to reflect new data, earthquake effects, and special characteristics. By the end of this year, approximately 85% of the Earth's seismic zones will be covered for generating future ESP's. During the past year, 13 posters were completed, comparable to the yearly average expected for significant earthquakes. Each year, all ESPs will be published on a CD in PDF format as an Open-File Report. In addition, each is linked to the special event earthquake pages on the USGS Earthquake Program web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov). Although three formats

  9. Seeking Information after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: A Case Study in Mass-Fatality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which killed an estimated 316,000 people, offered many lessons in mass-fatality management (MFM). The dissertation defined MFM in seeking information and in recovery, preservation, identification, and disposition of human remains. Specifically, it examined how mass fatalities were managed in Haiti, how affected…

  10. A first step in constructing a long multi-lake paleoseismic record in Southern Alaska for revealing the recurrence rate of megathrust earthquakes along the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praet, Nore; Moernaut, Jasper; Van Daele, Maarten; Kempf, Philipp; Haeussler, Peter; Strupler, Michael; De Batist, Marc

    2014-05-01

    On March 27, 1964, the "Good Friday" Earthquake ruptured an 800 km-long segment of the Alaskan-Aleutian megathrust, representing the largest measured earthquake in North America (Mw 9.2). Recurrence rates of such megathrust earthquakes are typically in the order of hundreds of years. The development of a reliable assessment of seismic hazards evidently requires statistically much more robust earthquake recurrence data. For this, high-quality paleoseismological records are necessary, which are able to extend the historical evidence much further back in time. The current knowledge of the paleoseismicity along the megathrust segment around Prince William Sound is inferred from records of abrupt changes in coastal elevation. Lake sediments can also produce excellent paleoseismological records. Seismically induced subaquatic landslides generate distinct resedimentation deposits that are interbedded in between the background sediments. During a reconnaissance survey in 2012, we collected short cores and high-resolution seismic data in several glacial lakes in Southern Alaska. The short gravity cores reveal a clear sedimentary imprint of the 1964 Earthquake in different sub-basins of the investigated lakes, and the seismic profiles show the presence of older mass-wasting deposits with similar large volumes. Multiple landslide deposits and associated turbidites at several stratigraphic levels imply that these deposits were also triggered by strong earthquake shaking. The length (i.e. entire Holocene) and high-resolution chronology (i.e. Pb/Cs data reveal that the core laminations represent varves) of the lacustrine record will allow to generate a unique, high-quality dataset of megathrust earthquake recurrences along the Prince William Sound segment of the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone. In winter of 2014, long cores (ca. 15 meters) will be taken at key locations in Skilak Lake, Eklutna Lake and possibly Kenai Lake. Analyzing and dating these sediment cores will make it

  11. Dynamic rupture modeling of the transition from thrust to strike-slip motion in the 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Anderson, G.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    We use three-dimensional dynamic (spontaneous) rupture models to investigate the nearly simultaneous ruptures of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault and the Denali strike-slip fault. With the 1957 Mw 8.3 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia, earthquake as the only other well-documented case of significant, nearly simultaneous rupture of both thrust and strike-slip faults, this feature of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms responsible for development of these large, complex events. We find that the geometry of the faults and the orientation of the regional stress field caused slip on the Susitna Glacier fault to load the Denali fault. Several different stress orientations with oblique right-lateral motion on the Susitna Glacier fault replicate the triggering of rupture on the Denali fault about 10 sec after the rupture nucleates on the Susitna Glacier fault. However, generating slip directions compatible with measured surface offsets and kinematic source inversions requires perturbing the stress orientation from that determined with focal mechanisms of regional events. Adjusting the vertical component of the principal stress tensor for the regional stress field so that it is more consistent with a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting significantly improves the fit of the slip-rake angles to the data. Rotating the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction westward appears to improve the fit even further.

  12. Characteristics of Urbanization in Five Watersheds of Anchorage, Alaska: Geographic Information System Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains environmental and urban geographic information system data for 14 sites in 5 watersheds in Anchorage, Alaska. These sites were examined during summer in 1999 and 2000 to determine effects of urbanization on water quality. The data sets are Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., shapefiles, coverages, and images. Also included are an elevation grid and a triangulated irregular network. Although the data are intended for users with advanced geographic information system capabilities, simple images of the data also are available. ArcView? 3.2 project, an ArcGIS? project, and 16 ArcExplorer2? projects are linked to the PDF file based report. Some of these coverages are large files over 10 MB. The largest coverage, impervious cover, is 208 MB.

  13. A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Context: Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. Aims: This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Results: Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. Conclusions: According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions. PMID:23555130

  14. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Homer area, Alaska, with a section on beach changes on Homer Spit: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Roger M.; Stanley, Kirk W.

    1966-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake shook the Homer area for about 3 minutes. Land effects consisted of a 2- to 6-foot subsidence of the mainland and Homer Spit, one earthflow at the mouth of a canyon, several landslides on the Homer escarpment and along the sea bluffs, and minor fissuring of the ground, principally at the edges of bluffs and on Homer Spit. Hydrologic effects consisted of at least one and possibly two submarine landslides at the end of the spit, seiche waves in Kachemak Bay, ice breakage on Beluga Lake, sanding of wells, and a temporary loss of water in some wells. Seismic damage to the community was light in comparison with that of other communities closer to the epicenter. One submarine landslide, however, took out most of the harbor breakwater. The greatest damage was due to the subsidence of the spit, both tectonically (2–3 ft) and by differential compaction or lateral spreading (an additional 1–4 ft). Higher tides now flood much of the spit. The harbor and dock had to be replaced, and buildings on the end of the spit had to be elevated. Protection works for other buildings and the highway were needed. These works included application of fill to raise the highway and parts of the spit above high tides. Reconstruction costs and disaster loans totaled about $2½ million, but this amount includes added improvement costs over preexisting values. Homer Spit in particular and the Homer area in general rank as areas where precautions must be taken in selecting building sites. The hazards of landslides, earthflows, compaction and submarine slumping—all of which might be triggered by an earthquake—should be considered in site selection. In plan, Homer Spit resembles a scimitar with its curving blade pointed seaward. It is about 4 miles long and as much as 1,500 feet wide. The spit is composed largely of gravel intermixed with some sand. After the earthquake and the resulting tectonic subsidence and compaction, much of the spit was below high

  15. Climate science informs participatory scenario development and applications to decision making in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L. A.; Winfree, R.; Mow, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents unprecedented challenges for managing natural and cultural resources into the future. Impacts are expected to be highly consequential but specific effects are difficult to predict, requiring a flexible process for adaptation planning that is tightly coupled to climate science delivery systems. Scenario planning offers a tool for making science-based decisions under uncertainty. The National Park Service (NPS) is working with the Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (CSCs), the NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs), and other academic, government, non-profit, and private partners to develop and apply scenarios to long-range planning and decision frameworks. In April 2012, Alaska became the first region of the NPS to complete climate change scenario planning for every national park, preserve, and monument. These areas, which collectively make up two-thirds of the total area of the NPS, are experiencing visible and measurable effects attributable to climate change. For example, thawing sea ice, glaciers and permafrost have resulted in coastal erosion, loss of irreplaceable cultural sites, slope failures, flooding of visitor access routes, and infrastructure damage. With higher temperatures and changed weather patterns, woody vegetation has expanded into northern tundra, spruce and cedar diebacks have occurred in southern Alaska, and wildland fire severity has increased. Working with partners at the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Scenario Network for Alaska Planning the NPS integrates quantitative, model-driven data with qualitative, participatory techniques to scenario creation. The approach enables managers to access and understand current climate change science in a form that is relevant for their decision making. Collaborative workshops conducted over the past two years grouped parks from Alaska's southwest, northwest, southeast, interior and central areas. The emphasis was to identify and connect

  16. End-User Applications of Real-Time Earthquake Information in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, G. B.; Gasparini, P.; Giardini, D.; Zschau, J.; Filangieri, A. R.; Reakt Wp7 Team

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of European FP7 project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction) is to improve the efficiency of real-time earthquake risk mitigation methods and their capability of protecting structures, infrastructures, and populations. REAKT aims to address the issues of real-time earthquake hazard and response from end-to-end, with efforts directed along the full spectrum of methodology development in earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, and real-time vulnerability systems, through optimal decision-making, and engagement and cooperation of scientists and end users for the establishment of best practices for use of real-time information. Twelve strategic test cases/end users throughout Europe have been selected. This diverse group of applications/end users includes civil protection authorities, railway systems, hospitals, schools, industrial complexes, nuclear plants, lifeline systems, national seismic networks, and critical structures. The scale of target applications covers a wide range, from two school complexes in Naples, to individual critical structures, such as the Rion Antirion bridge in Patras, and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge in Istanbul, to large complexes, such as the SINES industrial complex in Portugal and the Thessaloniki port area, to distributed lifeline and transportation networks and nuclear plants. Some end-users are interested in in-depth feasibility studies for use of real-time information and development of rapid response plans, while others intend to install real-time instrumentation and develop customized automated control systems. From the onset, REAKT scientists and end-users will work together on concept development and initial implementation efforts using the data products and decision-making methodologies developed with the goal of improving end-user risk mitigation. The aim of this scientific/end-user partnership is to ensure that scientific efforts are applicable to operational

  17. APhoRISM FP7 project: the A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore; Pierdicca, Nazzareno

    2014-05-01

    The APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedure for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring - project is an FP7 funded project, which aims at developing and testing two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data for seismic and volcanic risk management. The objective is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. One of the two methods deals with earthquakes, and it concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The method is named APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. Indeed, a wide literature and projects have addressed and focused such issue, but usually the proposed approaches are only based on change detection techniques and/or classifications algorithms. The novelty of APhoRISM-APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by: - InSAR time series to measure surface movements - shakemaps obtained from seismological data - vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map from earth observation satellite sensors (either Optical or Synthetic Aperture Radar) to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms.

  18. Using JavaScript and the FDSN web service to create an interactive earthquake information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Kasper D.

    2015-04-01

    The FDSN web service provides a web interface to access earthquake meta-data (e. g. event or station information) and waveform date over the internet. Requests are send to a server as URLs and the output is either XML or miniSEED. This makes it hard to read by humans but easy to process with different software. Different data centers are already supporting the FDSN web service, e. g. USGS, IRIS, ORFEUS. The FDSN web service is also part of the Seiscomp3 (http://www.seiscomp3.org) software. The Seismological Observatory of the Ruhr-University switched to Seiscomp3 as the standard software for the analysis of mining induced earthquakes at the beginning of 2014. This made it necessary to create a new web-based earthquake information service for the publication of results to the general public. This has be done by processing the output of a FDSN web service query by javascript running in a standard browser. The result is an interactive map presenting the observed events and further information of events and stations on a single web page as a table and on a map. In addition the user can download event information, waveform data and station data in different formats like miniSEED, quakeML or FDSNxml. The developed code and all used libraries are open source and freely available.

  19. National Earthquake Information Center systems overview and integration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Michelle R.; Patton, John M.; Fee, Jeremy; Hearne, Mike; Martinez, Eric; Ketchum, D.; Worden, Charles; Quitoriano, Vince; Hunter, Edward; Smoczyk, Gregory; Schwarz, Stan

    2015-01-01

    It is important to note that this document provides a brief introduction to the work of dozens of software developers and IT specialists, spanning in many cases more than a decade. References to significant amounts of supporting documentation, code, and information are supplied within.

  20. Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this

  1. Incorporate Seismic Activity Prior Information to Earthquake Early Warning through Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Heaton, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the current Earthquake Early Warning technologies focus on time analysis of wave amplitudes. There are two major drawbacks of these waveform-based techniques: tradeoffs between magnitude and distance estimation for the onsite algorithms, and time latency in alerts for the network algorithms. We are proposing an alternative EEW algorithm that combines the efficiency of onsite algorithms and accuracy of network algorithms, which provides the fastest alert at the moment of station trigger. It is achieved by using observed seismicity from the network as prior information to predict short-term seismic hazards, and then use trigger information from the onsite station as likelihood information to estimate earthquake probability and hypocenter location. This algorithm has numbers of advantages. First, due to the independent data source of this algorithm, results can be directly multiplied to the results of other algorithms such as GPS and waveform data under Bayesian framework to achieve posterior probability function. Second, it is especially beneficial for regions with sparsely distributed station density where it takes longer time for the seismic signals to arrive at the near stations. Lastly, it can significantly speed up warning process during aftershock sequence, swarm earthquake sequence, and mainshocks that had foreshocks. The concept can be further extended to network-based algorithms to incorporate arrived waveform data at more stations.

  2. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Spall, Henry, (Edited By); Schnabel, Diane C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  3. Mitigation of Bias in Inversion of Complex Earthquake without Prior Information of Detailed Fault Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, A.; Yagi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Rupture process of earthquake derived from geophysical observations is important information to understand nature of earthquake and assess seismic hazard. Finite fault inversion is a commonly applied method to construct seismic source model. In conventional inversion, fault is approximated by a simple fault surface even if rupture of real earthquake should propagate along non-planar complex fault. In the conventional inversion, complex rupture kinematics is approximated by limited model parameters that only represent slip on a simple fault surface. This over simplification may cause biased and hence misleading solution. MW 7.7 left-lateral strike-slip earthquake occurred in southwestern Pakistan on 2013-09-24 might be one of exemplar event to demonstrate the bias. For this earthquake, northeastward rupture propagation was suggested by a finite fault inversion of teleseismic body and long period surface waves with a single planer fault (USGS). However, surface displacement field measured from cross-correlation of optical satellite images and back-projection imaging revealed that rupture was unilaterally propagated toward southwest on a non-planer fault (Avouac et.al., 2014). To mitigate the bias, more flexible source parameterization should be employed. We extended multi-time window finite fault method to represent rupture kinematics on a complex fault. Each spatio-temporal knot has five degrees of freedom and is able to represent arbitrary strike, dip, rake, moment release rate and CLVD component. Detailed fault geometry for a source fault is not required in our method. The method considers data covariance matrix with uncertainty of Green's function (Yagi and Fukahata, 2011) to obtain stable solution. Preliminary results show southwestward rupture propagation and focal mechanism change that is consistent with fault trace. The result suggests usefulness of the flexible source parameterization for inversion of complex events.

  4. Twitter as Information Source for Rapid Damage Estimation after Major Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Silke; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Natural disasters like earthquakes require a fast response from local authorities. Well trained rescue teams have to be available, equipment and technology has to be ready set up, information have to be directed to the right positions so the head quarter can manage the operation precisely. The main goal is to reach the most affected areas in a minimum of time. But even with the best preparation for these cases, there will always be the uncertainty of what really happened in the affected area. Modern geophysical sensor networks provide high quality data. These measurements, however, are only mapping disjoint values from their respective locations for a limited amount of parameters. Using observations of witnesses represents one approach to enhance measured values from sensors ("humans as sensors"). These observations are increasingly disseminated via social media platforms. These "social sensors" offer several advantages over common sensors, e.g. high mobility, high versatility of captured parameters as well as rapid distribution of information. Moreover, the amount of data offered by social media platforms is quite extensive. We analyze messages distributed via Twitter after major earthquakes to get rapid information on what eye-witnesses report from the epicentral area. We use this information to (a) quickly learn about damage and losses to support fast disaster response and to (b) densify geophysical networks in areas where there is sparse information to gain a more detailed insight on felt intensities. We present a case study from the Mw 7.1 Philippines (Bohol) earthquake that happened on Oct. 15 2013. We extract Twitter messages, so called tweets containing one or more specified keywords from the semantic field of "earthquake" and use them for further analysis. For the time frame of Oct. 15 to Oct 18 we get a data base of in total 50.000 tweets whereof 2900 tweets are geo-localized and 470 have a photo attached. Analyses for both national level and locally for

  5. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment along Nankai Trough (1) An assessment based on the information of the forthcoming earthquake that Earthquake Research Committee(2013) evaluated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Ohsumi, T.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Takayama, J.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Earthquake Research Committee(ERC)/HERP, Government of Japan (2013) revised their long-term evaluation of the forthcoming large earthquake along the Nankai Trough; the next earthquake is estimated M8 to 9 class, and the probability (P30) that the next earthquake will occur within the next 30 years (from Jan. 1, 2013) is 60% to 70%. In this study, we assess tsunami hazards (maximum coastal tsunami heights) in the near future, in terms of a probabilistic approach, from the next earthquake along Nankai Trough, on the basis of ERC(2013)'s report. The probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment that we applied is as follows; (1) Characterized earthquake fault models (CEFMs) are constructed on each of the 15 hypothetical source areas (HSA) that ERC(2013) showed. The characterization rule follows Toyama et al.(2015, JpGU). As results, we obtained total of 1441 CEFMs. (2) We calculate tsunamis due to CEFMs by solving nonlinear, finite-amplitude, long-wave equations with advection and bottom friction terms by finite-difference method. Run-up computation on land is included. (3) A time predictable model predicts the recurrent interval of the present seismic cycle is T=88.2 years (ERC,2013). We fix P30 = 67% by applying the renewal process based on BPT distribution with T and alpha=0.24 as its aperiodicity. (4) We divide the probability P30 into P30(i) for i-th subgroup consisting of the earthquakes occurring in each of 15 HSA by following a probability re-distribution concept (ERC,2014). Then each earthquake (CEFM) in i-th subgroup is assigned a probability P30(i)/N where N is the number of CEFMs in each sub-group. Note that such re-distribution concept of the probability is nothing but tentative because the present seismology cannot give deep knowledge enough to do it. Epistemic logic-tree approach may be required in future. (5) We synthesize a number of tsunami hazard curves at every evaluation points on coasts by integrating the information about 30 years occurrence

  6. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  7. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  8. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  9. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Gulf of Alaska groundfish fisheries, arbitration system, monitoring, economic data collection, and cost recovery fee collection. The Crab Rationalization Program Arbitration System is established by...

  10. Which data provide the most useful information about maximum earthquake magnitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2013-12-01

    In recent publications, it has been shown that earthquake catalogs are useful to estimate the maximum expected earthquake magnitude in a future time horizon Tf. However, earthquake catalogs alone do not allow to estimate the maximum possible magnitude M (Tf = ∞) in a study area. Therefore, we focus on the question, which data might be helpful to constrain M. Assuming a doubly-truncated Gutenberg-Richter law and independent events, optimal estimates of M depend solely on the largest observed magnitude μ regardless of all the other details in the catalog. For other models of the frequency-magnitude relation, this results holds in approximation. We show that the maximum observed magnitude μT in a known time interval T in the past provides provides the most powerful information on M in terms of the smallest confidence intervals. However, if high levels of confidence are required, the upper bound of the confidence interval may diverge. Geological or tectonic data, e.g. strain rates, might be helpful, if μT is not available; but these quantities can only serve as proxies for μT and will always lead to a higher degree of uncertainty and, therefore, to larger confidence intervals of M.

  11. Extraction of spatio-temporal information of earthquake event based on semantic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Guo, Dan; Li, Huaiyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a web information extraction method is presented which identifies a variety of thematic events utilizing the event knowledge framework derived from text training, and then further uses the syntactic analysis to extract the event key information. The method which combines the text semantic information and domain knowledge of the event makes the extraction of information people interested more accurate. In this paper, web based earthquake news extraction is taken as an example. The paper firstly briefs the overall approaches, and then details the key algorithm and experiments of seismic events extraction. Finally, this paper conducts accuracy analysis and evaluation experiments which demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising way of hot events mining.

  12. 88 hours: The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Earle, P.S.; Benz, H.M.; Wald, D.J.; Briggs, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a timeline of NEIC response to a major global earthquake for the first time in a formal journal publication. We outline the key observations of the earthquake made by the NEIC and its partner agencies, discuss how these analyses evolved, and outline when and how this information was released to the public and to other internal and external parties. Our goal in the presentation of this material is to provide a detailed explanation of the issues faced in the response to a rare, giant earthquake. We envisage that the timeline format of this presentation can highlight technical and procedural successes and shortcomings, which may in turn help prompt research by our academic partners and further improvements to our future response efforts. We have shown how NEIC response efforts have significantly improved over the past six years since the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We are optimistic that the research spawned from this disaster, and the unparalleled dense and diverse data sets that have been recorded, can lead to similar-and necessary-improvements in the future.

  13. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  14. Photogrammetry and geographic information systems for quick assessment, documentation and analysis of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, O.; Toz, G.; Kulur, S.; Seker, D.; Volz, S.; Fritsch, D.; Sester, M.

    After a catastrophe like an earthquake, one on the most important problems is to provide shelter and housing for the homeless. To this end, it is necessary to decide if a building is still habitable, or if it is has to be renovated or even torn down. A prerequisite for such decisions is the detailed knowledge about the status of the building. Earlier earthquakes revealed problems in the processes of documenting and analysing the building damage, as they demanded much effort in terms of time and manpower. The main difficulties appeared to be because of the analogue damage assessments which created a great variety of unstructured information that had to be put in a line to allow further analysis. Apart from that, documentation of damage effects was not detailed and could only be carried out on the spot of a disaster. The aim of this study is to make an improvement, using combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a management and data analysis tool and photogrammetry as a documentation method. Photogrammetric data acquisition is achieved using a CCD camera and the digital photogrammetric software package PICTRAN by Technet. The information system part is the GIS package ArcView by ESRI. The combination of rapid data acquisition and GIS offers a quick assessment of the situation and the possibility of its objective and holistic analysis. This is the prerequisite for a quick initiation of appropriate measures to help people.

  15. Amplitude of foreshocks as a possible seismic precursor to earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindh, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, we have made significant progress in being able to recognize the long-range pattern of events that precede large earthquakes. For example, in a recent issue of the Earthquake Information Bulletin, we saw how the pioneering work of S.A. Fedotov of the U.S.S.R in the Kamchatka-Kurile Islands region has been applied worldwide to forecast where large, shallow earthquakes might occur in the next decades. Indeed, such a "seismic gap" off the coast of Alaska was filled by the 1972 Sitka earthquake. Promising results are slowly accumulating from other techniques that suggest that intermediate-term precursors might also be seen: among these are tilt and geomagnetic anomalies and anomalous land uplift. But the crucial point remains that short-term precursors (days to hours) will be needed in many cases if there is to be a significant saving of lives. 

  16. Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

  17. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  18. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information: the example of LastQuake smartphone application and Twitter QuakeBot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Etivant, C.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public. Wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest. No need to browse the internet: the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? A while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. LastQuake app and Twitter feed (QuakeBot) focuses on these earthquakes that matter for the public by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, damaging and felt earthquakes. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the USGS, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. We will present the identification process of the felt earthquakes, the smartphone application and the 27 automatically generated tweets and how, by providing better public services, we collect more data from citizens.

  19. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  20. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  1. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  2. An attempt of using straight-line information for building damage detection based only on post-earthquake optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Laigen; Shan, Jie; Ye, Yuanxin

    2014-03-01

    It is important to grasp damage information in stricken areas after an earthquake in order to perform quick rescue and recovery activities. Recent research into remote sensing techniques has shown significant ability to generate quality damage information. The methods based on only post-earthquake data are widely researched especially because there are no pre-earthquake reference data in many cities of the world. This paper addresses a method for detection of damaged buildings using only post-event satellite imagery so that scientists and researchers can take advantage of the ability of helicopters and airplanes to fly over the damage faster. Statistical information of line segments extracted from post-event satellite imagery, such as mean length (ML) and weighted tilt angel standard deviation (WTASD), are used for discriminating the damaged and undamaged buildings.

  3. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  4. Incorporating Real-time Earthquake Information into Large Enrollment Natural Disaster Course Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Villasenor, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although most would agree that the occurrence of natural disaster events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods can provide effective learning opportunities for natural hazards-based courses, implementing compelling materials into the large-enrollment classroom environment can be difficult. These natural hazard events derive much of their learning potential from their real-time nature, and in the modern 24/7 news-cycle where all but the most devastating events are quickly out of the public eye, the shelf life for an event is quite limited. To maximize the learning potential of these events requires that both authoritative information be available and course materials be generated as the event unfolds. Although many events such as hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic eruptions provide some precursory warnings, and thus one can prepare background materials to place the main event into context, earthquakes present a particularly confounding situation of providing no warning, but where context is critical to student learning. Attempting to implement real-time materials into large enrollment classes faces the additional hindrance of limited internet access (for students) in most lecture classrooms. In Earth 101 Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs Reality, taught as a large enrollment (150+ students) general education course at Penn State, we are collaborating with the USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) to develop efficient means to incorporate their real-time products into learning activities in the lecture hall environment. Over time (and numerous events) we have developed a template for presenting USGS-produced real-time information in lecture mode. The event-specific materials can be quickly incorporated and updated, along with key contextual materials, to provide students with up-to-the-minute current information. In addition, we have also developed in-class activities, such as student determination of population exposure to severe ground

  5. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters off the coast of Alaska under the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab. The Magnuson-Stevens...

  6. Reporting Child Abuse & Neglect in Alaska. Information for the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Library, Juneau.

    Everyone is responsible for the welfare of the children in our communities. Some persons, such as school teachers and peace officers, are required by law in Alaska to report known or suspected child abuse and neglect. The general public is also encouraged to report such knowledge or suspicions so that children can be protected and families can…

  7. Reporting Child Abuse & Neglect in Alaska. Information for Medical and Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Library, Juneau.

    Alaska law requires that medical and health personnel report known and suspected child abuse and neglect. No one is more likely to see indicators of abuse and neglect than medical and other health-related personnel. Such indicators can include broken bones, bruises, malnutrition and other effects of neglect, infections, and other signs of sexual…

  8. Tsunami Source Specification for Southeast Alaska with Focus on Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment in Sitka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimani, E. N.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska. This activity provides local emergency officials with tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation tools. At-risk communities are spread along several segments of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, with each segment having a unique seismic history and potential tsunami hazard. As a result, almost every community has a distinct set of potential tsunami sources that need to be considered in order to make a tsunami inundation map. Therefore, an important component of the inundation mapping effort is identification and specification of potential tsunami sources. We are creating tsunami inundation maps for Sitka, Alaska, in the scope of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Tsunami potential from tectonic and submarine landslide sources must be evaluated in this case for comprehensive mapping of areas at risk for inundation. The community of Sitka, the former capital of Russian Alaska, is located in Southeast Alaska, on the west coast of Baranof Island, facing the Pacific Ocean. In this area of southern Alaska, the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North America plate becomes a transform boundary that continues down the coast as the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte (FW-QC) transform fault system. The Sitka segment of the FW-QC fault system ruptured in large strike-slip earthquakes in 1927 (Ms7.1) and in 1972 (Ms7.6). We numerically model the extent of inundation in Sitka due to tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake, repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami waves generated by a hypothetically extended 1964 rupture, a hypothetical Cascadia megathrust earthquake, and hypothetical earthquakes in the FW-QC fault system. Underwater landslide events off the continental shelf along the FW-QC fault

  9. Earthquakes: Natural Science Museum and Civil Protection of Trento to inform citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Claudia; Avanzini, Marco

    2010-05-01

    During 2009 the Natural Science Museum of Trento organized the exhibition "Attraction Earth: Earthquakes and Terrestrial Magnetism" in collaboration with the INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysic and Volcanology). In this exhibition a particular sector has been devoted to the seismic activity and its monitoring in the Province of Trento. The purpose was to inform local people on the geological features of their territory, the monitoring activity carried out by the Civil Protection and the potential earthquake hazards, also in order to adopt a correct behaviour in case of seismic event. This sector, "The seismometric Trentino network", was organized by the Geological Service of the Trento Civil Protection and it is open till May 2010, both for general public and school students. For the latter, a particular education pack, realized by the Educational Department of the Museum and consisting of a guided tour coupled with the laboratory activity "Waves upside-down: seismology", is proposed. The whole exhibition has been also coupled with a cycle conferences targeted to adults, in which these topics have been explained by researchers and technicians of INGV and of Trento Geological Service. "The seismometric Trentino network" sector presents the daily monitoring activity of the Geological Service, that has been monitoring the seismic activity for the last 30 years, and describes the deep earth processes of the local territory, such as presence of tectonic discontinuities and their activity. It consists of display panels, a seismometer with rotating drums and a multimedia that reports the monitoring activity of the seismometric network, with real time connection to the various monitoring stations. This allows visitors to observe instantly the local seismic events recorded by each station. The seismometric network was established by the institutions of Trento Province after the earthquakes occurred in Friuli Venezia-Giulia and at Riva del Garda (1976). It started

  10. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  11. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  12. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.220 If I propose... exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must accompany your EP:...

  13. Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D

  14. Application of 3D WebGIS and real-time technique in earthquake information publishing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boren; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Mao; Huang, Jing

    2015-06-01

    In hazard management, earthquake researchers have utilized GIS to ease the process of managing disasters. Researchers use WebGIS to assess hazards and seismic risk. Although they can provide a visual analysis platform based on GIS technology, they lack a general description in the extensibility of WebGIS for processing dynamic data, especially real-time data. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for real-time 3D visual earthquake information publishing model based on WebGIS and digital globe to improve the ability of processing real-time data in systems based on WebGIS. On the basis of the model, we implement a real-time 3D earthquake information publishing system—EqMap3D. The system can not only publish real-time earthquake information but also display these data and their background geoscience information in a 3D scene. It provides a powerful tool for display, analysis, and decision-making for researchers and administrators. It also facilitates better communication between researchers engaged in geosciences and the interested public.

  15. Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10 days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were more than 99.9%. Patient movements within the hospital were noted, and an online command dashboard screen was generated. Patient care was delivered using the electronic medical record. Digital radiographs were acquired and transmitted to stations throughout the hospital. The system helped to introduce order in an otherwise chaotic situation and enabled adequate utilization of scarce medical resources by continually gathering information, analyzing it, and presenting it to the decision-making command level. The establishment of electronic medical records promoted the adequacy of medical treatment and facilitated continuity of care. This experience in Haiti supports the feasibility of deploying information technologies within a field hospital operation. Disaster response teams and agencies are encouraged to consider the use of information technology as part of their contingency plans. PMID:20962123

  16. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  17. Twenty years of Alaska Volcano Observatory's contributions to seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; West, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys observed its 20th anniversary in 2008. The AVO seismic network, inherited from AVO partners in 1988, consisted of three small-aperture subnetworks on Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano and Augustine Volcano and regional stations for a total of 23 short-period instruments (two with three-components). Twenty years later, the AVO network has expanded to 192 stations (23 three-component short-period, and 15 broadband) on 33 volcanoes spanning 2500 km across the Aleutian arc in one of the most remote and challenging environments in the world. The AVO seismic network provides for a unique data set. Within the seismically active Aleutian Arc, there are instrumented volcanoes which exhibit a variety of chemical compositions and eruptive styles. With each individual volcanic center similarly instrumented and all data analyzed in a consistent manner AVO has produced a data set suitable for making seismic comparisons across a wide suite of volcanoes. In twenty years, the AVO has captured data sets for eruptions at Augustine, Kasatochi, Okmok, Pavlof, Redoubt, Shishaldin, Spurr, and Venianinof. AVO data set also includes several volcanic-tectonic swarms, most notably at Akutan, Iliamna, Mageik, Martin, Shishaldin, and Tanaga. This broad approach to volcano seismology has led to a better understanding of precursory earthquake swarms, variations in background rates, triggered seismicity, the structure of volcanoes, volcanic tremor and deep long period earthquakes, among numerous other topics. The AVO also incorporates data from seismic stations operated by both the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center to help locate some of the 70,000 earthquakes in the AVO catalog. In exchange AVO provides dense seismic data from the

  18. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  19. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  20. Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides a brief description of postearthquake tools and products provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products specifically aimed at providing situational awareness in the period immediately following significant earthquake events.

  1. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  2. Multiple seismogenic processes for high-frequency earthquakes at Katmai National Park, Alaska: Evidence from stress tensor inversions of fault-plane solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    The volcanological significance of seismicity within Katmai National Park has been debated since the first seismograph was installed in 1963, in part because Katmai seismicity consists almost entirely of high-frequency earthquakes that can be caused by a wide range of processes. I investigate this issue by determining 140 well-constrained first-motion fault-plane solutions for shallow (depth < 9 km) earthquakes occuring between 1995 and 2001 and inverting these solutions for the stress tensor in different regions within the park. Earthquakes removed by several kilometers from the volcanic axis occur in a stress field characterized by horizontally oriented ??1 and ??3 axes, with ??1 rotated slightly (12??) relative to the NUVELIA subduction vector, indicating that these earthquakes are occurring in response to regional tectonic forces. On the other hand, stress tensors for earthquake clusters beneath several Katmai cluster volcanoes have vertically oriented ??1 axes, indicating that these events are occuring in response to local, not regional, processes. At Martin-Mageik, vertically oriented ??1 is most consistent with failure under edifice loading conditions in conjunction with localized pore pressure increases associated with hydrothermal circulation cells. At Trident-Novarupta, it is consistent with a number of possible models, including occurence along fractures formed during the 1912 eruption that now serve as horizontal conduits for migrating fluids and/or volatiles from nearby degassing and cooling magma bodies. At Mount Katmai, it is most consistent with continued seismicity along ring-fracture systems created in the 1912 eruption, perhaps enhanced by circulating hydrothermal fluids and/or seepage from the caldera-filling lake.

  3. 30 CFR 250.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 250.251 Section 250.251 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and...

  4. 30 CFR 250.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 250.251 Section 250.251 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE...

  5. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? 250.220 Section 250.220 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE...

  6. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization:Developing a Maintainable and Extensible Open Source Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Lisowski, S.; Baker, B.; Hagerty, M.; Lomax, A.; Leifer, J. M.; Thies, D. A.; Schnackenberg, A.; Barrows, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). While this project was funded by NOAA to solve a specific problem, the requirements that the delivered system be both open source and easily maintainable have resulted in the creation of a variety of open source (OS) software packages. The open source software is now complete and this is a presentation of the OS Software that has been funded by NOAA for benefit of the entire seismic community. The design architecture comprises three distinct components: (1) The user interface, (2) The real-time data acquisition and processing system and (3) The scientific algorithm library. The system follows a modular design with loose coupling between components. We now identify the major project constituents. The user interface, CAVE, is written in Java and is compatible with the existing National Weather Service (NWS) open source graphical system AWIPS. The selected real-time seismic acquisition and processing system is open source SeisComp3 (sc3). The seismic library (libseismic) contains numerous custom written and wrapped open source seismic algorithms (e.g., ML/mb/Ms/Mwp, mantle magnitude (Mm), w-phase moment tensor, bodywave moment tensor, finite-fault inversion, array processing). The seismic library is organized in a way (function naming and usage) that will be familiar to users of Matlab. The seismic library extends sc3 so that it can be called by the real-time system, but it can also be driven and tested outside of sc3, for example, by ObsPy or Earthworm. To unify the three principal components we have developed a flexible and lightweight communication layer called SeismoEdex.

  7. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  10. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...

  11. Design of a behavioral health program for urban American Indian/Alaska Native youths: a community informed approach.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L

    2011-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) urban youths experience significant mental health and substance use problems. However, culturally relevant treatment approaches that incorporate community perspectives within the urban setting are limited. This study analyzes community perspectives from AI/AN parents, AI/AN youths, and services providers within Los Angeles County. Information gathered was utilized to develop a needs assessment for AI/AN youths with mental health and substance use problems and to design a community-informed treatment approach. Nine focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. The Los Angeles County community strongly expressed the need for providing urban AI/AN youths with traditional healing services and cultural activities within their treatment program. However, various barriers to accessing mental health and substance abuse treatment services were identified. An integrated treatment approach was subsequently designed as a result of input derived from community perspectives. The community believed that providing urban AI/AN youths with an integrated treatment approach has the potential to decrease the risk of mental health and substance abuse problems in addition to enhancing their cultural identity and self esteem. PMID:22400466

  12. Natural Science of Alaska Handbook. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie Smith; Sumner, Jim

    This handbook is a collection of printed materials that are available to students about the geology, weather, plants, animals and people of Alaska. Topics included are: (1) "Alaska History Line"; (2) "Geography of Alaska" (including maps, rivers, and islands); (3) "Geologic Time"; (4) "Geology" (including plates, earthquake zones, permafrost, and…

  13. IMPROVING SCIENCE EDUCATION AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA:The Synergistic Connection between Educational Outreach Efforts in the Copper Valley, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; McCarthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    four times a year. Even though the in-class time per year is not large, our experience suggests that a long term, multi-year connection enhances learning by the students. We coordinate with HAARP research campaigns so as to utilize the availability of top scientists for public lectures. We do not limit our scope to only ionospheric physics, but try to meet the demands and needs of the region as they arise. Less than two weeks after the November, 2002 Denali Fault Earthquake, we traveled to the villages most strongly effected by the quake and presented basic preliminary information about the quake (Sources: Alaska Earthquake Information Center, Alaska State Geological Survey & USGS). As a teachable moment it was unparalleled, but it was also an example of where even preliminary information on an event can truly help to calm people.

  14. Using ShakeMap to Improve Awareness of Seismic Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, M.; West, M. E.; Ruppert, N.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Alaska Earthquake Center's effort to create customized and relevant products to diverse Alaskan communities, we have embarked on a process to take results from ShakeMap and tailor them to state needs. We have created customized ShakeMaps, produced shaking estimates for small communities that may not be obvious on large-scale maps, and greatly expanded a suite of earthquake scenarios throughout the state for use in hazard assessment and disaster preparation. These efforts have the combined goal helping Alaskans better prepare for the possibility of a damaging earthquake in their community. ShakeMap is a well-regarded system created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce maps of measured and predicted ground-motions for real and scenario earthquakes; many seismic networks throughout the world use it operationally. The Earthquake Center routinely uses ShakeMap to provide general information about recent earthquakes to stakeholders and the public. Customized ShakeMaps are produced for notable earthquakes near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and made available to Alyeska, the pipeline operator. These ShakeMaps are part of a larger system to alert Alyeska of any strong motions that could cause damage to the pipeline infrastructure to help minimize economic and environmental issues. However, despite being the most seismically active state in the United States, limited work has been done to assess possible earthquake scenarios in much of the state and even fewer of the end products are known to residents, many of whom live in small towns and villages, isolated both in distance and in infrastructure from the rest of the population. ShakeMap scenarios are visual representations of earthquake data that have tremendous outreach value as a stand-alone product. For many of the scenarios, we have used earthquake parameters pulled from the numerous notable earthquakes in the history of the state, from the well-known (2004 M7.9 Denali Fault, 1964 M9.2 Good Friday

  15. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  16. Condensation of earthquake location distributions: Optimal spatial information encoding and application to multifractal analysis of south Californian seismicity.

    PubMed

    Kamer, Yavor; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier; Wössner, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We present the "condensation" method that exploits the heterogeneity of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of event locations to improve the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. As its name indicates, the condensation method reduces the size of seismic catalogs while improving the access to the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. The PDFs of events are first ranked by decreasing location errors and then successively condensed onto better located and lower variance event PDFs. The obtained condensed catalog differs from the initial catalog by attributing different weights to each event, the set of weights providing an optimal spatial representation with respect to the spatially varying location capability of the seismic network. Synthetic tests on fractal distributions perturbed with realistic location errors show that condensation improves spatial information content of the original catalog, which is quantified by the likelihood gain per event. Applied to Southern California seismicity, the new condensed catalog highlights major mapped fault traces and reveals possible additional structures while reducing the catalog length by ∼25%. The condensation method allows us to account for location error information within a point based spatial analysis. We demonstrate this by comparing the multifractal properties of the condensed catalog locations with those of the original catalog. We evidence different spatial scaling regimes characterized by distinct multifractal spectra and separated by transition scales. We interpret the upper scale as to agree with the thickness of the brittle crust, while the lower scale (2.5 km) might depend on the relocation procedure. Accounting for these new results, the epidemic type aftershock model formulation suggests that, contrary to previous studies, large earthquakes dominate the earthquake triggering process. This implies that the limited capability of detecting small magnitude events cannot be used

  17. Condensation of earthquake location distributions: Optimal spatial information encoding and application to multifractal analysis of south Californian seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamer, Yavor; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier; Wössner, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We present the "condensation" method that exploits the heterogeneity of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of event locations to improve the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. As its name indicates, the condensation method reduces the size of seismic catalogs while improving the access to the spatial information content of seismic catalogs. The PDFs of events are first ranked by decreasing location errors and then successively condensed onto better located and lower variance event PDFs. The obtained condensed catalog differs from the initial catalog by attributing different weights to each event, the set of weights providing an optimal spatial representation with respect to the spatially varying location capability of the seismic network. Synthetic tests on fractal distributions perturbed with realistic location errors show that condensation improves spatial information content of the original catalog, which is quantified by the likelihood gain per event. Applied to Southern California seismicity, the new condensed catalog highlights major mapped fault traces and reveals possible additional structures while reducing the catalog length by ˜25 % . The condensation method allows us to account for location error information within a point based spatial analysis. We demonstrate this by comparing the multifractal properties of the condensed catalog locations with those of the original catalog. We evidence different spatial scaling regimes characterized by distinct multifractal spectra and separated by transition scales. We interpret the upper scale as to agree with the thickness of the brittle crust, while the lower scale (2.5 km) might depend on the relocation procedure. Accounting for these new results, the epidemic type aftershock model formulation suggests that, contrary to previous studies, large earthquakes dominate the earthquake triggering process. This implies that the limited capability of detecting small magnitude events cannot be

  18. The Earthquake Information Test: Validating an Instrument for Determining Student Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

    Some pre-instructional misconceptions held by children can persist through scientific instruction and resist changes. Identifying these misconceptions would be beneficial for science instruction. In this preliminary study, scores on a 60-item true-false test of knowledge and misconceptions about earthquakes were compared with previous interview…

  19. Investigating the Tsunamigenic Potential of Earthquakes from Analysis of the Informational and Multifractal Properties of Seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Chamoli, Ashutosh; Lovallo, Michele; Stabile, Tony Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    Revealing the tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake is very challenging in regards to minimizing the casualties a tsunami can provoke. Thus, development of methodologies that can reliably furnish a early warnings of a tsunami is crucial. In order to accomplish this aim it is important to preliminarily identify the characteristics of seismograms that can be used to distinguish tsunamigenic (TS) earthquakes from non-tsunamigenic (NTS) earthquakes. In this paper P-wave time dynamic of 17 seismograms of TS earthquakes and 26 NTS seismograms are analysed by means of two advanced statistical tools: the Fisher-Shannon method and the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). Both methods are well suited to disclosing the inner time properties of complex signals, as seismograms appear to be. Using these two methods jointly, we defined a classifier, the performance of which was tested by means of the receiver-operating characteristic curve that plots true positive rate versus false positive rate. This classifier shows a discrimination power that can be considered acceptable in comparison with the devastating effects caused by a non-alarmed tsunami. Our findings indicate that proper choice of the classifier's threshold allows correctly identification of approximately 69 % of the NTS seismograms and approximately 76 % of the TS seismograms. The presented results presented may be helpful in addressing the complex problem of early tsunami warning.

  20. Proposal as to Efficient Collection and Exploitation of Earthquake Damage Information and Verification by Field Experiment at Toyohashi City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Takanashi, Ken'ichi; Araiba, Kiminori; Sekizawa, Ai; Hosokawa, Masafumi; Jeong, Byeong-Pyo; Hisada, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Masahiro

    Based on the earlier study result that the gathering of damage information can be quickly achieved in a municipality with a smaller population, it is proposed that damage information is gathered and analyzed using an area roughly equivalent to a primary school district as a basic unit. The introduction of this type of decentralized system is expected to quickly gather important information on each area. The information gathered by these communal disaster prevention bases is sent to the disaster prevention headquarters which in turn feeds back more extensive information over a wider area to the communal disaster prevention bases. Concrete systems have been developed according to the above mentioned framework, and we performed large-scale experiments on simulating disaster information collection, transmission and on utilization for smooth responses against earthquake disaster with collaboration from Toyohashi City, Aichi Prefecture, where is considered to suffer extensive damage from the Tokai and Tonankai Earthquakes with very high probability of the occurrence. Using disaster information collection/transmission equipments composed of long-distance wireless LAN, a notebook computer, a Web camera and an IP telephone, city staffs could easily input and transmit the information such as fire, collapsed houses and impassable roads, which were collected by the inhabitants participated in the experiment. Headquarters could confirm such information on the map automatically plotted, and also state of each disaster-prevention facility by means of Web-cameras and IP telephones. Based on the damage information, fire-spreading, evaluation, and traffic simulations were automatically executed at the disaster countermeasure office and their results were displayed on the large screen to utilize for making decisions such as residents' evacuation. These simulated results were simultaneously displayed at each disaster-prevention facility and were served to make people understand the

  1. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  2. 77 FR 65903 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... earthquake hazard assessments and earthquake occurrence under the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977..., Earthquake Hazards Program, (703) 648-6716. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Earthquake Hazards Program... under the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act to develop earthquake hazard assessments and recording...

  3. Estimates of radiated energy from global shallow subduction zone earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, S. L.; Lay, T.; Ruff, L.

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies used seismic energy to moment ratios for datasets of large earthquakes as a useful discriminant for tsunami earthquakes. We extend this idea of a "slowness" discriminant to a large dataset of subduction zone underthrusting earthquakes. We determined estimates of energy release in these shallow earthquakes using a large dataset of source time functions. This dataset contains source time functions for 418 shallow (< 70 km depth) earthquakes ranging from Mw 5.5 - 8.0 from 14 circum-Pacific subduction zones. Also included are tsunami earthquakes for which source time functions are available. We calculate energy using two methods, a substitution of a simplified triangle and integration of the original source time function. In the first method, we use a triangle substitution of peak moment and duration to find a minimum estimate of energy. The other method incorporates more of the source time function information and can be influenced by source time function complexity. We examine patterns in source time function complexity with respect to the energy estimates. For comparison with other earthquake parameters, it is useful to remove the effect of seismic moment on the energy estimates. We use the seismic energy to moment ratio (E/Mo) to highlight variations with depth, moment, and subduction zone. There is significant scatter in this ratio using both methods of energy calculation. We observe a slight increase in E/Mo with increasing Mw. There is not much variation in E/Mo with depth seen in entire dataset. However, a slight increase in E/Mo with depth is apparent in a few subduction zones such as Alaska, Central America, and Peru. An average E/Mo of 5x10e-6 roughly characterizes this shallow earthquake dataset, although with a factor of 10 scatter. This value is within about a factor of 2 of E/Mo ratios determined by Choy and Boatwright (1995). Tsunami earthquakes suggest an average E/Mo of 2x10e-7, significantly lower than the average for the shallow

  4. The Apparent Periodicity of Felt Reports in the Alaskan Earthquake Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, L. A.; McNutt, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Felt reports for Alaskan earthquakes were found to be non-uniformly distributed throughout the year. With a predominantly tourist economy, the Alaskan population nearly triples in the summer months, possibly affecting the reporting of earthquakes in the historical record. Using published felt reports from the National Earthquake Information Center and the Alaska Earthquake Information Center, the percentage of events felt each month in central mainland Alaska were tabulated and compared between the summer and winter seasons. Earthquakes were selected from January 1, 1990 to October 31, 2002, from latitudes 58 to 70 degrees N and longitudes 140 to 160 degrees W, and depths 0 to 200 km. 408 events were felt out of a total of 695 that occurred. A number of parameters, including time of day, latitude, longitude, and magnitude, were additionally compared to specify possible limiting factors within each season. While a strong seasonal effect was not found in magnitude 4.0 ML events and greater, the months of May and June were consistently found to have the highest percentage of felt events with a steep drop occurring in the month of July. We ascribe this effect to the summer melting of the top layer of frozen ground to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Additionally, smaller events from magnitude 1.0 to 4.0 ML were also examined. 396 events were felt out of a total of 7,451 that occurred. We found that small earthquakes were felt, with a significant difference, more readily during summer months than in winter. This is likely an effect of the higher summer population of tourists and greater distribution of open businesses. Together these observations suggest that the historical Alaskan earthquake record is likely biased in favor of more frequent reporting of events occurring in summer months as opposed to winter.

  5. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  6. Shrinking Sea Ice, Thawing Permafrost, Bigger Storms, and Extremely Limited Data - Addressing Information Needs of Stakeholders in Western Alaska Through Participatory Decisions and Collaborative Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Reynolds, J.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, Tribes, and decision makers in coastal western Alaska are being impacted by declining sea ice, sea level rise, changing storm patterns and intensities, and increased rates of coastal erosion. Relative to their counterparts in the contiguous USA, their ability to plan for and respond to these changes is constrained by the region's generally meager or non-existent information base. Further, the information needs and logistic challenges are of a scale that perhaps can be addressed only through strong, strategic collaboration. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are fundamentally about applied science and collaboration, especially collaborative decision making. The Western Alaska LCC has established a process of participatory decision making that brings together researchers, agency managers, local experts from Tribes and field specialists to identify and prioritize shared information needs; develop a course of action to address them by using the LCC's limited resources to catalyze engagement, overcome barriers to progress, and build momentum; then ensure products are delivered in a manner that meets decision makers' needs. We briefly review the LCC's activities & outcomes from the stages of (i) collaborative needs assessment (joint with the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Alaska Ocean Observing System), (ii) strategic science activities, and (iii) product refinement and delivery. We discuss lessons learned, in the context of our recent program focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and Their Impacts' and current collaborative efforts focused on delivery of Coastal Resiliency planning tools and results from applied science projects. Emphasis is given to the various key interactions between scientists and decision makers / managers that have been promoted by this process to ensure alignment of final products to decision maker needs.

  7. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  8. Earthquake classification, location, and error analysis in a volcanic environment: implications for the magmatic system of the 1989-1990 eruptions at redoubt volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, J.C.; Chouet, B.A.; Stephens, C.D.; Power, J.A.; Page, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the precise locations of seismic events associated with the 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano posed a number of problems, including poorly known crustal velocities, a sparse station distribution, and an abundance of events with emergent phase onsets. In addition, the high relief of the volcano could not be incorporated into the hypoellipse earthquake location algorithm. This algorithm was modified to allow hypocenters to be located above the elevation of the seismic stations. The velocity model was calibrated on the basis of a posteruptive seismic survey, in which four chemical explosions were recorded by eight stations of the permanent network supplemented with 20 temporary seismographs deployed on and around the volcanic edifice. The model consists of a stack of homogeneous horizontal layers; setting the top of the model at the summit allows events to be located anywhere within the volcanic edifice. Detailed analysis of hypocentral errors shows that the long-period (LP) events constituting the vigorous 23-hour swarm that preceded the initial eruption on December 14 could have originated from a point 1.4 km below the crater floor. A similar analysis of LP events in the swarm preceding the major eruption on January 2 shows they also could have originated from a point, the location of which is shifted 0.8 km northwest and 0.7 km deeper than the source of the initial swarm. We suggest this shift in LP activity reflects a northward jump in the pathway for magmatic gases caused by the sealing of the initial pathway by magma extrusion during the last half of December. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes did not occur until after the initial 23-hour-long swarm. They began slowly just below the LP source and their rate of occurrence increased after the eruption of 01:52 AST on December 15, when they shifted to depths of 6 to 10 km. After January 2 the VT activity migrated gradually northward; this migration suggests northward propagating withdrawal of

  9. Reviewing information support during the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster : From the perspective of a hospital library that received support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, Motoko

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 caused extensive damage over a widespread area. Our hospital library, which is located in the affected area, was no exception. A large collection of books was lost, and some web content was inaccessible due to damage to the network environment. This greatly hindered our efforts to continue providing post-disaster medical information services. Information support, such as free access to databases, journals, and other online content related to the disaster areas, helped us immensely during this time. We were fortunate to have the cooperation of various medical employees and library members via social networks, such as twitter, during the process of attaining this information support.

  10. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...In compliance with section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Indian Arts and Crafts Board announces the proposed extension of a public information collection and seeks public comments on the provisions...

  11. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  12. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  13. 78 FR 25473 - Information Collection: Northern Alaska Native Community Surveys; Proposed Collection for OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... comprehensively'' to include ``the natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that... Indicators Study will be given to a randomly selected adult in each selected household in the study..., Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, Point Lay). The BOEM will use the information collected to learn about local...

  14. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Region Scale and Catch Weighing Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... or patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The scale and catch weighing... accurately weighed and accounted for. Scale and catch-weighing monitoring is required for Western...

  15. 75 FR 31761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... also specify the size and color of markings. The marking of gear aids law enforcement and enables other fishermen to report on misplaced gear. II. Method of Collection No information is submitted; this is a...

  16. 78 FR 40103 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  17. 75 FR 10757 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Amendment 80 Permits and Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Region Amendment 80 Permits and Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... or patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Amendment 80 to the Fishery... utilization, and improved economic health of the head-and-gut trawl catcher/processor sector. Amendment...

  18. 78 FR 40696 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Crab Cost Recovery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  19. Stratigraphy, fossils, and age of sediments at the upper pit of the Lost Chicken gold mine: new information on the late Pliocene environment of east central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John V., Jr.; Westgate, J. A.; Ovenden, Lynn; Carter, L. David; Fouch, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    The "upper pit" at the Lost Chicken placer gold mine in east central Alaska contains fossils that provide information on the flora and insect fauna of interior Alaska just before the onset of global cooling at 2.5 myr. Fossils come from sediments interbedded with the Lost Chicken tephra (dated at 2.9 ± 0.4 myr—early Late Pliocene) and portray the floodplain and valley of a small creek within a region dominated by a coniferous forest richer in genera and species than the present one. Climate was wetter and less continental, and there was probably little or no permafrost. At least one other Pliocene tephra (the Fortymile tephra) occurs at the site and is also associated with plant and insect fossils. Among these fossils are extinct plants and insects like those found at other Tertiary sites in northern Canada and Alaska. The Lost Chicken sequence is the same age as the Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, more than 1000 km to the north. Like Lost Chicken, Meighen Island sediments contain fossils representing a diverse boreal environment. This shows that the latitudinal climate gradient during early Late Pliocene time was shallower than at present and the boreal forest had a far greater latitudinal span than now.

  20. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  1. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  2. USGS NEIC Earthquake Monitoring, Response and Research in the Northern Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    A major component of USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) operations are those related to the monitoring of and response to global earthquakes. In this presentation I will discuss the monitoring capabilities of the NEIC in the Alaska-Aleutians and Kuril-Kamchatka arc regions, and how these might affect our response to major subduction zone earthquakes. I will focus in particular on our capabilities for the rapid characterization of earthquake magnitude and mechanism, issues vital for subsequent real-time shaking and tsunami risk assessments. Such rapid assessments are made possible by the availability of nearby long-period data, from the Global Seismic Network and other regional networks available in real time at the NEIC. In Alaska, available data facilitates accurate magnitude assessments for even the largest earthquakes in as little as 5-10 minutes. In Kamchatka, however, such response times are delayed a further 10-15 minutes by the limited availability of regional data. These issues impact the generation and accuracy of downstream response products produced in real time after a major global event. In the second part of this presentation, I will highlight the timeline over which these products, such as ShakeMap and PAGER, become available, and when and how they were produced in real time following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan. The NEIC was aware of great size of this earthquake in less than 20 minutes; with more regional data from the region, this time could be reduced to less than 10 minutes for future earthquakes. Our response to this event was a demonstration of the major advances made since a similar sized earthquake in Sumatra in 2004, while at the same time highlighting where further improvements are necessary in the future, in response to the growing needs of our society for immediate, accurate and actionable information. Many of the advances and improvements made to rapid earthquake characterization and response stem from

  3. Earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Z.; Fu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, D.

    1989-01-01

    Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic activities occurring before and after earthquakes, led to the establishment of some general characteristics valid for earthquake prediction.

  4. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  5. Alaska Geothermal Sites Map and Database: Bringing together legacy and new geothermal data for research, exploration and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, J. G.; Harun, N. T.; Hughes, C. A.; Weakland, J. R.; Cameron, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal exploration activities in Alaska from the late 1970s into the 1980s generated vast quantities of scientific data that currently is in unpublished, forgotten and obscure, as well as published formats. Alaska has 61 hot springs (hotter than 50°C) and 34 'warm to cool springs' (cooler than 50°C). Thirty-seven thermal springs are located within the Aleutian and Alaska Peninsula volcanic arc into and are related to elevated heat flows in areas of arc volcanism as well as crustal scale faults associated with accretionary tectonism. The central interior belt that extends from the Seward Peninsula to Circle Hot Springs contains 37 thermal springs that formed due to mostly extensional tectonic forces. An additional 17 thermal springs are in southeast Alaska and 4 are in the Wrangell Mountains. A new cycle of geothermal exploration is underway in Alaska and is producing a wealth of new geothermal data. The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), funded by the National Geothermal Data System, is compiling both new and legacy geothermal data into a comprehensive database accessible on the ADGGS website. ADGGS has created a new ';Geothermal Sites of Alaska Map' and associated database that includes data on geothermal hot springs, direct use of geothermal resources, volcanic vents, aqueous geochemistry, borehole temperatures, core descriptions, rock chemistry, earthquakes in proximity to hot springs, and active faults. Geothermal hot springs includes locality, temperature, flow rate, sources and related resources. Direct use of geothermal resources contains facilities, capacity, energy use, temperature, flow rate and contact information from geothermal hot springs that are or have recently been used for recreational use, space heating, agricultural or energy use. Volcanic vents records 395 volcanic vents and fumaroles throughout the state that are Holocene or younger. It includes their age, location, elevation, geologic history, composition

  6. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  7. Recruiting first generation college students into the Geosciences: Alaska's EDGE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Connor, C.

    2008-12-01

    Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a

  8. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  9. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  10. EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

  11. Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

    2009-12-01

    UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

  12. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  13. Reassessment of seismically induced, tsunamigenic submarine slope failures in Port Valdez, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Locat, Jacques; Suleimani, E.; Alexander, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The M9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 caused major damage to the port facilities and town of Valdez, most of it the result of submarine landslide and the consequent tsunamis. Recent bathymetric multibeam surveys, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and dated sediment cores in Port Valdez supply new information about the morphology and character of the landslide deposits. A comparison of pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry provides an estimate of the net volume of landslide debris deposited in the basin and the volume of sediment removed from the source region. Landslide features include (1) large blocks (up to 40-m high) near the location of the greatest tsunamiwave runup (~50 m), (2) two debris lobes associated with the blocks, (3) a series of gullies, channels and talus, near the fjord-head delta and badly damaged old town of Valdez, and (4) the front of a debris lobe that flowed half-way down the fjord from the east end.

  14. Distance Learning in Alaska's Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information. The audio…

  15. Using Braid Plain Ecology and Geomorphology to Inform Bank Erosion Management along a Braided River, Matanuska River, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. H.; McTeague, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    Braided rivers are inherently dynamic but quantifying the nature and implications of this dynamism can contribute to more comprehensive understanding of these systems and management of the river corridor. Bank erosion along the glacial, braided Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska has challenged generations of officials and generated a host of proposed solutions such as riprapped banks, dikes, gravel mining, and trenching. Increasingly, assessment of the technical feasibility of these methods has been accompanied by consideration of ecological factors and nonstructural solutions. The Matanuska River is braided over 85 percent of its course and clearwater side channels in abandoned braid plain areas provide as much as 90 percent of the spawning habitat in the basin for chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta and O. nerka). An assessment of braid plain vegetation, bank erosion rates, effects of a large flood, and distribution of clearwater side channels establishes a scientific basis for ecological and geomorphological considerations and recently helped guide development of a management plan for the river corridor. A historical analysis of braid plain features, marginal positions, and vegetation patterns from 1949, 1962, and 2006 orthophotographs showed that the 2006 braid plain was 43 percent vegetated and had an average age of 16 years. Only about 4 percent of the braid plain contained vegetated islands and over 60 percent of these were young and sparsely vegetated, implying that a suite of active channels migrated frequently across the braid plain and that vegetation did not appreciably limit channel movement. Rates of erosion to the braid plain margins averaged 0.3 m/yr from 1949 to 2006 but erosion was localized, with 64 percent of the erosion at only 8 percent of the banks. Cumulative bank change was twice as great along banks consisting of Holocene fluvial deposits (fans and terraces) identified during Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping than on

  16. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  17. PBO Operations in Alaska and Cascadia, Combining Regions and Collaborating with our Regional Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Boyce, E. S.; Dausz, K.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Pyatt, C.; Willoughby, H.; Woolace, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    During the last year, the Alaska and the Cascadia regions of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network were combined into a single management unit. While both remain distinct regions with their own challenges and engineering staff, every effort has been made to operate as a single team to improve efficiency and provide the highest possible data quality and uptime. Over the last several years a concerted effort has been made to work collaboratively with other institutions and stakeholders to defray ongoing costs by sharing staff and resources. UNAVCO currently operates four integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, eight with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, and three with the EarthScope TA. By the end of 2015, PBO and TA plan to install another 3 integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While most of these are designed around existing PBO stations, the 2014 installation at Middleton Island is a new station for both groups, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data in Alaska. There were two major joint maintenance efforts in 2015:, the largest was a 5 day mission among PBO, AVO, and TA, which shared boat, helicopter, and staff on and around Augustine Volcano; the second, was a 10 day helicopter mission shared between AVO and PBO on Unimak Island. PBO Pacific Northwest is working closely with University of Washington to co-locate at least 9 Earthquake Early Warning Systems, which include the addition of strong motion sensors and high speed RT telemetry at PBO sites. The project is managed by University of Washington but UNAVCO is providing land contact information and infrastructure support. Summer 2015 upgrades include a complete overhaul of aging radio technology at two major networks and several small radio networks in Cascadia. The upgrades will increase reliability and enhance the speed of existing telemetry infrastructure and will continue through summer 2018.

  18. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new volcanoes during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of volcanoes monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski volcano, Shisaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl volcano, Akutan volcano, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes located from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999. Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic

  19. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism.Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new volcanoes during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of volcanoes monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski volcano, Shisaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl volcano, Akutan volcano, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes located from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999.Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic

  20. Digital release of the Alaska Quaternary fault and fold database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Burns, P.; Combellick, R. A.; Weakland, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has designed a Quaternary fault and fold database for Alaska in conformance with standards defined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Quaternary fault and fold database. Alaska is the most seismically active region of the United States, however little information exists on the location, style of deformation, and slip rates of Quaternary faults. Thus, to provide an accurate, user-friendly, reference-based fault inventory to the public, we are producing a digital GIS shapefile of Quaternary fault traces and compiling summary information on each fault. Here, we present relevant information pertaining to the digital GIS shape file and online access and availability of the Alaska database. This database will be useful for engineering geologic studies, geologic, geodetic, and seismic research, and policy planning. The data will also contribute to the fault source database being constructed by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), Faulted Earth project, which is developing tools to better assess earthquake risk. We derived the initial list of Quaternary active structures from The Neotectonic Map of Alaska (Plafker et al., 1994) and supplemented it with more recent data where available. Due to the limited level of knowledge on Quaternary faults in Alaska, pre-Quaternary fault traces from the Plafker map are shown as a layer in our digital database so users may view a more accurate distribution of mapped faults and to suggest the possibility that some older traces may be active yet un-studied. The database will be updated as new information is developed. We selected each fault by reviewing the literature and georegistered the faults from 1:250,000-scale paper maps contained in 1970's vintage and earlier bedrock maps. However, paper map scales range from 1:20,000 to 1:500,000. Fault parameters in our GIS fault attribute tables include fault name, age, slip rate, slip sense, dip direction, fault line type

  1. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. Methods We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case – an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Results and conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post- earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters. PMID:26090999

  2. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 23, Number 6, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Gordon, David W., (Edited By)

    1993-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers.

  3. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Nabesna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald H.; Albert, N.R.D.; Barnes, D.F.; Griscom, Andrew; Marsh, S.P.; Singer, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Nabesna quadrangle in south-central Alaska is the first of the l:250,000-scale Alaskan quadrangles to be investigated by an interdisciplinary research team in order to furnish a mineral resource assessment of the State. The assessment of the 17,600-km 2 16,800-mi21 quadrangle is based on field and laboratory investigations of the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and satellite imagery. The results of the investigations are published as a folio of maps, diagrams, and accompanying discussions. This report provides background information on the investigations and integrates the published components of the resource assessment. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the Nabesna quadrangle.

  4. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Talkeetna Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bruce L.; Curtin, G.C.; Griscom, Andrew; Nelson, S.W.; Singer, D.A.; Steele, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Talkeetna 1? by 3? quadrangle, which consists of about 17,155 km 2 in south-central Alaska, was investigated by integrated field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat data interpretation for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. Past mineral production has been limited to gold from the Yentna district, but the quadrangle contains potentially significant resources of tin and silver and possibly a few other commodities including chromite and copper. The results of the mineral resource assessment are given in a folio of maps which are accompanied by descriptive texts, diagrams, tables, and pertinent references. This Circular provides background information on these investigations and integrates the component maps. A bibliography cites both specific and general references to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle.

  5. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.

    2002-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) Display is part of a Web-enabled earthquake notification system alerting users in near real-time of seismicity, and also valuable geophysical information following a large earthquake. It will replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering graphical earthquake information to users at emergency operations centers, and other organizations. Features distinguishing the CISN Display from other GUI tools are a state-full client/server relationship, a scalable message format supporting automated hyperlink creation, and a configurable platform-independent client with a GIS mapping tool; supporting the decision-making activities of critical users. The CISN Display is the front-end of a client/server architecture known as the QuakeWatch system. It is comprised of the CISN Display (and other potential clients), message queues, server, server "feeder" modules, and messaging middleware, schema and generators. It is written in Java, making it platform-independent, and offering the latest in Internet technologies. QuakeWatch's object-oriented design allows components to be easily upgraded through a well-defined set of application programming interfaces (APIs). Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to other earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-schema. The message model starts with the CUBE message format, but extends it by provisioning additional attributes for currently available products, and those yet to be considered. The supporting metadata in the XML-message provides the data necessary for the client to create a hyperlink and associate it with a unique event ID. Earthquake products deliverable to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, Ground Displacement, Focal Mechanisms, Rapid Notifications, OES Reports, and Earthquake Commentaries. Leveraging the power of the XML-format, the CISN Display provides prompt access to

  6. CISN Display Progress to Date - Reliable Delivery of Real-Time Earthquake Information, and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Frechette, K.; Given, D.

    2003-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) has collaborated to develop a next-generation earthquake notification system that is nearing its first operations-ready release. The CISN Display actively alerts users of seismic data, and vital earthquake hazards information following a significant event. It will primarily replace the Caltech/USGS Broadcast of Earthquakes (CUBE) and Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) Display as the principal means of delivering geographical seismic data to emergency operations centers, utility companies and media outlets. A subsequent goal is to provide automated access to the many Web products produced by regional seismic networks after an earthquake. Another aim is to create a highly configurable client, allowing user organizations to overlay infrastructure data critical to their roles as first-responders, or lifeline operators. And the final goal is to integrate these requirements, into a package offering several layers of reliability to ensure delivery of services. Central to the CISN Display's role as a gateway to Web-based earthquake products is its comprehensive XML-messaging schema. The message model uses many of the same attributes in the CUBE format, but extends the old standard by provisioning additional elements for products currently available, and others yet to be considered. The client consumes these XML-messages, sorts them through a resident Quake Data Merge filter, and posts updates that also include hyperlinks associated to specific event IDs on the display map. Earthquake products available for delivery to the CISN Display are ShakeMap, focal mechanisms, waveform data, felt reports, aftershock forecasts and earthquake commentaries. By design the XML-message schema can evolve as products and information needs change, without breaking existing applications that rely on it. The latest version of the CISN Display can also automatically download ShakeMaps and display shaking intensity within the GIS system. This

  7. Earthquake history of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, Jerry L., (Edited By); Von Hake, Carl A.; Stover, Carl W.

    1982-01-01

    This publication is a history of the prominent earthquakes in the United States from historical times through 1970. It supersedes all previous editions with the same or similar titles (see page ii) and, in addition to updating earthquake listings through 1970, contains several additions and corrections to previous issues. It also brings together under a common cover earthquake data previously listed in two separate reports: Earthquake History of the United States, Part I, Stronger Earthquakes of the United States (Exclusive of California and Western Nevada) and Earthquake History of the United States, Part II, Stronger Earthquakes of California and Western Nevada. Another addition to this publication is the inclusion of a section describing earthquakes in the Puerto Rico region. For the purpose of listing and describing earthquakes, the United States has been divided into nine regions: (1) Northeastern Region, which includes New England and New York activity and observations of the principal earthquakes of eastern Canada; (2) Eastern Region, including the central Appalachian seismic region activity and the area near Charleston, S.C.; (3) Central Region, which consists of the area between the region just described and the Rocky Mountains; (4) Western Mountain Region, which includes all remaining states except those on the Pacific coast; (5) Washington and Oregon; (6) Alaska; (7) Hawaii; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) California and Western Nevada. This arrangement has been made chiefly with reference to the natural seismic divisions. It also is a convenient arrangement because there are only three states where there is an important division of earthquake activity: In Tennessee, there are quite distinct areas at opposite ends of the state that fall into different regions. Only central and eastern Nevada are included in the Western Mountain Region, as the activity of the western part is closely associated with that of California. Some earthquake activity has occurred in the

  8. Hidden earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1989-06-01

    Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

  9. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M., Jr.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  10. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  11. Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment.

    PubMed

    Garza, D

    2001-11-01

    The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity. While Alaska commerce has contributed little to these global changes and impacts, Alaska and its resources are nonetheless affected by the changes. While Alaska Natives have historically relied on Alaska's land, water and animals for survival and cultural identity, today their faith in the safety and quality of these resources has decreased. Alaska Natives no longer believe that these wild resources are the best and many are turning to alternative store-bought foods. Such a change in diet and activity may be contributing to a decline in traditional activities and a decline in general health. Contaminants are showing up in the animals, fish and waters that Alaska Natives use. Efforts need to be expanded to empower Alaska Native Tribes to collect and analyze local wild foods for various contaminants. In addition existing information on contaminants and pollution should be made readily available to Alaska residents. Armed with this type of information Alaska Native residents will be better prepared to make informed decisions on using wild foods and materials. PMID:11768422

  12. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 6 - Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Southeast Alaska presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 9 Southeast census divisions, data are presented for the 40 communities of the…

  13. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in Alaska for the 2014 season. These regulations would enable the continuation of customary and traditional subsistence uses of migratory birds in Alaska and prescribe regional information on when and where the harvesting of birds may occur. These regulations were developed under a......

  14. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  15. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  16. New mapping and structural constraints on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault system, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levoir, M. A.; Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Haeussler, P. J.; Christeson, G. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The dextral Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault lies along the western margin of Canada and southeastern Alaska, a transform plate boundary accommodating motion between the North American and Pacific Plates. The Fairweather Fault is the northern extension of the Queen Charlotte Fault and has numerous and complex splays, including the Chichagof-Baranof Fault, the Peril Strait Fault, the Chatham Strait Fault, and the Icy Point-Lituya Bay Fault. Except for a few small areas, these fault systems have not been mapped in detail. We present updated geometries and fault maps of the entirety of the strike-slip system using seismic reflection and bathymetric data, including a 2004 seismic reflection survey (EW0408), 2005 United Nations Commission on Law of the Sea multibeam bathymetry, and legacy data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Geophysical Data Center. This work is highly relevant for earthquake hazard research and mitigation in southeast Alaska. Several large (> Mw 7.0) earthquakes have occurred along this margin in the last century, impacting communities of southeastern Alaska and western Canada. Two large, recent events include 1) a Mw 7.7 earthquake that took place on 28 October 2012 near the Haida Gwaii Islands offshore of western Canada, and 2) a Mw 7.5 event which occurred on 05 January 2013, 330 km to the northwest and offshore of Craig, Alaska. Interestingly, the Haida Gwaii earthquake ruptured as a thrust event and the Craig earthquake ruptured with a near-vertical dextral strike-slip mechanism. Since a change in Pacific Plate motion around 4 million years ago, the southern Queen Charlotte Fault system has been obliquely converging at a rate of 20 mm/year, with the boundary accommodating about 80 km of perpendicular motion over that time. This convergence explains the Haida Gwaii thrust earthquake, but leaves questions about the along-strike fault structure. Two opposing end-member theories suggest convergence is accommodated by either: 1

  17. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  18. Short-Term Uplift Rates and the Mountain Building Process in Southern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Herring, Thomas A.; Meigs, Andrew; Meigs, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    We have used GPS at 10 stations in southern Alaska with three epochs of measurements to estimate short-term uplift rates. A number of great earthquakes as well as recent large earthquakes characterize the seismicity of the region this century. To reliably estimate uplift rates from GPS data, numerical models that included both the slip distribution in recent large earthquakes and the general slab geometry were constructed.

  19. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  20. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In 2013, the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.baid.utep.edu) project resumed field operations in Barrow, AK. The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 11,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, and save or print maps and query results. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. Highlights for the 2013 season include the addition of more than 2000 additional research sites, providing differential global position system (dGPS) support to visiting scientists, surveying over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion, training of local GIS personal, deployment of a wireless sensor network, and substantial upgrades to the BAID website and web mapping applications.

  1. Earthquake Induced Water Waves in Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Denali earthquake of 3 November 2002 caused minor damage to at least 20 houseboats by initiating water waves in Lake Union, Seattle, Washington. Damage caused by unusual water activity is not uncommon in Washington State. Newspaper reports show that damage also has been caused by water waves in the Seattle area during local or distant earthquakes in 1899 (Yakutat Bay Alaska earthquake), 1949 (Olympia earthquake) and 1965 (Seattle-Tacoma earthquake). Analysis of Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) recordings of the Denali earthquake demonstrates that large water waves are due in part to local amplification of seismic waves by the underlying Seattle sedimentary basin. Simple formulae predict water wave amplitudes only half or smaller than those reported for swimming pools and lakes. Resonance initiated by multiple cycles of surface waves, focusing, and near-shore effects could further amplify the water waves. To understand the type and origins of these water waves, we are examining the response of a water body of rectangular shape and rectangular cross-section subjected to hypothetical forcing functions, and to forcing functions derived from seismograph records of major earthquakes. The results provide estimates of the potential wave heights during future large earthquakes on the nearby subduction zone or on local faults.

  2. Facts and Figures about Education in Alaska, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This booklet provides a variety of demographic information about the Alaska school system covering, in most cases, the past 10 years. The Alaska Commissioners of Education from 1917 to the present are listed, followed by a phone directory of the department, and general district and school information. The section on student information gives…

  3. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  4. Exploring the Use of Historic Earthquake Information to Differentiate Between Deposit Triggers for the High-resolution Stratigraphy from Squaw Lakes, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, A. E.; Gavin, D. G.; Goldfinger, C.; Nelson, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The unique setting and high-resolution stratigraphy at Squaw Lakes, Oregon provides an opportunity to apply lake paleoseismology to southern Cascadia forearc lakes. These lakes were formed when a landslide dammed Squaw Creek located ~100 km from the Oregon coast at the Oregon/California border separating the drainages at the confluence of Squaw and Slickear Creeks. The upper lake contains evidence of disturbance events much too frequent to be the result of earthquakes alone. A link to historic events provides information that may be used to differentiate between deposit triggers and improve the interpretation of the prehistoric portion of the sedimentary record. Regional newspapers published historic accounts of earthquakes experienced by the local people, the most notable of which is the November 23 (or 22nd), 1873 Crescent City, CA earthquake. Although the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was also felt in this region, reports indicate that shaking was much stronger near Jacksonville, Oregon (only 25 miles to the north of Squaw Lakes) as a result of the 1873 earthquake. The depth range that most likely contains sediment deposited within a few years of 1873 can be determined using a new high-resolution age model for the Upper Squaw Lake sediment core (Gavin et al., in prep). This depth range in the core contains a thick deposit that is similar in structure to deposits deeper in the core that have been proposed to correlate with the marine record of Cascadia great earthquakes. These disturbance event deposits are thicker, graded deposits, where grading is dominated by the percentage of organic content as compared to those interpreted to be a result of watershed disturbances. Recently acquired radiocarbon ages for the Lower Squaw Lake core suggests the thicker Upper Squaw Lake deposits correlate to those recorded in the lower-resolution sedimentary record at Lower Squaw Lake. The character of the likely contemporaneous deposits from the lower lake show grading more

  5. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell; Travers, Constance

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region. PMID:26645380

  6. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region. PMID:26645380

  7. Digital Dead Ends along Alaska's Information Highway: Broadband Access for Students and Teachers in Alaska's High School One-to-One Laptop Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Pamela Jo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the potential impact community broadband availability has on personal and classroom levels of technology adoption for high school students and teachers in Alaska. Community broadband availability was defined as, (a) terrestrial broadband availability; (b) satellite broadband availability; and (c) no broadband available.…

  8. Safety and survival in an earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    Many earth scientists in this country and abroad are focusing their studies on the search for means of predicting impending earthquakes, but, as yet, an accurate prediction of the time and place of such an event cannot be made. From past experience, however, one can assume that earthquakes will continue to harass mankind and that they will occur most frequently in the areas where they have been relatively common in the past. In the United States, earthquakes can be expected to occur most frequently in the western states, particularly in Alaska, California, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Montana. The danger, however, is not confined to any one part of the country; major earthquakes have occurred at widely scattered locations.

  9. Tracking glaciers with the Alaska seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    More than 40 years ago it was known that calving glaciers in Alaska created unmistakable seismic signals that could be recorded tens and hundreds of kilometers away. Their long monochromatic signals invited studies that foreshadowed the more recent surge in glacier seismology. Beyond a handful of targeted studies, these signals have remained a seismic novelty. No systematic attempt has been made to catalog and track glacier seismicity across the years. Recent advances in understanding glacier sources, combined with the climate significance of tidewater glaciers, have renewed calls for comprehensive tracking of glacier seismicity in coastal Alaska. The Alaska Earthquake Center has included glacier events in its production earthquake catalog for decades. Until recently, these were best thought of as bycatch—accidental finds in the process of tracking earthquakes. Processing improvements a decade ago, combined with network improvements in the past five years, have turned this into a rich data stream capturing hundreds of events per year across 600 km of the coastal mountain range. Though the source of these signals is generally found to be iceberg calving, there are vast differences in behavior between different glacier termini. Some glaciers have strong peaks in activity during the spring, while others peak in the late summer or fall. These patterns are consistent over years pointing to fundamental differences in calving behavior. In several cases, changes in seismic activity correspond to specific process changes observed through other means at particular glacier. These observations demonstrate that the current network is providing a faithful record of the dynamic behavior of several glaciers in coastal Alaska. With this as a starting point, we examine what is possible (and not possible) going forward with dedicated detection schemes.

  10. On subduction zone earthquakes and the Pacific Northwest seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Dae H.

    1991-12-01

    A short review of subduction zone earthquakes and the seismicity of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is provided for the purpose of a basis for assessing issues related to earthquake hazard evaluations for the region. This review of seismotectonics regarding historical subduction zone earthquakes and more recent seismological studies pertaining to rupture processes of subduction zone earthquakes, with specific references to the Pacific Northwest, is made in this brief study. Subduction zone earthquakes tend to rupture updip and laterally from the hypocenter. Thus, the rupture surface tends to become more elongated as one considers larger earthquakes (there is limited updip distance that is strongly coupled, whereas rupture length can be quite large). The great Aleutian-Alaska earthquakes of 1957, 1964, and 1965 had rupture lengths of greater than 650 km. The largest earthquake observed instrumentally, the M{sub W} 9.5, 1960 Chile Earthquake, had a rupture length over 1000 km. However, earthquakes of this magnitude are very unlikely on Cascadia. The degree of surface shaking has a very strong dependency on the depth and style of rupture. The rupture surface during a great earthquake shows heterogeneous stress drop, displacement, energy release, etc. The high strength zones are traditionally termed asperities and these asperities control when and how large an earthquake is generated. Mapping of these asperities in specific subduction zones is very difficult before an earthquake. They show up more easily in inversions of dynamic source studies of earthquake ruptures, after an earthquake. Because seismic moment is based on the total radiated-energy from an earthquake, the moment-based magnitude M{sub W} is superior to all other magnitude estimates, such as M{sub L}, m{sub b}, M{sub bLg}, M{sub S}, etc Probably, just to have a common language, non-moment magnitudes should be converted to M{sub W} in any discussions of subduction zone earthquakes.

  11. Earthquake hazards: a national threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most costly natural hazards faced by the Nation, posing a significant risk to 75 million Americans in 39 States. The risks that earthquakes pose to society, including death, injury, and economic loss, can be greatly reduced by (1) better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen, and (2) providing critical and timely information to improve response after they occur. As part of the multi-agency National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the lead Federal responsibility to provide notification of earthquakes in order to enhance public safety and to reduce losses through effective forecasts based on the best possible scientific information.

  12. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Oil and gas potential is significant in Arctic Alaska. Beyond petroleum potential, this region supports unique fish and wildlife resources and ecosystems, and indigenous people who rely on these resources for subsistence. This report summarizes key existing scientific information and provides initial guidance of what new and (or) continued research could inform decision making. This report is presented in a series of topical chapters and various appendixes each written by a subset of the USGS OCS Team based on their areas of expertise. Three chapters (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) provide foundational information on geology; ecology and subsistence; and climate settings important to understanding the conditions pertinent to development in the Arctic OCS. These chapters are followed by three chapters that examine the scientific understanding, science gaps, and science sufficiency questions regarding oil-spill risk, response, and impact (Chapter 5), marine mammals and anthropogenic noise (Chapter 6), and cumulative impacts (Chapter 7). Lessons learned from the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill are included to identify valuable "pre-positioned" science and scientific approaches to improved response and reduced uncertainty in damage assessment and restoration efforts (appendix D). An appendix on Structured Decision Making (appendix C) is included to illustrate the value of such tools that go beyond, but incorporate, science in looking at what can/should be done about policy and implementation of Arctic development. The report provides a series of findings and recommendations for consideration developed during the independent examination of

  13. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    On March 31, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced a national strategy for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development. In that announcement, the Administration outlined a three-pronged approach (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010a): Development: "...expand development and production throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including resource-rich areas of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico..." Exploration: "...expand oil and gas exploration in frontier areas, such as the Arctic Ocean and areas in the Atlantic Ocean, to gather the information necessary to develop resources in the right places and the right ways." Conservation: "...calls for the protection of special areas like Bristol Bay in Alaska...national treasure[s] that we must protect for future generations." In a companion announcement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010b), within the Administration's "Exploration" component, the Secretary asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic OCS, particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (fig. 1).

  14. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  15. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  16. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  17. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  18. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  19. Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

    2007-12-01

    The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2

  20. Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Network Data Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; Haney, M. M.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.; Searcy, C. K.; Stihler, S. D.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) established in 1988 as a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, monitors active volcanoes in Alaska. Thirty-three volcanoes are currently monitored by a seismograph network consisting of 193 stations, of which 40 are three-component stations. The current state of AVO’s seismic network, and data processing and availability are summarized in the annual AVO seismological bulletin, Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaska Volcanoes, published as a USGS Data Series (most recent at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/467). Despite a rich seismic data set for 12 VEI 2 or greater eruptions, and over 80,000 located earthquakes in the last 21 years, the volcanic seismicity in the Aleutian Arc remains understudied. Initially, AVO seismic data were only provided via a data supplement as part of the annual bulletin, or upon request. Over the last few years, AVO has made seismic data more available with the objective of increasing volcano seismic research on the Aleutian Arc. The complete AVO earthquake catalog data are now available through the annual AVO bulletin and have been submitted monthly to the on-line Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) composite catalog since 2008. Segmented waveform data for all catalog earthquakes are available upon request and efforts are underway to make this archive web accessible as well. Continuous data were first archived using a tape backup, but the availability of low cost digital storage media made a waveform backup of continuous data a reality. Currently the continuous AVO waveform data can be found in several forms. Since late 2002, AVO has burned all continuous waveform data to DVDs, as well as storing these data in Antelope databases at the Geophysical Institute. Beginning in 2005, data have been available through a Winston Wave Server housed at the USGS in

  1. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Kofoed, K. B.; Copenhaver, W.; Laney, C. M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Collins, J. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 12,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. Recent advances include the addition of more than 2000 new research sites, provision of differential global position system (dGPS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) support to visiting scientists, surveying over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion, training of local GIS personal to better make use of science in local decision making, deployment and near real time connectivity to a wireless micrometeorological sensor network, links to Barrow area datasets housed at national data archives and substantial upgrades to the BAID website and web mapping applications.

  2. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  3. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  4. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  5. Preliminary paleoseismic observations along the western Denali fault, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Schwartz, D. P.; Rood, D. H.; Reger, R.; Wolken, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Denali fault in south-central Alaska, from Mt. McKinley to the Denali-Totschunda fault branch point, accommodates ~9-12 mm/yr of the right-lateral component of oblique convergence between the Pacific/Yakutat and North American plates. The eastern 226 km of this fault reach was part of the source of the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake. West of the 2002 rupture there is evidence of two large earthquakes on the Denali fault during the past ~550-700 years but the paleoearthquake chronology prior to this time is largely unknown. To better constrain fault rupture parameters for the western Denali fault and contribute to improved seismic hazard assessment, we performed helicopter and ground reconnaissance along the southern flank of the Alaska Range between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, a distance of ~35 km, and conducted a site-specific paleoseismic study. We present a Quaternary geologic strip map along the western Denali fault and our preliminary paleoseismic results, which include a differential-GPS survey of a displaced debris flow fan, cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages for boulders on this fan, and an interpretation of a trench across the main trace of the fault at the same site. Between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, the Denali fault is characterized by prominent tectonic geomorphic features that include linear side-hill troughs, mole tracks, anastamosing composite scarps, and open left-stepping fissures. Measurements of offset rills and gullies indicate that slip during the most recent earthquake was between ~3 and 5 meters, similar to the average displacement in the 2002 earthquake. At our trench site, ~ 25 km east of the Parks Highway, a steep debris fan is displaced along a series of well-defined left-stepping linear fault traces. Multi-event displacements of debris-flow and snow-avalanche channels incised into the fan range from 8 to 43 m, the latter of which serves as a minimum cumulative fan offset estimate. The trench, excavated into

  6. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  7. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  8. Crustal earthquake triggering by modern great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Sherrod, Brian

    2014-02-01

    Among the many questions raised by the recent abundance of great (M > 8.0) subduction thrust earthquakes is their potential to trigger damaging earthquakes on crustal faults within the overriding plate and beneath many of the world's densely populated urban centers. We take advantage of the coincident abundance of great earthquakes globally and instrumental observations since 1960 to assess this triggering potential by analyzing centroids and focal mechanisms from the centroid moment tensor catalog for events starting in 1976 and published reports about the M9.5 1960 Chile and M9.2 1964 Alaska earthquake sequences. We find clear increases in the rates of crustal earthquakes in the overriding plate within days following all subduction thrust earthquakes of M > 8.6, within about ±10° of the triggering event centroid latitude and longitude. This result is consistent with dynamic triggering of more distant increases of shallow seismicity rates at distances beyond ±10°, suggesting that dynamic triggering may be important within the near field too. Crustal earthquake rate increases may also follow smaller M > 7.5 subduction thrust events, but because activity typically occurs offshore in the immediately vicinity of the triggering rupture plane, it cannot be unambiguously attributed to sources within the overriding plate. These observations are easily explained in the context of existing earthquake scaling laws.

  9. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  10. Seismic component of the STEEP project, Alaska: Results of the first field season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S.; Stachnik, J.; Lafevers, M.; Roush, J.; Sanches, R.; Fuerst, E.; Sandru, J.; Ruppert, N.; Pavlis, G.; Bauer, M.

    2005-12-01

    STEEP (SainT Elias Erosion/tectonics Project) is a five year, multi-disciplinary study that addresses evolution of the highest coastal mountain range on Earth - the St. Elias Mountains of southern Alaska and northwestern Canada. The overall goal of the project is to develop a comprehensive model for the St. Elias orogen that accounts for the interaction of regional plate tectonic processes, structural development, and rapid erosion. The seismic component of this project includes passive seismic experiment utilizing the IRIS PASSCAL Program instruments. The total project consists of 22 new, telemetered, digital broad band seismic stations, most accessible by helicopter only. There are 12 existing short period stations in the area. Eight new stations were installed in the coastal region in June 2005. Freewave IP radios provide the telemetry to the newly installed VSAT at the Bering Glacier camp site. The challenge was to find ice-free locations, on bedrock, large enough to install equipment and still have a helicopter landing zone nearby. The stations consist of Quanterra Q330 digitizers with baler, a STS-2 seismometer installed in a vault, a Freewave IP radio, a Scala 900 Mhz antenna, twenty 100 AH rechargeable batteries with a 2400AH backup Celair primary battery, and three solar panels mounted on hut. The acquired data is recorded in real time at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center located in Fairbanks and is incorporated into the standard data processing procedures. High quality data allows for more reliable automatic earthquake detections in the region with lower magnitude threshold. In addition to tectonic earthquakes, glacial events that occur within the vast ice fields of the region are also regularly detected. Broadband instruments complement regional broadband network for more reliable calculations of the regional moment tensors.

  11. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  12. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  13. What Can Sounds Tell Us About Earthquake Interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    It is important not only for seismologists but also for educators to effectively convey information about earthquakes and the influences earthquakes can have on each other. Recent studies using auditory display [e.g. Kilb et al., 2012; Peng et al. 2012] have depicted catastrophic earthquakes and the effects large earthquakes can have on other parts of the world. Auditory display of earthquakes, which combines static images with time-compressed sound of recorded seismic data, is a new approach to disseminating information to a general audience about earthquakes and earthquake interactions. Earthquake interactions are influential to understanding the underlying physics of earthquakes and other seismic phenomena such as tremors in addition to their source characteristics (e.g. frequency contents, amplitudes). Earthquake interactions can include, for example, a large, shallow earthquake followed by increased seismicity around the mainshock rupture (i.e. aftershocks) or even a large earthquake triggering earthquakes or tremors several hundreds to thousands of kilometers away [Hill and Prejean, 2007; Peng and Gomberg, 2010]. We use standard tools like MATLAB, QuickTime Pro, and Python to produce animations that illustrate earthquake interactions. Our efforts are focused on producing animations that depict cross-section (side) views of tremors triggered along the San Andreas Fault by distant earthquakes, as well as map (bird's eye) views of mainshock-aftershock sequences such as the 2011/08/23 Mw5.8 Virginia earthquake sequence. These examples of earthquake interactions include sonifying earthquake and tremor catalogs as musical notes (e.g. piano keys) as well as audifying seismic data using time-compression. Our overall goal is to use auditory display to invigorate a general interest in earthquake seismology that leads to the understanding of how earthquakes occur, how earthquakes influence one another as well as tremors, and what the musical properties of these

  14. Subduction megathrust segmentation correlated with earthquake swarm locations appears to be caused by increased stress heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkamp, S.; Brudzinski, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    For each Mw≥8.5 earthquake with a publicly available finite fault rupture model, we find slip is closely bounded along-strike by earthquake swarms, either prior or subsequent. These earthquake swarms tend to have much larger spatial extents than their cumulative moment would suggest, arguing against a static stress triggering mechanism. In Japan, Chile, Sumatra, and Alaska, earthquake swarms correlate with regions of the plate interface that exhibit low interseismic strain accumulation. This low fault coupling could be a result of aseismic slip during swarms or stress heterogeneity that leads to both swarm occurrence and great earthquake termination. Geodetic studies of earthquake swarms are limited but show several cases with no evidence for aseismic slip during swarms. Moreover, the 1964 Alaska and 2010 Maule earthquakes ruptured through regions with lower coupling than where they terminated, arguing that a factor other than small pre-stress controls where large earthquakes terminate. Large variations in coupling over small spatial scales could produce a fragmented set of small asperities conducive for generating a swarm of smaller earthquakes (Figure). Great earthquakes would be unlikely to rupture through that region as homogeneity of fault zone properties seems to be conducive for generating the largest megathrust earthquakes. Earthquake swarms are one of the better proxies for along-strike segmentation of subduction megathrusts, thereby potentially providing an new method for finding margins with the potential for devastating Mw~9 scale earthquakes. Figure: Cartoon illustrating our preferred hypothesis that increased stress heterogeneity causes earthquake swarm activity and stops large earthquake rupture propagation. Stress on the fault is in grayscale with black being high fault pre-stress. In this model, the heterogeneous stress distribution fosters swarm activity by limiting the size to which an earthquake can grow (leading to a high b

  15. The coseismic slip distribution of a shallow subduction fault constrained by prior information: the example of 2011 Tohoku (Mw 9.0) megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Cambiotti, G.; Sun, W.; Sabadini, R.

    2014-11-01

    In the literature, the inverted coseismic slip models from seismological and geodetic data for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake portray significant discrepancies, in particular regarding the intensity and the distribution of the rupture near the trench. For a megathrust earthquake, it is difficult to discern the slip along the shallow part of the fault from the geodetic data, which are often acquired on land. In this paper, we discuss the uncertainties in the slip distribution inversion using the geodetic data for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the Fully Bayesian Inversion method. These uncertainties are due to the prior information regarding the boundary conditions at the edges of the fault, the dip subduction angle and the smoothing operator. Using continuous GPS data from the Japan Island, the results for the rigid and free boundary conditions show that they produce remarkably different slip distributions at shallow depths, with the latter producing a large slip exceeding 30 m near the surface. These results indicate that the smoothing operator (gradient or Laplacian schemes) does not severely affect the slip pattern. To better invert the coseismic slip, we then introduce the ocean bottom GPS (OB-GPS) data, which improve the resolution of the shallow part of the fault. We obtain a near-trench slip greater than 40 m that reaches the Earth's surface, regardless of which boundary condition is used. Additionally, we show that using a mean dip angle for the fault as derived from subduction models is adequate if the goal is to invert for the general features of the slip pattern of this megathrust event.

  16. Recent research on the physical aspects of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, A. E.

    1985-11-01

    Recent developments in the field of physical aspects of earthquakes, which encompasses in present-day terminology the analysis of focal dynamics and of catastrophic effects of earthquakes, are reviewed. In particular individual sections of this review deal with the earthquake source, effects of earthquakes on the ground, the geographic and temporal distribution of earthquakes, the characterization of seismic risk, earthquake prediction and with the artificial release of earthquakes. In this instance, the review supplements earlier information by the author (1975) by new data published mainly between 1975 and 1984.

  17. 25 CFR 124.2 - Who should an agency or the State of Alaska contact for information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Interior, Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians. For further information including depositing instructions, contact: Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians, Attention: Division of Trust Funds... ACTIVITIES DEPOSITS OF PROCEEDS FROM LANDS WITHDRAWN FOR NATIVE SELECTION § 124.2 Who should an agency or...

  18. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  19. Recent sedimentation, northeastern Port Valdez, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Harold D.

    1981-09-01

    Sediments accumulating on the northeastern shore of Port Valdez, a fjord leading to Prince William Sound in southern Alaska, are derived from both deltaic and alluvial fan processes. The resulting thick wedge of Recent silts, sands, shells and gravels lies atop irregular ridges of local graywacke bedrock and scattered till deposits. Seismic reflection profiling augmented by soil borings indicates that rapid infilling and upbuilding has occurred at this site. Evidence of slumping suggests general instability of steep submarine slopes in an area characterized by strong earthquakes and large tidal ranges.

  20. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A.; Brown, J.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic. The Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.baidims.org) is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 9,600 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, and save or print maps and query results. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. BAID has been used to: Optimize research site choice; Reduce duplication of science effort; Discover complementary and potentially detrimental research activities in an area of scientific interest; Re-establish historical research sites for resampling efforts assessing change in ecosystem structure and function over time; Exchange knowledge across disciplines and generations; Facilitate communication between western science and traditional ecological knowledge; Provide local residents access to science data that facilitates adaptation to arctic change; (and) Educate the next generation of environmental and computer scientists. This poster describes key activities that will be undertaken over the next three years to provide BAID users with novel software tools to interact with a current and diverse selection of information and data about the Barrow area. Key activities include: 1. Collecting data on research

  1. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - An Interactive Web Mapping Portal and Cyberinfrastructure Showcasing Scientific Activities in the Vicinity of Barrow, Arctic Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escarzaga, S. M.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Mazza Ramsay, F. D.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tarin, G.; Laney, C. M.; Villarreal, S.; Aiken, Q.; Collins, J. A.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 12,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Additionally, data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards. Recent advances include the addition of more than 2000 new research sites, the addition of a query builder user interface allowing rich and complex queries, and provision of differential global position system (dGPS) and high-resolution aerial imagery support to visiting scientists. Recent field surveys include over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion and the collection of high-resolution sonar data for bathymetric mapping of Elson Lagoon and near shore region of the Chukchi Sea. A network of five climate stations has been deployed across the peninsula to serve as a wireless net for the research community and to deliver near real time climatic data to the user community. Local GIS personal have also been trained to better make use of scientific data for local decision making. Links to Barrow area datasets are housed at national data archives and substantial upgrades have

  2. A note on evaluating VAN earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselentis, G.-Akis; Melis, Nicos S.

    The evaluation of the success level of an earthquake prediction method should not be based on approaches that apply generalized strict statistical laws and avoid the specific nature of the earthquake phenomenon. Fault rupture processes cannot be compared to gambling processes. The outcome of the present note is that even an ideal earthquake prediction method is still shown to be a matter of a “chancy” association between precursors and earthquakes if we apply the same procedure proposed by Mulargia and Gasperini [1992] in evaluating VAN earthquake predictions. Each individual VAN prediction has to be evaluated separately, taking always into account the specific circumstances and information available. The success level of epicenter prediction should depend on the earthquake magnitude, and magnitude and time predictions may depend on earthquake clustering and the tectonic regime respectively.

  3. A Summary of Changes in the Status of Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage. Inst. of Social and Economic Research.

    Replication of 78 tables from the 1973 2(c) Report by the Secretary of the Interior using 1980 census information provided data to document the social and economic changes in the status of Alaska Natives since the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Comparison of 1970 and 1980 data showed an average 2.4% growth rate in the Native…

  4. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 12, 2013, NMFS published an ANPR in the Federal Register (78 FR 15669) to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal...

  5. Expanding Job Opportunities for Alaska Natives. (Interim Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Goldsmith, Scott; Killorin, Mary; Sharp, Suzanne; Hild, Carl

    A majority of adults in most Alaska Native villages were without jobs in 1990, and the situation was probably not substantially better in 1998. This report summarizes current Alaska Native employment data and employment trends, provides information on public and private programs that target Native hire, and describes promising approaches for…

  6. Alaska Education Directory, School Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This 1999-2000 directory provides information on Alaska's public schools, school districts, education organizations, and institutions of higher education. A statistical summary indicates that in 1998-99, Alaska enrolled 132,905 students in 503 public schools. Breakdowns by grade configuration and enrollment show that about half the schools served…

  7. Information on the Earth's Deep Interior Conveyed by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Using Superconducting Gravimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosat, S.; Watada, S.; Sato, T.; Tamura, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The recent Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of magnitude Mw > 9 on 2004 December 26th has strongly excited the low-frequency seismic modes and, in particular, the degree one 2S1 mode is observed for the first time without any stacking. This mode corresponds to the first overtone of the sub-seismic mode 1S1, the so-called Slichter triplet (Slichter, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 1961). On the one hand, theoretical computations suggest that the Slichter modes could not have been excited with sufficient amplitude to be detected by superconducting gravimeters (SGs) on the Earth's surface. The maximum surface gravity effect of 1S1 after Sumatra event is 0.3 nGal, that is to say 0.3 10-12 g, where g is the mean absolute gravity value on the Earth's surface, corresponding to a free air displacement of 10-3 mm (1 nm). On the other hand, the core-sensitive mode 3S2 and the fundamental radial mode 0S0 were strongly excited, meaning that the earthquake radiated much energy toward the core. 0S0 is a radial fundamental spheroidal mode called "breathing mode" of the Earth and corresponds to changes in the Earth's circumference. The high stability of SG records has enabled us to follow the time decay of 0S0 amplitude till the second Sumatra event on March 28th 2005 and to estimate 0S0 quality factor at a value of 5513 +- 8 from the weighted mean of 12 SG record estimates. Amplitude measurements of 0S0 at most SG sites in the world reveal a latitude dependency that we try to explain by theory. The amplitude deviation of 0S0 reaches +- 2% while the calibration errors of SGs are usually less than 0.2%.

  8. Fact Book 1992: University of Alaska Fairbanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Thomas; And Others

    This publication presents information on the University of Alaska Fairbanks in seven sections. The first section, "Historical and General Information" details the legal establishment, mission, historical highlights, map, organizational structure, accreditation, Board of Regents, Standing Committees and advisory groups, songs, presidents and…

  9. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Detterman, R.L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides background information for the folio of maps that covers the geology, paleontology, geochronology, geochemistry, aeromagnetics, and mineral and energy resources of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western Karluk quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula. Information on two U.S. Geological Survey miscellaneous investigations series maps and three derivative bulletins that resulted from this investigation are described also.

  10. America's faulty earthquake plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J

    1989-10-01

    In this article, the author discusses the liklihood of major earthquakes in both the western and eastern United States as well as the level of preparedness of each region of the U.S. for a major earthquake. Current technology in both earthquake-resistance design and earthquake detection is described. Governmental programs for earthquake hazard reduction are outlined and critiqued.

  11. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    loss from the pipeline, from tankers, or in the oil field. Oil losses from the pipeline could be caused by direct or indirect effects of earthquakes, destructive sea waves, slope failure caused by natural or artificial processes, thaw-plug instability (in permafrost), differential settlement of permafrost terrain, and bed scour and bank erosion at stream crossings. Oil loss from tankers could be caused by accidents during transfer operations at Valdez and at destination ports and by casualties involving tankers and other ships. Comparison of alternative routes and transportation systems and of their environmental impacts provided information which indicates to the author that one corridor containing both oil and gas pipelines would have less environmental impact than would separate corridors. Considering also the threat to the marine environment that any tanker system would impose and the threat that zones of high earthquake frequency and magnitude would impose on pipelines, it is apparent to the author that environmental impact and cost would be least for a single-corridor on-land route that avoided earthquake zones. The alternative trans-Alaska-Canada routes would meet these criteria. The decisions of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the U.S. Congress, and the President of the United States in favor of the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline system indicate the relative weight given by the decision makers in balancing the importance of potential environmental consequences against the advantages to be derived from rapid resource development.

  12. Multi-interferogram method for measuring interseismic deformation: Denali Fault, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggs, Juliet; Wright, Tim; Lu, Zhong; Parsons, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Studies of interseismic strain accumulation are crucial to our understanding of continental deformation, the earthquake cycle and seismic hazard. By mapping small amounts of ground deformation over large spatial areas, InSAR has the potential to produce continental-scale maps of strain accumulation on active faults. However, most InSAR studies to date have focused on areas where the coherence is relatively good (e.g. California, Tibet and Turkey) and most analysis techniques (stacking, small baseline subset algorithm, permanent scatterers, etc.) only include information from pixels which are coherent throughout the time-span of the study. In some areas, such as Alaska, where the deformation rate is small and coherence very variable, it is necessary to include information from pixels which are coherent in some but not all interferograms. We use a three-stage iterative algorithm based on distributed scatterer interferometry. We validate our method using synthetic data created using realistic parameters from a test site on the Denali Fault, Alaska, and present a preliminary result of 10.5 ?? 5.0 mm yr-1 for the slip rate on the Denali Fault based on a single track of radar data from ERS1/2. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  13. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

  14. Satellite Interconnection and Distance Delivery in Alaska: Toward the 21st Century. Summary and Recommendations of the Satellite Interconnection Project under the Direction of the Telecommunications Information Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Public Broadcasting Commission, Juneau.

    The Satellite Interconnection Project was created for the purpose of investigating the interest and need for improved interconnection, faster and of greater capacity than the capability of present systems, especially among Alaska state-supported users of video and audio transmissions. The intent was to explore the cost-benefit and the potential…

  15. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Smartphone applications have swiftly become one of the most popular tools for rapid reception of earthquake information for the public, some of them having been downloaded more than 1 million times! The advantages are obvious: wherever someone's own location is, they can be automatically informed when an earthquake has struck. Just by setting a magnitude threshold and an area of interest, there is no longer the need to browse the internet as the information reaches you automatically and instantaneously! One question remains: are the provided earthquake notifications always relevant for the public? What are the earthquakes that really matters to laypeople? One clue may be derived from some newspaper reports that show that a while after damaging earthquakes many eyewitnesses scrap the application they installed just after the mainshock. Why? Because either the magnitude threshold is set too high and many felt earthquakes are missed, or it is set too low and the majority of the notifications are related to unfelt earthquakes thereby only increasing anxiety among the population at each new update. Felt and damaging earthquakes are the ones that matter the most for the public (and authorities). They are the ones of societal importance even when of small magnitude. A smartphone application developed by EMSC (Euro-Med Seismological Centre) with the financial support of the Fondation MAIF aims at providing suitable notifications for earthquakes by collating different information threads covering tsunamigenic, potentially damaging and felt earthquakes. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are considered here to be those ones that are the subject of alert or information messages from the PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre). While potentially damaging earthquakes are identified through an automated system called EQIA (Earthquake Qualitative Impact Assessment) developed and operated at EMSC. This rapidly assesses earthquake impact by comparing the population exposed to each expected

  16. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  17. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  18. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  19. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  20. The next new Madrid earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Scientists who specialize in the study of Mississippi Valley earthquakes say that the region is overdue for a powerful tremor that will cause major damage and undoubtedly some casualties. The inevitability of a future quake and the lack of preparation by both individuals and communities provided the impetus for this book. It brings together applicable information from many disciplines: history, geology and seismology, engineering, zoology, politics and community planning, economics, environmental science, sociology, and psychology and mental health to provide a perspective of the myriad impacts of a major earthquake on the Mississippi Valley. The author addresses such basic questions as What, actually, are earthquakes How do they occur Can they be predicted, perhaps even prevented He also addresses those steps that individuals can take to improve their chances for survival both during and after an earthquake.

  1. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  2. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  3. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  4. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility`s tolerance.

  5. Earthquake Alert System feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.

    1991-12-01

    An Earthquake Alert System (EAS) could give several seconds to several tens of seconds warning before the strong motion from a large earthquake arrives. Such a system would include a large network of sensors distributed within an earthquake-prone region. The sensors closest to the epicenter of a particular earthquake would transmit data at the speed of light to a central processing center, which would broadcast an area-wide alarm in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy from the earthquake. This is possible because seismic energy travels slowly (3--6 km/s) compared to the speed of light. Utilities, public and private institutions, businesses, and the general public would benefit from an EAS. Although many earthquake protection systems exist that automatically shut down power, gas mains, etc. when ground motion at a facility reaches damaging levels, not EAS -- that is, a system that can provide warning in advance of elastic wave energy arriving at a facility -- has ever been developed in the United States. A recent study by the National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 1991) concludes that an EAS is technically feasible and strongly recommends installing a prototype system that makes use of existing microseismic stations as much as possible. The EAS concept discussed here consists of a distributed network of remote seismic stations that measure weak and strong earth motion and transmit the data in real time to central facility. This facility processes the data and issues warning broadcasts in the form of information packets containing estimates of earthquake location, zero time (the time the earthquake began), magnitude, and reliability of the predictions. User of the warning broadcasts have a dedicated receiver that monitors the warning broadcast frequency. The user also has preprogrammed responses that are automatically executed when the warning information packets contain location and magnitude estimates above a facility's tolerance.

  6. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  7. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  8. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

  9. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  10. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide. PMID:22410538

  11. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  12. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  13. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  14. Putting down roots in earthquake country-Your handbook for earthquakes in the Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Contributors: Dart, Richard; McCarthy, Jill; McCallister, Natasha; Williams, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This handbook provides information to residents of the Central United States about the threat of earthquakes in that area, particularly along the New Madrid seismic zone, and explains how to prepare for, survive, and recover from such events. It explains the need for concern about earthquakes for those residents and describes what one can expect during and after an earthquake. Much is known about the threat of earthquakes in the Central United States, including where they are likely to occur and what can be done to reduce losses from future earthquakes, but not enough has been done to prepare for future earthquakes. The handbook describes such preparations that can be taken by individual residents before an earthquake to be safe and protect property.

  15. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  16. Earthquake triggering at alaskan volcanoes following the 3 November 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; Sanchez, J.J.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake provided an excellent opportunity to investigate triggered earthquakes at Alaskan volcanoes. The Alaska Volcano Observatory operates short-period seismic networks on 24 historically active volcanoes in Alaska, 247-2159 km distant from the mainshock epicenter. We searched for evidence of triggered seismicity by examining the unfiltered waveforms for all stations in each volcano network for ???1 hr after the Mw 7.9 arrival time at each network and for significant increases in located earthquakes in the hours after the mainshock. We found compelling evidence for triggering only at the Katmai volcanic cluster (KVC, 720-755 km southwest of the epicenter), where small earthquakes with distinct P and 5 arrivals appeared within the mainshock coda at one station and a small increase in located earthquakes occurred for several hours after the mainshock. Peak dynamic stresses of ???0.1 MPa at Augustine Volcano (560 km southwest of the epicenter) are significantly lower than those recorded in Yellowstone and Utah (>3000 km southeast of the epicenter), suggesting that strong directivity effects were at least partly responsible for the lack of triggering at Alaskan volcanoes. We describe other incidents of earthquake-induced triggering in the KVC, and outline a qualitative magnitude/distance-dependent triggering threshold. We argue that triggering results from the perturbation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the KVC and suggest that the comparative lack of triggering at other Alaskan volcanoes could be a result of differences in the nature of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  17. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  18. Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain

    SciTech Connect

    Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. |

    1993-12-01

    The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

  19. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  20. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  1. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  2. 75 FR 7515 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Mineral Exploration on the Alaska Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the... proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Minerals...

  3. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  4. 78 FR 55772 - Alaska Disaster Number AK-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster Number AK-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... information in the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  5. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  6. 75 FR 50749 - Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction Meeting... meeting. SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction (ACEHR or Committee), will meet....m. The primary purpose of this meeting is to receive information on NEHRP earthquake...

  7. 77 FR 53225 - National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Geological Survey National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC) AGENCY: Department of the... National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC) will hold a 1\\1/2\\ day meeting on September 17 and 18, 2012, at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC),...

  8. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  9. ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

  10. Quilts of Alaska--Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Museum, Juneau.

    This student activities booklet, "Quilts of Alaska," contains historical and educational information on quilts. It is colorfully illustrated with examples of different types of quilts. The booklet describes album or signature quilts, which from 1840 to the 1890s, were a U.S. fad, such as were autograph albums. As the name suggests, these quilts…

  11. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  12. Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Anchorage.

    The goal of this first comprehensive report on adolescent health in Alaska is to stimulate interest, activity, and support for improved health among teenagers (ages 10-19). This plan was developed as a tool for use by governments, organizations, and communities. The plan seeks to provide information on the scope and nature of adolescent health…

  13. The State of Adolescent Health in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Office of the Commissioner, Juneau.

    A survey was conducted to provide a profile of the health status and risk behaviors of youth in Alaska. The goal was to develop a statewide database which, when coupled with morbidity and mortality data, would provide information that would allow those who plan and develop services at state and local levels to better target those services. During…

  14. Indians, Eskimos and Aleuts of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Eskimo, Aleut, Athapascan, Tlingit, and Haida Indian groups of Alaska are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, health, employment, and economic opportunities available to the natives today. A list is included of activities and points of interest in…

  15. Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  16. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  17. Earthquake occurrence and effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, R D

    1990-01-01

    Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

  18. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  19. Assessing the earthquake hazards in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.; Gori, P.L.; Kockelman, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Major urban areas in widely scattered geographic locations across the United States are a t varying degrees of risk from earthquakes. the locations of these urban areas include Charleston, South Carolina; Memphis Tennessee; St.Louis, Missouri; Salt Lake City, Utah; Seattle-Tacoma, Washington; Portland, Oregon; and Anchorage, Alaska; even Boston, Massachusetts, and Buffalo New York, have a history of large earthquakes. Cooperative research during the past decade has focused on assessing the nature and degree of the risk or seismic hazard i nthe broad geographic regions around each urban area. The strategy since the 1970's has been to bring together local, State, and Federal resources to solve the problem of assessing seismic risk. Successfl sooperative programs have been launched in the San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles regions in California and the Wasatch Front region in Utah. 

  20. Afterslip, tremor, and the Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie; Ruppert, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that afterslip should be accompanied by tremor using observations of seismic and aseismic deformation surrounding the 2002 M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake (DFE). Afterslip happens more frequently than spontaneous slow slip and has been observed in a wider range of tectonic environments, and thus the existence or absence of tremor accompanying afterslip may provide new clues about tremor generation. We also searched for precursory tremor, as a proxy for posited accelerating slip leading to rupture. Our search yielded no tremor during the five days prior to the DFE or in several intervals in the three months after. This negative result and an array of other observations all may be explained by rupture penetrating below the presumed locked zone into the frictional transition zone. While not unique, such an explanation corroborates previous models of megathrust and transform earthquake ruptures that extend well into the transition zone.

  1. Large magnitude (M > 7.5) offshore earthquakes in 2012: few examples of absent or little tsunamigenesis, with implications for tsunami early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    We take into account some examples of offshore earthquakes occurred worldwide in year 2012 that were characterised by a "large" magnitude (Mw equal or larger than 7.5) but which produced no or little tsunami effects. Here, "little" is intended as "lower than expected on the basis of the parent earthquake magnitude". The examples we analyse include three earthquakes occurred along the Pacific coasts of Central America (20 March, Mw=7.8, Mexico; 5 September, Mw=7.6, Costa Rica; 7 November, Mw=7.5, Mexico), the Mw=7.6 and Mw=7.7 earthquakes occurred respectively on 31 August and 28 October offshore Philippines and offshore Alaska, and the two Indian Ocean earthquakes registered on a single day (11 April) and characterised by Mw=8.6 and Mw=8.2. For each event, we try to face the problem related to its tsunamigenic potential from two different perspectives. The first can be considered purely scientific and coincides with the question: why was the ensuing tsunami so weak? The answer can be related partly to the particular tectonic setting in the source area, partly to the particular position of the source with respect to the coastline, and finally to the focal mechanism of the earthquake and to the slip distribution on the ruptured fault. The first two pieces of information are available soon after the earthquake occurrence, while the third requires time periods in the order of tens of minutes. The second perspective is more "operational" and coincides with the tsunami early warning perspective, for which the question is: will the earthquake generate a significant tsunami and if so, where will it strike? The Indian Ocean events of 11 April 2012 are perfect examples of the fact that the information on the earthquake magnitude and position alone may not be sufficient to produce reliable tsunami warnings. We emphasise that it is of utmost importance that the focal mechanism determination is obtained in the future much more quickly than it is at present and that this

  2. Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.

  3. Scoring annual earthquake predictions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2012-02-01

    The Annual Consultation Meeting on Earthquake Tendency in China is held by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) in order to provide one-year earthquake predictions over most China. In these predictions, regions of concern are denoted together with the corresponding magnitude range of the largest earthquake expected during the next year. Evaluating the performance of these earthquake predictions is rather difficult, especially for regions that are of no concern, because they are made on arbitrary regions with flexible magnitude ranges. In the present study, the gambling score is used to evaluate the performance of these earthquake predictions. Based on a reference model, this scoring method rewards successful predictions and penalizes failures according to the risk (probability of being failure) that the predictors have taken. Using the Poisson model, which is spatially inhomogeneous and temporally stationary, with the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitudes as the reference model, we evaluate the CEA predictions based on 1) a partial score for evaluating whether issuing the alarmed regions is based on information that differs from the reference model (knowledge of average seismicity level) and 2) a complete score that evaluates whether the overall performance of the prediction is better than the reference model. The predictions made by the Annual Consultation Meetings on Earthquake Tendency from 1990 to 2003 are found to include significant precursory information, but the overall performance is close to that of the reference model.

  4. Earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity 1811-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Bograd, Michael B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes two centuries of earthquake activity in Mississippi. Work on the Mississippi map was done in collaboration with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Arkansas Geological Survey. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Mississippi and parts of adjacent States. Mississippi has undergone a number of felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  5. Terpane biomarkers and carbon isotopes in environmental geochemistry-application of a case study from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostetter, D.E.; Castle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical studies in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill have provided information that is being used to interpret preliminary environmental geochemical observations made in coastal California. Although the shorelines of Prince William Sound still retain traces of the 1989 oil spill, most of the flattened tar balls that can be found today on these shorelines are not residues of Exxon Valdez oil. Rather, the hydrocarbon-biomarker and carbon-isotopic signatures of these tar balls have remarkably similar characteristics that are consistent with those of oil products that originated from Monterey Formation source rocks of California. Some of these products were spilled into the sound during the 1964 Alaskan earthquake. Selected terpane biomarker ratios and carbon isotope composition of whole oil samples can geochemically distinguish Exxon Valdez residues from the tar balls. Results are discussed.

  6. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  7. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  8. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  9. 76 FR 76177 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... distribute publish information concerning earthquakes. Respondents will have an opportunity to voluntarily supply information concerning the effects of shaking from an earthquake--on themselves, buildings, other... include proprietary information volunteered by respondents. ] II. Data Title: USGS Earthquake Report....

  10. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  11. Probabilistic earthquake location and 3-D velocity models in routine earthquake location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Husen, S.

    2003-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring agencies, such as local networks or CTBTO, are faced with the dilemma of providing routine earthquake locations in near real-time with high precision and meaningful uncertainty information. Traditionally, routine earthquake locations are obtained from linearized inversion using layered seismic velocity models. This approach is fast and simple. However, uncertainties derived from a linear approximation to a set of non-linear equations can be imprecise, unreliable, or even misleading. In addition, 1-D velocity models are a poor approximation to real Earth structure in tectonically complex regions. In this paper, we discuss the routine location of earthquakes in near real-time with high precision using non-linear, probabilistic location methods and 3-D velocity models. The combination of non-linear, global search algorithms with probabilistic earthquake location provides a fast and reliable tool for earthquake location that can be used with any kind of velocity model. The probabilistic solution to the earthquake location includes a complete description of location uncertainties, which may be irregular and multimodal. We present applications of this approach to determine seismicity in Switzerland and in Yellowstone National Park, WY. Comparing our earthquake locations to earthquake locations obtained using linearized inversion and 1-D velocity models clearly demonstrates the advantages of probabilistic earthquake location and 3-D velocity models. For example, the more complete and reliable uncertainty information of non-linear, probabilistic earthquake location greatly facilitates the identification of poorly constrained hypocenters. Such events are often not identified in linearized earthquake location, since the location uncertainties are determined with a simplified, localized and approximate Gaussian statistic.

  12. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  13. Parallelization of the Coupled Earthquake Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Gary; Li, P. Peggy; Song, Yuhe T.

    2007-01-01

    This Web-based tsunami simulation system allows users to remotely run a model on JPL s supercomputers for a given undersea earthquake. At the time of this reporting, predicting tsunamis on the Internet has never happened before. This new code directly couples the earthquake model and the ocean model on parallel computers and improves simulation speed. Seismometers can only detect information from earthquakes; they cannot detect whether or not a tsunami may occur as a result of the earthquake. When earthquake-tsunami models are coupled with the improved computational speed of modern, high-performance computers and constrained by remotely sensed data, they are able to provide early warnings for those coastal regions at risk. The software is capable of testing NASA s satellite observations of tsunamis. It has been successfully tested for several historical tsunamis, has passed all alpha and beta testing, and is well documented for users.

  14. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  15. Mexican Earthquakes and Tsunamis Catalog Reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Castillo-Aja, R.

    2015-12-01

    Today the availability of information on the internet makes online catalogs very easy to access by both scholars and the public in general. The catalog in the "Significant Earthquake Database", managed by the National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI formerly NCDC), NOAA, allows access by deploying tabular and cartographic data related to earthquakes and tsunamis contained in the database. The NCEI catalog is the product of compiling previously existing catalogs, historical sources, newspapers, and scientific articles. Because NCEI catalog has a global coverage the information is not homogeneous. Existence of historical information depends on the presence of people in places where the disaster occurred, and that the permanence of the description is preserved in documents and oral tradition. In the case of instrumental data, their availability depends on the distribution and quality of seismic stations. Therefore, the availability of information for the first half of 20th century can be improved by careful analysis of the available information and by searching and resolving inconsistencies. This study shows the advances we made in upgrading and refining data for the earthquake and tsunami catalog of Mexico since 1500 CE until today, presented in the format of table and map. Data analysis allowed us to identify the following sources of error in the location of the epicenters in existing catalogs: • Incorrect coordinate entry • Place name erroneous or mistaken • Too general data that makes difficult to locate the epicenter, mainly for older earthquakes • Inconsistency of earthquakes and the tsunami occurrence: earthquake's epicenter located too far inland reported as tsunamigenic. The process of completing the catalogs directly depends on the availability of information; as new archives are opened for inspection, there are more opportunities to complete the history of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Mexico. Here, we also present new earthquake and

  16. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  17. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  18. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  19. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  20. 1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

  1. Evaluation of feasibility of mapping seismically active faults in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (Principal Investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery is proving to be exceptionally useful in delineating structural features in Alaska which have never been recognized on the ground. Previously unmapped features such as seismically active faults and major structural lineaments are especially evident. Among the more significant results of this investigation is the discovery of an active strand of the Denali fault. The new fault has a history of scattered activity and was the scene of a magnitude 4.8 earthquake on October 1, 1972. Of greater significance is the disclosure of a large scale conjugate fracture system north of the Alaska Range. This fracture system appears to result from compressive stress radiating outward from around Mt. McKinley. One member of the system was the scene of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake in 1968. The potential value of ERTS-1 imagery to land use planning is reflected in the fact that this earthquake occurred within 10 km of the site which was proposed for the Rampart Dam, and the fault on which it occurred passes very near the proposed site for the bridge and oil pipeline crossing of the Yukon River.

  2. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  3. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  4. A Simplified Approach to Earthquake Risk in Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Fu; Mi, Hongliang; Huang, Jing

    2005-06-01

    There are limitations in conventional earthquake loss procedures if attempts are made to apply these to assess the social and economic impacts of recent disastrous earthquakes. This paper addresses the need to develop an applicable model for estimating the significant increases of earthquake loss in mainland China. The casualties of earthquakes were studied first. The casualties of earthquakes are strongly related to earthquake strength, occurrence time (day or night) and the distribution of population in the affected area. Using data on earthquake casualties in mainland China from 1980 to 2000, we suggest a relationship between average losses of life and the magnitude of earthquakes. Combined with information on population density and earthquake occurrence times, we use these data to give a further relationship between the loss of life and factors like population density, intensity and occurrence time of the earthquake. Earthquakes that occurred from 2001 to 2003 were tested for the given relationships. This paper also explores the possibility of using a macroeconomic indicator, here GDP (Gross Domestic Product), to roughly estimate earthquake exposure in situations where no detailed insurance or similar inventories exist, thus bypassing some problems of the conventional method.

  5. Integrated resource inventory for southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, T.; Carson-Henry, C.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Integrated Resource Inventory for Southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA) Project comprised an integrated set of activities related to the land use planning and resource management requirements of the participating agencies within the southcentral region of Alaska. One subproject involved generating a region-wide land cover inventory of use to all participating agencies. Toward this end, participants first obtained a broad overview of the entire region and identified reasonable expectations of a LANDSAT-based land cover inventory through evaluation of an earlier classification generated during the Alaska Water Level B Study. Classification of more recent LANDSAT data was then undertaken by INTRISCA participants. The latter classification produced a land cover data set that was more specifically related to individual agency needs, concurrently providing a comprehensive training experience for Alaska agency personnel. Other subprojects employed multi-level analysis techniques ranging from refinement of the region-wide classification and photointerpretation, to digital edge enhancement and integration of land cover data into a geographic information system (GIS).

  6. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  7. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  8. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  9. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2011-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  10. Review of the University of Alaska FY 1986 Operating and Capital Budgets. Submitted to the Governor and the Fourteenth Alaska State Legislature. Document No. 85-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    A review of the University of Alaska's operating and capital budget submission for fiscal year 1986 is presented, directed at the educational and programmatic impact of the budget request. Five recommendations endorsed by the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education are analyzed. Additional contents include: summary information for the…

  11. 76 FR 46889 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Alex Viteri, Senior Transportation Engineer, FHWA Alaska Division, P.O. Box 21648, Juneau, Alaska 99802- 1648; office hours 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (AST), phone (907) 586-7544; e- mail Alex..., Juneau, Alaska 99811-2506; office hours 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. (AST), phone (907) 465-4499, e-mail...

  12. The eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, December 14,1989-August 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, S.R.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on explosive volcanic activity at Redoubt Volcano, 177 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, which generated numerous tephra plumes that disrupted air traffic above southern Alaska, damaged aircraft, and caused locally heavy tephra fall. Pyroclastic flows triggered debris flows that inundated part of an oil-tanker facility, temporarily suspending oil production in Cook Inlet. The newly established Alaska Volcano Observatory increased its monitoring effort and disseminated volcanic hazard information to government agencies, industry, and the public.

  13. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  14. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  15. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  16. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  17. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  18. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  19. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  20. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-02-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release.

  1. Smartphone MEMS accelerometers and earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The low cost MEMS accelerometers in the smartphones are attracting more and more attentions from the science community due to the vast number and potential applications in various areas. We are using the accelerometers inside the smartphones to detect the earthquakes. We did shake table tests to show these accelerometers are also suitable to record large shakings caused by earthquakes. We developed an android app - MyShake, which can even distinguish earthquake movements from daily human activities from the recordings recorded by the accelerometers in personal smartphones and upload trigger information/waveform to our server for further analysis. The data from these smartphones forms a unique datasets for seismological applications, such as earthquake early warning. In this talk I will layout the method we used to recognize earthquake-like movement from single smartphone, and the overview of the whole system that harness the information from a network of smartphones for rapid earthquake detection. This type of system can be easily deployed and scaled up around the global and provides additional insights of the earthquake hazards.

  2. A summary of ERTS data applications in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Belon, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS has proven to be an exceedingly useful tool for the preparation of urgently needed resource surveys in Alaska. For this reason the wide utilization of ERTS data by federal, state and industrial agencies in Alaska is increasingly directed toward the solution of operational problems in resource inventories, environmental surveys, and land use planning. Examples of some applications are discussed in connection with surveys of potential agricultural lands; mapping of predicted archaeological sites; permafrost terrain and aufeis mapping; snow melt enhancement from Prudhoe Bay roads; geologic interpretations correlated ith possible new petroleum fields, with earthquake activity, and with plate tectonic motion along the Denali fault system; hydrology in monitoring surging glaciers and the break-up characteristics of the Chena River watershed; sea-ice morphology correlated with marine mammal distribution; and coastal sediment plume circulation patterns.

  3. Subducting Seamounts and the Rupturing Process of Great Subduction Zone Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.

    2009-05-01

    It was suggested in the 1970's that subducting ocean floor features may delimit the along-strike rupture lengths of large subduction zone earthquakes. With the dramatic improvement in data quality, both for seismic and ocean floor bathmetry data, we can now see how the actual rupturing process of great earthquakes is also influenced by such subducting features. Here we present three great (Mw > 8) subduction zone earthquakes, in very different parts of the world, for which a relation between the ocean floor and the earthquake source process is seen. These include the 1986 Andreanof Islands, Alaska and the 1996 Biak, Indonesia earthquakes, in which the regions of large slip concentrate in patches, reminiscent of the "asperity model" of earthquakes, and appear to be related to subducted seamounts. For the 2001 Peru earthquake, a subducting fracture zone, with its associated bathymetric peak and trough, seems to have been the cause of the rupture being stalled for ~30s, before producing an earthquake of Mw 8.4, the third largest earthquake worldwide since 1965. Similarities and differences in the earthquake rupturing properties for these two different types of subducting features will be discussed. An outstanding question is what controls whether a seamount obducts or subducts.

  4. Evidence for dike emplacement beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska in 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Cashman, K.V.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two earthquake swarms, comprising 88 and 2833 locatable events, occurred beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May and August of 1996. Swarm earthquakes ranged in magnitude from -0.9 to 3.3. Increases in SO2 and CO2 emissions detected during the fall of 1996 were coincident with the second swarm. No other physical changes were observed in or around the volcano during this time period. No eruption occurred, and seismicity and measured gas emissions have remained at background levels since mid-1997. Earthquake hypocenters recorded during the swarms form a cluster in a previously aseismic volume of crust located to the south of Iliamna's summit at a depth of -1 to 4 km below sea level. This cluster is elongated to the NNW-SSE, parallel to the trend of the summit and southern vents at Iliamna and to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress determined through inversion of fault-plane solutions for regional earthquakes. Fault-plane solutions calculated for 24 swarm earthquakes located at the top of the new cluster suggest a heterogeneous stress field acting during the second swarm, characterized by normal faulting and strike-slip faulting with p-axes parallel to the axis of regional maximum compressive stress. The increase in earthquake rates, the appearance of a new seismic volume, and the elevated gas emissions at Iliamna Volcano indicate that new magma intruded beneath the volcano in 1996. The elongation of the 1996-1997 earthquake cluster parallel to the direction of regional maximum compressive stress and the accelerated occurrence of both normal and strike-slip faulting in a small volume of crust at the top of the new seismic volume may be explained by the emplacement and inflation of a subvertical planar dike beneath the summit of Iliamna and its southern satellite vents. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  6. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  7. Identification, definition and mapping of terrestrial ecosystems in interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A transect of the Tanana River Flats to Murphy Dome, Alaska was accomplished. The transect includes an experimental forest and information on the range of vegetation-land form types. Multispectral black and white prints of the Eagle Summit Research Area, Alaska, were studied in conjunction with aerial photography and field notes to determine the characteristics of the vegetation. Black and white MSS prints were compared with aerial photographs of the village of Wiseman, Alaska. No positive identifications could be made without reference to aerial photographs or ground truth data. Color coded density slice scenes of the Eagle Summit Research Area were produced from black and white NASA aerial photographs. Infestations of the spruce beetle in the Cook Inlet, Alaska, were studied using aerial photographs.

  8. Multi-segment earthquakes and tsunami potential of the Aleutian megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shennan, I.; Bruhn, R.; Plafker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Large to great earthquakes and related tsunamis generated on the Aleutian megathrust produce major hazards for both the area of rupture and heavily populated coastlines around much of the Pacific Ocean. Here we use paleoseismic records preserved in coastal sediments to investigate whether segment boundaries control the largest ruptures or whether in some seismic cycles segments combine to produce earthquakes greater than any observed since instrumented records began. Virtually the entire megathrust has ruptured since AD1900, with four different segments generating earthquakes >M8.0. The largest was the M9.2 great Alaska earthquake of March 1964 that ruptured ???800 km of the eastern segment of the megathrust. The tsunami generated caused fatalities in Alaska and along the coast as far south as California. East of the 1964 zone of deformation, the Yakutat microplate experienced two >M8.0 earthquakes, separated by a week, in September 1899. For the first time, we present evidence that earthquakes ???900 and ???1500 years ago simultaneously ruptured adjacent segments of the Aleutian megathrust and the Yakutat microplate, with a combined area ???15% greater than 1964, giving an earthquake of greater magnitude and increased tsunamigenic potential. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensor emplacement testing at Poker Flat, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, A.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. E.; Azevedo, S.; Carothers, L.; Love, M.; Miller, P. E.; Parker, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Slad, G.; Thomas, D.; Aderhold, K.

    2013-12-01

    PASSCAL provides equipment and support for temporary seismic projects. Speed and efficiency of deployments are essential. A revised emplacement technique of putting broadband sensors directly into soil (aka direct burial) is being tested. The first phase (fall 2011 to spring 2013) comparing data quality and sensor stability between the direct burial and the traditional 1 m deep temporary PASSCAL-style vault in a wet and noisy site near San Antonio, NM is complete. Results suggest there is little or no difference in sensor performance in the relatively high-noise environment of this initial test. The second phase was started in November 2012 with the goal of making the same comparison, but at Poker Flat, Alaska, in a low-noise, high-signal, cold and wet environment, alongside a Transportable Array (TA) deployment to be used as a performance control. This location is in an accessible and secure area with very low site noise. In addition to benefiting future worldwide PASSCAL deployments, the Poker Flat experiment serves a secondary purpose of testing modifications necessary to successfully deploy and recover broadband stations in a cold environment with the limited logistics anticipated for remote Flexible Array (FA) and PASSCAL Program deployments in Alaska. Developing emplacement techniques that maintain high data quality and data return while minimizing logistics is critical to enable principle investigators to effectively and efficiently co-locate within the future TA Alaska footprint. Three Nanometrics sensors were installed in November 2012 in power-augered holes 76 cm in depth: a Trillium Compact Posthole (PH) and two Trillium 120PH units (one standard PH and one enhanced PHQ). The installations took less than 8 hours in -30°C conditions with 4 hours of usable daylight. The Compact PH and the 120PHQ are delivering data in realtime, while the 120PH is testing standalone power and data collection systems. Preliminary results compare favorably to each other as

  10. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  11. Engaging Elements of Cancer-Related Digital Stories in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The tradition of storytelling is an integral part of Alaska Native cultures that continues to be a way of passing on knowledge. Using a story-based approach to share cancer education is grounded in Alaska Native traditions and people's experiences and has the potential to positively impact cancer knowledge, understandings, and wellness choices. Community health workers (CHWs) in Alaska created a personal digital story as part of a 5-day, in-person cancer education course. To identify engaging elements of digital stories among Alaska Native people, one focus group was held in each of three different Alaska communities with a total of 29 adult participants. After viewing CHWs' digital stories created during CHW cancer education courses, focus group participants commented verbally and in writing about cultural relevance, engaging elements, information learned, and intent to change health behavior. Digital stories were described by Alaska focus group participants as being culturally respectful, informational, inspiring, and motivational. Viewers shared that they liked digital stories because they were short (only 2-3 min); nondirective and not preachy; emotional, told as a personal story and not just facts and figures; and relevant, using photos that showed Alaskan places and people. PMID:25865400

  12. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  13. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  14. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales

    PubMed Central

    IDE, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes. PMID:25311138

  15. Reindeer ranges inventory in western Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data as a tool for reindeer range inventory on the tundra of northwestern Alaska is addressed. The specific goal is to map the range resource and estimate plant productivity of the Seward Peninsula. Information derived from these surveys is needed to develop range management plans for reindeer herding and to evaluate potential conflicting use between reindeer and caribou. The development of computer image classification techniques is discussed.

  16. "Breaking Ground" in the Use of Social Media: A Case Study of a University Earthquake Response to Inform Educational Design with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabner, Nicki

    2012-01-01

    On September 4 2010, a massive 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region in the South Island of New Zealand. The response from the University of Canterbury was immediate and carefully co-ordinated, with the university's web-based environment and a responsive site developed on the social media platform "Facebook" becoming prominent…

  17. Earthquake Protection Measures for People with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gountromichou, C.; Kourou, A.; Kerpelis, P.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of seismic safety for people with disabilities not only exists but is also urgent and of primary importance. Working towards disability equality, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization of Greece (E.P.P.O.) has developed an educational scheme for people with disabilities in order to guide them to develop skills to protect themselves as well as to take the appropriate safety measures before, during and after an earthquake. The framework of this initiative includes a number of actions have been already undertaken, including the following: a. Recently, the main guidelines have been published to help people who have physical, cognitive, visual, or auditory disabilities to cope with a destructive earthquake. Of great importance, in case of people with disabilities, is to be prepared for the disaster, with several measures that must be taken starting today. In the pre-earthquake period, it is important that these people, in addition to other measures, do the following: - Create a Personal Support Network The Personal Support Network should be a group of at least three trustful people that can assist the disabled person to prepare for a disastrous event and to recover after it. - Complete a Personal Assessment The environment may change after a destructive earthquake. People with disabilities are encouraged to make a list of their personal needs and their resources for meeting them in a disaster environment. b. Lectures and training seminars on earthquake protection are given for students, teachers and educators in Special Schools for disabled people, mainly for informing and familiarizing them with earthquakes and with safety measures. c. Many earthquake drills have already taken place, for each disability, in order to share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction and to identify gaps and challenges. The final aim of this action is all people with disabilities to be well informed and motivated towards a culture of earthquake

  18. Deformation of the 2002 Denali Fault earthquakes, mapped by Radarsat-1 interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Wright, Tim; Wicks, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck central Alaska on 3 November 2002 was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America for more than 150 years. The earthquake ruptured about 340 km of the Denali Fault system with observed right-lateral offsets of up to 9 m [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2003] (Figure l). The rupture initiated with slip on a previously unknown thrust fault, the 40-km-long Susitna Glacier Fault. The rupture propagated eastward for about 220 km along the right-lateral Denali Fault where right-lateral slip averaged ˜5 m, before stepping southeastward onto the Totschunda Fault for about 70 km, with offsets as large as 2 m. The 3 November earthquake was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 shock on 23 October—the Nenana Mountain Earthquake—which was located about 25 km to the west of the 3 November earthquake.

  19. The earthquake deformation cycle - Examples from South America and the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Observations of an interplate, thrust earthquake in Argentina are used to characterize a cyclic pattern of earthquake deformation. The cycle consists of steady strain accumulation, coseismic strain release, a period of continued strain release due to afterslip, and rapid postseismic strain accumulations which decrease exponentially and grade into steady strain accumulation. The cycle is used to interpret the deformation of three earthquakes in California, Alaska, and Montana, focusing on the mechanics of strain release. The results suggest that large postseismic movements can occur for strike-slip, thrust, and normal fault events. It is found that viscoelastic relaxation and postseismic afterslip should be incorporated in models of earthquake-related deformation. The use of these results for estimating earthquake repeat times from geodetic observations near active faults is considered.

  20. Probing failure susceptibilities of earthquake faults using small-quake tidal correlations.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Braden A W; LeBlanc, Michael; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating the devastating economic and humanitarian impact of large earthquakes requires signals for forecasting seismic events. Daily tide stresses were previously thought to be insufficient for use as such a signal. Recently, however, they have been found to correlate significantly with small earthquakes, just before large earthquakes occur. Here we present a simple earthquake model to investigate whether correlations between daily tidal stresses and small earthquakes provide information about the likelihood of impending large earthquakes. The model predicts that intervals of significant correlations between small earthquakes and ongoing low-amplitude periodic stresses indicate increased fault susceptibility to large earthquake generation. The results agree with the recent observations of large earthquakes preceded by time periods of significant correlations between smaller events and daily tide stresses. We anticipate that incorporating experimentally determined parameters and fault-specific details into the model may provide new tools for extracting improved probabilities of impending large earthquakes. PMID:25625338

  1. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  2. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  4. An intelligent simulation system for earthquake disaster assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Aiping; Wen, Aihua

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an intelligent simulation system for an earthquake disaster assessment system based on a development platform of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). This system is designed to identify the weakness of the structure and infrastructure system in pre-earthquake conditions, quickly assess earthquake damage and make an intelligent emergency response for the public and government during the earthquake and post-earthquake. The system includes the following functions: intelligent seismic hazard assessment, earthquake damage and loss evaluation, optimizing emergency response and post-earthquake recovering plan. The principle, design criteria, structure, functions and test results of this system are described in this paper. Based on its functional characteristics, this system is composed of four parts: an information database, analytical modules, an intelligent decision-making sub-system and a friendly user interface. There are 132 coverages and 78 analytical modules included in the information database and analytical modules. With this system, seismic disaster mitigation strategies can be verified during a pre-earthquake, and be executed at the time of an earthquake and post-earthquake; the earthquake resisting capacities for an entire city and all of its communities can be greatly enhanced. To check its reliability and its efficiency, this system has been tested based on a scenario earthquake event in one city, and the related results have also been given in this paper. At the present, this system has been installed and used in Daqing City, China. After running for almost 10 years, this system has successfully been used in rehearsing of seismic disaster mitigation and post-earthquake emergency response. Simultaneously, an optimizing aseismic retrofitting plan in Daqing City has been executed based on results from this system.

  5. Earthquake prediction: the interaction of public policy and science.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L M

    1996-01-01

    Earthquake prediction research has searched for both informational phenomena, those that provide information about earthquake hazards useful to the public, and causal phenomena, causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault, to improve our understanding of those processes. Neither informational nor causal phenomena are a subset of the other. I propose a classification of potential earthquake predictors of informational, causal, and predictive phenomena, where predictors are causal phenomena that provide more accurate assessments of the earthquake hazard than can be gotten from assuming a random distribution. Achieving higher, more accurate probabilities than a random distribution requires much more information about the precursor than just that it is causally related to the earthquake. PMID:11607656

  6. Earthquake prediction: The interaction of public policy and science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Earthquake prediction research has searched for both informational phenomena, those that provide information about earthquake hazards useful to the public, and causal phenomena, causally related to the physical processes governing failure on a fault, to improve our understanding of those processes. Neither informational nor causal phenomena are a subset of the other. I propose a classification of potential earthquake predictors of informational, causal, and predictive phenomena, where predictors are causal phenomena that provide more accurate assessments of the earthquake hazard than can be gotten from assuming a random distribution. Achieving higher, more accurate probabilities than a random distribution requires much more information about the precursor than just that it is causally related to the earthquake.

  7. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  8. Responding to NCLB in Alaska: A Three-Pronged, Teacher-Focused Approach Yields Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sees, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the 2011-2012 school year, the Alaska State School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ASSDHH) was informed that they had met Alaska's Annual Yearly Progress as required by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) for the first time ever. This was incredibly exciting and worth celebrating since teachers had invested so much "blood, sweat, and…

  9. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Elisabeth F.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen projects of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resource Division active in Alaska in 1990 are described. Each description includes information on period of project, chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1987 through January 1990. (USGS)

  10. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E. F., (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic data collection activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska are described. Seventeen projects were active in 1987. Each description includes information on period of project, project chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1984 through 1986. (USGS)

  11. Eight Stars of Gold--The Story of Alaska's Flag. Primary Grade Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Museum, Juneau.

    This activities booklet focuses on the story of Alaska's flag. The booklet is intended for teachers to use with primary-grade children. Each activity in the booklet contains background information, a summary and time estimate, Alaska state standards, a step-by-step technique for implementing the activity, assessment tips, materials and resource…

  12. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program AGENCY: Office of English Language Acquisition, Department of Education. Overview Information Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  13. The magnetic susceptibility measurements of turbidity current sediments from Fuxian Lake of Yunnan Province and their correlations with earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie-Sen; Song, Xue-Liang; Sun, Ying-Lun; Zhang, Zi-Xiong; Song, Yi-De; Liu, Gang

    1999-01-01

    This paper has advanced a new method for determining historical earthquakes. Its object of study is lake sediments. The research method is environmental magnetism represented by susceptibility. The purpose is extracting historical earthquake informations from lake sediments to explore the correlation between the turbidity current sediments initiated by the earthquakes and historical earthquakes round Fuxian Lake.

  14. Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Gavin P; Herman, Matthew W; Barnhart, William D; Furlong, Kevin P; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S; Samsonov, Sergey

    2014-08-21

    The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ∼8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence. PMID:25119028

  15. Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Herman, Matthew W.; Barnhart, William D.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March–April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

  16. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  17. Identifying the Hazard Before the Earthquake: How Far Have We Come, How Well Have We Done?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    With almost half a century of evolving understanding and tools at our disposal, how successful have we been at identifying active faults and correctly quantifying the future hazards associated with them? The characterization of seismic sources has multiple facets-location and geometry, frequency of rupture and slip rate, and amount of fault displacement and expected earthquake magnitude. From these parameters, site-specific design values, regional probabilistic fault rupture and ground motion hazard maps, and national building codes can be developed. The mid-1960s saw the initiation of investigations focused on identifying active faults with the earliest efforts geared to location and the potential for surface rupture; studies for critical facilities--power plants, dams, pipelines--were central to this development. These studies flourished in the 1970s during which time the importance of fault slip rates was recognized, and the latter part of the decade saw the first major paleoseismic studies aimed at multiple-event earthquake chronologies. During the 1980s paleoseismic data provided the basis for development of fault-specific magnitude-frequency distributions and concepts such as fault segmentation, which advanced source characterization. The 1990s saw active fault and paleoseismic investigations flourish internationally; AMS radiocarbon dating became widely used, which increased information on earthquake recurrence for a great number of faults. In the late 1990s and the 2000s advances in luminescence and cosmogenic radionuclide dating permitted slip rates to be routinely obtained from previously undatable deposits offset by faults, and the development of LiDAR led to identification of previously unrecognized active structures. These data are finding their way into increasingly sophisticated probabilistic ground motion and fault displacement models. How have these developments affected our ability to correctly identify and quantify a hazard prior to the

  18. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  19. Earthquake swarms in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

  20. Earthquake at 40 feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  1. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Contains the contents of the Student Investigation booklet of a Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional modules on earthquakes. Includes objectives, procedures, illustrations, worksheets, and summary questions. (MA)

  2. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  3. Young tectonics of a complex plate boundary zone: Indentation, rotation, and escape in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. K.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    of the southern Alaska block by right-lateral block rotation and tectonic escape related to local left-lateral faults. Farther west, slow clockwise rigid rotation of the extensive Bering block accommodates escape and is separated from stable northwestern Alaska by a zone of extension. These tectonic provinces are defined by mapped structures and by the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes. Structures are generally consistent with stress orientations determined from earthquakes, but local discrepancies between observed structures and those predicted from the stress determinations suggest that reactivation of older structures is important.

  4. Evidence for external forcing temporal clustering of great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Kaldybayev, Azamat; Nurakynov, Serik

    2016-04-01

    It is shown by Bufe and Perkins [2005, BSSA, doi:10.1785/0120040110] and Shearera and Stark [2012, PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118525109] that clustering of great earthquakes in 1950-1965 and 2004-2011 years is highly significant, with a 0.5% probability of random occurrence. Lutikov and Rogozhin [2014, Physics of the Solid Earth] reported on a similar clustering in the end of 19th - beginning of 20ty centuries as well, when strongest earthquakes occurred in Tien Shan (1889, M=8.3; and 1911, M=8.2); Alaska (1899, M=8.0); Kashgaria (1902, M=8.2); Mongolia (1905, M=8.2); San Francisco (1906, M=8.3), China(1906, M=8.3); Columbia (1906, M=8.6). Shearera and Stark [2012] have found that clustering of great earthquakes is analogous to seismic swarms that occur for a limited time. Simultaneously, they mentioned that at present no physical mechanism has been proposed to explain possible global seismicity swarms. Our results suggest that a mechanism responsible for temporal clustering of great earthquakes could be an external one related to the processes in the whole solar system including the Sun. We pay attention that the three marked periods of great earthquake clustering are related closely to the extreme phases of the recent Solar Centennial Gleissberg Cycle, which minimums occurred around of 1913 and 2008 years, and maximum - around of 1960 year. In particular, the great earthquake clustering in 1950-1965 coincides closely with the extremely high 19th eleven year solar cycle lasting from February 1954 to October 1964, while a great earthquake clustering after 2004 year coincides closely with the recent prolonged solar minimum developing after 2000 year. Also, we demonstrate that depending on the structure and composition of the lithosphere, strongest earthquakes may prefer to occur either in high or low solar activity. In particular, data analysis for 32 strongest (M=>7.0) earthquakes occurred in 1973-2014 years in the orogeny region of Eurasia, restricted by coordinates

  5. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  6. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  7. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  8. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  9. 14 CFR 135.81 - Informing personnel of operational information and appropriate changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE... Information Manual (Alaska Supplement in Alaska and Pacific Chart Supplement in Pacific-Asia Regions) or...

  10. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  11. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  12. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  13. Annual Live Code Tsunami Warning System tests improve EAS services in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preller, C. C.; Albanese, S.; Grueber, M.; Osiensky, J. M.; Curtis, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service, in partnership with the State of Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHSEM) and the Alaska Broadcasters Association (ABA), has made tremendous improvements to Alaska's Emergency Alert System (EAS) with the use of an annual live code Tsunami System test. The annual test has been implemented since 2007 during the 3rd week of March commemorating the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 and promoting Tsunami Preparedness Week. Due to the antiquity of hardware, this test had always been conducted state-wide. This resulted in over-warn testing large areas of the largest state with no tsunami risk. The philosophy being that through over-warning, the most rural high risk areas would be warned. In 2012, the State of Alaska upgraded their dissemination hardware and the NWS was able to limit the test to a regional area eliminating most of the unthreatened areas from the test. While this occurred with several great successes, it also exposed a myriad of unknown problems and challenges. In addition, the NWS and the State of Alaska, with support from the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Committee (NTHMP), has engaged in an aggressive education, outreach, and mitigation campaign with Alaska's coastal high-risk community Emergency Managers. The resultant situation has produced a tight team between local Emergency Managers, State Emergency Managers and Emergency Operations Center, the NWS' National Tsunami Warning Center, NWS' Weather Forecast Offices and Regional Managers, and Alaska's Broadcasters coming together as a dynamic and creative problem solving force. This poster will address the leaps of progress as well as the upcoming hurdles. Ultimately, live code testing is improving how we warn and save lives and property during the shortest fuse disaster his planet offers; the tsunami.

  14. Earthquake Observation through Groundwater Monitoring in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    According to previous researches, the influence of the some earthquakes can be detected by groundwater monitoring. Even in some countries groundwater monitoring is being used as an important tool to identify earthquake precursors and prediction measures. Thus, in this study we attempt to catch the anomalous changes in groundwater produced by earthquakes occurred in Korea through the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN). For observing the earthquake impacts on groundwater more effectively, from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network we selected 28 stations located in the five earthquake-prone zones in South Korea. And we searched the responses to eight earthquakes with M ≥2.5 which occurred in the vicinity of five earthquake-prone zones in 2012. So far, we tested the groundwater monitoring data (water-level, temperature and electrical conductivity). Those data have only been treated to remove barometric pressure changes. Then we found 29 anomalous changes, confirming that groundwater monitoring data can provide valuable information on earthquake effects. To identify the effect of the earthquake from mixture signals of water-level, other signals must be separated from the original data. Periodic signals will be separated from the original data using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). After that we will attempt to separate precipitation effect, and determine if the anomalies were generated by earthquake or not.

  15. A Compilation and Review of Alaska Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Arlon Tussing; Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    There have been many energy projects proposed in Alaska over the past several decades, from large scale hydro projects that have never been built to small scale village power projects to use local alternative energy sources, many of which have also not been built. This project was initially intended to review these rejected projects to evaluate the economic feasibility of these ideas in the light of current economics. This review included contacting the agencies responsible for reviewing and funding these projects in Alaska, including the Alaska Energy Authority, the Denali Commission, and the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory, obtaining available information about these projects, and analyzing the economic data. Unfortunately, the most apparent result of this effort was that the data associated with these projects was not collected in a systematic way that allowed this information to be analyzed.

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  17. Can we control earthquakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    In 1966, it was discovered that high pressure injection of industrial waste fluids into the subsurface near Denver, Colo., was triggering earthquakes. While this was disturbing at the time, it was also exciting because there was immediate speculation that here at last was a mechanism to control earthquakes.  

  18. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  19. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  20. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…