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Sample records for alaska fur farm

  1. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects. PMID:26142120

  2. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeppelin, T K; Johnson, D S; Kuhn, C E; Iverson, S J; Ream, R R

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators. PMID:26030280

  3. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelin, T. K.; Johnson, D. S.; Kuhn, C. E.; Iverson, S. J.; Ream, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators. PMID:26030280

  4. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  5. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  6. Ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of Acanthocheilonema odendhali (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kuzmin, Y I; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T

    2013-09-01

    Studies of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Archipelago, Alaska. Skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, Polovina (n = 122), Morjovi (n = 54), Zapadni (n = 72), Lukanin (n = 109), and Gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. A. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. The prevalence of infection ranged from 12.5% up to 22.9% on different haul-out areas on the island. The mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (range 1-7). Detailed morphological examination of collected specimens was performed using light microscopy. Several characters were added to the morphological description of the species, among them lateral thickening of the body cuticle, especially prominent in males, variations in number and position of genital papillae in males, transverse striation of the cuticle, and terminal dilation on tail end in microfilariae. The adult specimens studied had a shorter esophagus than type specimens from the California sea lion described by Perry (1967). Comparison of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene from specimens collected from five sampling sites on St. Paul Island and a specimen from the type host and territory in California showed no significant differences and strongly supported conspecificity of the material from Alaska with A. odendhali. PMID:23760875

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak. PMID:17217090

  8. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  10. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  11. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...In December 2010, Congress passed the Truth in Fur Labeling Act (TFLA), which amends the Fur Products Labeling Act (Fur Act) by: (1) Eliminating the Commission's discretion to exempt fur products of relatively small quantity or value from disclosure requirements; and (2) providing that the Fur Act will not apply to certain fur products obtained through trapping or hunting and sold in face to......

  12. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38 Section 301.38 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs...

  13. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38 Section 301.38 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs...

  14. Oceanographic features related to northern fur seal migratory movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ream, Rolf R.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    2005-03-01

    Northern fur seals breeding on the Pribilof Islands are characterized by pelagic migrations that begin each fall and last approximately eight months. Previous studies have examined the early phases of the migration with respect to timing, location, and effects of ocean surface currents on movement. We used satellite telemetry and remotely sensed satellite data to examine relationships between oceanographic features and the movements of adult female fur seals in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean during early, middle and late portions of their winter migration. Physical locations of 13 female fur seals were monitored during 2002-2003, and diving data were collected on a subset of the animals. Remotely sensed data were obtained to assess sea-surface temperatures, chlorophyll a concentrations, and sea-surface height anomalies encountered by the fur seals. Data from historical pelagic collection of fur seals also were summarized to describe winter diet and the distribution of different age and sex classes of the general migration of fur seals to the eastern North Pacific. Seals departed from the Pribilof Islands in November and moved in a southeasterly direction over the continental shelf as they left the Bering Sea. Their travel routes did not follow coastal or bathymetric features as they crossed the North Pacific Ocean, but instead corresponded to complementary water movement of the Alaska Gyre and the North Pacific Current. Winter foraging areas varied geographically and were associated with eddies, the subarctic-subtropical transition region, and areas that undergo coastal mixing due to the California Current. The results indicate that fur seals may cue on a variety of oceanographic features that aid in reducing energetic expenditures and optimize foraging opportunities.

  15. Fur productivity of submarginal farmland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhler, F.M.; Llewellyn, L.M.

    1952-01-01

    A submarginal tract of a thousand acres on the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, was trapped for three seasons (1943-46) to determine the fur-productivity of the area. The tract yielded 392 fur animals, the pelts of which were sold at public auction for $1119.00. This resulted in an average income from trapping of approximately forty cents per acre per year. The habitats most productive of catches of fur animals were hedgerows and wood and road margins, followed by bottomland forests and lake margins. Some suggestions for improving habitat for fur animals are given.

  16. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur product containing material other than fur. (a) Where...

  17. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur product containing material other than fur. (a) Where...

  18. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. 301.37 Section 301.37 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the...

  19. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  20. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. 301.37 Section 301.37 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the...

  1. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  2. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  3. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with...

  4. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with...

  5. Field Lines of Flying Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that uses insulated conductors and hairs clipped from rabbit fur to help students visualize the electric field in three dimensions and motivate them to try their own variations. (JRH)

  6. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  7. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38 Section 301.38 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and...

  8. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  9. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  10. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38 Section 301.38 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and...

  11. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur product containing material other than fur. 301.32 Section 301.32 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.32 Fur...

  12. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported...

  13. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported...

  14. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38 Section 301.38 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and...

  15. Detection of viruses and virus-like particles in four species of wild and farmed bivalve molluscs in Alaska, U.S.A., from 1987 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Theodore R; Burton, Tamara; Evans, Wally; Starkey, Norman

    2009-12-22

    The U.S. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has regulatory oversight of the mariculture industry that is partially administered through a statewide shellfish health policy. Possession and transport of bivalve molluscs require development of indigenous pathogen histories from diagnostic examinations of wild and farmed populations. These examinations have resulted in the detection of various infectious agents and parasites including viruses: an aquareovirus and aquabirna-like virus isolated by fish cell culture, and papilloma- or polyoma- and herpes-like virus particles within bivalve cell intranuclear inclusion bodies observed by electron microscopy. This study summarizes these results in samples examined from 1987 to 2009 and is the first description of poikilothermic viruses from Alaskan waters isolated from or observed within the tissues of 4 species of bivalve molluscs: geoduck clam Panope abrupta, native littleneck clam Protothaca staminea, purple-hinged rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. PMID:20183960

  16. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats...

  17. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats...

  18. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur...

  19. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur...

  20. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13...

  1. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13...

  2. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. 301.37 Section 301.37 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of...

  3. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. 301.37 Section 301.37 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of...

  4. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. 301.37 Section 301.37 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of...

  5. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13...

  6. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. PMID:26630034

  7. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation

  8. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  9. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  10. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  11. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant. PMID:22507395

  12. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301.36 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more...

  13. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by...

  14. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  15. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301.36 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a) Where a fur product is composed of two or more...

  16. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by...

  17. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this...

  18. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  19. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  20. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this...

  1. Age dependent and geographical variations of heavy metals in northern fur seals

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Ichihash, H.; Tatsukawa, R.; Loughlin, T.R.; Baba, N.; Kiyota, M.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined in muscle, liver and kidney of 7 northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) collected off Sanriku, Japan and from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Age trends, regional differences, and the possible discrimination of populations using heavy metals as tracers are also discussed. Almost all the elements except for Cd were found to be higher in liver. Cadmium levels in kidney were found to be higher than other organs. In muscle, concentrations of Hg, Cd and Fe were found to increase significantly with age. Manganese concentrations decreased with age in muscle and kidney. In kidney Cu concentration decreased with age. Cadmium concentrations of the northern fur seals in this study were higher than other otariids, reflecting a predominantly squid diet. Concentrations of Mn and Hg were found to be higher in the fur seals caught off Sanriku than in animals from the Pribilof Islands, while those of Zn and Cd were found to be higher in the samples from the Islands. The difference in concentration levels of Cd and Hg can be attributed to the sea water concentration, whereas differences in essential elements like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu could be associated with seasonal physiological changes. Discriminant analysis of heavy metal concentrations was used to identify habitat. Sixty-three of 67 animals (94%) can distinctly be classified using this technique. Heavy metal concentrations in tissues may provide a useful information to elucidate the primary feeding grounds of fur seals.

  2. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  3. Genetic diversity and population parameters of sea otters, Enhydra lutris, before fur trade extirpation from 1741-1911.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  4. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  5. The oldest known fur seal.

    PubMed

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-02-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5-6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene 'Topanga' Formation (15-17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between 'enaliarctine' stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6-27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3-12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2-4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an 'enaliarctine'-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  6. The oldest known fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5–6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene ‘Topanga’ Formation (15–17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between ‘enaliarctine’ stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6–27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3–12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2–4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an ‘enaliarctine’-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  7. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  8. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an...

  9. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a fur product has been used or worn by an...

  10. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301.36 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a)...

  11. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  12. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  13. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  14. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of...

  15. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  16. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  17. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When...

  18. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 301.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin... animal producing a fur shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising furs...

  19. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  20. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17 Section 301.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor...

  1. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 301.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin... animal producing a fur shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising furs...

  2. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of...

  3. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of...

  4. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17 Section 301.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor...

  5. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 301.17 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin... animal producing a fur shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising furs...

  6. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301.36 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a)...

  7. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When...

  8. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When...

  9. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sectional fur products. 301.36 Section 301.36 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.36 Sectional fur products. (a)...

  10. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  11. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  12. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  13. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  14. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  15. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  16. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  17. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  18. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  19. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  20. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  1. The Metal-Dependent Regulators FurA and FurB from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Debora; Vasil, Michael L.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Pohl, Ehmke

    2008-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulators (Fur) form a large family of bacterial metal-activated DNA-binding proteins that control a diverse set of genes at the transcriptional level. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, expresses two members of the Fur family, designated FurA and FurB. Although both belong to the same family, they share only approximately 25% sequence identity and as a consequence, they differ significantly in some of their key biological functions. FurA appears to be a specialized iron-dependent regulator that controls the katG gene, which encodes for a catalase-peroxidase involved in the response of M. tuberculosis to oxidative stress. KatG is also the key mycobacterial enzyme responsible for the activation of the first-line tuberculosis drug Isoniazid. FurB in contrast requires Zn2+ rather than Fe2+, to bind to its target sequence in regulated genes, which include those involved in Zn2+-homeostasis. Recent biochemical, crystallographic and spectroscopic data have now shed light on the activation and metal discrimination mechanisms in this protein family. PMID:19169435

  2. Fur-Mediated Global Regulatory Circuits in Pathogenic Neisseria Species

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao

    2012-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits. PMID:22885296

  3. Heavy metal accumulations in hair of northern fur seals: Application for biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Saeki, K.; Tatsukawa, R.; Baba, N.; Kiyota, M.; Nitto, H.; Watabe, M.

    1995-12-31

    Hair of northern fur seals had the highest concentrations of many heavy metals among tissues and organs analyzed. Hair could be used as a sensitive indicator for its higher element levels, and can serve as a noninvasive technique for biological monitoring. Significant positive correlation were found between Hg in muscle, Fe in kidney and Cu in liver and those in hair of 42 fur seals from Off-Sanriku, Japan. Using age as a explanatory co-variables, significant multiple regression equations to estimate metal concentrations in internal organs by those in hair were obtained for Hg, Cd, Fe, Cu, Mn. To monitor the seasonal changes in hair concentrations, from the cervical region of 7 fur seals in the Otaru aquarium, Japan, guard hair were clipped during November, 1993 March, 1994 at 7 weeks intervals. Heavy metal levels in hair from the aquarium were compared with those collected in April, 1990--1991 from Off-Sanriku, Japan and from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska which were collected in July, 1992. The levels of Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in hair in the captive seals gradually increased and were higher than those from Off-Sanriku. Those changes could be associated with growth of hair. In the hair of the breeding animals collected from the island, concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were found to be significantly higher than those from Off-Sanriku. increased concentrations of Mn, Ni and Fe were supposed to be caused by exogenous contaminations derived from soil and blood. Fur seal hair seems to be an useful indicator to estimate the internal accumulations of heavy metals provided the seasonal changes and exogenous contamination are taken into account.

  4. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... connection with which such trademark or trade name is used simulates a fur or fur product; or (ii) Such... which has the appearance of a fur or fur product; or (iii) The use of such trademark or trade name is... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and...

  5. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... connection with which such trademark or trade name is used simulates a fur or fur product; or (ii) Such... which has the appearance of a fur or fur product; or (iii) The use of such trademark or trade name is... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and...

  6. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... connection with which such trademark or trade name is used simulates a fur or fur product; or (ii) Such... which has the appearance of a fur or fur product; or (iii) The use of such trademark or trade name is... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and...

  7. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  8. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  9. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  10. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  11. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  12. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  13. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  14. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  15. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  16. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  17. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  18. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  19. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  20. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  1. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  2. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The... seal except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Exceptions. (1) The...

  3. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  4. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation. PMID:23125144

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(16)-1 - Services performed under share-farming arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Services performed under share-farming... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(16)-1 Services performed under share-farming... agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(16)-1 - Services performed under share-farming arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Services performed under share-farming... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(16)-1 Services performed under share-farming... agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(16)-1 - Services performed under share-farming arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Services performed under share-farming... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(16)-1 Services performed under share-farming... agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(16)-1 - Services performed under share-farming arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services performed under share-farming... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(16)-1 Services performed under share-farming... agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(16)-1 - Services performed under share-farming arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services performed under share-farming... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(16)-1 Services performed under share-farming... agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals...

  10. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:22287521

  11. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs...

  12. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14 Section 301.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs...

  13. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12 Section 301.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs...

  14. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14 Section 301.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs...

  15. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15... the name of the section or area producing the furs used in the fur product may be set out...

  16. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15... the name of the section or area producing the furs used in the fur product may be set out...

  17. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15... the name of the section or area producing the furs used in the fur product may be set out...

  18. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs...

  19. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs. 301.12 Section 301.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported furs. (a)(1) In the case of furs...

  20. Three fur homologues from Anabaena sp. PCC7120: exploring reciprocal protein-promoter recognition.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; López-Gomollón, Sara; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, María F; Peleato, M Luisa

    2004-07-15

    DNA sequence analysis of the Anabaena sp. PCC7120 genome confirmed the presence of three open reading frames (all1691, all2473 and alr0957) containing the histidine-rich region characteristic of the Fur family. The genes coding for the three Fur proteins were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The overexpression products, called FurA, FurB and FurC are only distantly related. The ability of the three recombinant proteins to bind iron-boxes identified in the three fur promoter regions was tested by electrophoretical mobility shift assays. FurA binds the three fur promoters with increased affinity in presence of metal. FurB also binds the three fur promoters, and its affinity is increased with DTT. FurC does not bind to furA or furB promoter regions or to its own promoter. However, FurC affects the ability of FurB and FurA to bind their target promoters. PMID:15251208

  1. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  2. Blueberry Trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula: First Year Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2009, 9 plants each of three highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars were planted at test plots on two commercial farms on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. The purpose of the trials was to determine if domestic blueberry plants could survive and produce crops in Southcentral Alaska. In Octob...

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens: identification of Fur-regulated proteins and evaluation of their contribution to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2015-06-29

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium and a common pathogen to a wide range of farmed fish. In a previous study, we found that the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) is essential to the infectivity of a pathogenic fish isolate of P. fluorescens (wild-type strain TSS). In the present work, we conducted comparative proteomic analysis to examine the global protein profiles of TSS and the P. fluorescens fur knockout mutant TFM. Twenty-eight differentially produced proteins were identified, which belong to different functional categories. Four of these proteins, viz. TssP (a type VI secretion protein), PspA (a serine protease), OprF (an outer membrane porin), and ClpP (the proteolytic subunit of an ATP-dependent Clp protease), were assessed for virulence participation in a model of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. The results showed that the oprF and clpP knockouts exhibited significantly reduced capacities in (1) resistance against the bactericidal effect of host serum, (2) dissemination into and colonization of host tissues, and (3) inducing host mortality. In contrast, mutation of tssP and pspA had no apparent effect on the pathogenicity of TSS. Purified recombinant OprF, when used as a subunit vaccine, induced production of specific serum antibodies in immunized fish and elicited significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Antibody blocking of the OprF in TSS significantly impaired the ability of the bacteria to invade host tissues. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that in pathogenic P. fluorescens, Fur regulates the expression of diverse proteins, some of which are required for optimal infection. PMID:26119301

  4. Salmonella meningoencephalomyelitis in a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinsus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Roelke, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.

  5. 11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans and Co., from Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, published 1902 for the City's 220th birthday - Arcade Building, Fifteenth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  7. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  8. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability. PMID:25222563

  9. Quantification of the effects of fur, fur color, and velocity on Time-Of-Flight technology in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Salau, Jennifer; Bauer, Ulrike; Haas, Jan H; Thaller, Georg; Harms, Jan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With increasing herd sizes, camera based monitoring solutions rise in importance. 3D cameras, for example Time-Of-Flight (TOF) cameras, measure depth information. These additional information (3D data) could be beneficial for monitoring in dairy production. In previous studies regarding TOF technology, only standing cows were recorded to avoid motion artifacts. Therefore, necessary conditions for a TOF camera application in dairy cows are examined in this study. For this purpose, two cow models with plaster and fur surface, respectively, were recorded at four controlled velocities to quantify the effects of movement, fur color, and fur. Comparison criteria concerning image usability, pixel-wise deviation, and precision in coordinate determination were defined. Fur and fur color showed large effects (η (2)=0.235 and η (2)=0.472, respectively), which became even more considerable when the models were moving. The velocity of recorded animals must therefore be controlled when using TOF cameras. As another main result, body parts which lie in the middle of the cow model's back can be determined neglecting the effect of velocity or fur. With this in mind, further studies may obtain sound results using TOF technology in dairy production. PMID:25859424

  10. Characterization of a New Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma in Fur Animals and Its Association with Arcanobacterium phocae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010–2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison) by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides), it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species -shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp.) suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease. PMID:25302603

  11. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity. PMID:26886069

  12. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5 Section 301.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0...

  13. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5 Section 301.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0...

  14. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  15. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  16. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  17. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  18. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  19. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  20. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

  1. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur products. 301.45 Section 301.45 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products....

  2. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. 301.31 Section 301.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two...

  3. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  4. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.7 Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. If...

  5. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur products. 301.45 Section 301.45 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products....

  6. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5 Section 301.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name...

  7. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.7 Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  8. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  9. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.7 Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  10. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. 301.31 Section 301.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two...

  11. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  12. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a...

  13. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.7 Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  14. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a...

  15. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5 Section 301.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name...

  16. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.7 Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. If...

  17. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5 Section 301.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name...

  18. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  19. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26347726

  20. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  1. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  3. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  4. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  5. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  6. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 CFR 216.23(c) for the purpose of processing, and will be returned directly to the Alaskan Native..., or to an agent registered under 50 CFR 216.23(c) for resale or transfer to an Alaskan Native, who... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts....

  7. Identification and cloning of a fur regulatory gene in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed Central

    Staggs, T M; Perry, R D

    1991-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is one of many microorganisms responding to environmental iron concentrations by regulating the synthesis of proteins and an iron transport system(s). In a number of bacteria, expression of iron uptake systems and other virulence determinants is controlled by the Fur regulatory protein. DNA hybridization analysis revealed that both pigmented and nonpigmented cells of Y. pestis possess a DNA locus homologous to the Escherichia coli fur gene. Introduction of a Fur-regulated beta-galactosidase reporter gene into Y. pestis KIM resulted in iron-responsive beta-galactosidase activity, indicating that Y. pestis KIM expresses a functional Fur regulatory protein. A cloned 1.9-kb ClaI fragment of Y. pestis chromosomal DNA hybridized specifically to the fur gene of E. coli. The coding region of the E. coli fur gene hybridized to a 1.1-kb region at one end of the cloned Y. pestis fragment. The failure of this clone to complement an E. coli fur mutant suggests that the 1.9-kb clone does not contain a functional promoter. Subcloning of this fragment into an inducible expression vector restored Fur regulation in an E. coli fur mutant. In addition, a larger 4.8-kb Y. pestis clone containing the putative promoter region complemented the Fur- phenotype. These results suggest that Y. pestis possesses a functional Fur regulatory protein capable of interacting with the E. coli Fur system. In Y. pestis Fur may regulate the expression of iron transport systems and other virulence factors in response to iron limitation in the environment. Possible candidates for Fur regulation in Y. pestis include genes involved in ferric iron transport as well as hemin, heme/hemopexin, heme/albumin, ferritin, hemoglobin, and hemoglobin/haptoglobin utilization. Images PMID:1898928

  8. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  9. Fur Trade Era Interpretation. The Voyageur Sash and Garter and a Fur Trade Emblem: A Curiosity Ripe for Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wendy; Henderson, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Provides outdoor educators with background information for historical interpretation activities during Canadian canoe trips. Discusses the history, evolution, and uses of brightly colored sashes and garters worn by voyageurs during the fur trade era, and speculates on the origins of the Lauburu canoe emblem, used by both the Mic Mac peoples and…

  10. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  11. Fur regulon of Salmonella typhimurium: identification of new iron-regulated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, R M; Bäumler, A J; Stojiljkovic, I; Heffron, F

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify genes belonging to the Fur regulon of Salmonella typhimurium, a bank of 10,000 independent S. typhimurium MudJ insertion mutants was screened for lacZ fusions regulated by the iron response regulator Fur. In parallel, a plasmid gene bank of S. typhimurium consisting of 10,000 independent clones was screened for Fur-regulated promoters or iron binding proteins by the Fur titration assay (FURTA). Fur-regulated MudJ insertions and Fur-regulated promoters were mapped. In addition, iron-regulated promoter activities of transcriptional fusions from MudJ insertions and FURTA-positive clones were quantified. The nucleotide sequences of 11 FURTA-positive plasmids and of short fragments of DNA flanking three MudJ insertions were determined. By these methods we identified 14 Fur-regulated genes of S. typhimurium. For 11 of these genes, Fur-regulated homologs have been described in Escherichia coli or Yersinia enterocolitica, including fhuA,fhuB,fepA,fes,fepD,p43,entB,fur ,foxA,hemP, and fhuE. In addition, we identified three genes with homologs in other bacteria which have not previously been shown to be Fur regulated. PMID:7642488

  12. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  13. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  14. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  15. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  17. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  18. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  19. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  20. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  1. Seasonal flight patterns of adult elaterids (Coleoptera: Elateridae) associated with potatoes in Alaska.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the species composition, seasonal biology, and geographic distribution of adult elaterids associated with potato production in Alaska. Adult elaterids were collected in the major potato producing areas of Alaska and from a subsistence farm above the arctic...

  2. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  3. 46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are still in place, fastened to the undersides of the 1755 joists. The joists frame into the bottom chords of the 1755 salvaged trusses. Note the numerals, VIII (8), N (9), X (10), and XI (11) on alternate panels of the bottom chord of the truss. Between the reinforcing plates note the numeral VII (7), added for the 1812 installation - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Identification and characterization of novel Helicobacter pylori apo-fur-regulated target genes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; McKelvey, Ann M; Maynard, Ernest L; Li, Zhao-Zhang; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-12-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has evolved additional regulatory functions not seen in other bacteria; it can repress and activate different groups of genes in both its iron-bound and apo forms. Because little is understood about the process of apo-Fur repression and because only two apo-Fur-repressed genes (pfr and sodB) have previously been identified, we sought to expand our understanding of this type of regulation. Utilizing published genomic studies, we selected three potential new apo-Fur-regulated gene targets: serB, hydA, and the cytochrome c553 gene. Transcriptional analyses confirmed Fur-dependent repression of these genes in the absence of iron, as well as derepression in the absence of Fur. Binding studies showed that apo-Fur directly interacted with the suspected hydA and cytochrome c553 promoters but not that of serB, which was subsequently shown to be cotranscribed with pfr; apo-Fur-dependent regulation occurred at the pfr promoter. Alignments of apo-regulated promoter regions revealed a conserved, 6-bp consensus sequence (AAATGA). DNase I footprinting showed that this sequence lies within the protected regions of the pfr and hydA promoters. Moreover, mutation of the sequence in the pfr promoter abrogated Fur binding and DNase protection. Likewise, fluorescence anisotropy studies and binding studies with mutated consensus sequences showed that the sequence was important for apo-Fur binding to the pfr promoter. Together these studies expand the known apo-Fur regulon in H. pylori and characterize the first reported apo-Fur box sequence. PMID:24097951

  5. Quantitative analysis of the heat exchange through the fur layer of holstein calves

    SciTech Connect

    Gebremedhin, K.G.; Porter, W.P.; Cramer, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    A traditional physiological approach to food and water requirements for animals was compared to a mechanistic model, an engineering approach. Heat loss predictions from a general fur heat transfer model that does not require standard physiological measurements were compared to indirect heat losses calorimetry measurements. The fur model assesses the simultaneous effects of environmental variables and fur structural properties. The model shows a prediction accuracy of better than +/- 10 percent of the measured values.

  6. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses to Characterize the Function of Fur and Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Wu, Liyou; Parsons, Andrea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining iron homeostasis is a key metabolic challenge for most organisms. In many bacterial species, regulation of iron homeostasis is carried out by the global transcriptional regulator Fur. Physiological examination showed that Shewanella oneidensis harboring a fur deletion mutation had deficiencies in both growth and acid tolerance response. However, the fur mutant better tolerated iron-limited environments than the wild-type strain MR-1. Transcriptomic studies comparing the fur mutant and MR-1 confirmed previous findings that iron acquisition systems were highly induced by Fur inactivation. In addition, the temporal gene expression profiling of the fur mutant in response to iron depletion and repletion suggested that a number of genes involved in energy transport were iron-responsive but Fur-independent. Further identification of Fur-independent genes was obtained by generating a gene co-expression network from temporal gene expression profiles. A group of genes is involved in heat shock and has an rpoH-binding site at their promoters, and genes related to anaerobic energy transport has a highly conserved Crp binding site at the promoters. Together, this work provides useful information for the characterization of the function of Fur and the iron response in S. oneidensis.

  7. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Bes, M. Teresa; Peleato, M. Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria. PMID:26967347

  8. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O’Brien, Edward J.; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements (ChIP-exo and RNA-seq). Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism, and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability. PMID:25222563

  9. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  10. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  11. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  12. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. 303.9 Section 303.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and...

  13. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1.63 Section 1.63 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur,...

  14. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  15. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  16. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... been made by the letout method.) (b) Where a fur product is made by the method known in the trade as... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur products. 301.45 Section 301.45 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  17. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 301.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported... advertising. (2) In the case of fur products imported into the United States from a foreign country, or...

  18. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 301.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported... advertising. (2) In the case of fur products imported into the United States from a foreign country, or...

  19. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. 301.31 Section 301.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  20. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. 301.31 Section 301.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  1. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  2. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each...

  3. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1.63 Section 1.63 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising...

  4. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or...

  5. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or...

  6. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  7. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic...

  8. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... been made by the letout method.) (b) Where a fur product is made by the method known in the trade as... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur products. 301.45 Section 301.45 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  9. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... been made by the letout method.) (b) Where a fur product is made by the method known in the trade as... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur products. 301.45 Section 301.45 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  10. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling...

  11. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 301.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used... in lieu of the country of origin as “Fur origin: Unknown.”...

  12. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. 301.34 Section 301.34 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or...

  13. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling...

  14. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. 303.9 Section 303.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and...

  15. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  16. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  17. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. 301.31 Section 301.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations §...

  18. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic...

  19. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. 301.6 Section 301.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals...

  20. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1.63 Section 1.63 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur,...

  1. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 301.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used... in lieu of the country of origin as “Fur origin: Unknown.”...

  2. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1.63 Section 1.63 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur,...

  3. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 301.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used... in lieu of the country of origin as “Fur origin: Unknown.”...

  4. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each...

  5. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 301.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported... advertising. (2) In the case of fur products imported into the United States from a foreign country, or...

  6. Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins.

    PubMed

    Meunier, H; Petit, O; Deneubourg, J-L

    2008-02-01

    In their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). Fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. The aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to determine the processes involved in its synchronization. For this purpose, we designed a set of experiments where white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) were presented with onions (Allium cepa) that they use to fur rub. We conducted a detailed kinetic study of fur rubbing behavior to determine if its synchronization is the consequence of simultaneous responses of different individuals to the same stimulus or if, on the contrary, there is a real collective phenomenon where individuals respond to conspecific behavior. Our results reveal that fur rubbing is a collective behavior with a mimetic underlying mechanism. If fur rubbing with onions (a plant with antifungal and repellent properties) allows capuchins to treat their fur against parasites or pathogens, its synchronization would optimize the treatment by acting as a group barrier to ectoparasite propagation. PMID:17823917

  7. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products Labeling Act, and Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, where it appears to the Commission that it...

  8. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  9. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  10. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  11. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  12. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  13. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Island Community of St. Paul Island, Aleut Community of St. Paul Island-Tribal Government (St. Paul) petitioned NMFS to revise regulations governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals on St....

  14. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...: Northern Fur Seal St. George. Email comments with or without attachments are limited to 5 megabytes; Mail.... These regulations, which were promulgated by an emergency final rule in 1986 (51 FR 24828, July 9, 1986... Northern Fur Seals; St. George AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  15. Transcriptional and Proteomic Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant of Shewanella oneidensis: Possible Involvement of Fur in Energy Metabolism, Transcriptional Regulation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Dorothea K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Giometti, Carol S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.; Khare, Tripti; Lies, Douglas P.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Lim, Hanjo; Yates III, John; Brandt, Craig C.; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2002-01-01

    The iron-directed, coordinate regulation of genes depends on the fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene product, which acts as an iron-responsive, transcriptional repressor protein. To investigate the biological function of a fur homolog in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a fur knockout strain (FUR1) was generated by suicide plasmid integration into this gene and characterized using phenotype assays, DNA microarrays containing 691 arrayed genes, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Physiological studies indicated that FUR1 was similar to the wild-type strain when they were compared for anaerobic growth and reduction of various electron acceptors. Transcription profiling, however, revealed that genes with predicted functions in electron transport, energy metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and oxidative stress protection were either repressed (ccoNQ, etrA, cytochrome b and c maturation-encoding genes, qor, yiaY, sodB, rpoH, phoB, and chvI) or induced (yggW, pdhC, prpC, aceE, fdhD, and ppc) in the fur mutant. Disruption of fur also resulted in derepression of genes (hxuC, alcC, fhuA, hemR, irgA, and ompW) putatively involved in iron uptake. This agreed with the finding that the fur mutant produced threefold-higher levels of siderophore than the wild-type strain under conditions of sufficient iron. Analysis of a subset of the FUR1 proteome (i.e., primarily soluble cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins) indicated that 11 major protein species reproducibly showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in abundance relative to the wild type. Protein identification using mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of two of these proteins (SodB and AlcC) correlated with the microarray data. These results suggest a possible regulatory role of S. oneidensis MR-1 Fur in energy metabolism that extends the traditional model of Fur as a negative regulator of iron acquisition systems. PMID:11823232

  16. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  17. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  18. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  19. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  20. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  1. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  2. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  3. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  4. Fur activates expression of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; West, Abby L; Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Michel, Sarah; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ∼50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO(2). Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended -10 element but a poorly conserved -35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ∼130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori. PMID:23002221

  5. Mycobacterial FurA is a negative regulator of catalase-peroxidase gene katG.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, T C; Song, J; Siple, J; Deretic, V

    2001-03-01

    In several bacteria, the catalase-peroxidase gene katG is under positive control by oxyR, a transcriptional regulator of the peroxide stress response. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome also contains sequences corresponding to oxyR, but this gene has been inactivated in the tubercle bacillus because of the presence of multiple mutations and deletions. Thus, M. tuberculosis katG and possibly other parts of the oxidative stress response in this organism are either not regulated or are controlled by a factor different from OxyR. The mycobacterial FurA is a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator Fur and is encoded by a gene located immediately upstream of katG. Here, we examine the possibility that FurA regulates katG expression. Inactivation of furA on the Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosome, a mycobacterial species that also lacks an oxyR homologue, resulted in derepression of katG, concomitant with increased resistance of the furA mutant to H2O2. In addition, M. smegmatis furA::Km(r) was more sensitive to the front-line antituberculosis agent isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) compared with the parental furA+ strain. The phenotypic manifestations were specific, as the mutant strain did not show altered sensitivity to organic peroxides, and both H2O2 and INH susceptibility profiles were complemented by the wild-type furA+ gene. We conclude that FurA is a second regulator of oxidative stress response in mycobacteria and that it negatively controls katG. In species lacking a functional oxyR, such as M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, FurA appears to be a dominant regulator affecting mycobacterial physiology and intracellular survival. PMID:11251835

  6. 75 FR 17370 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) to Invite Applications for the American Indian and Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... because there was insufficient response to the NOFA published on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43665-43669). This... and Alaska Native Credit Outreach Initiative AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice... Alaska Native farmers, ranchers, and youth residing primarily on Indian reservations within...

  7. FurC regulates expression of zupT for the central zinc importer ZupT of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2014-10-01

    The zinc importer ZupT is required for the efficient allocation of zinc to zinc-dependent proteins in the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans but not for zinc import per se. The expression of zupT is upregulated under conditions of zinc starvation. C. metallidurans contains three members of the Fur family of regulators that qualify as candidates for the zupT regulator. The expression of a zupT-lacZ reporter gene fusion was strongly upregulated in a ΔfurC mutant but not in a ΔfurA or ΔfurB mutant. Expression of the genes for transition-metal importers (pitA, corA1, corA2, and corA3) was not changed in this pattern in all three Δfur mutants, but they were still downregulated under conditions of elevated zinc concentrations, indicating the presence of another zinc-dependent regulator. FurA was a central regulator of the iron metabolism in C. metallidurans, and furA was constitutively expressed under the conditions tested. Expression of furB was upregulated under conditions of iron starvation, and FurB could be an iron starvation Fur connecting general metal and iron homeostasis, as indicated by the phenotype of a ΔfurB ΔfurC double mutant. FurC was purified as a Strep-tagged protein and retarded the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA fragment upstream of zupT. Binding of FurC to this operator region was influenced by the presence of zinc ions and EDTA. Thus, FurC is the main zinc uptake regulator (Zur) of C. metallidurans and represses synthesis of the central zinc importer ZupT when sufficient zinc is present. PMID:25049092

  8. FurC Regulates Expression of zupT for the Central Zinc Importer ZupT of Cupriavidus metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christopher; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Große, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The zinc importer ZupT is required for the efficient allocation of zinc to zinc-dependent proteins in the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans but not for zinc import per se. The expression of zupT is upregulated under conditions of zinc starvation. C. metallidurans contains three members of the Fur family of regulators that qualify as candidates for the zupT regulator. The expression of a zupT-lacZ reporter gene fusion was strongly upregulated in a ΔfurC mutant but not in a ΔfurA or ΔfurB mutant. Expression of the genes for transition-metal importers (pitA, corA1, corA2, and corA3) was not changed in this pattern in all three Δfur mutants, but they were still downregulated under conditions of elevated zinc concentrations, indicating the presence of another zinc-dependent regulator. FurA was a central regulator of the iron metabolism in C. metallidurans, and furA was constitutively expressed under the conditions tested. Expression of furB was upregulated under conditions of iron starvation, and FurB could be an iron starvation Fur connecting general metal and iron homeostasis, as indicated by the phenotype of a ΔfurB ΔfurC double mutant. FurC was purified as a Strep-tagged protein and retarded the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA fragment upstream of zupT. Binding of FurC to this operator region was influenced by the presence of zinc ions and EDTA. Thus, FurC is the main zinc uptake regulator (Zur) of C. metallidurans and represses synthesis of the central zinc importer ZupT when sufficient zinc is present. PMID:25049092

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  10. Random and site-specific mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator provides insight into Fur structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; Benoit, Stéphane L; Besold, Angelique N; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J; Michel, Sarah L J; Maynard, Ernest L; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wild-type (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3) respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in manganese-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2 and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein. PMID:23710935

  11. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  12. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  13. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  14. Sleeping on animal fur is related to asthma outcomes in later childhood.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Standl, Marie; Lehmann, Irina; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Animal furs might represent a "proxy" for high and diverse microbial exposures within a critical time window of immune development. We assessed whether sleeping on animal fur shortly after birth is associated with asthma and atopy up to the age of 10 years. LISAplus participants (n=2441) from Munich and Leipzig, Germany, were included in the analysis. Animal fur exposure, cofactors and health outcomes were obtained periodically up to 10 years of age by parental questionnaires. Information on specific IgE to aeroallergens was available at 10 years. Cytokine-producing peripheral T-cells were assessed in a subgroup of children at 2 and 3 years. Confounder-adjusted associations were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Sleeping on animal fur was very common (55%). In adjusted logistic regression analyses, sleeping on animal fur was inversely associated with recurrent early wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93) and current asthma at 6 years (adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1.01). Furthermore, sleeping on animal fur during the first 3 months of life was significantly associated with a persistently stimulated interferon-γ response until the age of 3 years. Animal fur could be an effective measure of creating environments associated with higher microbial exposure. PMID:25837030

  15. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the binding properties in furs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raina, R. K.

    New Zealand white rabbit pelts were pickled by the usual procedure and were tanned with basic aluminium sulphate, basic chromium sulphate and their combinations. Tanned furs were irradiated with 60Co-gamma radiations in the dose range of 5.0-114.0 kGy. The effect of radiation on the binding properties of various added substances like mineral tannins, fats, moisture and shrinkage temperature has been assessed by their comparison with the control samples. The results of these investigations show that radiation on furs causes detannage, increases the moisture and bound fat content and decreases the shrinkage temperature of the furs.

  16. Ferric Uptake Regulator Fur Control of Putative Iron Acquisition Systems in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Ellermeier, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming opportunistic pathogen and is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea. Although iron acquisition in the host is a key to survival of bacterial pathogens, high levels of intracellular iron can increase oxidative damage. Therefore, expression of iron acquisition mechanisms is tightly controlled by transcriptional regulators. We identified a C. difficile homologue of the master bacterial iron regulator Fur. Using targetron mutagenesis, we generated a fur insertion mutant of C. difficile. To identify the genes regulated by Fur in C. difficile, we used microarray analysis to compare transcriptional differences between the fur mutant and the wild type when grown in high-iron medium. The fur mutant had increased expression of greater than 70 transcriptional units. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed several of the Fur-regulated genes identified by the microarray and verified that they are both iron and Fur regulated in C. difficile. Among those Fur- and iron-repressed genes were C. difficile genes encoding 7 putative cation transport systems of different classes. We found that Fur was able to bind the DNA upstream of three Fur-repressed genes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We also demonstrate that expression of Fur-regulated putative iron acquisition systems was increased during C. difficile infection using the hamster model. Our data suggest that C. difficile expresses multiple iron transport mechanisms in response iron depletion in vitro and in vivo. IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea and has been recently classified as an “urgent” antibiotic resistance threat by the CDC. To survive and cause disease, most bacterial pathogens must acquire the essential enzymatic cofactor iron. While import of adequate iron is essential for most bacterial growth, excess

  17. Metastatic Liposarcoma in a South African Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Pervin, M; Izawa, T; Ito, S; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J

    2016-07-01

    A 14-year-old female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) was presented with a large skin mass on the right shoulder. At necropsy examination, multiple white nodules were found in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes. Histologically, the skin mass was composed of round to polygonal neoplastic cells with round to oval nuclei and variably sized cytoplasmic vacuoles. Cellular and nuclear atypia were prominent. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but not cytokeratins, S100 protein, adipophilin or desmin. The cytoplasmic lipid droplets stained positively with oil red O. Metastasis was seen in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes, with similar morphological features to the skin mass. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a pleomorphic liposarcoma with systemic metastasis was made. No previous reports of metastatic liposarcomas have been published in marine mammals. PMID:27290645

  18. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups

    PubMed Central

    Seguel, M.; Howerth, E. W.; Ritter, J.; Paredes, E.; Colegrove, K.; Gottdenker, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33′S 74°49′W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported. PMID:25248519

  19. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Howerth, E W; Ritter, J; Paredes, E; Colegrove, K; Gottdenker, N

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33'S 74°49'W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported. PMID:25248519

  20. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bird Island, South Georgia.

    PubMed

    Waluda, Claire M; Staniland, Iain J

    2013-09-15

    Between November 1989 and March 2013, 1033 Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella were observed entangled in marine debris at Bird Island, South Georgia. The majority of entanglements involved plastic packaging bands (43%), synthetic line (25%) or fishing net (17%). Juvenile male seals were the most commonly entangled (44%). A piecewise regression analysis showed that a single breakpoint at 1994 gave the best description of inter-annual variability in the data, with higher levels of entanglements prior to 1994 (mean=110±28) followed by persistent lower levels (mean=28±4). Records of entanglements from other sites monitored in the Scotia Sea are also presented. Legislation imposed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has, to a certain extent, been effective, but persistent low levels of seal entanglements are still a cause for concern at South Georgia. PMID:23915979

  1. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295

  2. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  3. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Caitlin S; Granka, Julie M; Alexander, David C; Behr, Marcel A; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Jamieson, Frances B; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-04-19

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6(Quebec) genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710-1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295

  4. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  5. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  6. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  7. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  8. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  9. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  10. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  11. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  12. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  13. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part or... storing of fish or fish products, or the utilization of the lands for purposes of trade or business,...

  14. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part or... storing of fish or fish products, or the utilization of the lands for purposes of trade or business,...

  15. Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Brian F.

    1979-01-01

    Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

  16. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  17. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation. PMID:24283987

  18. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa fur Overlaps with a Gene Encoding a Novel Outer Membrane Lipoprotein, OmlA

    PubMed Central

    Ochsner, Urs A.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Johnson, Zaiga; Vasil, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A novel outer membrane lipoprotein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is encoded by the omlA gene, which was identified immediately upstream of the fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene. The omlA and fur genes were divergently transcribed and had overlapping promoter regions. The proximal fur P2 promoter and the omlA promoter shared a 5-bp DNA motif for their −10 promoter elements. The distal fur P1 promoter was located within the omlA coding sequence, and the omlA and fur T1 mRNAs overlapped by 154 nucleotides. Optimal expression of both fur and omlA required roughly 200 bp of DNA upstream of the promoter regions, suggesting the presence of cis-acting transcriptional activation elements located within the omlA and fur genes, respectively. The levels of Fur and OmlA proteins had no influence on omlA or fur expression, excluding any trans-acting cross-regulation between fur and omlA. Expression of omlA was constitutive regardless of growth phase, oxygen tension, iron concentration, pH, and temperature. OmlA contained a signal sequence typical of bacterial lipoproteins, with a cysteine as a putative cleavage and lipid attachment site. Inhibition of signal peptidase II by globomycin resulted in failure to process OmlA, thus giving strong evidence that OmlA is a lipoprotein. Cell fractionation followed by Western blot analysis indicated that all OmlA protein is localized in the outer membrane. Mature OmlA was an acidic (pI = 4.5) protein of 17.3 kDa and had close to 40% amino acid sequence identity to SmpA (small protein A) of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Haemophilus influenzae, a protein of unknown function. All P. aeruginosa strains tested as well as Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to produce OmlA. A mutant strain with impaired production of OmlA but no change in the expression of the overlapping fur gene was constructed. The omlA mutant was hypersusceptible to anionic detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and deoxycholate, and it showed increased

  20. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  1. Identification of a Novel Circular DNA Virus in New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) Fecal Matter

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Alyssa; Dayaram, Anisha

    2013-01-01

    Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome. PMID:23929471

  2. Identification of a Novel Circular DNA Virus in New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) Fecal Matter.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Alyssa; Dayaram, Anisha; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome. PMID:23929471

  3. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    PubMed

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe. PMID:27026908

  4. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  5. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    PubMed

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities. PMID:26774302

  6. Farm Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  7. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  10. Molecular characterization of a homolog of the ferric-uptake regulator, Fur, from the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ryan A; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A; Gärdes, Astrid; Carrano, Mary W; Carrano, Paul N; Gillian, Christopher; Carrano, Carl J

    2015-02-01

    Full length recombinant iron regulatory protein, Fur, has been isolated and characterized from the algal-associated marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Under nondenaturing conditions the Fur protein behaves on size exclusion chromatography as a dimer while it is monomeric under SDS PAGE conditions. ICP-MS and fluorescence quenching experiments show that Mb-Fur binds a single metal ion (Zn, Mn, or Co) per monomer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to probe the interaction of Mb-Fur with the purported Fur box in the promoter region upstream of the vibrioferrin biosynthetic operon. Interaction of Mb-Fur with a 100 bp DNA fragment containing the Fur box in the presence of 10 µM Mn, Co or Zn(II) resulted in decreased migration of DNA on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. In the absence of the Fur protein or the metal, no interaction is seen. The presence of EDTA in the binding, loading or running buffers also abolished all activity demonstrating the importance of the metal in formation of the promoter-repressor complex. Based on a high degree of similarity between Mb-Fur and its homolog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) whose X-ray structure is known we developed a structural model for the former which suggested that only one of the several metal binding sites found in other Fur's would be functional. This is consistent with the single metal binding stoichiometry we observed. Since the purported metal binding site was one that has been described as "structural" rather than "functional" in PA and yet the monometallic Mb-Fur retains DNA Fur box binding ability it reopens the question of which site is which, or if different species have adapted the sites for different purposes. PMID:25528647

  11. Effect of Sampling Strategy on the Detection of Fur Mites within a Naturally Infested Colony of Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Rice, Kelly A; Wrighten, Roberta; Watson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Fur mites are one of the most common ectoparasites of laboratory mice and traditionally are diagnosed through surveillance of individual colony animals. Although multiple diagnostic modalities exist, few recommendations suggest optimal testing methods, target colony populations, or sampling sites. We compared the fur pluck and sticky paper techniques for the diagnosis of Myocoptes musculinus in naturally infested immunocompetent mice and evaluated the effect of mouse age and sampling site on the efficacy of fur plucks. We found that the sticky paper technique was more likely to detect fur mites than were fur plucks. Housing mice individually increased the incidence of false-negative fur pluck tests, whereas sensitivity was equivalent for preweanling and adult mice. The ventral abdomen was the most likely single sampling location to detect evidence of any stage of Myocoptes musculinus, but fur mite eggs were overrepresented on the neck. We found that the surface temperature of the murine neck surface was warmer than was the rump and therefore may represent a unique microenvironment for fur mite egg development. Given our findings, we recommend that group-housed adult or preweanling mice should be selected for Myocoptes musculinus evaluation and that the ventral abdomen should be sampled. When possible, the postmortem sticky paper technique should be used rather than the antemortem fur pluck method. PMID:21640028

  12. Fur-Regulated Iron Uptake System of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Influence on Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity in the Catfish Host

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry. PMID:22615248

  13. Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Barrow-in-Furness.

    PubMed Central

    Edge, J R; Choudhury, S L

    1978-01-01

    Ffty cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (47 men and 3 women) have been diagnosed during the period 1966-76 in Barrow-in-Furness, all of them histologically proved and accepted by the Pneumoconiosis Panel. At the time of writing only three survive. There was a history of industrial exposure to asbestos in all 47 men, who had worked in various trades in the shipyard, as had one of the women. One of the women was married to a shipyard plumber, who may have brought home asbestos dust on his clothes. Only one patient, a housewife, aged 28 at diagnosis, had no known asbestos contact. The asbestos content of the lungs has been measured in the last 20 cases, in 18 of whom it was found to be substantially greater than the accepted levels for the general population. In a small number studied by electron microscopy, the predominant fibre was crocidolite. A positive histological diagnosis was achieved in 39 subjects during life in the expectation of securing industrial compensation, but, in spite of this, less than half of the dependants are currently receiving payments. Metastases, though never clinically apparent, were frequent at necropsy. PMID:644536

  14. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  15. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  16. Genetic consequences of a severe population bottleneck in the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi).

    PubMed

    Weber, D S; Stewart, B S; Lehman, N

    2004-01-01

    Population bottlenecks may lead to diminished genetic variability and correlative effects on fitness. The Guadalupe fur seal was nearly exterminated by commercial sealers during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. To determine the genetic consequences of this population bottleneck, we compared the variation at a 181 bp section of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from the bones of 26 prebottleneck fur seals versus variation in the extant population. We found 25 different mtDNA genotypes in the prebottleneck fur seals and only 7 genotypes among 32 extant fur seals, including only one of the ancient genotypes. These data demonstrate a substantial loss of genetic variability correlating with the recent population bottleneck. We also found from several genetic measures that the prehistoric population of Guadalupe fur seals was robust and that it had been increasing at some time during the late prehistoric period. Continued recovery of this species may, however, owe more to more immediate nongenetic factors, such as poaching and local availability of food resources during the breeding season and consequent effects on pup survival, than on the reduced genetic variability. PMID:15073230

  17. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-26

    It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the γ-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other γ-proteobacteria.

  18. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  19. Transcriptome expression profiling of fur color formation in domestic rabbits using Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, L Z; Wang, W Z; Shi, L J; Wan, X Y; Yan, X R; Weng, Q Q; Wu, X S

    2016-01-01

    Fur color is an important, genetically determined characteristic of domestic rabbits, and rabbit furs are of great economic value. To investigate the molecular genetics associated with fur color determination in domestic rabbits, we used Solexa-sequencing technology to probe gene expression in dorsal skin tissues sampled from full-sibling Rex rabbits of different colors. The number of expressed genes in each sample was approximately 14,700. Among the top 30 genes and transcription factors with the highest reads per kilobase per million values, the elongation factor-alpha 1 gene was highly expressed in all samples, as were genes of the ribosomal protein and keratin gene families. Compared with the chinchilla (C) Rex rabbit control sample, the numbers of genes in the black (B) and white (W) rabbit samples were 1809 and 460, respectively, and the number of common differentially expressed genes was 257. Clustering analysis of these 257 genes revealed that 32 were up-regulated in sample B and down-regulated in sample W. Of these 32 genes, we identified some that are related to fur formation, including Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Tyrosinase (TYR), as well as genes with unknown functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of those genes. The findings are expected to provide reference for the further study of fur color formation in rabbits. PMID:27173236

  20. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes. PMID:23746080

  1. Iron Regulates Expression of Bacillus cereus Hemolysin II via Global Regulator Fur

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, Andrey; Rodikova, Ekaterina A.; Andreeva-Kovalevskaya, Zhanna I.; Protsenko, Alexey S.; Mayorov, Sergey G.; Galaktionova, Darya Yu; Magelky, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be involved in bacterial pathogenicity in a number of cell and animal models. Unlike many other B. cereus pathogenicity factors, HlyII is not regulated by pleiotropic transcriptional regulator PlcR but is controlled by its own regulator, HlyIIR. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques, we show that hlyII expression is also negatively regulated by iron by the global regulator Fur via direct interaction with the hlyII promoter. DNase I footprinting and in vitro transcription experiments indicate that Fur prevents RNA polymerase binding to the hlyII promoter. HlyII expression profiles demonstrate that both HlyIIR and Fur regulate HlyII expression in a concerted fashion, with the effect of Fur being maximal in the early stages of bacterial growth. In sum, these results show that Fur serves as a transcriptional repressor for hlyII expression. PMID:22522892

  2. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance. PMID:25152519

  3. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  4. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  5. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    PubMed Central

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species’ range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. PMID:27147885

  6. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    PubMed

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo. PMID:26709628

  7. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. PMID:27147885

  8. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein from Anabaena PCC 7119: factors affecting its oligomerization state.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, José A; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, María F; Neira, José L; Peleato, M Luisa

    2002-01-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein is a DNA-binding protein which regulates iron-responsive genes. Recombinant Fur from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 has been purified and characterized, and polyclonal antibodies obtained. The experimental data show that Fur from Anabaena dimerizes in solution with the involvement of disulphide bridges. Cross-linking experiments and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight) MS also show several oligomerization states of Fur, and the equilibrium of these forms depends on protein concentration and ionic strength. In intact recombinant Fur, four cysteine residues out of five were inert towards DTNB [5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)], and their modification required sodium borohydride. Metal analysis and electrospray ionization MS revealed that neither zinc nor other metals are present in this Fur protein. Purified recombinant Fur bound to its own promoter in gel-shift assays. Fur was shown to be a constitutive protein in Anabaena cells, with no significant difference in its expression in cells grown under iron-sufficient compared with iron-deficient conditions. PMID:12015814

  9. The FurA regulon in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: in silico prediction and experimental validation of novel target genes

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Sancho, Javier; Fillat, María F.

    2014-01-01

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA functions as a global transcriptional regulator. Despite several analyses have focused on elucidating the FurA-regulatory network, the number of target genes described for this essential transcription factor is limited to a handful of examples. In this article, we combine an in silico genome-wide predictive approach with experimental determinations to better define the FurA regulon. Predicted FurA-binding sites were identified upstream of 215 genes belonging to diverse functional categories including iron homeostasis, photosynthesis and respiration, heterocyst differentiation, oxidative stress defence and light-dependent signal transduction mechanisms, among others. The probabilistic model proved to be effective at discerning FurA boxes from non-cognate sequences, while subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments confirmed the in vitro specific binding of FurA to at least 20 selected predicted targets. Gene-expression analyses further supported the dual role of FurA as transcriptional modulator that can act both as repressor and as activator. In either role, the in vitro affinity of the protein to its target sequences is strongly dependent on metal co-regulator and reducing conditions, suggesting that FurA couples in vivo iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress to major physiological processes in cyanobacteria. PMID:24503250

  10. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. 301.16 Section 301.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain...

  11. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or taken in United States. 301.16 Section 301.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations... animal set out in the Fur Products Name Guide or term permitted by the regulations to be used...

  12. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging...

  13. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. 301.16 Section 301.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain...

  14. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or taken in United States. 301.16 Section 301.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations... animal set out in the Fur Products Name Guide or term permitted by the regulations to be used...

  15. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging...

  16. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or taken in United States. 301.16 Section 301.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations... animal set out in the Fur Products Name Guide or term permitted by the regulations to be used...

  17. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging...

  18. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  19. HrrF Is the Fur-Regulated Small RNA in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Estevan A.; Harrison, Alistair; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth D.; Kelly, Benjamin J.; White, Peter; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi. PMID:25157846

  20. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. PMID:26639991

  1. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  2. Iron-dependent transcription of the frpB gene of Helicobacter pylori is controlled by the Fur repressor protein.

    PubMed

    Delany, I; Pacheco, A B; Spohn, G; Rappuoli, R; Scarlato, V

    2001-08-01

    We have overexpressed and purified the Helicobacter pylori Fur protein and analyzed its interaction with the intergenic regions of divergent genes involved in iron uptake (frpB and ceuE) and oxygen radical detoxification (katA and tsaA). DNase I footprint analysis showed that Fur binds specifically to a high-affinity site overlapping the P(frpB) promoter and to low-affinity sites located upstream from promoters within both the frpB-katA and ceuE-tsaA intergenic regions. Construction of an isogenic fur mutant indicated that Fur regulates transcription from the P(frpB) promoter in response to iron. In contrast, no effect by either Fur or iron was observed for the other promoters. PMID:11466300

  3. Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuthill, Samuel J.; Laird, Wilson M.

    1966-01-01

    The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10) gravel-coated snow cones, (11) lake ice fractures, and (12) uplift accompanied the earthquake. In addition to geomorphic effects, the earthquake affected the animal populations of the area. These include migratory fish, terrestrial mollusks, fur-bearing animals, and man. The Alaska earthquake clearly delineated areas of alluvial fill, snow and rock avalanche corridors, and deltas of the deeper lakes as unsuitable for future construction.

  4. A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

  5. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  6. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  7. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  8. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  9. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  10. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  11. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  12. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  13. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  14. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  15. Distribution of mercury in archived fur from little brown bats across Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in archived fur from adult female little brown bats sampled at maternity roosts across Atlantic Canada. Mercury concentrations varied significantly among regions and roosts. Bats from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland had the highest median Hg concentrations (9.67 μg/g and 9.51 μg/g) among regions, and individuals from Kejimkujik National Park had the highest Hg (median: 28.38 μg/g) among roosts. Over one third of individuals sampled had fur Hg concentrations exceeding thresholds associated with neurochemical responses. Within-roost examinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in fur showed inconsistent associations with Hg concentrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that within-roost variation in Hg is driven by variation in diet is not supported by this data, and it is recommended that key prey items be included in future mercury bioaccumulation studies for bats. The elevated mercury fur concentrations for bats from southern Nova Scotia remains an anomaly of concern even when placed in the larger context of Atlantic Canada. PMID:26340299

  16. Rv2358 and FurB: Two Transcriptional Regulators from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Which Respond to Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Canneva, Fabio; Branzoni, Manuela; Riccardi, Giovanna; Provvedi, Roberta; Milano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2358-furB operon is induced by zinc. In this study, the orthologous genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 were inactivated and mutants analyzed. Rv2358 protein was purified and found to bind upstream of the Rv2358 gene. Binding was inhibited by Zn2+ ions. PMID:16077132

  17. Transcript analysis of nrrF, a Fur repressed sRNA of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like most microorganisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae alters gene expression in response to iron availability. The ferric uptake regulator Fur has been shown to be involved in controlling this response, but the extent of this involvement remains unknown. It is known that in addition to working directly to...

  18. Functional analysis of the ferric uptake requlator gene, fur, in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the f...

  19. Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstrate that the fur seals as a group were able to discriminate between the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, α-pinene, fenchone (all p < 0.01), and β-citronellol (p < 0.05), whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor (all p > 0.05). An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomeric odor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performance of the fur seals and that of other species tested previously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsets thereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilities of this marine mammal are surprisingly well developed and not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammals such as human subjects and non-human primates. Further, comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals. PMID:23011284

  20. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... details regarding the authorized action were included in the proposed IHA notice (75 FR 11121, March 10..., 2010 (75 FR 11121). During the comment period, NMFS received comments from the Marine Mammal Commission... fur seal population depleted on June 17, 1988 (53 FR 17888) because it declined to less than...

  1. The Gros Ventres and the Canadian Fur Trade, 1754-1831.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilz, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the involvement of the Gros Ventres in the Canadian fur trade from 1754, when the Hudson's Bay Company began wooing Great Plains tribes to English commercial interests, to 183l, when the tribe migrated south. Describes the mutual suspicions of traders and Indians and intertribal hostilities. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  2. "Rejoicing in the Beauties of Nature": The Image of the Western Landscape during the Fur Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Kerry R.

    2009-01-01

    While traveling along the Platte River on May 18, 1834, William Marshall Anderson stopped to pick up a human skull bleaching in the prairie sunlight. Anderson was from Louisville, Kentucky, and had been sent west by his physician to accompany a fur-trade caravan to the Rocky Mountains in hopes of regaining lost physical strength. He came west not…

  3. THE SHIFTING BASELINE OF NORTHERN FUR SEAL ECOLOGY IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species i...

  4. The fur Gene as a New Phylogenetic Marker for Vibrionaceae Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Microbial taxonomy is essential in all areas of microbial science. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is one of the main phylogenetic species markers; however, it does not provide discrimination in the family Vibrionaceae, where other molecular techniques allow better interspecies resolution. Although multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has been used successfully in the identification of Vibrio species, the technique has several limitations. They include the fact that several locus amplifications and sequencing have to be performed, which still sometimes lead to doubtful identifications. Using an in silico approach based on genomes from 103 Vibrionaceae strains, we demonstrate here the high resolution of the fur gene in the identification of Vibrionaceae species and its usefulness as a phylogenetic marker. The fur gene showed within-species similarity higher than 95%, and the relationships inferred from its use were in agreement with those observed for 16S rRNA analysis and MLSA. Furthermore, we developed a fur PCR sequencing-based method that allowed identification of Vibrio species. The discovery of the phylogenetic power of the fur gene and the development of a PCR method that can be used in amplification and sequencing of the gene are of general interest whether for use alone or together with the previously suggested loci in an MLSA. PMID:25662978

  5. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... annual harvest levels for the next 3 years. On July 29, 2011 (76 FR 45499), NMFS published the summary of..., which is available on the NMFS Web site (see Electronic Access) was subjected to public review (69 FR... Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  6. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. PMID:26880785

  7. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  8. Relationship of the superoxide dismutase genes, sodA and sodB, to the iron uptake (/ital fur/) regulon in /ital Escherichia coli/ K-12

    SciTech Connect

    Niederhoffer, E.C.; Naranjo, C.M.; Fee, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Expression of sodA, as indicated by MnSod activity is normal in /ital fur/ mutants. This suggests that sodA is not a member of the /ital fur/ regulon and that the putative Fe-binding, regulatory protein of sodA, suggested by Moody and Hassan is not the Fur protein. by contrast, expression of sodB, as indicated by FeSod activity, is completely blocked in /ital fur/ mutants and the effect is restored by transformation with a plasmid having a normal /ital fur/ locus. The observations suggest that Fur, either directly or indirectly, controls SodB biosynthesis. Additional observations are described which indicate that SodB and Fur act together in a complicated fashion to control the biosynthesis of enterobactin. 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  10. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  11. Lead levels in fur of rats treated with inorganic lead measured by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Deschamps, Frédèric; Millart, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between continuous lead exposure and the concentration of this metal in fur. The two main questions we wanted to answer were: 1) Are the fur lead concentrations different according to exposure level? 2) Is the kinetics of lead concentration linear in different compartments? For 12 weeks, 6 rats were force-fed with water containing lead acetate in the following quantities: 0.5 and 50 µg/day. Furs were sampled every two weeks. The lead content of the samples was measured by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There was a statistical difference (p<0.0001) between fur lead concentration and the three groups (control, low level exposure and high level exposure), between fur lead concentration and time exposure (p<0.0001), and between fur lead concentration and each exposure group at different time exposure (p<0.0001). Thus the level exposure factor and the time exposure factor have an effect on fur lead concentration. Since the determination coefficients were weak for the two exposed groups (0.032 and 0.032), a linear correlation cannot be concluded. The kinetic curves of fur lead concentration are similar for all the exposition groups. Two peaks (at 2 and 8 weeks of exposure) were noted for the two exposed groups. This experimental study cannot conclude a linear relationship to exist between fur lead concentration and exposition duration. It highlights the lack of understanding of mechanisms involved in hair incorporation of metals and raises the question of a cyclic accumulation in hair. A better understanding of the kinetic incorporation of lead in body growths is required. PMID:21331176

  12. Genetic variation of southern hemisphere fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.): investigation of population structure and species identity.

    PubMed

    Lento, G M; Haddon, M; Chambers, G K; Baker, C S

    1997-01-01

    We have examined phylogenetic and geographic patterns of variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of Southern Hemisphere fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.). Our survey of 106 individuals from four putative species reveals three distinct patterns of variation reflecting ancient, recent historic, and contemporary gene flow. For the combined samples of Subantarctic (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) fur seals, we find low levels of sequence diversity and reciprocal paraphyly of hapiotypes (where representative haplotypes of a species are found to occur infrequently in another species and vice versa). For the Australian and Cape fur seal subspecies (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and A. p. pusillus, respectively), we find low levels of sequence diversity but significant differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes that are consistent with, but not conclusive of, the current subspecies definition based on nonmolecular data. For the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), we find high levels of average sequence diversity because of the survival of two divergent lineages of mitochondrial hapiotypes with differences approaching that found in interspecific comparisons of other mammals. The two divergent clades are distributed sympatrically in some regions, but the overall geographic structure of the variation is significant across the range of this species. These new molecular data are inconsistent with current taxonomic definitions of species within the Southern Hemisphere fur seals and argue for reevaluation of these "species" definitions. For management purposes, the definition of evolutionarily significant units (Ryder 1986) and genetic management units (Moritz 1994) in relation to these species may also be evaluated in light of this molecular genetic information. PMID:9183848

  13. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  14. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  15. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  17. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  18. Versuch einer Ubungstypologie fur den fachbezogenen Fremdsprachenunterricht (A Trial Typology of Exercises for Career-Oriented Foreign Language Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1973-01-01

    Examples of exercises derived from the text Fachdeutsch fur spanischsprachige Naturwissenschaftler: Mathematiker, Physiker, Chemiker'' (Technical German for Spanish-Speaking Scientists: Mathematicians, Physicists, Chemists) soon to be published by the Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, West Germany. (RS)

  19. Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  20. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? (a)...

  1. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? (a)...

  2. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? (a)...

  3. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? (a)...

  5. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  6. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  7. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  8. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  9. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  10. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  11. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  12. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  13. Determination of total mercury in human hair and animal fur by combustion atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cizdziel, J V; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2004-11-15

    A commercially available mercury (Hg) analyzer based on sample combustion, gold amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was evaluated for the direct determination of Hg in composites of human hair and individual samples of horse fur. Results for human hair reference material (NIES No. 13) were within the certified range. Analyses of "blind" samples from an international interlaboratory (n>16) comparison study produced results within 1S.D. of the consensus means. Precision (%R.S.D.) was found to be <5% and total analyses time per sample was <10min. This study demonstrated that analyzers based on combustion-AAS are suitable for wide-scale monitoring of Hg in human hair and animal fur. PMID:18969690

  14. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it. PMID:26165938

  15. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. PMID:26827096

  16. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  17. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  18. Genetic variation of mini- and microsatellites and a clonal structure in Enterocytozoon bieneusi population in foxes and raccoon dogs and population differentiation of the parasite between fur animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Yu, Qinlei; Yang, Yuqi; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal hosts and birds. Previous genotypic surveys were limited to measure the polymorphisms at the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that evolved slowly. Data on population structure are available only on E. bieneusi isolates from primates. This study explored the genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of four mini- and microsatellites and performed a population genetic analysis in 39 E. bieneusi isolates of potentially zoonotic ITS genotype D from farmed foxes and raccoon dogs in China. Sequence polymorphisms facilitated determination of six, two, four, and five genotypes at markers MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7, respectively. Patterns of phylogeny revealed different levels of diversity within and among the genetic markers. Clear genotypic and phylogenetic divergences between E. bieneusi isolates of ITS genotype D from fur animals and humans were observed at individual markers. Complete linkage disequilibrium and very limited recombination in subsequent population genetic analysis supported a clonal structure for E. bieneusi population from fur animals (FID). Phylogenetic analysis, genetic network, and measures of F ST and gene flow demonstrated population differentiation of FID from two known human E. bieneusi populations HID (with a clonal structure) and HIA (with an epidemic structure). The data indicated an ideal resolving power of MLST compared to the previously widely used ITS genotyping and confirmed the clonal nature and population differentiation of E. bieneusi in various hosts. PMID:27095568

  19. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  20. Impact of Anaerobiosis on Expression of the Iron-Responsive Fur and RyhB Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Beauchene, Nicole A.; Myers, Kevin S.; Chung, Dongjun; Park, Dan M.; Weisnicht, Allison M.; Keleş, Sündüz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron, a major protein cofactor, is essential for most organisms. Despite the well-known effects of O2 on the oxidation state and solubility of iron, the impact of O2 on cellular iron homeostasis is not well understood. Here we report that in Escherichia coli K-12, the lack of O2 dramatically changes expression of genes controlled by the global regulators of iron homeostasis, the transcription factor Fur and the small RNA RyhB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found anaerobic conditions promote Fur binding to more locations across the genome. However, by expression profiling, we discovered that the major effect of anaerobiosis was to increase the magnitude of Fur regulation, leading to increased expression of iron storage proteins and decreased expression of most iron uptake pathways and several Mn-binding proteins. This change in the pattern of gene expression also correlated with an unanticipated decrease in Mn in anaerobic cells. Changes in the genes posttranscriptionally regulated by RyhB under aerobic and anaerobic conditions could be attributed to O2-dependent changes in transcription of the target genes: aerobic RyhB targets were enriched in iron-containing proteins associated with aerobic energy metabolism, whereas anaerobic RyhB targets were enriched in iron-containing anaerobic respiratory functions. Overall, these studies showed that anaerobiosis has a larger impact on iron homeostasis than previously anticipated, both by expanding the number of direct Fur target genes and the magnitude of their regulation and by altering the expression of genes predicted to be posttranscriptionally regulated by the small RNA RyhB under iron-limiting conditions. PMID:26670385

  1. Monoamine Release during Unihemispheric Sleep and Unihemispheric Waking in the Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Lyamin, Oleg I.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Kosenko, Peter O.; Kodama, Tohru; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Korneva, Svetlana M.; Peever, John H.; Mukhametov, Lev M.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the control of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been entirely based on studies of animals with bilateral sleep. The study of animals with unihemispheric sleep presents the opportunity of separating the neurochemical substrates of waking and sleep EEG from the systemic, bilateral correlates of sleep and waking states. Methods: The release of histamine (HI), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5HT) in cortical and subcortical areas (hypothalamus, thalamus and caudate nucleus) was measured in unrestrained northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using in vivo microdialysis, in combination with, polygraphic recording of EEG, electrooculogram, and neck electromyogram. Results: The pattern of cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in fur seals is similar during bilaterally symmetrical states: highest in active waking, reduced in quiet waking and bilateral slow wave sleep, and lowest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in seals is highly elevated during certain waking stimuli and behaviors, such as being sprayed with water and feeding. However, in contrast to acetylcholine (ACh), which we have previously studied, the release of HI, NE, and 5HT during unihemispheric sleep is not lateralized in the fur seal. Conclusions: Among the studied neurotransmitters most strongly implicated in waking control, only ACh release is asymmetric in unihemispheric sleep and waking, being greatly increased on the activated side of the brain. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 491. Citation: Lyamin OI, Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Bhagwandin A, Korneva SM, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM. Monoamine release during unihemispheric sleep and unihemispheric waking in the fur seal. SLEEP 2016;39(3):625–636. PMID:26715233

  2. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study, Galena Airport, Alaska. Treatability study report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-27

    The USAF contracted Radian Corporation to perform treatability studies to evaluate soil vacuum extraction (SVE) and biodegradation technologies for remediating soil contaminated with motor and jet fuel at the Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) Tank Farm, Galena Airport, Alaska. This technical report describes the experimental methods and interprets the analytical and operational results from the bench-scale biotreatment tests and pilot-scale SVE tests conducted between July 1992 and February 1994.

  3. The monophyletic origin of sea lions and fur seals (Carnivora; Otariidae) in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Takahiro; Kohno, Naoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2009-07-15

    The pinniped family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) is composed of 7 extant genera with 14 species. They are mainly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, but the fossil record is only known from the Northern Hemisphere until Pliocene. To clarify the biological and zoogeographical events during their evolution, it is necessary to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic tree. However, phylogenetic relationships among otariids continue to be controversial, except for the basal position of the northern fur seal among the extant otariids. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees of otariids based on mitochondrial genomes and multiple nuclear genes (IRBP and type I STS markers). The monophyly of the otariids including both sea lions and fur seals in the Southern Hemisphere was strongly supported by both the mitochondrial and nuclear evidence. We propose a novel evolutionary and dispersal scenario of otariids based on this phylogenetic hypothesis, estimated divergence times, and fossil records. According to our results, the center of origin of the southern otariids is hypothesized to be the eastern South Pacific along the west coast of South America. PMID:19254754

  4. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  5. Foraging habitats of lactating northern fur seals are structured by thermocline depths and submesoscale fronts in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Chad A.; Battaile, Brian C.; Cotté, Cédric; Trites, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    The relationships between fine-scale oceanographic features, prey aggregations, and the foraging behavior of top predators are poorly understood. We investigated whether foraging patterns of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from two breeding colonies located in different oceanographic domains of the eastern Bering Sea (St. Paul Island—shelf; Bogoslof Island—oceanic) were a function of submesoscale oceanographic features. We tested this by tracking 87 lactating fur seals instrumented with bio-logging tags (44 St. Paul Island, 43 Bogoslof Island) during July-September, 2009. We identified probable foraging hotspots using first-passage time analysis and statistically linked individual areas of high-use to fine-scale oceanographic features using mixed-effects Cox-proportional hazard models. We found no overlap in foraging areas used by fur seals from the two islands, but a difference in the duration of their foraging trips—trips from St. Paul Island were twice as long (7.9 d average) and covered 3-times the distance (600 km average) compared to trips from Bogoslof Island. St. Paul fur seals also foraged at twice the scale (mean radius=12 km) of Bogoslof fur seals (6 km), which suggests that prey were more diffuse near St. Paul Island than prey near Bogoslof Island. Comparing first passage times with oceanographic covariates revealed that foraging hotspots were linked to thermocline depth and occurred near submesoscale surface fronts (eddies and filaments). St. Paul fur seals that mixed epipelagic (night) and benthic (day) dives primarily foraged on-shelf in areas with deeper thermoclines that may have concentrated prey closer to the ocean floor, while strictly epipelagic (night) foragers tended to use waters with shallower thermoclines that may have aggregated prey closer to the surface. Fur seals from Bogoslof Island foraged almost exclusively over the Bering Sea basin and appeared to hunt intensively along submesoscale fronts that may have

  6. A novel fur- and iron-regulated small RNA, NrrF, is required for indirect fur-mediated regulation of the sdhA and sdhC genes in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Mellin, J R; Goswami, Sulip; Grogan, Susan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline A

    2007-05-01

    Iron is both essential for bacterial growth and toxic at higher concentrations; thus, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Neisseria meningitidis the majority of iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur), a protein classically defined as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, however, microarray studies have identified a number of genes in N. meningitidis that are iron and Fur activated, demonstrating a new role for Fur as a transcriptional activator. Since Fur has been shown to indirectly activate gene transcription through the repression of small regulatory RNA molecules in other organisms, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism could account for Fur-dependent, iron-activated gene transcription in N. meningitidis. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to screen for the presence of Fur-regulated small RNA molecules in N. meningitidis MC58. This screen identified one small RNA, herein named NrrF (for neisserial regulatory RNA responsive to iron [Fe]), which was demonstrated to be both iron responsive and Fur regulated and which has a well-conserved orthologue in N. gonorrhoeae. In addition, this screen identified a number of other likely, novel small RNA transcripts. Lastly, we utilized a new bioinformatics approach to predict regulatory targets of the NrrF small RNA. This analysis led to the identification of the sdhA and sdhC genes, which were subsequently demonstrated to be under NrrF regulation in an nrrF mutant. This study is the first report of small RNAs in N. meningitidis and the first to use a bioinformatics approach to identify, a priori, regulatory targets of a small RNA. PMID:17351036

  7. A Novel Fur- and Iron-Regulated Small RNA, NrrF, Is Required for Indirect Fur-Mediated Regulation of the sdhA and sdhC Genes in Neisseria meningitidis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, J. R.; Goswami, Sulip; Grogan, Susan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline A.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is both essential for bacterial growth and toxic at higher concentrations; thus, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Neisseria meningitidis the majority of iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur), a protein classically defined as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, however, microarray studies have identified a number of genes in N. meningitidis that are iron and Fur activated, demonstrating a new role for Fur as a transcriptional activator. Since Fur has been shown to indirectly activate gene transcription through the repression of small regulatory RNA molecules in other organisms, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism could account for Fur-dependent, iron-activated gene transcription in N. meningitidis. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to screen for the presence of Fur-regulated small RNA molecules in N. meningitidis MC58. This screen identified one small RNA, herein named NrrF (for neisserial regulatory RNA responsive to iron [Fe]), which was demonstrated to be both iron responsive and Fur regulated and which has a well-conserved orthologue in N. gonorrhoeae. In addition, this screen identified a number of other likely, novel small RNA transcripts. Lastly, we utilized a new bioinformatics approach to predict regulatory targets of the NrrF small RNA. This analysis led to the identification of the sdhA and sdhC genes, which were subsequently demonstrated to be under NrrF regulation in an nrrF mutant. This study is the first report of small RNAs in N. meningitidis and the first to use a bioinformatics approach to identify, a priori, regulatory targets of a small RNA. PMID:17351036

  8. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  9. The gradual vocal responses to human-provoked discomfort in farmed silver foxes

    PubMed Central

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Volodina, Elena V.; Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.

    2012-01-01

    Vocal indicators of welfare have proven their use for many farmed and zoo animals and may be applied to farmed silver foxes as these animals display high vocal activity toward humans. Farmed silver foxes were selected mainly for fur, size, and litter sizes, but not for attitudes to people, so they are fearful of humans and have short-term welfare problems in their proximity. With a human approach test, we designed here the steady increase and decrease of fox–human distance and registered vocal responses of 25 farmed silver foxes. We analyzed the features of vocalizations produced by the foxes at different fox–human distances, assuming that changes in vocal responses reflect the degrees of human-related discomfort. For revealing the discomfort-related vocal traits in farmed silver foxes, we proposed and tested the algorithm of “joint calls,” equally applicable for analysis of all calls independently on their structure, either tonal or noisy. We discuss that the increase in proportion of time spent vocalizing and the shift of call energy toward higher frequencies may be integral vocal characteristics of short-term welfare problems in farmed silver foxes and probably in other captive mammals. PMID:22865950

  10. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  11. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  12. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  13. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    PubMed

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental. PMID:26347323

  15. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  16. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  17. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  18. Zoonotic parasites in feces and fur of stray and private dogs from Italy.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Barbara; Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; De Berardinis, Alberto; Bartolini, Roberto; Salini, Romolo; Di Cesare, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluated the occurrence of zoonotic parasites in feces and on fur of stray and private dogs living in Italy. Individual fecal samples collected from 117 and 385 kenneled (i.e., rescue shelter) and privately owned dogs, respectively, were examined by conventional copromicroscopy. Samples positive for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were subjected to further genetic characterization. Additionally, 174 fur samples of private and kenneled dogs living in the same area, 27 of which were also subjected to copromicroscopical examinations, were examined for the presence and viability of parasite elements. Out of 502 fecal samples, forty-one (8.2%) scored positive for G. duodenalis cysts while one (0.2%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Nine private dogs were molecularly positive for G. duodenalis assemblage C (n. 7), assemblage D (n. 1), and assemblages C + D (n. 1), while 11 kenneled dogs were positive for assemblage C (n. 8), assemblage D (n. 1), and assemblages C + D (n. 2). Cryptosporidium spp. were identified as C. canis in a private dog. One hundred and seventy-two dogs (34.3%), i.e., 92 private and 80 kenneled, were positive for zoonotic nematodes: Toxocara canis (6.6 %), Ancylostoma caninum (6.8%), and Capillaria aerophila (0.6%). Unviable eggs of Toxocara spp. were found on the hair of five (2.9%) private dogs. The present findings indicate that canine feces from both private and kenneled animals may contain zoonotic parasites and may be a potential risk for humans and other animals, especially when they contaminate the environment. The role of dog fur as source of human infections should be further investigated. PMID:25773179

  19. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  20. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...

  1. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  2. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as attics or crawlspaces. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. In this project, Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team partnered with Tommy Williams Homes to implement an inexpensive, quick, and effective method of building a fur-down chase.

  5. Using a cut paste method to prepare a carbon nanotube fur electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Cao, G. P.; Yang, Y. S.

    2007-05-01

    We describe and realize an aligned carbon nanotube array based 'carbon nanotube fur (CNTF)' electrode. We removed an 800 µm long aligned carbon nanotube array from the silica substrate, and then pasted the array on a nickel foam current collector to obtain a CNTF electrode. CNTF's characteristics and electrochemical properties were studied systemically in this paper. The cut-paste method is simple, and does not damage the microstructure of the aligned carbon nanotube array. The CNTF electrode obtained a specific capacitance of 14.1 F g-1 and excellent rate capability.

  6. The fat and the furriest: morphological changes in harp seal fur with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gmuca, Natalia V; Pearson, Linnea E; Burns, Jennifer M; Liwanag, Heather E M

    2015-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in physiological performance often exemplify the development of adaptations to environmental challenges. For mammals in polar regions, the extreme cold of the environment presents a constant challenge to thermal homeostasis. The harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) is an Arctic species that shifts its thermoregulatory strategy with ontogeny. Adult harp seals primarily use blubber for insulation, but newborn harp seals instead rely on their fur coat while their blubber layer develops. Harp seal pups are weaned abruptly, less than 2 wk after birth, and must subsequently learn to swim and dive in frigid waters on their own. This study examined how the morphological characteristics of harp seal fur change with ontogeny. We compared hair length, hair circularity, and hair density for neonates (1 d old; n = 7), early-nursing pups (4 d old; n = 3), late-nursing pups (9 d old; n = 4), newly weaned (molting) pups (2 wk old; n = 5), late-weaned (molted) pups (3 wk old; n = 4), and adult harp seals (n = 4). Hairs were shorter (P < 0.001) and flatter (P < 0.001) in older animals. Additionally, hair density decreased with age (P < 0.001), in terms of both the average number of hair bundles per unit area and the average number of underhairs present in any given bundle. These morphological changes were associated with a reduced thermal resistance of the pelt in late-weaned (molted) pups and adults (P < 0.001). Results are consistent with known evolutionary patterns of fur morphology associated with the transition from fur to blubber in aquatic species, yet this is the first time such morphological differences have been demonstrated across age classes within a single species. Thus, the ontogenetic patterns described here for harp seals recapitulate the convergent phylogenetic patterns observed across secondarily aquatic species. Overall, the timing of these ontogenetic changes may limit the ability of harp seals to adapt to the deterioration of sea ice in the

  7. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  8. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  9. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...

  10. Serum chemistry and antibodies against pathogens in antarctic fur seals, Weddell seals, crabeater seals, and Ross seals.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Nielsen, Ole; Nordøy, Erling S; Kovacs, Kit M; Krafft, Bjørn A; Thoresen, Stein I; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Osterrieder, Klaus; Roth, Swaantje J; Lydersen, Christian; Godfroid, Jacques; Blix, Arnoldus S

    2012-07-01

    Information on health parameters, such as antibody prevalences and serum chemistry that can reveal exposure to pathogens, disease, and abnormal physiologic conditions, is scarce for Antarctic seal species. Serum samples from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, n=88) from Bouvetøya (2000-2001 and 2001-2002), and from Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n=20), Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii, n=20), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus, n=9) from the pack-ice off Queen Maud Land, Antarctica (2001) were analyzed for enzyme activity, and concentrations of protein, metabolites, minerals, and cortisol. Adult Antarctic fur seal males had elevated levels of total protein (range 64-99 g/l) compared to adult females and pups (range 52-79 g/l). Antarctic fur seals had higher enzyme activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and amylase, compared to Weddell, Ross, and crabeater seals. Antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in Weddell seals (37%), Ross seals (5%), and crabeater seals (11%), but not in Antarctic fur seals. Antibodies against phocine herpesvirus 1 were detected in all species examined (Antarctic fur seals, 58%; Weddell seals, 100%; Ross seals, 15%; and crabeater seals, 44%). No antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma, or phocine distemper virus (PDV) were detected (Antarctic fur seals were not tested for PDV antibodies). Antarctic seals are challenged by reduced sea ice and increasing temperatures due to climate change, and increased anthropogenic activity can introduce new pathogens to these vulnerable ecosystems and represent a threat for these animals. Our data provide a baseline for future monitoring of health parameters of these Antarctic seal species, for tracking the impact of environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic changes in Antarctica over time. PMID:22740529

  11. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  12. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  13. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  14. Farming for Net Profit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors can influence farm management decisions. One important factor is economic returns. Staying in farming requires dealing with a wide range of changing conditions. Given these changing conditions, it is particularly important to “get the big decisions right”. This requires evaluating impac...

  15. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  16. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  17. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  18. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  19. Unraveling the Redox Properties of the Global Regulator FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: Disulfide Reductase Activity Based on Its CXXC Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Botello-Morte, Laura; Bes, M. Teresa; Heras, Begoña; Fernández-Otal, Ángela; Peleato, M. Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cyanobacterial FurA works as a global regulator linking iron homeostasis to photosynthetic metabolism and the responses to different environmental stresses. Additionally, FurA modulates several genes involved in redox homeostasis and fulfills the characteristics of a heme-sensor protein whose interaction with this cofactor negatively affects its DNA binding ability. FurA from Anabaena PCC 7120 contains five cysteine residues, four of them arranged in two redox CXXC motifs. Aims: Our goals were to analyze in depth the putative contribution of these CXXC motifs in the redox properties of FurA and to identify potential interacting partners of this regulator. Results: Insulin reduction assays unravel that FurA exhibits disulfide reductase activity. Simultaneous presence of both CXXC signatures greatly enhances the reduction rate, although the redox motif containing Cys101 and Cys104 seems a major contributor to this activity. Disulfide reductase activity was not detected in other ferric uptake regulator (Fur) proteins isolated from heterotrophic bacteria. In vivo, FurA presents different redox states involving intramolecular disulfide bonds when is partially oxidized. Redox potential values for CXXC motifs, −235 and −238 mV, are consistent with those reported for other proteins displaying disulfide reductase activity. Pull-down and two-hybrid assays unveil potential FurA interacting partners, namely phosphoribulokinase Alr4123, the hypothetical amidase-containing domain All1140 and the DNA-binding protein HU. Innovation: A novel biochemical activity of cyanobacterial FurA based on its cysteine arrangements and the identification of novel interacting partners are reported. Conclusion: The present study discloses a putative connection of FurA with the cyanobacterial redox-signaling pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1396–1406. PMID:24093463

  20. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  1. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...

  2. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska. 32.21 Section 32.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to...

  3. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This publication is an annotated listing of 143 books about Alaska or the Arctic, received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries in 1986. Most of the material is current or published in recent years, with the exception of government publications. Categories are juvenile, adult non-fiction, adult fiction, and reference. A few Alaska state and…

  4. 33 CFR 80.1705 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alaska. 80.1705 Section 80.1705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Alaska § 80.1705 Alaska. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all the sounds,...

  5. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  6. Transcript analysis of nrrF, a Fur repressed sRNA of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Ducey, Thomas F.; Jackson, Lydgia; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Like most microorganisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae alters gene expression in response to iron availability. The ferric uptake regulator Fur has been shown to be involved in controlling this response, but the extent of this involvement remains unknown. It is known that in addition to working directly to repress gene expression, Fur may also work indirectly by controlling additional regulatory elements. Using in silico analysis, we identified a putative small RNA (sRNA) homolog of the meningococcal nrrF locus, and demonstrate that this sRNA is iron-repressible, suggesting that this is the gonococcal analog of the rhyB locus in Escherichia coli. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicates that this transcript may also be temporally regulated. Transcript analysis identified the 5′ start of the transcript, using a single reaction, fluorescent-based, primer extension assay. This protocol allows for the rapid identification of transcriptional start sites of RNA transcripts, and could be used for high-throughput transcript mapping. PMID:19162160

  7. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  8. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  9. The influence of preceding dive cycles on the foraging decisions of Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, T.; Sakamoto, K. Q.; Edwards, E. W. J.; Staniland, I. J.; Trathan, P. N.; Goto, Y.; Sato, K.; Naito, Y.; Takahashi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging strategy of many animals is thought to be determined by their past experiences. However, few empirical studies have investigated whether this is true in diving animals. We recorded three-dimensional movements and mouth-opening events from three Antarctic fur seals during their foraging trips to examine how they adapt their behaviour based on past experience—continuing to search for prey in the same area or moving to search in a different place. Each dive cycle was divided into a transit phase and a feeding phase. The linear horizontal distance travelled after feeding phases in each dive was affected by the mouth-opening rate during the previous 244 s, which typically covered two to three dive cycles. The linear distance travelled tended to be shorter when the mouth-opening rate in the previous 244 s was higher, i.e. seals tended to stay in the same areas with high prey-encounter rates. These results indicate that Antarctic fur seals follow decision-making strategies based on the past foraging experience over time periods longer than the immediately preceding dive. PMID:26156132

  10. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  11. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  12. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  13. Ovarian follicular morphometry of South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis).

    PubMed

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphometric characteristics of ovarian follicles and their distribution in the ovarian cortex in South American fur seal pups (Arctophoca australis). Samples were obtained from animals stranded in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. Ovaries were dissected, fixed, weighed, and processed by standard histological techniques. Ovarian weight increased with pup age and body length. There was an increase in the diameter of the oocytes (22.24 ± 0.6 to 68.2 ± 5.3 µm), the nuclei (10.04 ± 0.2 to 20.7 ± 1.6 µm), and follicles (30.4 ± 1.2 to 252.6 ± 53.6 µm) of type 1 to type 5 follicles; there was a wide range of variation in the diameter of follicle type 4 and 5. Granulosa layer thickness increased between follicles type 3 and 4, whereas between type 4 and 5 there was a reduction. Thecal layer from follicles type 3 and 4 consisted of 1-2 layers of cells, whereas type 5 showed an increase in thickness (3.13 ± 0.3 to 13.8 ± 5.2 µm). Follicles type 1 and 2 occupied superficial regions within the ovarian cortex while the remaining follicles had a deeper location. These results provide a basis for comparison with females of other age categories as well as follicular dynamics studies in South American fur seals. PMID:23959768

  14. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Thierry; Jouventin, Pierre; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd. PMID:26331475

  15. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time. PMID:26624382

  16. Keeping warm with fur in cold water: entrainment of air in hairy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap air in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of air trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of air that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.

  17. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  19. Role of the small RNA RyhB in the Fur regulon in mediating the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and iron acquisition systems are important determinants of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and we have previously reported that the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can play dual role in iron acquisition and CPS biosynthesis. In many bacteria, Fur negatively controls the transcription of the small non-coding RNA RyhB to modulate cellular functions and virulence. However, in K. pneumoniae, the role played by RyhB in the Fur regulon has not been characterised. This study investigated Fur regulation of ryhB transcription and the functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae. Results Deletion of fur from K. pneumoniae increased the transcription of ryhB; the electric mobility shift assay and the Fur-titration assay revealed that Fur could bind to the promoter region of ryhB, suggesting that Fur directly represses ryhB transcription. Additionally, in a Δfur strain with elevated CPS production, deletion of ryhB obviously reduced CPS production. The following promoter-reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR of cps genes verified that RyhB activated orf1 and orf16 transcription to elevate CPS production. However, deletion of ryhB did not affect the mRNA levels of rcsA, rmpA, or rmpA2. These results imply that Fur represses the transcription of ryhB to mediate the biosynthesis of CPS, which is independent of RcsA, RmpA, and RmpA2. In addition, the Δfur strain’s high level of serum resistance was attenuated by the deletion of ryhB, indicating that RyhB plays a positive role in protecting the bacterium from serum killing. Finally, deletion of ryhB in Δfur reduced the expression of several genes corresponding to 3 iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae, and resulted in reduced siderophore production. Conclusions The regulation and functional role of RyhB in K. pneumoniae is characterized in this study. RyhB participates in Fur regulon to modulate the bacterial CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition systems in K. pneumoniae

  20. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  1. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  2. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  3. Going Camping? Don't Forget To Pack Your Calculator; On the Trail of the Fur Traders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

    1997-01-01

    This article contains three parts and revolves around the theme of canoeing. Owners of an outdoor outfitter explain how they use mathematics daily in their business and in trip planning. Also describes the life of fur traders before 1850. Suggestions for teachers include advice on planning a canoe trip with mathematics students. Contains planning…

  4. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  5. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules Promulgated Under Authority...

  6. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  7. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - ST. GEORGE ISLAND - CHART #16381

    EPA Science Inventory

    St. George Island was digitized from NOAA Marine Chart #16381. Map details include ledge nesting seabirds, fur seal rookeries, fur seal and Steller sea lion haul out grounds, water depth and land. This map was created for EPA Region 10 Water Division to evaluate NPDES permit site...

  10. The gonococcal Fur-regulated tbpA and tbpB genes are expressed during natural mucosal gonococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sarika; King, Carol A; Klein, Ellen K; Soper, David E; Rice, Peter A; Wetzler, Lee M; Genco, Caroline A

    2005-07-01

    Iron is limiting in the human host, and bacterial pathogens respond to this environment by regulating gene expression through the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur). In vitro studies have demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae controls the expression of several critical genes through an iron- and Fur-mediated mechanism. While most in vitro experiments are designed to determine the response of N. gonorrhoeae to an exogenous iron concentration of zero, these organisms are unlikely to be exposed to such severe limitations of iron in vivo. To determine if N. gonorrhoeae expresses iron- and Fur-regulated genes in vivo during uncomplicated gonococcal infection, we examined gene expression profiles of specimens obtained from male subjects with urethral infections. RNA was isolated from urethral swab specimens and used as a template to amplify, by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gonococcal genes known to be regulated by iron and Fur (tbpA, tbpB, and fur). The constitutively expressed gonococcal rmp gene was used as a positive control. RT-PCR analysis indicated that gonorrhea-positive specimens where rmp expression was seen were also 93% (51/55) fbpA positive, 87% (48/55) tbpA positive, and 86% (14 of 16 tested) tbpB positive. In addition, we detected a fur transcript in 79% (37 of 47 tested) of positive specimens. We also measured increases in levels of immunoglobulin G antibody against TbpA (91%) and TbpB (73%) antigens in sera from infected male subjects compared to those in uninfected controls. A positive trend between tbpA gene expression and TbpA antibody levels in sera indicated a relationship between levels of gene expression and immune response in male subjects infected with gonorrhea for the first time. These results indicate that gonococcal iron- and Fur-regulated tbpA and tbpB genes are expressed in gonococcal infection and that male subjects with mucosal gonococcal infections exhibit antibodies to these proteins. PMID:15972520

  11. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  12. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  13. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research Lab Research Compliance Research Integrity & ...

  14. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  15. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  16. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  17. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  18. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  19. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  20. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  2. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  3. Barrow-in-Furness: a large community legionellosis outbreak in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E; Ashton, M; Calvert, N; Chaloner, J; Cheesbrough, J; Egan, J; Farrell, I; Hall, I; Harrison, T G; Naik, F C; Partridge, S; Syed, Q; Gent, R N

    2014-08-01

    A community outbreak of legionellosis occurred in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, during July and August 2002. A descriptive study and active case-finding were instigated and all known wet cooling systems and other potential sources were investigated. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical human and environmental isolates confirmed the air-conditioning unit of a council-owned arts and leisure centre to be the source of infection. Subsequent sequence-based typing confirmed this link. One hundred and seventy-nine cases, including seven deaths [case fatality rate (CFR) 3·9%] were attributed to the outbreak. Timely recognition and management of the incident very likely led to the low CFR compared to other outbreaks. The outbreak highlights the responsibility associated with managing an aerosol-producing system, with the potential to expose and infect a large proportion of the local population and the consequent legal ramifications and human cost. PMID:24112310

  4. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

    SciTech Connect

    Smillie, R.H.; Waid, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Seals occupy a high trophic level in the marine ecosystem and have large reserves of subcutaneous fats. It is, therefore, not surprising that they accumulate high concentration of lipophilic substances such as organochlorine pesticides. Seal tissue concentration of pesticides are considered by some workers to be a good indication of local environmental loads. The Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks occupy a breading colony from which they can range into Bass Strait, Westernport Bay and Port Phillip Bay. It is, therefore, reasonable that results obtained for local seals should provide an indication of pesticides and PCBs in local squid and schooling fish. Previous results indicate that biota in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait, adjacent to the colony are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. The authors have determined PCB and pesticide levels in local seals.

  6. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process

    PubMed Central

    Jouventin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In otariids, mother’s recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother’s voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother’s calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd. PMID:26331475

  7. Mycoplasmas in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus): identification and association with abortion.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Taylor, Trevor K; Duignan, Pádraig J; Swingler, Jane; Marenda, Marc; Arnould, John P Y; Kirkwood, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria from the genus Mycoplasma are common inhabitants of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genital tracts of mammals. The understanding of the pathological significance of mycoplasmas in seals is poor, as few studies have utilized the specific culture techniques required to isolate these bacteria. The current study surveyed for the Mycoplasma species present in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) and investigated the association between infection and pathology. Mycoplasmas were found in the nasal cavities of 55/80 (69%) of apparently healthy individuals. Isolates from 18 individuals were investigated through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and 3 species were identified: M. zalophi, M. phocae, and Mycoplasma sp. (GenBank no. EU714238.1), all of which had previously been isolated from Northern Hemisphere pinnipeds. In addition, mycoplasmas were isolated from the lungs of 4 out of 16 juveniles and 1 out of 5 adults sampled at necropsy. Isolates obtained were M. zalophi, Mycoplasma sp. EU714238.1, and M. phocicerebrale, but infection was not associated with lung pathology in these age classes. Inflammatory disease processes of the heart and/or lungs were present in 12 out of 32 (38%) aborted fetuses on microscopic examination. Predominant findings were interstitial pneumonia, pericarditis, and myocarditis. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was isolated from the thymus of an aborted fetus, and 3 out of 11 (27%) fetuses with inflammatory heart or lung lesions were PCR-positive for Mycoplasma. In conclusion, several species of Mycoplasma are part of the normal flora of the nasal cavity of Australian fur seals, and some mycoplasmas may be associated with abortion in this species of seal. PMID:22362792

  8. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Arnould, John P Y; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2015-07-01

    The degree of individual specialization in resource use differs widely among wild populations where individuals range from fully generalized to highly specialized. This interindividual variation has profound implications in many ecological and evolutionary processes. A recent review proposed four main ecological causes of individual specialization: interspecific and intraspecific competition, ecological opportunity and predation. Using the isotopic signature of subsampled whiskers, we investigated to what degree three of these factors (interspecific and intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity) affect the population niche width and the level of individual foraging specialization in two fur seal species, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis), over several years. Population niche width was greater when the two seal species bred in allopatry (low interspecific competition) than in sympatry or when seals bred in high-density stabilized colonies (high intraspecific competition). In agreement with the niche variation hypothesis (NVH), higher population niche width was associated with higher interindividual niche variation. However, in contrast to the NVH, all Antarctic females increased their niche width during the interbreeding period when they had potential access to a wider diversity of foraging grounds and associated prey (high ecological opportunities), suggesting they all dispersed to a similar productive area. The degree of individual specialization varied among populations and within the annual cycle. Highest levels of interindividual variation were found in a context of lower interspecific or higher intraspecific competition. Contrasted results were found concerning the effect of ecological opportunity. Depending on seal species, females exhibited either a greater or lower degree of individual specialization during the interbreeding period, reflecting species-specific biological constraints

  9. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  10. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  11. Genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Farmed Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus) and Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Yang, Ziyin; Liu, Aiqin; Zhang, Longxian; Yang, Fengkun; Wang, Rongjun; Ling, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species of microsporidia found both in humans and animals. Farmed animals, particularly closely associated to humans, may play an important role of zoonotic reservoir in transmitting this disease to humans. The fur industry is a major economic component in some parts of China. To understand the prevalence, genotype variety and zoonotic risk of E. bieneusi in farmed foxes and raccoon dogs, two species of fur animals, fecal specimens of 110 blue foxes and 49 raccoon dogs from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces in China were examined by internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based PCR. E. bieneusi was detected in 16.4% (18/110) blue foxes and 4.1% (2/49) raccoon dogs. Altogether, four genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, including two known genotypes D (n = 13) and EbpC (n = 5), and two novel genotypes named as CHN-F1 (n = 1) in a fox and CHN-R1 (n = 1) in a raccoon dog. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the four genotypes were the members of zoonotic group 1. Genotypes D and EbpC were found in humans previously. The findings of zoonotic genotypes of E. bieneusi in the foxes and raccoon dogs suggest these animals infected with E. bieneusi may pose a threat to human health. PMID:26544711

  12. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Petroleum, oil, and lubricants area, Galena Airport, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-05

    This decision document presents the selected removal action for the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site ST005, otherwise known as the POL Tank Farm, at Galena Airport, Alaska. This decision is based on the administrative record for this site, specifically the draft Remedial Investigation Report (March 1995) and the Treatability Study Report (January 1995) (PB95-225314). The information from these documents is summarized, along with an analysis of potential removal action alternatives in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

  13. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  14. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  15. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  16. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  17. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: I. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The...

  18. Development of a Fur-dependent and tightly regulated expression system in Escherichia coli for toxic protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a continuous demanding for tightly regulated prokaryotic expression systems, which allow functional synthesis of toxic proteins in Escherichia coli for bioscience or biotechnology application. However, most of the current promoter options either are tightly repressed only with low protein production levels, or produce substantial protein but lacking of the necessary repression to avoid mutations initiated by leaky expression in the absence of inducer. The aim of this study was to develop a tightly regulated, relatively high-efficient expression vector in E. coli based on the principle of iron uptake system. Results By using GFP as reporter, PfhuA with the highest relative fluorescence units, but leaky expression, was screened from 23 iron-regulated promoter candidates. PfhuA was repressed by ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-Fe2+ complex binding to Fur box locating at the promoter sequence. Otherwise, PfhuA was activated without Fur-Fe2+ binding in the absence of iron. In order to improve the tightness of PfhuA regulation for toxic gene expression, Fur box in promoter sequence and fur expression were refined through five different approaches. Eventually, through substituting E. coli consensus Fur box for original one of PfhuA, the induction ratio of modified PfhuA (named PfhuA1) was improved from 3 to 101. Under the control of PfhuA1, strong toxic gene E was successfully expressed in high, middle, low copy-number vectors, and other two toxic proteins, Gef and MazF were functionally synthesized without E. coli death before induction. Conclusions The features of easy control, tight regulation and relatively high efficiency were combined in the newly engineered PfhuA1. Under this promoter, the toxic genes E, gef and mazF were functionally expressed in E. coli induced by iron chelator in a tightly controllable way. This study provides a tightly regulated expression system that might enable the stable cloning, and functional synthesis of toxic proteins

  19. Korrelationsstatistischer Vergleich zweier Schulleistungstests fur den Unterricht in Englisch an Hauptschulen (Comparison by Statistical Correlation of Two English Achievement Tests for Intermediate Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Holger; Scheibner-Herzig, Gudrun

    1971-01-01

    Expanded version of a lecture given at a meeting of the Teachers of Modern Languages in Colleges of Education (Tagung der Fachdidaktiker fur neuere Sprachen an den Padagogischen Hochschulen), October 1, 1970 in Luneburg, West Germany. (RS)

  20. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode. PMID:26449976