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Sample records for alaska fur farm

  1. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeppelin, T K; Johnson, D S; Kuhn, C E; Iverson, S J; Ream, R R

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators.

  2. Organohalogen Contaminants and Vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) Collected During Subsistence Hunts in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Becker, Paul R; Gribble, Matthew O; Lynch, Jennifer M; Moors, Amanda J; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects.

  3. Organohalogen contaminants and vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected during subsistence hunts in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Jessica L.; Becker, Paul R.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Moors, Amanda J.; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M.; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R.

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT and metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects. PMID:26142120

  4. Stable Isotope Models Predict Foraging Habitat of Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Zeppelin, T. K.; Johnson, D. S.; Kuhn, C. E.; Iverson, S. J.; Ream, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We developed models to predict foraging habitat of adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values from plasma and red blood cells. Binomial generalized linear mixed models were developed using blood isotope samples collected from 35 adult female fur seals on three breeding colonies in Alaska during July-October 2006. Satellite location and dive data were used to define habitat use in terms of the proportion of time spent or dives made in different oceanographic/bathymetric domains. For both plasma and red blood cells, the models accurately predicted habitat use for animals that foraged exclusively off or on the continental shelf. The models did not perform as well in predicting habitat use for animals that foraged in both on- and off-shelf habitat; however, sample sizes for these animals were small. Concurrently collected scat, fatty acid, and dive data confirmed that the foraging differences predicted by isotopes were associated with diet differences. Stable isotope samples, dive data, and GPS location data collected from an additional 15 females during August-October 2008 validated the effective use of the models across years. Little within year variation in habitat use was indicated from the comparison between stable isotope values from plasma (representing 1-2 weeks) and red blood cells (representing the prior few months). Constructing predictive models using stable isotopes provides an effective means to assess habitat use at the population level, is inexpensive, and can be applied to other marine predators. PMID:26030280

  5. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  6. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak. PMID:17217090

  8. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...) petitioned NMFS to revise regulations governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals on St. Paul..., Alaska to: Take male young of the year (less than 1 year old) fur seals; take a total of up to 3,000...

  9. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  11. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  12. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  13. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  14. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  15. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  16. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  17. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  18. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  19. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  20. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  1. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  2. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  3. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  4. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  5. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products having furs with different... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.13 Fur products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs...

  6. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be...

  7. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. No domestic furs nor fur products shall be labeled, invoiced...

  8. 16 CFR 301.37 - Manner of invoicing furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manner of invoicing furs and fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.37 Manner of invoicing furs and fur products. (a) In the invoicing of furs and fur products, all of the required...

  9. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  10. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  11. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  12. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  13. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  14. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempted fur products. 301.39 Section 301.39... REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.39 Exempted fur products. (a) If the cost of any fur trim or other manufactured fur or furs contained in a fur product, exclusive of any costs...

  15. Field Lines of Flying Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a demonstration that uses insulated conductors and hairs clipped from rabbit fur to help students visualize the electric field in three dimensions and motivate them to try their own variations. (JRH)

  16. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  17. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  18. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  19. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  20. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina or Body: Dyed Kolinsky Fur origin: Russia Tail: Dyed Mink Fur origin: Canada (b) The provisions...

  1. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... less without a fur-content label. B. TFLA On December 18, 2010, the President signed TFLA into law... concerning consumer perception of the fur names required by the Name Guide. Does this evidence indicate...

  2. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  3. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  4. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  5. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  6. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  7. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  8. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  9. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  10. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  11. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.22 Disclosure of damaged furs. (a) The term damaged fur, as used in this part, means a fur, which, because of a known or patent...

  12. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  13. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGES

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; ...

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  14. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg-1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg-1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation

  15. 16 CFR 301.18 - Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passing off domestic furs as imported furs prohibited. 301.18 Section 301.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.18 Passing...

  16. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  17. α-fur, an antisense RNA gene to fur in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, C; Jedlicki, E; Holmes, D S

    2014-03-01

    A large non-coding RNA, termed α-Fur, of ~1000 nt has been detected in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans encoded on the antisense strand to the iron-responsive master regulator fur (ferric uptake regulator) gene. A promoter for α-fur was predicted bioinformatically and validated using gene fusion experiments. The promoter is situated within the coding region and in the same sense as proB, potentially encoding a glutamate 5-kinase. The 3' termination site of the α-fur transcript was determined by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to lie 7 nt downstream of the start of transcription of fur. Thus, α-fur is antisense to the complete coding region of fur, including its predicted ribosome-binding site. The genetic context of α-fur is conserved in several members of the genus Acidithiobacillus but not in all acidophiles, indicating that it is monophyletic but not niche specific. It is hypothesized that α-Fur regulates the cellular level of Fur. This is the fourth example of an antisense RNA to fur, although it is the first in an extreme acidophile, and underscores the growing importance of cis-encoded non-coding RNAs as potential regulators involved in the microbial iron-responsive stimulon.

  18. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  19. Structure and regulon of Campylobacter jejuni ferric uptake regulator Fur define apo-Fur regulation.

    PubMed

    Butcher, James; Sarvan, Sabina; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Couture, Jean-François; Stintzi, Alain

    2012-06-19

    The full regulatory potential of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of proteins remains undefined despite over 20 years of study. We report herein an integrated approach that combines both genome-wide technologies and structural studies to define the role of Fur in Campylobacter jejuni (Cj). CjFur ChIP-chip assays identified 95 genomic loci bound by CjFur associated with functions as diverse as iron acquisition, flagellar biogenesis, and non-iron ion transport. Comparative analysis with transcriptomic data revealed that CjFur regulation extends beyond solely repression and also includes both gene activation and iron-independent regulation. Computational analysis revealed the presence of an elongated holo-Fur repression motif along with a divergent holo-Fur activation motif. This diversity of CjFur DNA-binding elements is supported by the crystal structure of CjFur, which revealed a unique conformation of its DNA-binding domain and the absence of metal in the regulatory site. Strikingly, our results indicate that the apo-CjFur structure retains the canonical V-shaped dimer reminiscent of previously characterized holo-Fur proteins enabling DNA interaction. This conformation stems from a structurally unique hinge domain that is poised to further contribute to CjFur's regulatory functions by modulating the orientation of the DNA-binding domain upon binding of iron. The unique features of the CjFur crystal structure rationalize the binding sequence diversity that was uncovered during ChIP-chip analysis and defines apo-Fur regulation.

  20. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  1. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  2. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  3. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  4. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  5. 16 CFR 301.21 - Disclosure of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of used furs. 301.21 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.21 Disclosure of used furs. (a) When fur in any form has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer it shall be designated “used fur” as...

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  7. Genetic diversity and population parameters of sea otters, Enhydra lutris, before fur trade extirpation from 1741-1911.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged.

  8. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  9. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  10. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  11. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  12. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  13. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  14. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Canada or Body: 100% Cotton Lining: 100% Nylon Collar: Dyed Mouton Lamb Fur Origin: Argentina (b... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink...

  15. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia...

  16. The oldest known fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The poorly known fossil record of fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) does not reflect their current diversity and widespread abundance. This limited fossil record contrasts with the more complete fossil records of other pinnipeds such as walruses (Odobenidae). The oldest known otariids appear 5–6 Ma after the earliest odobenids, and the remarkably derived craniodental morphology of otariids offers few clues to their early evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities among pinnipeds. We report a new otariid, Eotaria crypta, from the lower middle Miocene ‘Topanga’ Formation (15–17.1 Ma) of southern California, represented by a partial mandible with well-preserved dentition. Eotaria crypta is geochronologically intermediate between ‘enaliarctine’ stem pinnipedimorphs (16.6–27 Ma) and previously described otariid fossils (7.3–12.5 Ma), as well as morphologically intermediate by retaining an M2 and a reduced M1 metaconid cusp and lacking P2–4 metaconid cusps. Eotaria crypta eliminates the otariid ghost lineage and confirms that otariids evolved from an ‘enaliarctine’-like ancestor. PMID:25672999

  17. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  18. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  19. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  20. The fur transcription regulator and fur-regulated genes in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibin; Ma, Junhua; Zang, Chengyuan; Song, Yingying; Liu, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming bacterium that can produce a very powerful neurotoxin that causes botulism. In this study, we have investigated the Fur transcription regulators in Clostridium botulinum and Fur-regulated genes in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502. We found that gene loss may be the main cause leading to the different numbers of Fur transcription regulators in different Clostridium botulinum strains. Meanwhile, 46 operons were found to be regulated by the Fur transcription regulator in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502, involved in several functional classifications, including iron acquisition, iron utilization, iron transport, and transcription regulator. Under an iron-restricted medium, we experimentally found that a Fur transcription regulator (CBO1372) and two operons (DedA, CBO2610-CBO2614 and ABC transporter, CBO0845-CBO0847) are shown to be differentially expressed in Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 3502. This study has provided-us novel insights into the diversity of Fur transcription regulators in different Clostridium botulinum strains and diversity of Fur-targeted genes, as well as a better understanding of the dynamic changes in iron restriction occurring in response to this stress.

  1. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...The Federal Trade Commission proposes to amend its Regulations under the Fur Products Labeling Act to update its Fur Products Name Guide, provide more labeling flexibility, incorporate recently enacted Truth in Fur Labeling Act provisions, and eliminate unnecessary requirements. The Commission does not propose changing or providing alternatives to the required name on labels for nyctereutes......

  2. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  3. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  4. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  5. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  6. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  7. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  8. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  9. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  10. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  11. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  12. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  13. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  14. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  15. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  16. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  17. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  18. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b)...

  19. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person...

  20. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage....

  1. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misrepresentation of origin of furs. 301.17... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.17 Misrepresentation of origin of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of...

  2. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  3. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  4. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  5. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  6. 16 CFR 301.23 - Second-hand fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Second-hand fur products. 301.23 Section 301... AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.23 Second-hand fur products. When a...-hand”, “Reconditioned-Second-hand”, or “Rebuilt-Second-hand”, as the case may be....

  7. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertisement to a color of the fur which was caused by dyeing, bleaching or other artificial coloring, such... Dyed Persian Lamb Since 1900 or X Company Manufacturers of Fine Muskrat Coats, Capes and Stoles...

  8. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  9. Fur-mediated global regulatory circuits in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-12-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits.

  10. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  11. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed China Mink Fur Origin: China (3) In addition to the required disclosure of country of origin the name of... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia...

  12. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  13. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  14. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  15. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  16. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  17. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and... Article II(2)(b) of the Treaty (see § 23.89). The import, export, or re-export of fur skins and fur...

  18. Expression of fur and its antisense α-fur from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 as response to light and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martin-Luna, Beatriz; Sevilla, Emma; Gonzalez, Andres; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, Maria F; Peleato, M Luisa

    2011-12-15

    Ferric uptake regulation (Fur) proteins are prokaryotic transcriptional regulators that integrate signaling of iron metabolism and oxidative stress responses with several environmental stresses. In photosynthetic organisms, Fur proteins regulate many genes involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and other key processes. Also, Fur triggers the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens, and Fur from Microcystis aeruginosa has been shown to bind promoter regions of the microcystin synthesis gene cluster. In this work, we studied transcriptional responses of fur genes under different light intensities and oxidative stress. An antisense of fur, the α-fur RNA, plays an important role in regulating fur expression under oxidative stress, affecting levels of Fur protein in cells. Importantly, an active photosynthetic electron chain is required for the expression of the fur gene.

  19. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.

  20. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  1. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  2. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  3. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  4. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guadalupe fur seal. 223.201 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  5. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.17 Disposal of furs and pelts. The disposition of animals and the pelts...

  6. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Characterization of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Iron and Fur Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao; McClure, Ryan; Daou, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Neisseria gonorrhoeae ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein controls expression of iron homeostasis genes in response to intracellular iron levels. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of an N. gonorrhoeae fur strain, we defined the gonococcal Fur and iron regulons and characterized Fur-controlled expression of an ArsR-like DNA binding protein. We observed that 158 genes (8% of the genome) showed differential expression in response to iron in an N. gonorrhoeae wild-type or fur strain, while 54 genes exhibited differential expression in response to Fur. The Fur regulon was extended to additional regulators, including NrrF and 13 other small RNAs (sRNAs), and two transcriptional factors. One transcriptional factor, coding for an ArsR-like regulator (ArsR), exhibited increased expression under iron-replete conditions in the wild-type strain but showed decreased expression across iron conditions in the fur strain, an effect that was reversed in a fur-complemented strain. Fur was shown to bind to the promoter region of the arsR gene downstream of a predicted σ70 promoter region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis confirmed binding of the ArsR protein to the norB promoter region, and sequence analysis identified two additional putative targets, NGO1411 and NGO1646. A gonococcal arsR strain demonstrated decreased survival in human endocervical epithelial cells compared to that of the wild-type and arsR-complemented strains, suggesting that the ArsR regulon includes genes required for survival in host cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the N. gonorrhoeae Fur functions as a global regulatory protein to repress or activate expression of a large repertoire of genes, including additional transcriptional regulatory proteins. IMPORTANCE Gene regulation in bacteria in response to environmental stimuli, including iron, is of paramount importance to both bacterial replication and, in the case of pathogenic

  8. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final estimates of annual fur... ] northern fur seals, NMFS is publishing the annual fur seal subsistence harvests on St. George and St. Paul Islands (the Pribilof Islands) for 2008 to 2010, and the annual estimates for the fur seal...

  9. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  10. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  11. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  12. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  13. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  14. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  15. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  16. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  17. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  18. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  19. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  20. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  1. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  2. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  3. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  4. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  5. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  6. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  7. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  8. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  9. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  10. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  11. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs. 301.14... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly...

  12. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  13. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  14. 16 CFR 301.34 - Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.34 Misbranded or falsely invoiced fur products. (a) If a person subject to section 3 of the Act with respect to a fur product...

  15. 16 CFR 301.15 - Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furs permitted. 301.15 Section 301.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.15 Designation of section producing domestic furs permitted. In the case of furs produced in the United...

  16. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  17. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of Fur Products Name Guide. 301.5... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.5 Use of Fur Products Name Guide. (a) The Fur Products Name Guide (§ 301.0 of this part) is set up in four columns under the...

  18. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  19. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  20. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  2. The structure of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator Fur reveals three functional metal binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dian, Cyril; Vitale, Sylvia; Leonard, Gordon A; Bahlawane, Christelle; Fauquant, Caroline; Leduc, Damien; Muller, Cécile; de Reuse, Hilde; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Terradot, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Fur, the ferric uptake regulator, is a transcription factor that controls iron metabolism in bacteria. Binding of ferrous iron to Fur triggers a conformational change that activates the protein for binding to specific DNA sequences named Fur boxes. In Helicobacter pylori, HpFur is involved in acid response and is important for gastric colonization in model animals. Here we present the crystal structure of a functionally active HpFur mutant (HpFur2M; C78S-C150S) bound to zinc. Although its fold is similar to that of other Fur and Fur-like proteins, the crystal structure of HpFur reveals a unique structured N-terminal extension and an unusual C-terminal helix. The structure also shows three metal binding sites: S1 the structural ZnS₄ site previously characterized biochemically in HpFur and the two zinc sites identified in other Fur proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy analyses of purified wild-type HpFur and various mutants show that the two metal binding sites common to other Fur proteins can be also metallated by cobalt. DNA protection and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate that, while these two sites influence the affinity of HpFur for DNA, only one is absolutely required for DNA binding and could be responsible for the conformational changes of Fur upon metal binding while the other is a secondary site.

  3. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... including cattle; sheep; pigs; goats; llamas; alpacas; and poultry only happens at petting zoos or on farm ...

  4. Correlations between elements in the fur of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Długaszek, Maria; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    There is little data on the elemental composition of wild animals fur. In the paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of elements in the fur of roe deer, wild boar and hare. The contents of following elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Their content was in the range 0.01 (Cd) to 1,519 (Ca) μg/g. Correlations between the content of Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Cr, Ni in the fur of animals, liver and muscle tissues were found. Thus it can be assumed that the fur of wild animals can provide an information on the bioavailability of elements and environmental exposure and can be considered as an useful biomarker in animals and environmental studies, although research on this subject should be continued.

  5. 11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans and Co., from Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, published 1902 for the City's 220th birthday - Arcade Building, Fifteenth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions....

  7. Salmonella meningoencephalomyelitis in a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinsus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Roelke, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  10. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  11. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  12. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv. PMID:26910324

  13. FurIOS: A Web-Based Tool for Identification of Vibrionaceae Species Using the fur Gene

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, João; Giubergia, Sonia; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification marker providing species discrimination, consistent with multi-locus sequencing analyses and whole genome phylogenies. To allow for broader and easy use of this marker, we have developed an online prediction service that allows the identification of Vibrionaceae species based on their fur-sequence. The input is a DNA sequence that can be uploaded on the web service; the output is a table containing the strain identifier, e-value, and percentage of identity for each of the matches with rows colored in green for hits with high probability of being the same species. The service is available on the web at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/furIOS-1.0/. The fur-sequences can be derived either from genome sequences or from PCR-amplification of the genomic region encoding the fur gene. We have used 191 strains identified as Vibrionaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequence to test the PCR method and the web service on a large dataset. We were able to classify 171 of 191 strains at the species level and 20 strains remained unclassified. Furthermore, the fur phylogenetics and subsequent in silico DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that two strains (ATCC 33789 and ZS-139) previously identified as Vibrio splendidus are more closely related to V. tasmaniensis and V. cyclitrophicus, respectively. FurIOS is an easy-to-use online service that allows the identification of bacteria from the Vibrionaceae family at the species level using the fur gene as a single marker. Its simplistic design and straightforward pipeline makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry. PMID:28348552

  14. FurIOS: A Web-Based Tool for Identification of Vibrionaceae Species Using the fur Gene.

    PubMed

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, João; Giubergia, Sonia; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification marker providing species discrimination, consistent with multi-locus sequencing analyses and whole genome phylogenies. To allow for broader and easy use of this marker, we have developed an online prediction service that allows the identification of Vibrionaceae species based on their fur-sequence. The input is a DNA sequence that can be uploaded on the web service; the output is a table containing the strain identifier, e-value, and percentage of identity for each of the matches with rows colored in green for hits with high probability of being the same species. The service is available on the web at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/furIOS-1.0/. The fur-sequences can be derived either from genome sequences or from PCR-amplification of the genomic region encoding the fur gene. We have used 191 strains identified as Vibrionaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequence to test the PCR method and the web service on a large dataset. We were able to classify 171 of 191 strains at the species level and 20 strains remained unclassified. Furthermore, the fur phylogenetics and subsequent in silico DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that two strains (ATCC 33789 and ZS-139) previously identified as Vibrio splendidus are more closely related to V. tasmaniensis and V. cyclitrophicus, respectively. FurIOS is an easy-to-use online service that allows the identification of bacteria from the Vibrionaceae family at the species level using the fur gene as a single marker. Its simplistic design and straightforward pipeline makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry.

  15. Quantification of the effects of fur, fur color, and velocity on Time-Of-Flight technology in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Salau, Jennifer; Bauer, Ulrike; Haas, Jan H; Thaller, Georg; Harms, Jan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    With increasing herd sizes, camera based monitoring solutions rise in importance. 3D cameras, for example Time-Of-Flight (TOF) cameras, measure depth information. These additional information (3D data) could be beneficial for monitoring in dairy production. In previous studies regarding TOF technology, only standing cows were recorded to avoid motion artifacts. Therefore, necessary conditions for a TOF camera application in dairy cows are examined in this study. For this purpose, two cow models with plaster and fur surface, respectively, were recorded at four controlled velocities to quantify the effects of movement, fur color, and fur. Comparison criteria concerning image usability, pixel-wise deviation, and precision in coordinate determination were defined. Fur and fur color showed large effects (η (2)=0.235 and η (2)=0.472, respectively), which became even more considerable when the models were moving. The velocity of recorded animals must therefore be controlled when using TOF cameras. As another main result, body parts which lie in the middle of the cow model's back can be determined neglecting the effect of velocity or fur. With this in mind, further studies may obtain sound results using TOF technology in dairy production.

  16. Characterization of a New Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma in Fur Animals and Its Association with Arcanobacterium phocae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Kivistö, Ilkka; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Korpela, Johanna; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Hetzel, Udo; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010–2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison) by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides), it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species -shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp.) suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease. PMID:25302603

  17. Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis in North American farmed silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jo-Anna B.J.; Hudson, Robert C.; Marshall, H. Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis is a progressive growth of gingival tissues in foxes resulting in dental encapsulation. It is an autosomal recessive condition displaying a gender-biased penetrance, with an association with superior fur quality. This disease has been primarily described in European farmed foxes. Here we document its emergence in Canada. PMID:25829563

  18. Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis in North American farmed silver fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Hudson, Robert C; Marshall, H Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis is a progressive growth of gingival tissues in foxes resulting in dental encapsulation. It is an autosomal recessive condition displaying a gender-biased penetrance, with an association with superior fur quality. This disease has been primarily described in European farmed foxes. Here we document its emergence in Canada.

  19. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  20. Global analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon.

    PubMed

    Baichoo, Noel; Wang, Tao; Ye, Rick; Helmann, John D

    2002-09-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake repressor (Fur) protein coordinates a global transcriptional response to iron starvation. We have used DNA microarrays to define the Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon. We identify 20 operons (containing 39 genes) that are derepressed both by mutation of fur and by treatment of cells with the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. These operons are direct targets of Fur regulation as judged by DNase I footprinting. Analyses of lacZ reporter fusions to six Fur-regulated promoter regions reveal that repression is highly selective for iron. In addition to the Fur regulon, iron starvation induces members of the PerR regulon and leads to reduced expression of cytochromes. However, we did not find any evidence for genes that are directly activated by Fur or repressed by Fur under iron-limiting conditions. Although genome searches using the 19 bp Fur box consensus are useful in identifying candidate Fur-regulated genes, some genes associated with Fur boxes are not demonstrably regulated by Fur, whereas other genes are regulated from sites with little apparent similarity to the conventional Fur consensus.

  1. A functional ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Almarza, Oscar; Valderrama, Katherine; Ayala, Manuel; Segovia, Cristopher; Santander, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative fastidious facultative intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS). The P. salmonis iron acquisition mechanisms and its molecular regulation are unknown. Iron is an essential element for bacterial pathogenesis. Typically, genes that encode for the iron acquisition machinery are regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. P. salmonis fur sequence database reveals a diversity of fur genes without functional verification. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacterium, we evaluated the functionality of P. salmonis fur in the Salmonella Δfur heterologous system. Although P. salmonis fur gene strongly differed from the common Fur sequences, it restored the regulatory mechanisms of iron acquisition in Salmonella. We concluded that P. salmonis LF-89 has a conserved functional Fur protein, which reinforces the importance of iron during fish infection. [Int Microbiol 2016; 49-55].

  2. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity.

  3. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  4. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  5. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  6. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  7. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or...

  8. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    PubMed

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  9. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  10. Expression of the gonococcal global regulatory protein Fur and genes encompassing the Fur and iron regulon during in vitro and in vivo infection in women.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sarika; Sebastian, Shite; Szmigielski, Borys; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-05-01

    The ferric uptake regulatory protein, Fur, functions as a global regulatory protein of gene transcription in the mucosal pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have shown previously that several N. gonorrhoeae Fur-repressed genes are expressed in vivo during mucosal gonococcal infection in men, which suggests that this organism infects in an iron-limited environment and that Fur is expressed under these conditions. In this study we have demonstrated expression of the gonococcal fur gene in vitro, in human cervical epithelial cells, and in specimens from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection. In vitro studies confirmed that the expression of the gonococcal fur gene was repressed during growth under iron-replete growth conditions but that a basal level of the protein was maintained. Using GFP transcriptional fusions constructed from specific Fur binding sequences within the fur promoter/operator region, we determined that this operator region was functional during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR analysis, as well as microarray analysis, using a custom Neisseria Fur and iron regulon microarray revealed that several Fur- and iron-regulated genes were expressed during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Microarray analysis of specimens obtained from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection corroborated our in vitro findings and point toward a key role of gonococcal Fur- and iron-regulated genes in gonococcal disease.

  11. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  12. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  13. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  14. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  15. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  16. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  17. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  18. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  19. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  20. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  1. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  2. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  3. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  4. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  5. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  6. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  7. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  8. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  9. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  10. 16 CFR 301.40 - Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fur product. 301.40 Section 301.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.40 Item number or mark to be assigned to each fur product. (a) For the purpose of identification, each...

  11. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representations as to construction of fur... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.45 Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to...

  12. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. (a) Fur products imported into the United States shall have...

  13. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Injunctive and Condemnation Proceedings § 1.63 Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products...

  14. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  15. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.31 Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and...

  16. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  17. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  18. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  19. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  20. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols... fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. (a) The advertising or the labeling of a textile... connote or signify a fur-bearing animal, unless such product or the part thereof in connection with...

  1. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS....24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  2. Regulation of haemolysin (VvhA) production by ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in Vibrio vulnificus: repression of vvhA transcription by Fur and proteolysis of VvhA by Fur-repressive exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Mi-Ae; Park, Soon-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2013-05-01

    VvhA produced by Vibrio vulnificus exhibits cytolytic activity to human cells including erythrocytes. Since haemolysis by VvhA may provide iron for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, we investigated the expression of VvhA to elucidate the regulatory roles of Fur, a major transcription factor controlling iron-homeostasis. Fur repressed the transcription of vvhBA operon via binding to the promoter region. However, haemolysin content and haemolytic activity were lowered in cell-free supernatant of fur mutant. This discrepancy between the levels of vvhA transcript and VvhA protein in fur mutant was caused by exoproteolytic activities of the elastase VvpE and another metalloprotease VvpM, which were also regulated by Fur. vvpE gene expression was repressed by Fur via binding to the Fur-box homologous region. Regulation of VvpM expression by Fur did not occur at the level of vvpM transcription. In vitro proteolysis assays showed that both proteases efficiently degraded VvhA. In addition, the extracellular levels of VvhA were higher in culture supernatants of vvpE or vvpM mutants than in the wild type. Thus this study demonstrates that Fur regulates haemolysin production at the transcription level of the vvhBA operon and at the post-translation level by regulating the expressions of two VvhA-degrading exoproteases, VvpE and VvpM.

  3. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  4. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  8. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course...

  9. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  10. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pelliciari, Simone; Vannini, Andrea; Roncarati, Davide; Danielli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress. Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur toward apo-operators, while the binding toward holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur toward the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to antibiotics.

  11. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  12. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  13. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  14. 8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF STUDDING, EXTERIOR WALL FURRING AND LINTELS FOR NEW WINDOW OPENINGS. NORTH WING, FIRST FLOOR DURING REHABILITATION OF HOSPITAL BUILDING, 1938. PLEASE CREDIT: BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS, NATIONAL ARCHIVES - U. S. Naval Asylum, Laning Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe fur... accomplished in a humane manner; (ii) Is for the protection or welfare of the animal, is for the protection of... steps designed to ensure the return of the animal to its natural habitat, if feasible; and (iv)...

  16. 50 CFR 31.17 - Disposal of furs and pelts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of furs and pelts. 31.17 Section 31.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of...

  17. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  18. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to the Guadalupe...

  19. Discovery of Fur binding site clusters in Escherichia coli by information theory models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehua; Lewis, Karen A.; Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Lyakhov, Ilya G.; Zheng, Ming; Doan, Bernard; Storz, Gisela; Schneider, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Fur is a DNA binding protein that represses bacterial iron uptake systems. Eleven footprinted Escherichia coli Fur binding sites were used to create an initial information theory model of Fur binding, which was then refined by adding 13 experimentally confirmed sites. When the refined model was scanned across all available footprinted sequences, sequence walkers, which are visual depictions of predicted binding sites, frequently appeared in clusters that fit the footprints (∼83% coverage). This indicated that the model can accurately predict Fur binding. Within the clusters, individual walkers were separated from their neighbors by exactly 3 or 6 bases, consistent with models in which Fur dimers bind on different faces of the DNA helix. When the E. coli genome was scanned, we found 363 unique clusters, which includes all known Fur-repressed genes that are involved in iron metabolism. In contrast, only a few of the known Fur-activated genes have predicted Fur binding sites at their promoters. These observations suggest that Fur is either a direct repressor or an indirect activator. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis Fur models are highly similar to the E. coli Fur model, suggesting that the Fur–DNA recognition mechanism may be conserved for even distantly related bacteria. PMID:17921503

  20. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) knockout mutant in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ebanks, Roger O; Goguen, Michel; Knickle, Leah; Dacanay, Andrew; Leslie, Andrew; Ross, Neil W; Pinto, Devanand M

    2013-03-23

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis; a serious infectious disease in aquaculture raised salmonids. Iron acquisition has been shown to be critical for the survival of pathogenic bacteria during the course of infection. Previous work has demonstrated that A. salmonicida expresses iron-repressible IROMP proteins, suggesting the presence of iron acquisition systems that are under the control of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur). In this study, the A. salmonicida fur has been sequenced and a fur deletion strain generated. The A. salmonicida fur gene has an open reading frame of 428 bp, coding for a protein of 143 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins. The Fur protein product had a 94% sequence identity and 96% sequence similarity to the Aeromonas hydrophila Fur protein product. Transcription of the A. salmonicida fur gene was not regulated by the iron status of the bacterium and is not autoregulated, as in Escherichia coli. Proteomic analysis of the A. salmonicida fur mutant, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. The A. salmonicida fur::KO mutant shows significantly reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild-type parental strain. In addition, the A. salmonicida fur mutant provides an important tool for further investigation of the iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by A. salmonicida.

  1. Identification of the fur-binding site in regulatory region of the vulnibactin-receptor gene in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2012-01-01

    The Vibrio vulnificus vuuA gene, of which expression is repressed by a complex of iron and ferric uptake regulator (Fur), was characterized to localize the Fur-binding site in its upstream regulatory region. In silico analysis suggested the presence of two possible Fur-binding sites; one is a classical Fur-box and the other is a previously reported distinct Fur-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis and DNase I protection assays revealed the binding site for the iron-Fur complex, which includes an extended inverted repeat containing a homologous sequence to the classical Fur-box.

  2. Origins of specificity and cross-talk in metal ion sensing by Bacillus subtilis Fur.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Faulkner, Melinda J; Helmann, John D

    2012-12-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in many bacteria, but how it responds specifically to Fe(II) in vivo is not clear. Biochemical analyses of Bacillus subtilis Fur (BsFur) reveal that in addition to Fe(II), both Zn(II) and Mn(II) allosterically activate BsFur-DNA binding. Dimeric BsFur co-purifies with site 1 structural Zn(II) (Fur(2) Zn(2) ) and can bind four additional Zn(II) or Mn(II) ions per dimer. Metal ion binding at previously described site 3 occurs with highest affinity, but the Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(2) form has only a modest increase in DNA binding affinity (approximately sevenfold). Metallation of site 2 (Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(4) ) leads to a ~ 150-fold further enhancement in DNA binding affinity. Fe(II) binding studies indicate that BsFur buffers the intracellular Fe(II) concentration at ~ 1 μM. Both Mn(II) and Zn(II) are normally buffered at levels insufficient for metallation of BsFur site 2, thereby accounting for the lack of cross-talk observed in vivo. However, in a perR mutant, where the BsFur concentration is elevated, BsFur may now use Mn(II) as a co-repressor and inappropriately repress iron uptake. Since PerR repression of fur is enhanced by Mn(II), and antagonized by Fe(II), PerR may co-regulate Fe(II) homeostasis by modulating BsFur levels in response to the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio.

  3. Fur Trade Era Interpretation. The Voyageur Sash and Garter and a Fur Trade Emblem: A Curiosity Ripe for Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wendy; Henderson, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Provides outdoor educators with background information for historical interpretation activities during Canadian canoe trips. Discusses the history, evolution, and uses of brightly colored sashes and garters worn by voyageurs during the fur trade era, and speculates on the origins of the Lauburu canoe emblem, used by both the Mic Mac peoples and…

  4. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  5. Identification of three novel antisense RNAs in the fur locus from unicellular cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Emma; Martín-Luna, Beatriz; González, Andrés; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús A; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2011-12-01

    The interplay between Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins and small, non-coding RNAs has been described as a key regulatory loop in several bacteria. In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a large dicistronic transcript encoding the putative membrane protein Alr1690 and an α-furA RNA is involved in the modulation of the global regulator FurA. In this work we report the existence of three novel antisense RNAs in cyanobacteria and show that a cis α-furA RNA is conserved in very different genomic contexts, namely in the unicellular cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Syα-fur RNA covers only part of the coding sequence of the fur orthologue sll0567, whose flanking genes encode two hypothetical proteins. Transcriptional analysis of fur and its adjacent genes in Microcystis unravels a highly compact organization of this locus involving overlapping transcripts. Maα-fur RNA spans the whole Mafur CDS and part of the flanking dnaJ and sufE sequences. In addition, Mafur seems to be part of a dicistronic operon encoding this regulator and an α-sufE RNA. These results allow new insights into the transcriptomes of two unicellular cyanobacteria and suggest that in M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, the α-fur and α-sufE RNAs might participate in a regulatory connection between the genes of the dnaJ-fur-sufE locus.

  6. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  7. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  8. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  9. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For purposes of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx...

  10. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  11. FurA from Anabaena PCC 7120: New insights on its regulation and the interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. A.; López-Gomollón, S.; Pellicer, S.; Martín, B.; Sevilla, E.; Bes, M. T.; Peleato, M. L.; Fillat, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins are global regulatory proteins involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. They recognize specific DNA sequences denoted iron boxes. It is assumed that Fur proteins act as classical repressors. Under iron-rich conditions, Fur dimers complexed with ferrous ions bind to iron boxes, preventing transcription. In addition to iron homeostasis, Fur proteins control the concerted response to oxidative and acidic stresses in heterotrophic prokaryotes. Our group studies the interaction between Fur proteins and target DNA sequences. Moreover, the regulation of FurA in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, whose genome codes for three fur homologues has been investigated. We present an overview about the different factors involved in the regulation of FurA and analyze the parameters that influence FurA-DNA interaction in the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120.

  12. Farm Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  13. 46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. SECOND FLOOR CEILING FRAMING. The 1812 furring strips are still in place, fastened to the undersides of the 1755 joists. The joists frame into the bottom chords of the 1755 salvaged trusses. Note the numerals, VIII (8), N (9), X (10), and XI (11) on alternate panels of the bottom chord of the truss. Between the reinforcing plates note the numeral VII (7), added for the 1812 installation - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Metal content in the fur of domestic and experimental animals

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, R.; Nakaya, K.; Ohno, H.; Yamashita, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasai, S.

    1986-08-01

    Bird feathers and animal hairs accumulate various metals, and they have been used often as analytical materials for biological monitoring of essential and pollutant metals. The usefulness of those materials, however, is relatively limited probably owing to insufficient knowledge on inter- and intra-species characteristics of metal accumulation in animals. The present report deals with the characteristics of metal accumulation in the fur of domestic and experimental animals.

  15. Comparative genomics reveals 'novel' Fur regulated sRNAs and coding genes in diverse proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Jayavel; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2013-03-10

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and plays an important role in pathogenesis. Fur-regulated sRNAs/CDSs were found to have upstream Fur Binding Sites (FBS). We have constructed a Positional Weight Matrix from 100 known FBS (19 nt) and tracked the 'Orphan' FBSs. Possible Fur regulated sRNAs and CDSs were identified by comparing their genomic locations with the 'Orphan' FBSs identified. Thirty-eight 'novel' and all known Fur regulated sRNAs in nine proteobacteria were identified. In addition, we identified high scoring FBSs in the promoter regions of the 304 CDSs and 68 of them were involved in siderophore biosynthesis, iron-transporters, two-component system, starch/sugar metabolism, sulphur/methane metabolism, etc. The present study shows that the Fur regulator controls the expression of genes involved in diverse metabolic activities and it is not limited to iron metabolism alone.

  16. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  17. Identification and characterization of novel Helicobacter pylori apo-fur-regulated target genes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; McKelvey, Ann M; Maynard, Ernest L; Li, Zhao-Zhang; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-12-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has evolved additional regulatory functions not seen in other bacteria; it can repress and activate different groups of genes in both its iron-bound and apo forms. Because little is understood about the process of apo-Fur repression and because only two apo-Fur-repressed genes (pfr and sodB) have previously been identified, we sought to expand our understanding of this type of regulation. Utilizing published genomic studies, we selected three potential new apo-Fur-regulated gene targets: serB, hydA, and the cytochrome c553 gene. Transcriptional analyses confirmed Fur-dependent repression of these genes in the absence of iron, as well as derepression in the absence of Fur. Binding studies showed that apo-Fur directly interacted with the suspected hydA and cytochrome c553 promoters but not that of serB, which was subsequently shown to be cotranscribed with pfr; apo-Fur-dependent regulation occurred at the pfr promoter. Alignments of apo-regulated promoter regions revealed a conserved, 6-bp consensus sequence (AAATGA). DNase I footprinting showed that this sequence lies within the protected regions of the pfr and hydA promoters. Moreover, mutation of the sequence in the pfr promoter abrogated Fur binding and DNase protection. Likewise, fluorescence anisotropy studies and binding studies with mutated consensus sequences showed that the sequence was important for apo-Fur binding to the pfr promoter. Together these studies expand the known apo-Fur regulon in H. pylori and characterize the first reported apo-Fur box sequence.

  18. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) mutant of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kelly S; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L; Yang, Zamin; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Wall, Judy D

    2007-09-01

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profile of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of the Fur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test the involvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulation of D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deleting the fur gene. Growth of the resulting Deltafur mutant (JW707) was not affected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increased sensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type. Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts as a traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and other genes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter. Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D. vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB and TolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genes predicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by the presence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could be interpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed. Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a global regulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D. vulgaris.

  19. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses to Characterize the Function of Fur and Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Wu, Liyou; Parsons, Andrea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining iron homeostasis is a key metabolic challenge for most organisms. In many bacterial species, regulation of iron homeostasis is carried out by the global transcriptional regulator Fur. Physiological examination showed that Shewanella oneidensis harboring a fur deletion mutation had deficiencies in both growth and acid tolerance response. However, the fur mutant better tolerated iron-limited environments than the wild-type strain MR-1. Transcriptomic studies comparing the fur mutant and MR-1 confirmed previous findings that iron acquisition systems were highly induced by Fur inactivation. In addition, the temporal gene expression profiling of the fur mutant in response to iron depletion and repletion suggested that a number of genes involved in energy transport were iron-responsive but Fur-independent. Further identification of Fur-independent genes was obtained by generating a gene co-expression network from temporal gene expression profiles. A group of genes is involved in heat shock and has an rpoH-binding site at their promoters, and genes related to anaerobic energy transport has a highly conserved Crp binding site at the promoters. Together, this work provides useful information for the characterization of the function of Fur and the iron response in S. oneidensis.

  20. From Peptide Aptamers to Inhibitors of FUR, Bacterial Transcriptional Regulator of Iron Homeostasis and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Cissé, Cheickna; Vitale, Sylvia; Ahmadova, Aynur; Degardin, Mélissa; Pérard, Julien; Colas, Pierre; Miras, Roger; Boturyn, Didier; Covès, Jacques; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle

    2016-09-16

    FUR (Ferric Uptake Regulator) protein is a global transcriptional regulator that senses iron status and controls the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis, virulence, and oxidative stress. Ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria and absent in eukaryotes, FUR is an attractive antivirulence target since the inactivation of the fur gene in various pathogens attenuates their virulence. The characterization of 13-aa-long anti-FUR linear peptides derived from the variable part of the anti-FUR peptide aptamers, that were previously shown to decrease pathogenic E. coli strain virulence in a fly infection model, is described herein. Modeling, docking, and experimental approaches in vitro (activity and interaction assays, mutations) and in cells (yeast two-hybrid assays) were combined to characterize the interactions of the peptides with FUR, and to understand their mechanism of inhibition. As a result, reliable structure models of two peptide-FUR complexes are given. Inhibition sites are mapped in the groove between the two FUR subunits where DNA should also bind. Another peptide behaves differently and interferes with the dimerization itself. These results define these novel small peptide inhibitors as lead compounds for inhibition of the FUR transcription factor.

  1. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Bes, M. Teresa; Peleato, M. Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria. PMID:26967347

  2. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  3. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  4. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids of Helicobacter pylori fur reveals residues important for function.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; Gancz, Hanan; Benoit, Stéphane L; Evans, Sarah; Olsen, Cara H; Michel, Sarah L J; Maier, Robert J; Merrell, D Scott

    2010-10-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of the medically important pathogen Helicobacter pylori is unique in that it has been shown to function as a repressor both in the presence of an Fe2+ cofactor and in its apo (non-Fe2+-bound) form. However, virtually nothing is known concerning the amino acid residues that are important for Fur functioning. Therefore, mutations in six conserved amino acid residues of H. pylori Fur were constructed and analyzed for their impact on both iron-bound and apo repression. In addition, accumulation of the mutant proteins, protein secondary structure, DNA binding ability, iron binding capacity, and the ability to form higher-order structures were also examined for each mutant protein. While none of the mutated residues completely abrogated the function of Fur, we were able to identify residues that were critical for both iron-bound and apo-Fur repression. One mutation, V64A, did not alter regulation of any target genes. However, each of the five remaining mutations showed an effect on either iron-bound or apo regulation. Of these, H96A, E110A, and E117A mutations altered iron-bound Fur regulation and were all shown to influence iron binding to different extents. Additionally, the H96A mutation was shown to alter Fur oligomerization, and the E110A mutation was shown to impact oligomerization and DNA binding. Conversely, the H134A mutant exhibited changes in apo-Fur regulation that were the result of alterations in DNA binding. Although the E90A mutant exhibited alterations in apo-Fur regulation, this mutation did not affect any of the assessed protein functions. This study is the first for H. pylori to analyze the roles of specific amino acid residues of Fur in function and continues to highlight the complexity of Fur regulation in this organism.

  5. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  6. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  8. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  9. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  10. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  11. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  13. Positive regulation of the Vibrio cholerae porin OmpT by iron and fur.

    PubMed

    Craig, S A; Carpenter, C D; Mey, A R; Wyckoff, E E; Payne, S M

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor Fur regulates the expression of a number of genes in Vibrio cholerae in response to changes in the level of available iron. Fur usually acts as a repressor, but here we show that Fur positively regulates the expression of ompT, which encodes a major outer membrane porin. OmpT levels increased when the bacteria were grown in medium containing relatively high levels of iron, and this effect required Fur. The level of ompT mRNA also is increased in the presence of iron and Fur. The effect of iron on OmpT levels was independent of the known ompT regulators ToxR and Crp, and it did not require RyhB, which has been shown to be responsible for positive regulation by iron of some V. cholerae genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Fur binds upstream of the ompT transcription start site in a region overlapping known binding sites for ToxR and Crp. These data suggest that Fur and iron positively regulate ompT expression through the direct binding of Fur to the ompT promoter.

  14. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  15. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  16. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  17. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  18. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  19. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  20. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS... by certain breed names prohibited. If the fur of an animal is described in any manner by its...

  1. UAFSmoke Modeling in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Grell, G.; Freitas, S.; Newby, G.

    2008-12-01

    Alaska wildfires have strong impact on air pollution on regional Arctic, Sub-Arctic and even hemispheric scales. In response to a high number of wildfires in Alaska, emphasis has been placed on developing a forecast system for wildfire smoke dispersion in Alaska. We have developed a University of Alaska Fairbanks WRF/Chem smoke (UAFSmoke) dispersion system, which has been adapted and initialized with source data suitable for Alaska. UAFSmoke system modules include detection of wildfire location and area using Alaska Fire Service information and satellite remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument. The fire emissions are derived from above ground biomass fuel load data in one-kilometer resolution. WRF/Chem Version 3 with online chemistry and online plume dynamics represents the core of the UAFSmoke system. Besides wildfire emissions and NOAA's Global Forecast System meteorology, WRF/Chem initial and boundary conditions are updated with anthropogenic and sea salt emission data from the Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model. System runs are performed at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center's Sun Opteron cluster "Midnight". During the 2008 fire season once daily UAFSmoke runs were presented at a dedicated webpage at http://smoke.arsc.edu. We present examples from these routine runs and from the extreme 2004 Alaska wildfire season.

  2. [The Iowa Family Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the family farm of the past. All aspects of farm life are covered: what was grown on farms, how the chores were done and who was responsible for them, what the houses were like, and what tools and equipment were used. Comparisons are made between modern farms and farms of 50 or 150 years ago, and…

  3. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  4. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  5. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  6. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  7. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ji, Chang-Jun; Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  8. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  9. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  10. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  11. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  12. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  13. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States. If the name of...

  14. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  15. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  16. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  17. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. A bond to comply with wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act...

  18. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  19. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  20. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  1. Suppression of pleiotropic phenotypes of a Burkholderia multivorans fur mutant by oxyR mutation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akane; Yuhara, Satoshi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2012-05-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in many bacterial species, and the fur mutant of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, such as an inability to efficiently use several carbon sources, as well as high sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), paraquat (a superoxide-producing compound) and nitric oxide (NO). To gain more insight into the pleiotropic role of the Fur protein of ATCC 17616, spontaneous suppressor mutants of the ATCC 17616 fur mutant that restored tolerance to NO were isolated and characterized in this study. The microarray-based comparative genomic analysis and subsequent sequencing analysis indicated that such suppressor mutants had a 2 bp deletion in the oxyR gene, whose orthologues encode H(2)O(2)-responsive transcriptional regulators in other bacterial species. The suppressor mutants and the reconstructed fur-oxyR double-deletion mutant showed indistinguishable phenotypes in that they were all (i) more resistant than the fur mutant to H(2)O(2), superoxide, NO and streptonigrin (an iron-activated antibiotic) and (ii) able to use carbon sources that cannot efficiently support the growth of the fur mutant. These results clearly indicate that the oxyR mutation suppressed the pleiotropic effect of the B. multivorans fur mutant. The fur-oxyR double mutants were found to overexpress the KatG (catalase/peroxidase) and AhpC1 and AhpD (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunits C and D) proteins, and their enzymic activities to remove reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were suggested to be responsible for the suppression of phenotypes caused by the fur mutation.

  2. Fur activates expression of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase genes (oorDABC) in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; West, Abby L; Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Michel, Sarah; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen that colonizes the gastric mucosa of ∼50% of the world's population. Within this colonization niche, the bacteria encounter large fluctuations in nutrient availability. As such, it is critical that this organism regulate expression of key metabolic enzymes so that they are present when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. One such enzyme is the 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) oxidoreductase (OOR), which catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) and CO(2). Previous studies from our group suggested that the genes that encode the OOR are activated by iron-bound Fur (Fe-Fur); microarray analysis showed that expression of oorD, oorA, and oorC was altered in a fur mutant strain of H. pylori. The goal of the present work was to more thoroughly characterize expression of the oorDABC genes in H. pylori as well as to define the role of Fe-Fur in this process. Here we show that these four genes are cotranscribed as an operon and that expression of the operon is decreased in a fur mutant strain. Transcriptional start site mapping and promoter analysis revealed the presence of a canonical extended -10 element but a poorly conserved -35 element upstream of the +1. Additionally, we identified a conserved Fur binding sequence ∼130 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Transcriptional analysis using promoter fusions revealed that this binding sequence was required for Fe-Fur-mediated activation. Finally, fluorescence anisotropy assays indicate that Fe-Fur specifically bound this Fur box with a relatively high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)] = 200 nM). These findings provide novel insight into the genetic regulation of a key metabolic enzyme and add to our understanding of the diverse roles Fur plays in gene regulation in H. pylori.

  3. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  4. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  5. Alaska Resource Data File, Juneau quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, John C.; Miller, Lance D.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. Hawkweed Control in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several hawkweed species from Europe have escaped ornamental planting and have colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. These plants form near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted ...

  7. Random and site-specific mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori ferric uptake regulator provides insight into Fur structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Pich, Oscar Q; Benoit, Stéphane L; Besold, Angelique N; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J; Michel, Sarah L J; Maynard, Ernest L; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wild-type (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3) respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in manganese-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2 and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein.

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  10. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiao; Lopez, Carlos A; Hu, Han; Xia, Yu; Freedman, David S; Reddington, Alexander P; Daaboul, George G; Unlü, M Selim; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2014-01-01

    The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  11. Effect of the amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur regulator on production of pyoverdine.

    PubMed

    Valešová, Renáta; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Stěpánek, Václav; Babiak, Peter; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    The ferric uptake regulator gene (fur), its promoter region and Fur box of pvdS gene involved in siderophore-mediated iron uptake system were sequenced in the parent strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and in the fur mutant FPA121 derived from the strain PAO1. We identified the gene fur 179 bearing a novel, single-point mutation that changed the amino acid residue Gln60Pro in the DNA-binding domain of the Fur protein. The synthesis of pyoverdine was studied in cultures of the strains PAO1 and FPA121 grown in iron-deplete and iron-replete (60 μmol/L FeIII) medium. The amino acid replacement in the regulatory Fur protein is responsible for the overproduction of pyoverdine in iron-deplete and iron-replete medium. No mutation was identified in the Fur box of the gene pvdS.

  12. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  13. The Regulatory Role of Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) during Anaerobic Respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system. PMID:24124499

  14. Sleeping on animal fur is related to asthma outcomes in later childhood.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Standl, Marie; Lehmann, Irina; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Animal furs might represent a "proxy" for high and diverse microbial exposures within a critical time window of immune development. We assessed whether sleeping on animal fur shortly after birth is associated with asthma and atopy up to the age of 10 years. LISAplus participants (n=2441) from Munich and Leipzig, Germany, were included in the analysis. Animal fur exposure, cofactors and health outcomes were obtained periodically up to 10 years of age by parental questionnaires. Information on specific IgE to aeroallergens was available at 10 years. Cytokine-producing peripheral T-cells were assessed in a subgroup of children at 2 and 3 years. Confounder-adjusted associations were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Sleeping on animal fur was very common (55%). In adjusted logistic regression analyses, sleeping on animal fur was inversely associated with recurrent early wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93) and current asthma at 6 years (adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1.01). Furthermore, sleeping on animal fur during the first 3 months of life was significantly associated with a persistently stimulated interferon-γ response until the age of 3 years. Animal fur could be an effective measure of creating environments associated with higher microbial exposure.

  15. Adrenal activity and anxiety-like behavior in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Marina F; Monfort, Steven L; Busso, Juan Manuel; Carlini, Valeria P; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-05-01

    Due to its complexity, in combination with a lack of scientific reports, fur-chewing became one of the most challenging behavioral problems common to captive chinchillas. In the last years, the hypothesis that fur-chewing is an abnormal repetitive behavior and that stress plays a role in its development and performance has arisen. Here, we investigated whether a relationship existed between the expression and intensity of fur-chewing behavior, elevated urinary cortisol excretion and anxiety-related behaviors. Specifically, we evaluated the following parameters in behaviorally normal and fur-chewing animals of both sexes: (1) mean concentrations of urinary cortisol metabolites and (2) anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus-maze test. Urinary cortisol metabolites were higher only in females that expressed the most severe form of the fur-chewing behavior (P≤0.05). Likewise, only fur-chewing females exhibited increased (P≤0.05) anxiety-like behaviors associated with the elevated plus-maze test. Overall, these data provided additional evidence to support the concept that fur-chewing is a manifestation of physiological stress in chinchilla, and that a female sex bias exists in the development of this abnormal behavior.

  16. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  17. fur (-) mutation increases the survival time of Escherichia coli under photooxidative stress in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Darcan, C; Aydin, Ebru

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the survival of the wild type Escherichia coli (QC771) and fur- mutant strain (QC1732) under photooxidative stress in different water sources. The survival of fur- mutant and wild type E. coli was seen as a significant decrease in the visible light samples in the presence of methylene blue (MB). The fur-E. coli strain lived longer than the wild type E. coli strain on exposure to MB and visible light, which generates singlet oxygen, in both lake water (48-h) and pure water (16-h). It is interesting to note that the survival of both wild type and the fur- mutant strain was more protected at 24 °C than at other temperatures. The Fur protein does not have any relation to the entry of E. coli into the viable but nonculturable state (VBNC) under photooxidative stress. This is the first study which shows that fur- mutation increases the resistance of E. coli to photooxidative stress in aquatic environments, and the Fur protein does not have any relation to the entry of E. coli into the VBNC state.

  18. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  19. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an indirect role for Fur in controlling these downstream genes. To better define the iron-regulated cascade of transcriptional control, we combined three global strategies—temporal transcriptome analysis, genomewide in silico FB prediction, and Fur titration assays (FURTA)—to detect genomic regions able to bind Fur in vivo. The majority of the 300 iron-repressed genes were predicted to be of unknown function, followed by genes involved in iron metabolism, cell communication, and intermediary metabolism. The 107 iron-induced genes encoded hypothetical proteins or energy metabolism functions. We found 28 predicted FBs in FURTA-positive clones in the promoters and within the open reading frames of iron-repressed genes. We found lower levels of conservation at critical thymidine residues involved in Fur binding in the FB sequence logos of FURTA-positive clones with intragenic FBs than in the sequence logos generated from FURTA-positive promoter regions. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies, intragenic FBs bound Fur with a lower affinity than intergenic FBs. Our findings further indicate that transcription under iron stress is indirectly controlled by Fur through 12 potential secondary regulators. PMID:19854902

  20. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  1. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  2. Encephalitozoonosis in 2 South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) Pups

    PubMed Central

    Seguel, M.; Howerth, E. W.; Ritter, J.; Paredes, E.; Colegrove, K.; Gottdenker, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral and disseminated encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed by histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in 2 free-ranging South American fur seal pups found dead at Guafo Island (43°33′S 74°49′W) in southern Chile. In the brain, lesions were characterized by random foci of necrosis with large numbers of macrophages containing numerous microsporidial organisms within parasitophorous vacuoles. In addition, occasional histiocytes loaded with numerous mature and immature microsporidia spores consistent with Encephalitozoon sp were observed in pulmonary alveolar septa, splenic red pulp, glomerular capillaries, and proximal renal tubules by Gram and immunohistochemical stains. To our knowledge, microsporidial infection in a marine mammal species has not been previously reported. PMID:25248519

  3. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  4. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade.

    PubMed

    Pepperell, Caitlin S; Granka, Julie M; Alexander, David C; Behr, Marcel A; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Jamieson, Frances B; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-04-19

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6(Quebec) genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710-1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate.

  5. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295

  6. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  7. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  8. Fur regulation of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and iron-acquisition systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Chi, Chia; Lin, Jing-Ciao; Chen, Yeh; Peng, Hwei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    The ferric uptake regulator Fur has been reported to repress the expression of rmpA, a regulatory gene for the mucoid phenotype, leading to decreased capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. Here, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Fur also repressed the expression of the CPS regulatory genes rmpA2 and rcsA. Interestingly, deletion of rmpA or rcsA but not rmpA2 from the Δfur strain was able to suppress the deletion effect of Fur. The availability of extracellular iron affected the amount of CPS, suggesting that Fur regulates CPS biosynthesis in an Fe(II)-dependent manner. Increased production of siderophores was observed in the Δfur strain, suggesting that uptake of extracellular iron in K. pneumoniae is regulated by Fur. Fur titration assays and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that at least six of the eight putative iron-acquisition systems, identified by a blast search in the contig database of K. pneumoniae CG43, were directly repressed by Fur. We conclude that Fur has a dual role in the regulation of CPS biosynthesis and iron acquisition in K. pneumoniae.

  9. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  10. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation.

  11. Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Brian F.

    1979-01-01

    Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

  12. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  13. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  14. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nation. Colonies, possessions or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country shall be... “country of origin.” Furs taken outside such territorial waters, or on the high seas, shall have as...

  15. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  16. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  17. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor, and the…

  18. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  19. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    PubMed

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  20. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    PubMed

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe.

  1. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  2. Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuthill, Samuel J.; Laird, Wilson M.

    1966-01-01

    The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10) gravel-coated snow cones, (11) lake ice fractures, and (12) uplift accompanied the earthquake. In addition to geomorphic effects, the earthquake affected the animal populations of the area. These include migratory fish, terrestrial mollusks, fur-bearing animals, and man. The Alaska earthquake clearly delineated areas of alluvial fill, snow and rock avalanche corridors, and deltas of the deeper lakes as unsuitable for future construction.

  3. Single asparagine to arginine mutation allows PerR to switch from PerR box to fur box.

    PubMed

    Caux-Thang, Christelle; Parent, Aubérie; Sethu, Ramakrishnan; Maïga, Arhamatoulaye; Blondin, Geneviève; Latour, Jean-Marc; Duarte, Victor

    2015-03-20

    Fur family proteins, ubiquitous in prokaryotes, play a pivotal role in microbial survival and virulence in most pathogens. Metalloregulators, such as Fur and PerR, regulate the transcription of genes connected to iron homeostasis and response to oxidative stress, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, Fur and PerR bind with high affinity to DNA sequences differing at only two nucleotides. In addition to these differences in the PerR and Fur boxes, we identify in this study a residue located on the DNA binding motif of the Fur protein that is critical to discrimination between the two close DNA sequences. Interestingly, when this residue is introduced into PerR, it lowers the affinity of PerR for its own DNA target but confers to the protein the ability to interact strongly with the Fur DNA binding sequence. The present data show how two closely related proteins have distinct biological properties just by changing a single residue.

  4. Fur Is Involved in Manganese-Dependent Regulation of mntA (sitA) Expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Platero, Raúl; Peixoto, Lucía; O'Brian, Mark R.; Fabiano, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Fur is a transcriptional regulator involved in iron-dependent control of gene expression in many bacteria. In this work we analyzed the phenotype of a fur mutant in Sinorhizobium meliloti, an α-proteobacterium that fixes N2 in association with host plants. We demonstrated that some functions involved in high-affinity iron transport, siderophore production, and iron-regulated outer membrane protein expression respond to iron in a Fur-independent manner. However, manganese-dependent expression of the MntABCD manganese transport system was lost in a fur strain as discerned by constitutive expression of a mntA::gfp fusion reporter gene in the mutant. Thus, Fur directly or indirectly regulates a manganese-dependent function. The data indicate a novel function for a bacterial Fur protein in mediating manganese-dependent regulation of gene expression. PMID:15240318

  5. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  6. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  7. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  8. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  9. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  10. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  11. Molecular characterization of a homolog of the ferric-uptake regulator, Fur, from the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ryan A; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A; Gärdes, Astrid; Carrano, Mary W; Carrano, Paul N; Gillian, Christopher; Carrano, Carl J

    2015-02-01

    Full length recombinant iron regulatory protein, Fur, has been isolated and characterized from the algal-associated marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Under nondenaturing conditions the Fur protein behaves on size exclusion chromatography as a dimer while it is monomeric under SDS PAGE conditions. ICP-MS and fluorescence quenching experiments show that Mb-Fur binds a single metal ion (Zn, Mn, or Co) per monomer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to probe the interaction of Mb-Fur with the purported Fur box in the promoter region upstream of the vibrioferrin biosynthetic operon. Interaction of Mb-Fur with a 100 bp DNA fragment containing the Fur box in the presence of 10 µM Mn, Co or Zn(II) resulted in decreased migration of DNA on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel. In the absence of the Fur protein or the metal, no interaction is seen. The presence of EDTA in the binding, loading or running buffers also abolished all activity demonstrating the importance of the metal in formation of the promoter-repressor complex. Based on a high degree of similarity between Mb-Fur and its homolog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) whose X-ray structure is known we developed a structural model for the former which suggested that only one of the several metal binding sites found in other Fur's would be functional. This is consistent with the single metal binding stoichiometry we observed. Since the purported metal binding site was one that has been described as "structural" rather than "functional" in PA and yet the monometallic Mb-Fur retains DNA Fur box binding ability it reopens the question of which site is which, or if different species have adapted the sites for different purposes.

  12. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  13. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  14. Effect of sampling strategy on the detection of fur mites within a naturally infested colony of mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Rice, Kelly A; Wrighten, Roberta; Watson, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Fur mites are one of the most common ectoparasites of laboratory mice and traditionally are diagnosed through surveillance of individual colony animals. Although multiple diagnostic modalities exist, few recommendations suggest optimal testing methods, target colony populations, or sampling sites. We compared the fur pluck and sticky paper techniques for the diagnosis of Myocoptes musculinus in naturally infested immunocompetent mice and evaluated the effect of mouse age and sampling site on the efficacy of fur plucks. We found that the sticky paper technique was more likely to detect fur mites than were fur plucks. Housing mice individually increased the incidence of false-negative fur pluck tests, whereas sensitivity was equivalent for preweanling and adult mice. The ventral abdomen was the most likely single sampling location to detect evidence of any stage of Myocoptes musculinus, but fur mite eggs were overrepresented on the neck. We found that the surface temperature of the murine neck surface was warmer than was the rump and therefore may represent a unique microenvironment for fur mite egg development. Given our findings, we recommend that group-housed adult or preweanling mice should be selected for Myocoptes musculinus evaluation and that the ventral abdomen should be sampled. When possible, the postmortem sticky paper technique should be used rather than the antemortem fur pluck method.

  15. Fur-Regulated Iron Uptake System of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Influence on Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity in the Catfish Host

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry. PMID:22615248

  16. Hookworm Infection in South American Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Muñoz, F; Navarrete, M J; Paredes, E; Howerth, E; Gottdenker, N

    2017-03-01

    Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343.3 intestinal hookworms and marked fibrinohemorrhagic peritonitis. In all pups that died as a consequence of hookworm infection, the intestinal villi were short, blunt, and fused, and there were variable numbers of free and intrahistiocytic gram-negative bacteria in submucosal hookworm feeding tracks, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, blood vessels, and liver sinusoids. Pups that died of causes unrelated to the hookworm infection (trauma) had hookworm feeding tracks confined to the apical portions of the mucosa, and moderate to marked catarrhal eosinophilic enteritis. The number of hookworms was negatively correlated with intestinal villous length and number of leukocytes in the intestine. Pups with hookworm peritoneal penetration had nematodes with little or no blood in the hookworm intestine, suggesting that lack of food for the nematode could be associated with peritoneal penetration. Findings suggest that the initial burden of larval infection, the level of the host tissue response, or a combination determine the number of nematodes in the intestine, the severity of hookworm tissue damage, and pup mortality.

  17. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  18. Extreme weather events influence dispersal of naive northern fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lea, Mary-Anne; Johnson, Devin; Ream, Rolf; Sterling, Jeremy; Melin, Sharon; Gelatt, Tom

    2009-04-23

    Since 1975, northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) numbers at the Pribilof Islands (PI) in the Bering Sea have declined rapidly for unknown reasons. Migratory dispersal and habitat choice may affect first-year survivorship, thereby contributing to this decline. We compared migratory behaviour of 166 naive pups during 2 years from islands with disparate population trends (increasing: Bogoslof and San Miguel Islands; declining: PI), hypothesizing that climatic conditions at weaning may differentially affect dispersal and survival. Atmospheric conditions (Bering Sea) in autumn 2005-2006 were anomalously cold, while 2006-2007 was considerably warmer and less stormy. In 2005, pups departed earlier at all sites, and the majority of PI pups (68-85%) departed within 1 day of Arctic storms and dispersed quickly, travelling southwards through the Aleutian Islands. Tailwinds enabled faster rates of travel than headwinds, a trend not previously shown for marine mammals. Weather effects were less pronounced at Bogoslof Island (approx. 400 km further south), and, at San Miguel Island, (California) departures were more gradual, and only influenced by wind and air pressure in 2005. We suggest that increasingly variable climatic conditions at weaning, particularly timing, frequency and intensity of autumnal storms in the Bering Sea, may alter timing, direction of dispersal and potentially survival of pups.

  19. The Distinguished American Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surdovel, Catherine; Gruber, Marcella

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an elementary school curriculum on farms to give students a knowledge and appreciation of the farm as a food source and of the steps involved moving food from the farm to the table. Specific activities are suggested, and appropriate book titles are recommended. (Contains 10 references.) (LRW)

  20. Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongge; Gosset, Guillermo; Barabote, Ravi; Gonzalez, Claudio S; Cuevas, William A; Saier, Milton H

    2005-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) controls expression of the iron regulon in response to iron availability while the cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) regulates expression of the carbon regulon in response to carbon availability. We here identify genes subject to significant changes in expression level in response to the loss of both Fur and Crp. Many iron transport genes and several carbon metabolic genes are subject to dual control, being repressed by the loss of Crp and activated by the loss of Fur. However, the sodB gene, encoding superoxide dismutase, and the aceBAK operon, encoding the glyoxalate shunt enzymes, show the opposite responses, being activated by the loss of Crp and repressed by the loss of Fur. Several other genes including the sdhA-D, sucA-D, and fumA genes, encoding key constituents of the Krebs cycle, proved to be repressed by the loss of both transcription factors. Finally, the loss of both Crp and Fur activated a heterogeneous group of genes under sigmaS control encoding, for example, the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, Cfa, the glycogen synthesis protein, GlgS, the 30S ribosomal protein, S22, and the mechanosensitive channel protein, YggB. Many genes appeared to be regulated by the two transcription factors in an apparently additive fashion, but apparent positive or negative cooperativity characterized several putative Crp/Fur interactions. Relevant published data were evaluated, putative Crp and Fur binding sites were identified, and representative results were confirmed by real-time PCR. Molecular explanations for some, but not all, of these effects are provided.

  1. Investigating trophic relationships of pinnipeds in Alaska and Washington using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobson, Keith A.; Sease, John L.; Merrick, Richard L.; Piatt, John F.

    1997-01-01

    We measured stable-nitrogen (δ15N) and stable-carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in muscle and hair from 7 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, and 27 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and 14 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Gulf of Alaska and coast of Washington State, in order to contrast dietary information derived from isotopic vs. available conventional dietary studies. Stable-nitrogen-isotope analysis of muscle revealed that harbor seals were enriched over sea lions (mean δ15N = 18.6‰vs. 17.5‰) which were in turn enriched over northern fur seals (mean δ15N = 16.6‰). Trophic segregation among these species likely results primarily from differential reliance on herring (Clupea harengus), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and large vs. small walleye pollock (Theregra chalcogramma). According to their δ15N values, adult male Steller sea lions showed a higher trophic position than adult females (mean δ15N: 18.0‰ vs. 17.2‰), whereas adult female northern fur seals were trophically higher than juvenile male fur seals (mean δ15N: 16.5‰vs. 15.0‰). Each of these observed differences likely resulted from differential reliance on squid or differences in the size range of pollock consumed. Three northern fur seal pups showed higher δ15N enrichment over adults (mean 17.7‰vs. 15.8‰) due to their reliance on their mother's milk. Stable-carbon isotope measurements of hair revealed a cline toward more negative values with latitude. Segregation in hair δ13C between Steller sea lions and harbor seals off the coast of Washington (mean δ13C: -13.6‰ vs. -15.0‰) reflected the greater association of harbor seals with freshwater input from the Columbia River. Our study demonstrates the utility of the stable isotope approach to augment conventional dietary analyses of pinnipeds and other marine mammals.

  2. Molecular characterization of a homolog of the ferric-uptake regulator, Fur, from the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ryan A.; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A.; Gärdes, Astrid; Carrano, Mary W.; Carrano, Paul N.; Gillian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full length recombinant iron regulatory protein, Fur, has been isolated and characterized from the algal-associated marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Under nondenaturing conditions the Fur protein behaves on size exclusion chromatography as a dimer while it is monomeric under SDS PAGE conditions. ICP-MS and fluorescence quenching experiments show that Mb-Fur binds a single metal ion (Zn, Mn, or Co) per monomer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to probe the interaction of Mb-Fur with the purported Fur box in the promoter region upstream of the vibrioferrin biosynthetic operon. Interaction of Mb-Fur with a 100 bp DNA fragment containing the Fur box in the presence of 10 μM Mn, Co or Zn(II) resulted in decreased migration of DNA on a 7.5 % polyacrylamide gel. In the absence of the Fur protein or the metal, no interaction is seen. The presence of EDTA in the binding, loading or running buffers also abolished all activity demonstrating the importance of the metal in formation of the promoter-repressor complex. Based on a high degree of similarity between Mb-Fur and its homolog from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) whose X-ray structure is known we developed a structural model for the former which suggested that only one of the several metal binding sites found in other Fur’s would be functional. This is consistent with the single metal binding stoichiometry we observed. Since the purported metal binding site was one that has been described as “structural” rather than “functional” in PA and yet the monometallic Mb-Fur retains DNA Fur box binding ability it reopens the question of which site is which, or if different species have adapted the sites for different purposes. PMID:25528647

  3. Fur homolog regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence under low-iron/heme conditions through a complex regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Ciuraszkiewicz, J; Smiga, M; Mackiewicz, P; Gmiterek, A; Bielecki, M; Olczak, M; Olczak, T

    2014-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key pathogen responsible for initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of iron and heme uptake that allow P. gingivalis to express virulence factors and survive in the hostile environment of the oral cavity, so we initiated characterization of a P. gingivalis Fur homolog (PgFur). Many Fur paralogs found in microbial genomes, including Bacteroidetes, confirm that Fur proteins have a tendency to be subjected to a sub- or even neofunctionalization process. PgFur revealed extremely high sequence divergence, which could be associated with its functional dissimilarity in comparison with other Fur homologs. A fur mutant strain constructed by insertional inactivation exhibited retarded growth during the early growth phase and a significantly lower tendency to form a homotypic biofilm on abiotic surfaces. The mutant also showed significantly weaker adherence and invasion to epithelial cells and macrophages. Transcripts of many differentially regulated genes identified in the fur mutant strain were annotated as hypothetical proteins, suggesting that PgFur can play a novel role in the regulation of gene expression. Inactivation of the fur gene resulted in decreased hmuY gene expression, increased expression of other hmu components and changes in the expression of genes encoding hemagglutinins and proteases (mainly gingipains), HtrA, some extracytoplasmic sigma factors and two-component systems. Our data suggest that PgFur can influence in vivo growth and virulence, at least in part by affecting iron/heme acquisition, allowing efficient infection through a complex regulatory network.

  4. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    PubMed

    Tripovich, Joy S; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB) versus high (75-85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  5. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  6. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes.

  7. Transcriptome expression profiling of fur color formation in domestic rabbits using Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, L Z; Wang, W Z; Shi, L J; Wan, X Y; Yan, X R; Weng, Q Q; Wu, X S

    2016-04-25

    Fur color is an important, genetically determined characteristic of domestic rabbits, and rabbit furs are of great economic value. To investigate the molecular genetics associated with fur color determination in domestic rabbits, we used Solexa-sequencing technology to probe gene expression in dorsal skin tissues sampled from full-sibling Rex rabbits of different colors. The number of expressed genes in each sample was approximately 14,700. Among the top 30 genes and transcription factors with the highest reads per kilobase per million values, the elongation factor-alpha 1 gene was highly expressed in all samples, as were genes of the ribosomal protein and keratin gene families. Compared with the chinchilla (C) Rex rabbit control sample, the numbers of genes in the black (B) and white (W) rabbit samples were 1809 and 460, respectively, and the number of common differentially expressed genes was 257. Clustering analysis of these 257 genes revealed that 32 were up-regulated in sample B and down-regulated in sample W. Of these 32 genes, we identified some that are related to fur formation, including Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Tyrosinase (TYR), as well as genes with unknown functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of those genes. The findings are expected to provide reference for the further study of fur color formation in rabbits.

  8. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-26

    It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the γ-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other γ-proteobacteria.

  9. The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a Δfur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis.

  10. Molecular Detection of Circovirus and Adenovirus in Feces of Fur Seals (Arctocephalus spp.).

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Catarina Marcon; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Amorim, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2017-03-01

    In some regions, little is known about exposure to viruses in coastal marine mammals. The present study aimed to detect viral RNA or DNA in 23 free-ranging fur seals on the northern coastline of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect nucleic acids of circoviruses, adenoviruses, morbilliviruses, vesiviruses, and coronaviruses in the feces from twenty-one South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and two Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Adenovirus DNA fragments were detected in two South American fur seals; nucleotide sequences of these fragments revealed a high degree of similarity to human adenovirus type C. Circovirus DNA fragments were detected in six animals of the same species. Two were phylogenetically similar to the Circovirus genus, whereas the other four nucleotide fragments showed no similarity to any of the known genera within the family Circoviridae. RNA fragments indicating the presence of coronavirus, vesivirus, and morbillivirus were not detected. These findings suggest that adenoviruses and circoviruses are circulating in fur seal populations found along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  11. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance.

  12. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  13. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  14. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  15. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  16. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  17. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. 1.24 Section 1.24... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  18. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur...

  19. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur...

  20. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur...

  1. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur...

  2. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur...

  3. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    PubMed Central

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species’ range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. PMID:27147885

  4. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Kouliev, Timur; Cui, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications.

  5. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    PubMed

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  6. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  7. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  8. Alaska provides icy training ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-04-01

    Offshore oil drilling platforms and oil exploration off the coast of Alaska are discussed. Sohio is investigating the feasibility of platform supporters from shore such as icebreakers and air-cushion vehicles. At Prudhoe Bay Arco is embarking on the first tertiary oil recovery project to take place on Alaska's North Slope.

  9. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  10. Fur negatively regulates hns and is required for the expression of HilA and virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Sikes, Michael L; Fink, Ryan C; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Hassan, Hosni M

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the survival of living cells. However, excess iron is toxic, and its uptake is exquisitely regulated by the ferric uptake regulator, Fur. In Salmonella, the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes a type three secretion system, which is required for invasion of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. A major activator of SPI-1 is HilA, which is encoded within SPI-1. One known regulator of hilA is Fur. The mechanism of hilA regulation by Fur is unknown. We report here that Fur is required for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Fur is required for the activation of hilA, as well as of other HilA-dependent genes, invF and sipC. The Fur-dependent regulation of hilA was independent of PhoP, a known repressor of hilA. Instead, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, hns, was significantly derepressed in the fur mutant. Indeed, the activation of hilA by Fur was dependent on 28 nucleotides located upstream of hns. Moreover, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that Fur bound, in vivo, to the upstream region of hns in a metal-dependent fashion. Finally, deletion of fur in an hns mutant resulted in Fur-independent activation of hilA. In conclusion, Fur activates hilA by repressing the expression of hns.

  11. HrrF is the Fur-regulated small RNA in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Santana, Estevan A; Harrison, Alistair; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth D; Kelly, Benjamin J; White, Peter; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.

  12. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  13. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  14. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the properties of furs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raina, R. K.; Wali, B. K.; Wani, A. M.

    Furs pretanned with various combinations of vegetable tanning agents and retanned with alum have been irradiated with 60Co γ-radiation in the dose range 5.0-114.0 kGy. The physico-chemical modifications induced by the radiation have been assessed by measuring changes in tensile strength, absorption of water, elongation and shrinkage temperature. For investigations, samples have been taken from the same topographic region of the rabbit furs, belonging to the same age and sex. The results are discussed hereunder.

  15. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  16. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  17. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  18. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  19. Sinorhizobium meliloti fur-like (Mur) protein binds a fur box-like sequence present in the mntA promoter in a manganese-responsive manner.

    PubMed

    Platero, Raúl; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Garat, Beatriz; Fabiano, Elena

    2007-08-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the Mur(Sm) protein, a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), mediates manganese-dependent regulation of the MntABCD manganese uptake system. In this study, we analyzed Mur(Sm) binding to the promoter region of the S. meliloti mntA gene. We demonstrated that Mur(Sm) protein binds with high affinity to the promoter region of mntA gene in a manganese-responsive manner. Moreover, the results presented here indicate that two monomers, or one dimer, of Mur(Sm) binds the DNA. The binding region was identified by DNase I footprinting analysis and covers a region of about 30 bp long that contains a palindromic sequence. The Mur(Sm) binding site, present in the mntA promoter region, is similar to a Fur box; however, manganese-activated Mur(Sm) binds a canonical Fur box with very low affinity. Furthermore, the data obtained indicate that Mur(Sm) responds to physiological concentrations of manganese.

  20. Sinorhizobium meliloti Fur-Like (Mur) Protein Binds a Fur Box-Like Sequence Present in the mntA Promoter in a Manganese-Responsive Manner▿

    PubMed Central

    Platero, Raúl; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Garat, Beatriz; Fabiano, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the MurSm protein, a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), mediates manganese-dependent regulation of the MntABCD manganese uptake system. In this study, we analyzed MurSm binding to the promoter region of the S. meliloti mntA gene. We demonstrated that MurSm protein binds with high affinity to the promoter region of mntA gene in a manganese-responsive manner. Moreover, the results presented here indicate that two monomers, or one dimer, of MurSm binds the DNA. The binding region was identified by DNase I footprinting analysis and covers a region of about 30 bp long that contains a palindromic sequence. The MurSm binding site, present in the mntA promoter region, is similar to a Fur box; however, manganese-activated MurSm binds a canonical Fur box with very low affinity. Furthermore, the data obtained indicate that MurSm responds to physiological concentrations of manganese. PMID:17557847

  1. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  2. Geology of the central Copper River region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    It is an interesting evidence of the prompt responsiveness of our governmental organization to popular needs that the year 1898, which saw the first rush of argonauts to Alaska as a result of the discovery of the Klondike in 1986, saw also several well-equipped Federal parties at work in the Territory, mapping its great waterways and mountain ranges, investigating the feasible means of transportation within it, laying out routes for future lines of communication, and studying the mineral resources and the plant and animal life. It is true that before that year, in which the general attention of the world was fixed upon our heretofore lightly regarded northern province, fur traders, adventurous travelers, and hardy prospectors had made little-heralded journeys through the interior, and that one or another of the governmental departments had had representatives on special errands within its borders, but the amount of private and public energy expended there in 1898 probably exceeded that of any ten previous years.

  3. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  4. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  5. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  6. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  7. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of fur products to indicate composition. 11.12a Section 11.12a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12a Labeling of...

  8. Functional analysis of the ferric uptake requlator gene, fur, in Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the f...

  9. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... season for herd conservation. To further minimize negative effects on the Pribilof Islands' fur seal... have been discussed with each tribal government as part of the co-management relationship and agreement... reasons. Weather conditions and availability of animals varies annually. The availability of wage...

  10. THE SHIFTING BASELINE OF NORTHERN FUR SEAL ECOLOGY IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species i...

  11. The Gros Ventres and the Canadian Fur Trade, 1754-1831.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilz, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the involvement of the Gros Ventres in the Canadian fur trade from 1754, when the Hudson's Bay Company began wooing Great Plains tribes to English commercial interests, to 183l, when the tribe migrated south. Describes the mutual suspicions of traders and Indians and intertribal hostilities. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  12. Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstrate that the fur seals as a group were able to discriminate between the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, α-pinene, fenchone (all p < 0.01), and β-citronellol (p < 0.05), whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor (all p > 0.05). An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomeric odor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performance of the fur seals and that of other species tested previously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsets thereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilities of this marine mammal are surprisingly well developed and not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammals such as human subjects and non-human primates. Further, comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals.

  13. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Svelander, Madeleine; Amundin, Mats

    2008-03-18

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior.

  14. Distribution of mercury in archived fur from little brown bats across Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in archived fur from adult female little brown bats sampled at maternity roosts across Atlantic Canada. Mercury concentrations varied significantly among regions and roosts. Bats from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland had the highest median Hg concentrations (9.67 μg/g and 9.51 μg/g) among regions, and individuals from Kejimkujik National Park had the highest Hg (median: 28.38 μg/g) among roosts. Over one third of individuals sampled had fur Hg concentrations exceeding thresholds associated with neurochemical responses. Within-roost examinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in fur showed inconsistent associations with Hg concentrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that within-roost variation in Hg is driven by variation in diet is not supported by this data, and it is recommended that key prey items be included in future mercury bioaccumulation studies for bats. The elevated mercury fur concentrations for bats from southern Nova Scotia remains an anomaly of concern even when placed in the larger context of Atlantic Canada.

  15. "Rejoicing in the Beauties of Nature": The Image of the Western Landscape during the Fur Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Kerry R.

    2009-01-01

    While traveling along the Platte River on May 18, 1834, William Marshall Anderson stopped to pick up a human skull bleaching in the prairie sunlight. Anderson was from Louisville, Kentucky, and had been sent west by his physician to accompany a fur-trade caravan to the Rocky Mountains in hopes of regaining lost physical strength. He came west not…

  16. The fur Gene as a New Phylogenetic Marker for Vibrionaceae Species Identification

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Microbial taxonomy is essential in all areas of microbial science. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is one of the main phylogenetic species markers; however, it does not provide discrimination in the family Vibrionaceae, where other molecular techniques allow better interspecies resolution. Although multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has been used successfully in the identification of Vibrio species, the technique has several limitations. They include the fact that several locus amplifications and sequencing have to be performed, which still sometimes lead to doubtful identifications. Using an in silico approach based on genomes from 103 Vibrionaceae strains, we demonstrate here the high resolution of the fur gene in the identification of Vibrionaceae species and its usefulness as a phylogenetic marker. The fur gene showed within-species similarity higher than 95%, and the relationships inferred from its use were in agreement with those observed for 16S rRNA analysis and MLSA. Furthermore, we developed a fur PCR sequencing-based method that allowed identification of Vibrio species. The discovery of the phylogenetic power of the fur gene and the development of a PCR method that can be used in amplification and sequencing of the gene are of general interest whether for use alone or together with the previously suggested loci in an MLSA. PMID:25662978

  17. [Is the Furness-Moore Code applicable for computer and telex?].

    PubMed

    Rötzscher, K

    1979-12-01

    The extent to which the identification of disaster victims could be improved with the code for dental findings developed by Furness and Moore (1969) was studied. This code records the most important data for a set of teeth in 12 digits.

  18. [Phenogenetic analysis of various changes in the color of fur in silver foxes originated during domestication].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N; Vsevolodov, E B; Latyshov, I F

    1989-09-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pigmentation in "singne"-type fur color mutation arising in silver foxes during domestication, was made. It was shown that the decrease in quantity of eumelanine in hair and uneven distribution of pigment granules lengthwise the hair were the reason for formation of "singnes".

  19. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( < 0.05) and fat digestibility ( < 0.01) and tended to improve G:F ( = 0.09). The ADFI, however, was not affected by dietary Cu ( > 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes.

  20. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals.

  1. Social after-effects of fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): increased antagonism and reduced affiliation.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    Fur rubbing is widely believed to have a social bonding function in capuchin monkeys, yet a recent study of tufted capuchins revealed increased levels of aggression and reduced levels of affiliation after fur-rubbing bouts. This observed decrease in group cohesion may be attributable to increased intragroup competition for fur-rub material rather than being a direct effect of fur rubbing itself. To test this hypothesis, we separated individual tufted monkeys (Cebus apella) from their social group and provided them with fur-rub material or control material, thereby avoiding intragroup competition. After engagement with materials, we released subjects back into their social group and observed their subsequent interactions with group members. We found that subjects were more likely to encounter aggression and less likely to receive affiliation from others in the fur-rub condition than in the control condition. These results support the idea that fur rubbing carries social after-effects for capuchin monkeys. The precise mechanisms of the observed effects remain to be clarified in future studies.

  2. Strong connectedness within Norwegian Cheviot and Fur Sheep ram circles allows reliable estimation of breeding values.

    PubMed

    Eikje, L S; Lewis, R M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding programs for sheep in Norway are based on cooperatives of ram circles (RC). The key features of RC are selection of rams across member flocks and their rotation among RC flocks during the mating season. Genetic gains are disseminated to flocks outside RC (ORC). In both groups, natural service and AI are practiced. The objectives were to investigate 1) connectedness within and across RC and across RC and ORC, which impacts bias in genetic comparisons across flocks, and 2) opportunities to improve accuracy by including data from ORC flocks in genetic evaluation of RC flocks. Weaning weights in Cheviot and Fur Sheep from 1990 to 2010 were used. In Cheviot, in the last year of data (2010), there were 4 RC with 49 flocks and 1,824 ewes. Seventy-seven ORC flocks, with 1,246 ewes, also were recorded that year. In total, 214,391 pedigree and 131,012 performance records in Cheviot were available. For Fur Sheep, there was 1 RC with 8 flocks and 468 ewes in 2010 and 134 ORC flocks with 1,932 ewes. In total, 198,339 pedigree and 110,955 performance records in Fur Sheep were available. Unbiased comparison of EBV requires that genetic means of flock founders are similar or that flocks are genetically connected. The latter requires that rams sire enough progeny across flocks. In RC in both breeds and in 28.6% of Cheviot and 20% of Fur Sheep ORC flocks, the average prediction error correlation of flock mean EBV (flock rij) exceeded a threshold (0.10) for strong connectedness. These flocks also had similar genetic means: the variance between means of flock founders (genetic groups) was 1.05 (Cheviot) and 0.51 (Fur Sheep) times that of the additive variance for weaning weight. With less connected flocks included (flock rij ≤ 0.10), the between genetic group variance increased to 1.6 times the additive variance. When weaning weights from connected ORC flocks were included in the genetic evaluation of RC flocks, the size of the data increased by 1.07 times in Cheviot and by

  3. Lead levels in fur of rats treated with inorganic lead measured by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Deschamps, Frédèric; Millart, Hervé

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between continuous lead exposure and the concentration of this metal in fur. The two main questions we wanted to answer were: 1) Are the fur lead concentrations different according to exposure level? 2) Is the kinetics of lead concentration linear in different compartments?For 12 weeks, 6 rats were force-fed with water containing lead acetate in the following quantities: 0.5 and 50 µg/day. Furs were sampled every two weeks. The lead content of the samples was measured by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).There was a statistical difference (p<0.0001) between fur lead concentration and the three groups (control, low level exposure and high level exposure), between fur lead concentration and time exposure (p<0.0001), and between fur lead concentration and each exposure group at different time exposure (p<0.0001). Thus the level exposure factor and the time exposure factor have an effect on fur lead concentration. Since the determination coefficients were weak for the two exposed groups (0.032 and 0.032), a linear correlation cannot be concluded. The kinetic curves of fur lead concentration are similar for all the exposition groups. Two peaks (at 2 and 8 weeks of exposure) were noted for the two exposed groups.This experimental study cannot conclude a linear relationship to exist between fur lead concentration and exposition duration. It highlights the lack of understanding of mechanisms involved in hair incorporation of metals and raises the question of a cyclic accumulation in hair. A better understanding of the kinetic incorporation of lead in body growths is required.

  4. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  5. An Alaska Soil Carbon Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.

  6. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  7. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  8. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  9. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  10. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports…

  11. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2013... Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the... and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in...

  12. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  13. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  14. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  15. Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  16. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  17. Farm and Family Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This teacher's guide contains four units for the farm and family management program, a three-year educational program through which farm families have the opportunity to participate in group and individualized instruction. The program is intended to help provide basic farm and home management information to farm families to meet the changes of the…

  18. Versuch einer Ubungstypologie fur den fachbezogenen Fremdsprachenunterricht (A Trial Typology of Exercises for Career-Oriented Foreign Language Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1973-01-01

    Examples of exercises derived from the text Fachdeutsch fur spanischsprachige Naturwissenschaftler: Mathematiker, Physiker, Chemiker'' (Technical German for Spanish-Speaking Scientists: Mathematicians, Physicists, Chemists) soon to be published by the Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, West Germany. (RS)

  19. Characterization of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur)-mutant of the cyanotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Gracia; Merchán, Faustino; Blasco, Rafael; Igeño, M Isabel

    2014-11-20

    The Fur protein is the main sensor of cellular iron status in bacteria. In the present study, we inactivated the fur gene of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 and characterized the resulting mutant. Our findings provide experimental evidence that, cyanide generates an intracellular signal equivalent to that triggered by iron deprivation, as witnessed by the induction of prrF and fiuA (ferrichrome receptor) expression in the presence of cyanide. The fur mutant also displayed slow growth, especially in minimal culture medium, increased sensitivity to cyanide in LB medium and as expected, resistance to manganese ions. Moreover, the mutant exhibited enhanced iron accumulation and increased sensitivity to streptonigrin, as well as to some inducers of oxidative stress, such as paraquat and menadione, yet it remained resistant to hydrogen peroxide. Surprisingly, neither the wild type strain nor the fur mutant strain produced siderophores that could be detected using the universal CAS-agar method.

  20. Mutations of ferric uptake regulator (fur) impair iron homeostasis, growth, oxidative stress survival, and virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2010-05-01

    Iron is essential in numerous cellular functions. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron's toxic effects. Here, we characterize the roles of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) fur, which encodes an iron sensor and a transcriptional regulator that acts in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and virulence. Herein, we isolated spontaneous Xcc fur mutants that had high intracellular iron concentrations due to constitutively high siderophore levels and increased expression of iron transport genes. These mutants also had reduced aerobic plating efficiency and resistance to peroxide killing. Moreover, one fur mutant was attenuated on a host plant, thus indicating that fur has important roles in the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris.

  1. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  2. Effect of iron limitation and fur gene inactivation on the transcriptional profile of the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Delyana; Janssen, Holger; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Bahl, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Iron is a nutrient of critical importance for the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, as it is involved in numerous basic cellular functions and metabolic pathways. A gene encoding a putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been identified in the genome of C. acetobutylicum. In this work, we inactivated the fur gene by using insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant showed a slow-growing phenotype and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, but essentially no dramatic change in its fermentation pattern. A unique feature of its physiology was the overflowing production of riboflavin. To gain further insights into the role of the Fur protein and the mechanisms for establishment of iron balance in C. acetobutylicum, we characterized and compared the gene-expression profile of the fur mutant and the iron-limitation stimulon of the parental strain. Not surprisingly, a repertoire of iron-transport systems was upregulated in both microarray datasets, suggesting that they are regulated by Fur according to the availability of iron. In addition, iron limitation and inactivation of fur affected the expression of several genes involved in energy metabolism. Among them, two genes, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase and a flavodoxin, were highly induced. In order to support the function of the latter, the ribDBAH operon responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis was also upregulated significantly. Furthermore, the iron-starvation response of C. acetobutylicum involved transcriptional modifications that were not detected in the fur mutant, suggesting that there exist additional mechanisms for adaptation to low-iron environments. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum senses and responds to availability of iron on multiple levels using a sophisticated system, and that Fur plays an important role in this process.

  3. Deletion of a fur-Like Gene Affects Iron Homeostasis and Magnetosome Formation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uebe, René; Voigt, Birgit; Schweder, Thomas; Albrecht, Dirk; Katzmann, Emanuel; Lang, Claus; Böttger, Lars; Matzanke, Berthold; Schüler, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize specific organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enveloped crystals of the magnetic mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). The biomineralization of magnetite involves the uptake and intracellular accumulation of large amounts of iron. However, it is not clear how iron uptake and biomineralization are regulated and balanced with the biochemical iron requirement and intracellular homeostasis. In this study, we identified and analyzed a homologue of the ferric uptake regulator Fur in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, which was able to complement a fur mutant of Escherichia coli. A fur deletion mutant of M. gryphiswaldense biomineralized fewer and slightly smaller magnetite crystals than did the wild type. Although the total cellular iron accumulation of the mutant was decreased due to reduced magnetite biomineralization, it exhibited an increased level of free intracellular iron, which was bound mostly to a ferritin-like metabolite that was found significantly increased in Mössbauer spectra of the mutant. Compared to that of the wild type, growth of the fur mutant was impaired in the presence of paraquat and under aerobic conditions. Using a Fur titration assay and proteomic analysis, we identified constituents of the Fur regulon. Whereas the expression of most known magnetosome genes was unaffected in the fur mutant, we identified 14 proteins whose expression was altered between the mutant and the wild type, including five proteins whose genes constitute putative iron uptake systems. Our data demonstrate that Fur is a regulator involved in global iron homeostasis, which also affects magnetite biomineralization, probably by balancing the competing demands for biochemical iron supply and magnetite biomineralization. PMID:20562310

  4. Novel approach to the study of fur cleaning in inbred mice: effects of genotype, stress, and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Kulikov, Victor A; Popova, Nina K

    2010-01-01

    Body care (grooming) is a behavioral adaptation for removing litter particles, pathogenic microbes, and parasites from animal fur and skin. It also serves as an indicator of animal health. Here a technique of direct measurement of fur cleaning has been developed. A spot of fluorescent dye applied on the back of a mouse was scanned under blue light (450 nm) immediately and rescanned 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours later with a digital camera. The spot fluorescence intensity was measured using ColorScan software, which we developed using a classifier algorithm. The decrease in the spot fluorescence served as an index of fur cleaning, with significant interstrain differences in the dynamics of fur cleaning: mice of C57BL/6, CBA, CC57BR, and DD strains removed the fluorescent spot rapidly (1-2 h) whereas AKR and DBA2 mice did so slowly (24 h). To study the association between fur cleaning and stress or sickness we investigated the effect of restriction stress (for 30 min) and of the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on fur cleaning in two fast-cleaning mouse strains, CBA and C57BL/6. Restriction substantially reduced fur cleaning in the CBA mice but had no effect on the C57BL/6 mice. LPS decreased fur cleaning in a dose-dependent manner in both strains. The described technique is fairly simple and sensitive enough to estimate the effects of both stress and LPS treatment. It can be applied to study vulnerability (or resistance) to stressors, pathogenic organisms, and toxic substances.

  5. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village who is primarily... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and towns in Alaska. (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or...

  6. Alaska Women's Commission Regional Conferences 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Christine

    This booklet describes the work of the Alaska Women's Commission, a state agency dedicated to the achievement of equal legal, economic, social, and political status for women in Alaska. Since its inception, the Alaska Women's Commission has provided funding for regional women's conferences in rural parts of the state. The document describes four…

  7. 75 FR 45649 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross, Alaska, and... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR...

  8. Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcome Report 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Performance Scholarship was established in state law in 2011 and first offered to Alaska high school graduates beginning with the class of 2011. Described as "an invitation to excellence" to Alaska's high school students, its goal was to inspire students to push themselves academically in areas that correlate to success in…

  9. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  10. Iron and pH Homeostasis Intersect at the Level of Fur Regulation in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori†

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Hanan; Censini, Stefano; Merrell, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the stomach of the majority of the world's population and is a tremendous medical burden due to its causal role in diverse gastric maladies. Since the stomach is a constantly changing environment, successful colonization of H. pylori within this niche requires regulation of bacterial gene expression to cope with the environmental fluctuations. In H. pylori, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been shown to play an intricate role in adaptation of the bacterium to two conditions known to oscillate within the gastric mucosa: iron limitation and low pH. To extend our knowledge of the process of regulation and adaptation in H. pylori, we show that Fur is required for efficient colonization of the Mongolian gerbil: the mutant strain exhibits a 100-fold increase in the 50% infectious dose, as well as a 100-fold defect in competitive colonization, when coinfected with wild-type bacteria. Furthermore, we used DNA microarrays to identify genes whose expression was altered in a Fur-deficient strain. We show that the Fur regulon of H. pylori consists of approximately 30 genes, most of which have been previously annotated as acid stress associated. Finally, we investigate the role of Fur in acid-responsive modulation of gene expression and show that a large number of genes are aberrantly expressed in the Fur mutant specifically upon acid exposure. This fact likely explains the requirement for this regulator for growth and colonization in the stomach. PMID:16369017

  11. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  12. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota.

  13. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  14. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  15. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  16. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  17. Monoamine Release during Unihemispheric Sleep and Unihemispheric Waking in the Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Lyamin, Oleg I.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Kosenko, Peter O.; Kodama, Tohru; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Korneva, Svetlana M.; Peever, John H.; Mukhametov, Lev M.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the control of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been entirely based on studies of animals with bilateral sleep. The study of animals with unihemispheric sleep presents the opportunity of separating the neurochemical substrates of waking and sleep EEG from the systemic, bilateral correlates of sleep and waking states. Methods: The release of histamine (HI), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5HT) in cortical and subcortical areas (hypothalamus, thalamus and caudate nucleus) was measured in unrestrained northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using in vivo microdialysis, in combination with, polygraphic recording of EEG, electrooculogram, and neck electromyogram. Results: The pattern of cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in fur seals is similar during bilaterally symmetrical states: highest in active waking, reduced in quiet waking and bilateral slow wave sleep, and lowest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in seals is highly elevated during certain waking stimuli and behaviors, such as being sprayed with water and feeding. However, in contrast to acetylcholine (ACh), which we have previously studied, the release of HI, NE, and 5HT during unihemispheric sleep is not lateralized in the fur seal. Conclusions: Among the studied neurotransmitters most strongly implicated in waking control, only ACh release is asymmetric in unihemispheric sleep and waking, being greatly increased on the activated side of the brain. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 491. Citation: Lyamin OI, Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Bhagwandin A, Korneva SM, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM. Monoamine release during unihemispheric sleep and unihemispheric waking in the fur seal. SLEEP 2016;39(3):625–636. PMID:26715233

  18. The foods of fur animals of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Uhler, F.M.

    1952-01-01

    Approximately 300 digestive tracts of fur animals obtained mostly during the winter trapping season and 560 scats from animals live-trapped on the Patuxent Research Refuge near Laure!, Maryland, were analyzed. The resulting data are summarized and a brief description of the area and important habitat types is given. The animals studied include the raccoon, red fox, gray fox, mink, New York weasel, skunk, opossum, and house cat.

  19. Expression of the iron-activated nspA and secY genes in Neisseria meningitidis group B by Fur-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Yazdani B; Grogan, Susan; Davey, Michael; Sebastian, Shite; Goswami, Sulip; Szmigielski, Borys; Genco, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Our whole-genome microarray studies of Neisseria meningitidis MC58 previously identified a set of 153 genes whose transcription was activated during growth in iron. In this study, Fur-mediated regulation of the iron-activated nspA gene was confirmed, whereas iron-activated regulation of the secY gene was demonstrated to be Fur independent. Analysis of the Fur binding sequences in the nspA gene and an additional iron-activated and Fur-regulated gene identified a hexameric (G/T)ATAAT unit in the operator regions of these genes similar to that observed in Fur- and iron-repressed genes. These studies indicate that the expression of the iron-activated nspA and secY genes in N. meningitidis occur by Fur-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively.

  20. Expression of the Iron-Activated nspA and secY Genes in Neisseria meningitidis Group B by Fur-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms▿

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Yazdani B.; Grogan, Susan; Davey, Michael; Sebastian, Shite; Goswami, Sulip; Szmigielski, Borys; Genco, Caroline A.

    2007-01-01

    Our whole-genome microarray studies of Neisseria meningitidis MC58 previously identified a set of 153 genes whose transcription was activated during growth in iron. In this study, Fur-mediated regulation of the iron-activated nspA gene was confirmed, whereas iron-activated regulation of the secY gene was demonstrated to be Fur independent. Analysis of the Fur binding sequences in the nspA gene and an additional iron-activated and Fur-regulated gene identified a hexameric (G/T)ATAAT unit in the operator regions of these genes similar to that observed in Fur- and iron-repressed genes. These studies indicate that the expression of the iron-activated nspA and secY genes in N. meningitidis occur by Fur-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:17085550

  1. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  2. Fur Is the Master Regulator of the Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Response to Serum

    PubMed Central

    Huja, Sagi; Oren, Yaara; Biran, Dvora; Meyer, Susann; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Bernhard, Joerg; Becher, Doerte; Hecker, Michael; Sorek, Rotem

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are the major cause of colisepticemia (colibacillosis), a condition that has become an increasing public health problem in recent years. ExPEC strains are characterized by high resistance to serum, which is otherwise highly toxic to most bacteria. To understand how these bacteria survive and grow in serum, we performed system-wide analyses of their response to serum, making a clear distinction between the responses to nutritional immunity and innate immunity. Thus, mild heat inactivation of serum destroys the immune complement and abolishes the bactericidal effect of serum (inactive serum), making it possible to examine nutritional immunity. We used a combination of deep RNA sequencing and proteomics in order to characterize ExPEC genes whose expression is affected by the nutritional stress of serum and by the immune complement. The major change in gene expression induced by serum—active and inactive—involved metabolic genes. In particular, the serum metabolic response is coordinated by three transcriptional regulators, Fur, BasR, and CysB. Fur alone was responsible for more than 80% of the serum-induced transcriptional response. Consistent with its role as a major serum response regulator, deletion of Fur renders the bacteria completely serum sensitive. These results highlight the role of metabolic adaptation in colisepticemia and virulence. PMID:25118243

  3. Foraging habitats of lactating northern fur seals are structured by thermocline depths and submesoscale fronts in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Chad A.; Battaile, Brian C.; Cotté, Cédric; Trites, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    The relationships between fine-scale oceanographic features, prey aggregations, and the foraging behavior of top predators are poorly understood. We investigated whether foraging patterns of lactating northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) from two breeding colonies located in different oceanographic domains of the eastern Bering Sea (St. Paul Island—shelf; Bogoslof Island—oceanic) were a function of submesoscale oceanographic features. We tested this by tracking 87 lactating fur seals instrumented with bio-logging tags (44 St. Paul Island, 43 Bogoslof Island) during July-September, 2009. We identified probable foraging hotspots using first-passage time analysis and statistically linked individual areas of high-use to fine-scale oceanographic features using mixed-effects Cox-proportional hazard models. We found no overlap in foraging areas used by fur seals from the two islands, but a difference in the duration of their foraging trips—trips from St. Paul Island were twice as long (7.9 d average) and covered 3-times the distance (600 km average) compared to trips from Bogoslof Island. St. Paul fur seals also foraged at twice the scale (mean radius=12 km) of Bogoslof fur seals (6 km), which suggests that prey were more diffuse near St. Paul Island than prey near Bogoslof Island. Comparing first passage times with oceanographic covariates revealed that foraging hotspots were linked to thermocline depth and occurred near submesoscale surface fronts (eddies and filaments). St. Paul fur seals that mixed epipelagic (night) and benthic (day) dives primarily foraged on-shelf in areas with deeper thermoclines that may have concentrated prey closer to the ocean floor, while strictly epipelagic (night) foragers tended to use waters with shallower thermoclines that may have aggregated prey closer to the surface. Fur seals from Bogoslof Island foraged almost exclusively over the Bering Sea basin and appeared to hunt intensively along submesoscale fronts that may have

  4. The Alaska SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, R. E.; Charny, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR processor was designed to process over 200 100 km x 100 km (Seasat like) frames per day from the raw SAR data, at a ground resolution of 30 m x 30 m from ERS-1, J-ERS-1, and Radarsat. The near real time processor is a set of custom hardware modules operating in a pipelined architecture, controlled by a general purpose computer. Input to the processor is provided from a high density digital cassette recording of the raw data stream as received by the ground station. A two pass processing is performed. During the first pass clutter-lock and auto-focus measurements are made. The second pass uses the results to accomplish final image formation which is recorded on a high density digital cassette. The processing algorithm uses fast correlation techniques for range and azimuth compression. Radiometric compensation, interpolation and deskewing is also performed by the processor. The standard product of the ASP is a high resolution four-look image, with a low resolution (100 to 200 m) many look image provided simultaneously.

  5. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  6. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. A novel fur- and iron-regulated small RNA, NrrF, is required for indirect fur-mediated regulation of the sdhA and sdhC genes in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Mellin, J R; Goswami, Sulip; Grogan, Susan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline A

    2007-05-01

    Iron is both essential for bacterial growth and toxic at higher concentrations; thus, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Neisseria meningitidis the majority of iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur), a protein classically defined as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, however, microarray studies have identified a number of genes in N. meningitidis that are iron and Fur activated, demonstrating a new role for Fur as a transcriptional activator. Since Fur has been shown to indirectly activate gene transcription through the repression of small regulatory RNA molecules in other organisms, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism could account for Fur-dependent, iron-activated gene transcription in N. meningitidis. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to screen for the presence of Fur-regulated small RNA molecules in N. meningitidis MC58. This screen identified one small RNA, herein named NrrF (for neisserial regulatory RNA responsive to iron [Fe]), which was demonstrated to be both iron responsive and Fur regulated and which has a well-conserved orthologue in N. gonorrhoeae. In addition, this screen identified a number of other likely, novel small RNA transcripts. Lastly, we utilized a new bioinformatics approach to predict regulatory targets of the NrrF small RNA. This analysis led to the identification of the sdhA and sdhC genes, which were subsequently demonstrated to be under NrrF regulation in an nrrF mutant. This study is the first report of small RNAs in N. meningitidis and the first to use a bioinformatics approach to identify, a priori, regulatory targets of a small RNA.

  8. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  9. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  10. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  11. Farm animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, G

    2000-01-01

    As we enter a new millennium, the research with the greatest likely impact on both the biological sciences and the biotechnology industry will be the sequencing of the human and other genomes. Widespread interest in farm animal genomics as a method for identifying genes controlling commercially important traits started only a decade ago. Although the genomics of farm animals was relatively late to arrive on the scene compared with the genomics of crop plants, it has the advantage of being able to access the enormous amount of human genome information.

  12. The gonococcal Fur-regulated tbpA and tbpB genes are expressed during natural mucosal gonococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sarika; King, Carol A; Klein, Ellen K; Soper, David E; Rice, Peter A; Wetzler, Lee M; Genco, Caroline A

    2005-07-01

    Iron is limiting in the human host, and bacterial pathogens respond to this environment by regulating gene expression through the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur). In vitro studies have demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae controls the expression of several critical genes through an iron- and Fur-mediated mechanism. While most in vitro experiments are designed to determine the response of N. gonorrhoeae to an exogenous iron concentration of zero, these organisms are unlikely to be exposed to such severe limitations of iron in vivo. To determine if N. gonorrhoeae expresses iron- and Fur-regulated genes in vivo during uncomplicated gonococcal infection, we examined gene expression profiles of specimens obtained from male subjects with urethral infections. RNA was isolated from urethral swab specimens and used as a template to amplify, by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), gonococcal genes known to be regulated by iron and Fur (tbpA, tbpB, and fur). The constitutively expressed gonococcal rmp gene was used as a positive control. RT-PCR analysis indicated that gonorrhea-positive specimens where rmp expression was seen were also 93% (51/55) fbpA positive, 87% (48/55) tbpA positive, and 86% (14 of 16 tested) tbpB positive. In addition, we detected a fur transcript in 79% (37 of 47 tested) of positive specimens. We also measured increases in levels of immunoglobulin G antibody against TbpA (91%) and TbpB (73%) antigens in sera from infected male subjects compared to those in uninfected controls. A positive trend between tbpA gene expression and TbpA antibody levels in sera indicated a relationship between levels of gene expression and immune response in male subjects infected with gonorrhea for the first time. These results indicate that gonococcal iron- and Fur-regulated tbpA and tbpB genes are expressed in gonococcal infection and that male subjects with mucosal gonococcal infections exhibit antibodies to these proteins.

  13. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  14. Alaska Resource Data File, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  15. An Examination of Hired Farm Workers on Iowa Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Kenneth Harry

    Characteristics of farms, farmers and hired laborers were examined to provide a basis for decisions about labor needs on Iowa farms. The study was limited to year-round farm jobs in large-sized enterprises to develop some knowledge of working conditions, renumerations, and skills which will be required in the future. A 3-phase study was conducted…

  16. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  17. Sea otter population structure and ecology in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    one reaching its peak about 1800 and averaging about 15,000 per year and a second about 1870, averaging about 4,000 per year. The causes for this harvest pattern are unknown, but it may represent two distinct periods of overexploitation separated by a brief period of population recovery.By 1890 the species had been eliminated throughout most of its range, persisting in small numbers at 13 isolated locations in California, Alaska, and Russia. The number of sea otters that survived the fur trade is unknown, but available data suggest that some remnant populations may have been as small as a few dozen individuals. In 1911, sea otters were afforded protection under the International Fur Seal Treaty, and populations apparently responded by gradually increasing in abundance. The rates of population recovery varied among locations, averaging 9% annually and ranging from 6 to 13%. The population at Amchitka Island in the central Aleutians had the highest growth rate among those surviving, apparently reaching carrying capacity by about 1950.Efforts to aid the recovery of the species into the vast unoccupied habitats between California and Prince William Sound began in 1965. Sea otters from Amchitka and Prince William Sound were translocated to Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and several locations in southeastern Alaska. With the exception of Oregon, these translocations have resulted in the establishment of successful colonies. Population growth rates of translocated sea otters have been significantly greater than among remnant populations, averaging 21% and ranging from 18 to 24%. We don’t know why the growth rates of the remnant and translocated populations are so different, but it may be partly because of the abundant food and space available at the translocated sites.The varying patterns of sea otter population decline and recovery provide a unique and powerful tool for studying the effects of historic reductions on populations, as well as how populations respond to varying

  18. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  19. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  20. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  1. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  2. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  3. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  4. Tox Town Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... download the Flash player. City Farm Town Port US Southwest U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 1-888-FIND-NLM National Institutes of Health Department of Health & Human Services ... Updates Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Copyright Privacy Freedom ...

  5. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  6. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  7. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  8. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  9. Survey of Alaska Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Anda; Sokolov, Barbara J.

    This survey by the Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center at the University of Alaska identifies and describes information and data collections within Alaskan libraries and agency offices which pertain to fish and wildlife or their habitat. Included in the survey are descriptions of the location, characteristics, and availability of…

  10. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Licensed Optometrists in Alaska 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Alaska. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Since there was a 100 percent…

  12. Legal Guide for Alaska Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Buell, Ed.; And Others

    This legal guide, developed by the Alaska Congress of Parents and Teachers, is intended for young citizens and parents to advise youth of their civil rights and explain what constitutes a criminal offense. The aim is to objectively state the law in understandable terms. The book is arranged in four sections. Section one explains the legal rights…

  13. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  14. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alaska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alaska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  15. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How ... conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Breast cancer Cancer ...

  16. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While ...

  17. Stroke Mortality Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Ronnie D.; Day, Gretchen M.; Lanier, Anne P.; Provost, Ellen M.; Hamel, Rebecca D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of stroke among Alaska Natives, which is essential for designing effective stroke prevention and intervention efforts for this population. Methods. We conducted an analysis of death certificate data for the state of Alaska for the period 1984 to 2003, comparing age-standardized stroke mortality rates among Alaska Natives residing in Alaska vs US Whites by age category, gender, stroke type, and time. Results. Compared with US Whites, Alaska Natives had significantly elevated stroke mortality from 1994 to 2003 but not from 1984 to 1993. Alaska Native women of all age groups and Alaska Native men younger than 45 years of age had the highest risk, although the rates for those younger than 65 years were statistically imprecise. Over the 20-year study period, the stroke mortality rate was stable for Alaska Natives but declined for US Whites. Conclusions. Stroke mortality is higher among Alaska Natives, especially women, than among US Whites. Over the past 20 years, there has not been a significant decline in stroke mortality among Alaska Natives. PMID:19762671

  18. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  19. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  20. Sampson v. state of Alaska: in the Supreme Court of the state of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, B A

    2001-01-01

    HELD: The Alaska Constitution's guarantees of privacy and liberty do not afford terminally ill persons the right to a physician's assistance in committing suicide and Alaska's statute prohibiting suicide assistance does not violate their right of equal protection.