Science.gov

Sample records for alaska geophysical institute

  1. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: scientific predictions, space physics, atmospheric sciences, snow, ice and permafrost, tectonics and sedimentation, seismology, volcanology, remote sensing, and other projects.

  2. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  3. Geophysical Institute biennial report 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The mission of the Geophysical Institute is to understand the basic physical processes governing Earth, especially as they occur in, or are relevant to the Arctic; to train graduate and undergraduate students to play leading roles in tomorrow`s society; to solve applied geophysical problems and develop resource-oriented technology of importance to the state and the nation; and to satisfy the intellectual and technological needs of fellow Alaskans through public service. The variety of subjects studied by the faculty, research staff members, and graduate students at the Geophysical Institute include auroral physics and chemistry, arctic haze, ice fog, atmospheric dynamics, ozone, Alaska weather patterns, regional meteorology and climatology, global climate change, cloud physics and radiation, permafrost, glaciers, sea ice, remote sensing, geothermal energy, tectonics, volcanoes and earthquakes. Summaries are presented of the projects undertaken by the Institute in these fields.

  4. Marine Geophysical Surveying Along the Hubbard Glacier Terminus, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Davis, M.; Gulick, S. P.; Lawson, D. E.; Willems, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Tidewater glaciers are a challenging environment for marine investigations, owing to the dangers associated with calving and restrictions on operations due to dense floating ice. We report here on recent efforts to conduct marine geophysical surveys proximal to the ice face of Hubbard Glacier, in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska. Hubbard is an advancing tidewater glacier that has twice recently (1986 and 2002) impinged on Gilbert Point, which separates Russell Fiord from Disenchantment Bay, thereby temporarily creating a glacially-dammed Russell Lake. Continued advance will likely form a more permanent dam, rerouting brackish outflow waters into the Situk River, near Yakutat, Alaska. Our primary interest is in studying the development and motion of the morainal bank which, for an advancing tidewater glacier, stabilizes it against rapid retreat. For survey work, we operated with a small, fast, aluminum-hulled vessel and a captain experienced in operating in ice-bound conditions, providing a high margin of safety and maneuverability. Differencing of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in different years can identify and quantify areas of deposition and erosion on the morainal bank front and in Disenchantment Bay proper, where accumulation rates are typically > 1 m/yr within 1 km of the glacier terminus. The advance or retreat rate of the morainal bank can be determined by changes in the bed elevation through time; we document advance rates that average > 30 m/yr in Disenchantment Bay, but which vary substantially over different time periods and at different positions along the ice face. Georeferencing of available satellite imagery allows us to directly compare the position of the glacial terminus with the position of the morainal bank. From 1978 to 1999, and then to 2006, the advances in terminus and morainal bank positions were closely synchronized along the length of the glacier face. In the shallower Russell Fiord side of the terminus, a sediment ridge was mapped both

  5. Catalog of geological and geophysical data for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ikelman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), a unit of the US Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is one of several data centers that collectively represent the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. NGDC stores terrestrial and marine data collected from around the world. This catalog contains geophysical and geological data available for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Data includes reflection and refraction seismology, gravity, magnetics, topography, well logs, and geothermics. This catalog is for those interested in the development of Alaska's National Petroleum Reserve. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska is located on the Alaskan North Slope. The National Petroleum Reserve program was established in February 1923 by President Warren Harding, who recognized the need for potential domestic sources of oil in the event of a national emergency. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was originally called the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4. The Reserve covers about 24 million acres, about the size of Indiana.

  6. Future Operations of HAARP with the UAF's Geophysical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The High frequency Active Aurora Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona Alaska is the world's premier facility for active experimentation in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The ionosphere affects communication, navigation, radar and a variety of other systems depending on, or affected by, radio propagation through this region. The primary component of HAARP, the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), is a phased array of 180 HF antennas spread across 33 acres and capable of radiating 3.6 MW into the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The array is fed by five 2500 kW generators, each driven by a 3600 hp diesel engine (4 + 1 spare). Transmit frequencies are selectable in the range 2.8 to 10 MHz and complex configurations of rapidly slewed single or multiple beams are possible. HAARP was owned by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RV) in Albuquerque, NM but recently was transferred to the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF/GI). The transfer of ownership of the facility is being implemented in stages involving a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) and an Educational Partnership Agreement (EPA) which are complete, and future agreements to transfer ownership of the facility land. The UAF/GI plans to operate the facility for continued ionospheric and upper atmospheric experimentation in a pay-per-use model. In their 2013 "Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics" the National Research Council (NRC) made the recommendation to "Fully realize the potential of ionospheric modification…" and in their 2013 Workshop Report: "Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research" the NRC outlined the broad range of future ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric experiments that could be performed with HAARP. HAARP is contains a variety of RF and optical ionospheric diagnostic instruments to measure the effects of the heater in real time. The UAF/GI encourages the

  7. Geochemistry and geophysics field maps used during the USGS 2011 field season in southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has been studying a variety of geochemical and geophyscial assessment techniques for concealed mineral deposits. The 2011 field season for this project took place in southwest Alaska, northeast of Bristol Bay between Dillingham and Iliamna Lake. Four maps were created for the geochemistry and geophysics teams to use during field activities.

  8. Analysis of Publications and Citations from a Geophysics Research Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff; Resler, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Performs an analysis of all 1128 publications produced by scientists during their employment at the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, thus assessing research performance using as bibliometric indicators such statistics as publications per year, citations per paper, and cited half-lives. Evaluates five different methods for determining…

  9. Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course Offered by The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Allison, M. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year six, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students participate in an initial period of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas and Galveston, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, have provided ideal locations for students to investigate coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques. In the field, students rotate between two research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, and is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibrocoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for

  10. Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array: Magnetic Field Data in Real-Time for Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, V. G.; Hampton, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetometer data from eight remote stations across Alaska have been collected continuously since the early 1980's by the Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array (GIMA). These three-axis, 1Hz data, with ~ 1 nT precision, are used to determine the currents associated with auroral activity in the Alaska polar regions. A primary function of the GIMA is to supply magnetic field deflection data in real time to researchers so they can determine when to launch a sub-orbital sounding rocket from the Poker Flat Research Range into the proper auroral conditions. The aurora is a key coupling mechanism between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the magnetometers are used to remotely sense the ionospheric currents associated with aurora. The real-time magnetometer data are displayed through a web-based interface that functions on desktop and mobile devices. The displays are highly configurable to allow researchers the flexibility to interpret the magnetic signature they need to make a successful launch decision. The data are also available for download within 24 hours of collection. The existence of real-time data has been and will continue to be critical for successful rocket launches, however the real-time system needs to improve to meet the ever growing needs of the user community. Planned upgrades will improve the reliability and resolution of the displays as well as the ease of data download, and integration into NASA virtual observatories.

  11. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, D.; Davis, M. B.; Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Saustrup, S., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. The course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. Our field sites at Port Aransas, and Galveston, TX, and Grand Isle, LA, provide ideal locations for students to investigate coastal processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of geophysical techniques in an exploratory mode. At sea, students assist with survey design and instrumentation set up while learning about acquisition parameters, data quality control, trouble-shooting, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of four, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and data processing. During the course's final week, teams return to the classroom where they integrate, interpret, and visualize data in a final project using industry-standard software such as Echos, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. The course concludes with a series of final presentations and discussions in which students examine geologic history and/or sedimentary processes represented by the Gulf Coast continental shelf with academic and industry supporters. Students report a greater understanding of marine geology and geophysics through the course's intensive, hands-on, team approach and low instructor to student ratio (sixteen

  12. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers an intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring-summer intersession. Now in year five, the course provides hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization. Techniques covered include high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students seek to understand coastal and sedimentary processes of the Gulf Coast and continental shelf through application of these techniques in an exploratory mode. Students participate in an initial three days of classroom instruction designed to communicate geological context of the field area (which changes each year) along with theoretical and technical background on each field method. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22' aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used principally for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA's R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used primarily for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. While at sea, students assist with survey design, learn instrumentation set up, acquisition parameters, data quality control, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval. In teams of three, students work in onshore field labs preparing sediment samples for particle size analysis and initial data processing. During the course's final week, teams

  13. Development of Geophysical Ideas and Institutions in Ottoman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, Ferhat; Ozcep, Tazegul

    2015-04-01

    In Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity (600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made. There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences are included as a part of physics and chemistry.

  14. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  15. Alaska shorefast ice: Interfacing geophysics with local sea ice knowledge and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckenmiller, Matthew L.

    This thesis interfaces geophysical techniques with local and traditional knowledge (LTK) of indigenous ice experts to track and evaluate coastal sea ice conditions over annual and inter-annual timescales. A novel approach is presented for consulting LTK alongside a systematic study of where, when, and how the community of Barrow, Alaska uses the ice cover. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of and abilities to monitor the processes that govern the state and dynamics of shorefast sea ice in the Chukchi Sea and use of ice by the community. Shorefast ice stability and community strategies for safe hunting provide a framework for data collection and knowledge sharing that reveals how nuanced observations by Inupiat ice experts relate to identifying hazards. In particular, shorefast ice break-out events represent a significant threat to the lives of hunters. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to combine local and time-specific observations of ice conditions by both geophysical instruments and local experts, and to evaluate how ice features, atmospheric and oceanic forces, and local to regional processes interact to cause break-out events. Each year, the Barrow community builds trails across shorefast ice for use during the spring whaling season. In collaboration with hunters, a systematic multi-year survey (2007--2011) was performed to map these trails and measure ice thickness along them. Relationships between ice conditions and hunter strategies that guide trail placement and risk assessment are explored. In addition, trail surveys provide a meaningful and consistent approach to monitoring the thickness distribution of shorefast ice, while establishing a baseline for assessing future environmental change and potential impacts to the community. Coastal communities in the region have proven highly adaptive in their ability to safely and successfully hunt from sea ice over the last 30 years as significant changes have been observed in the ice zone

  16. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-06-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning. PMID:23690592

  17. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people’s lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning. PMID:23690592

  18. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  19. Integrated Geophysical Examination of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel’s Fairbanks Silt Units, Fox, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; McGinnis, R. N.; Stillman, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Bjella, K.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a recent geophysical survey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory’s Permafrost Tunnel in Fox, Alaska. The tunnel consists of an adit and winze excavated into late-Pleistocene loess (Fairbanks Silt), segregated lens ice, chaotic reticulated ice, foliated massive wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice, and gravel pseudomorphs. From within the tunnel and at land surface above the tunnel, we used ground-penetrating radar reflection and transillumination soundings, multielectrode and capacitively coupled resistivity profiling, and electrical resistivity tomography to identify geophysical signatures of permanently frozen loess and massive wedge ice. We exploited the increasing path length through the septum between the adit and winze in the direction away from their junction to observe how radar signals attenuate in these media. GPR transillumination soundings of this septum at 100, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 MHz clearly demarcated the difference between ray paths transiting relatively conductive permanently frozen loess versus those transiting relatively resistive massive wedge ice. Multielectrode resistivity tomography of the septum also clearly distinguished between massive wedge ice with estimated resistivities >100,000 ohm-m and permanently frozen loess with resistivities ranging from 4000 to 40,000 ohm-m. Capacitively coupled resistivity data gathered at land surface above the distal end of the adit show signatures consistent with its delaminating roof at this location. Analysis of dipole-dipole multielectrode resistivity data gathered at land surface with 48 electrodes and 2-m spacings produced adit-level resistivity estimates in the 10,000 to 26,000 ohm-m range. Both surface resistivity methods revealed the 0.75-1.0-m-thick seasonally frozen active layer above the tunnel to be relatively resistive (>1000 ohm-m) during midwinter. Core samples of foliated wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice with bubbles

  20. Dynamic Coupling of Alaska Based Ecosystem and Geophysical Models into an Integrated Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, A.; Carman, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    As scientific models and the challenges they address have grown in complexity and scope, so has interest in dynamically coupling or integrating these models. Dynamic model coupling presents software engineering challenges stemming from differences in model architectures, differences in development styles between modeling groups, and memory and run time performance concerns. The Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Modeling (AIEM) project aims to dynamically couple three independently developed scientific models so that each model can exchange run-time data with each of the other models. The models being coupled are a stochastic fire dynamics model (ALFRESCO), a permafrost model (GIPL), and a soil and vegetation model (DVM-DOS-TEM). The scientific research objectives of the AIEM project are to: 1) use the coupled models for increasing our understanding of climate change and other stressors on landscape level physical and ecosystem processes, and; 2) provide support for resource conservation planning and decision making. The objectives related to the computer models themselves are modifiability, maintainability, and performance of the coupled and individual models. Modifiability and maintainability are especially important in a research context because source codes must be continually adapted to address new scientific concepts. Performance is crucial to delivering results in a timely manner. To achieve the objectives while addressing the challenges in dynamic model coupling, we have designed an architecture that emphasizes high cohesion for each individual model and loose coupling between the models. Each model will retain the ability to run independently, or to be available as a linked library to the coupled model. Performance is facilitated by parallelism in the spatial dimension. With close collaboration among modeling groups, the methodology described here has demonstrated the feasibility of coupling complex ecological and geophysical models to provide managers with more

  1. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright areas, central Alaska, June 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Abraham, Jared D.; Voss, Clifford I.; Astley, Beth N.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys of the Yukon Flats and Fort Wainwright study areas in central Alaska. These data were collected to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of permafrost at the time of the survey. These data were also collected to evaluate the effectiveness of these geophysical methods at mapping permafrost geometry and to better define the physical properties of the subsurface in discontinuous permafrost areas. This report releases digital data associated with these surveys. Inverted resistivity depth sections are also provided in this data release, and data processing and inversion methods are discussed.

  2. The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. B.; Gulick, S. P.; Allison, M. A.; Goff, J. A.; Duncan, D. D.; Saustrup, S.

    2010-12-01

    During the spring-summer intersession, we annually offer an intensive three-week field course designed to provide hands-on instruction and training for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in the acquisition, processing, interpretation, and visualization of marine geological and geophysical data. Now in year four, the course covers high-resolution air gun and streamer seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, several types of sediment coring, grab sampling, and the sedimentology of resulting seabed samples (e.g., core description, grain size analysis, x-radiography, etc.). Students first participate in three days of classroom instruction designed to provide theoretical and technical background on each field method and impart geologic context of the study area. Students then travel to the Gulf Coast for a week of at-sea field work. In the field, students rotate between two small research vessels: one vessel, the 22’ aluminum-hulled R/V Lake Itasca, owned and operated by UTIG, is used for multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and sediment sampling; the other, NOAA’s R/V Manta or the R/V Acadiana, operated by the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, is used for high-resolution seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Students assist with survey design, learn systems setup and acquisition parameters, and safe instrument deployment and retrieval techniques. Students also perform on-shore sedimentology lab work, data quality control, data processing and visualization using industry-standard software such as Focus, Landmark, Caris, and Fledermaus. During the course’s final week, students return to the classroom where, collaborating in teams of three, they integrate and interpret data in a final project which examines the geologic history and/or sedimentary processes as typified by the Gulf Coast continental shelf. The course culminates in a series of professional

  3. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Illuminate the Geologic and Hydrothermal Framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, delineates key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Hot springs, nearby thawed regions, and high lake temperatures are indicative of high heat flow in the region that is thought to be related to recent volcanism. By providing a region-wide geologic and geophysical framework, this work will provide informed decisions regarding drill-site planning and further our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Helicopter magnetic and EM data were acquired using a Fugro RESOLVE system equipped with a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and a multi-coil, multi-frequency EM system sensitive to the frequency range of 400-140,000 Hz. The survey was flown ~40 m above ground along flight lines spaced 0.2-0.4 km apart. Various derivative and filtering methods, including maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the magnetic data, are used to locate faults, contacts, and structural domains. A dominant northwest trending anomaly pattern characterizes the northeastern portion of the survey area between Pilgrim Springs and Hen and Chickens Mountain and may reflect basement structures. The area south of the springs, however, is dominantly characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with the north-south extension that formed the basin. Regionally, the springs are characterized by a magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. The lows may result from demagnetization of magnetic material along range-front parallel features that dissect the basin. We inverted in-phase and quadrature EM data along each profile using the laterally-constrained inversion of Auken et al. (2005). Data were inverted for 20-layer

  4. Students explore history of the Göttingen Institute of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    The Institute of Geophysics at the University of Gottingen, Germany has a long tradition that began long before its official founding in January 1898. Its history goes back to at least 1756, to the work on geophysical problems by Tobias Meyer, Carl-Friedrich GauS, and Wilhelm Weber. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first director of the institute, Emil Wiechert, established a seismological working group that was a worldwide leader in this type of research for the next 10 to 12 years. In those golden years of seismology at Gottingen, famous students and co-workers of Wiechert such as G. H. Angenheister, L. Geiger, B. Gutenberg, L. Mintrop, and K. Zoeppritz made fundamental discoveries.

  5. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Assessment of the Eileen Gas Hydrate Accumulation, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy S. Collett; David J. Taylor; Warren F. Agena; Myung W. Lee; John J. Miller; Margarita Zyrianova

    2005-04-30

    Using detailed analysis and interpretation of 2-D and 3-D seismic data, along with modeling and correlation of specially processed log data, a viable methodology has been developed for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (HSZ) and associated ''sub-hydrate'' free gas prospects in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska (Figure 1). The seismic data, in conjunction with modeling results from a related study, was used to characterize the conditions under which gas hydrate prospects can be delineated using conventional seismic data, and to analyze reservoir fluid properties. Monte Carlo style gas hydrate volumetric estimates using Crystal Ball{trademark} software to estimate expected in-place reserves shows that the identified prospects have considerable potential as gas resources. Future exploratory drilling in the Milne Point area should provide answers about the producibility of these shallow gas hydrates.

  6. A geological and geophysical study of the gold-silver vein system of Unga Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, James R., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    Overview of the CD-ROM Contents: The topic of this CD-ROM is the geologic framework of gold-silver vein deposits on Unga Island, in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska. The core of the publication is a new geologic map at a scale of 1:63,360 and aeromagnetic and electromagnetic survey data acquired by industry over the area of mineralization. Both the geologic map as well as a preliminary interpretation of the geophysical data--which are included by permission of the owner--are aimed towards deciphering the relations among volcanism, tectonism, and mineralization. Data and discussions are organized in seven chapters, titles of which are outlined in the table of contents. The chapters consist of viewable text and figure images; postscript versions of the frontispiece figures and all chapter figures are included on the CD-ROM as well. The geologic map is a large viewable figure (Plate 1) that accompanies chapter 2. The map was constructed in ARC and its component coverages are provided in the folder 'Geology' for users who may wish to modify the geologic data or add their own data.

  7. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  8. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  9. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  11. Geophysical investigation of Red Devil mine using direct-current resistivity and electromagnetic induction, Red Devil, Alaska, August 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2011-01-01

    Red Devil Mine, located in southwestern Alaska near the Village of Red Devil, was the state's largest producer of mercury and operated from 1933 to 1971. Throughout the lifespan of the mine, various generations of mills and retort buildings existed on both sides of Red Devil Creek, and the tailings and waste rock were deposited across the site. The mine was located on public Bureau of Land Management property, and the Bureau has begun site remediation by addressing mercury, arsenic, and antimony contamination caused by the minerals associated with the ore deposit (cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment). In August 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a geophysical survey at the site using direct-current resistivity and electromagnetic induction surface methods. Eight two-dimensional profiles and one three-dimensional grid of direct-current resistivity data as well as about 5.7 kilometers of electromagnetic induction profile data were acquired across the site. On the basis of the geophysical data and few available soil borings, there is not sufficient electrical or electromagnetic contrast to confidently distinguish between tailings, waste rock, and weathered bedrock. A water table is interpreted along the two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiles based on correlation with monitoring well water levels and a relatively consistent decrease in resistivity typically at 2-6 meters depth. Three settling ponds used in the last few years of mine operation to capture silt and sand from a flotation ore processing technique possessed conductive values above the interpreted water level but more resistive values below the water level. The cause of the increased resistivity below the water table is unknown, but the increased resistivity may indicate that a secondary mechanism is affecting the resistivity structure under these ponds if the depth of the ponds is expected to extend below the water level. The electromagnetic induction data clearly identified the

  12. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at LLNL is to enrich the opportunities of University of California campus researchers by making available to them some of the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise, and to broaden the scientific horizon of LLNL researchers by encouraging collaborative or interdisciplinary work with other UC scientists. The IGPP continues to emphasize three fields of research - geoscience, astrophysics, and high-pressure physics - each administered by a corresponding IGPP Research Center. Each Research Center coordinates the mini-grant work in its field, and also works with the appropriate LLNL programs and departments, which frequently can provide supplementary funding and facilities for IGPP projects. 62 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Insights from a Geophysical and Geomorphological Mars Analog Field Study at the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, R. N.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Stillman, D.; Bjella, K.; Hooper, D. M.; Grimm, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial dune systems are used as natural analogs to improve understanding of the processes by which planetary dunes form and evolve. Selected terrestrial analogs are often warm-climate dune fields devoid of frozen volatiles, but cold-climate dunes offer a better analog for polar dunes on Mars. The cold-climate Great Kobuk Sand Dunes (GKSD) of Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, are a high-latitude, slowly migrating analog for polar, inter- and intracrater dune fields on Mars. The 67°N latitude, 62 km2 GKSD consist of moderately well sorted, fine-grained sands deposited within the Kobuk River valley ~50 km north of the Arctic Circle and ~160 km inland from Kotzebue Sound. Winds at the GKSD are influenced significantly by complex surrounding topography, an influence that is similar to many high-latitude inter- and intracrater dune fields on Mars. Average annual temperature and precipitation at the GKSD are -5°C and 430 mm. The dune field is generally resistant to atmospheric forcing (wind) for a significant portion of the year because of snowcover, similar to the effect that seasonal CO2 and H2O frost mantling have on Martian polar dunes. The dune field, which ranges in elevation from 33 to 170 m above mean sea level, consists of sand sheets as well as climbing and reversing barchanoid, transverse, longitudinal, and star dunes. Several tributaries to the Kobuk River bound and dissect the GKSD, producing cutbank exposures and alcoves that reveal internal structure. We report results from our detailed geophysical and geomorphological site characterization field study, which was conducted near peak freeze conditions from March 15 through April 2, 2010. We used multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 MHz) and capacitively coupled resistivity methods to image the internal structure of representative dunes, and performed ground truthing using a sampling auger, natural exposures, and Real-Time Kinematic Differential GPS. Data from twenty

  15. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  16. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Open Days at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, Jason; Cenedese, Claudia; Jensen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    This event was hosted for one week for two consecutive years in 2013 and 2014. It targeted postdocs, graduate students, K-12 students and local community participation. The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution hosted 10 hands-on demonstrations and displays, with something for all ages, to share the excitement of fluid mechanics and oceanography. The demonstrations/experiments spanned as many fluid mechanics problems as possible in all fields of oceanography and gave insight into using fluids laboratory experiments as a research tool. The chosen experiments were `simple' yet exciting for a 6 year old child, a high school student, a graduate student, and a postdoctoral fellow from different disciplines within oceanography. The laboratory is a perfect environment in which to create excitement and stimulate curiosity. Even what we consider `simple' experiments can fascinate and generate interesting questions from both a 6 year old child and a physics professor. How does an avalanche happen? How does a bath tub vortex form? What happens to waves when they break? How does a hurricane move? Hands-on activities in the fluid dynamics laboratory helped students of all ages in answering these and other intriguing questions. The laboratory experiments/demonstrations were accompanied by `live' videos to assist in the interpretation of the demonstrations. Posters illustrated the oceanographic/scientific applicability and the location on Earth where the dynamics in the experiments occur. Support was given by the WHOI Doherty Chair in Education.

  17. Geophysical investigation and reconstruction of lithospheric structure and its control on geology, structure, and mineralization in the Cordillera of northern Canada and eastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, N.

    2015-10-01

    A reconstruction of the Tintina fault is applied to regional geophysical and topographic data, facilitating the definition of west trending lineaments within the lower crust and/or mantle lithosphere, oblique to the NW trending structure of the Cordilleran terranes. The lineaments, which exhibit a range of geophysical and geological signatures, are interpreted to be related to the Liard transfer zone, continuous to the Denali fault, that divided lower and upper plates during late Proterozoic-Cambrian rifting of the Laurentian margin. Three-dimensional gravity models show a density increase in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere to the north. The transfer zone also divides bimodal mantle xenolith suites to the south from unimodal suites to the north. These conclusions suggest that extended North American basement, related to Laurentian margin rifting that would have brought mantle lithosphere rocks to a shallow depth, continuously underlies a thin carapace of accreted terranes in western Yukon and eastern Alaska. The interpreted continuity of North American basement reaffirms that if oroclinal bending of the Intermontane terranes occurred, then it was prior to its emplacement upon the rifted basement. Examination of the spatial relationships between mineral occurrences and postaccretionary, Cretaceous lithospheric lineaments, from their manifestation in geophysical, geological, and topographic data, suggest that the late Proterozoic lineaments influenced Mesozoic mineralization through influence on the development of the shallow crustal structure, intrusion, and exhumation and erosion.

  18. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F. J., Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    1998-03-23

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Riverside, and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the five branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and was originally organized into three centers: Geosciences, stressing seismology; High-Pressure Physics, stressing experiments using the two-stage light-gas gun at LLNL; and Astrophysics, stressing theoretical and computational astrophysics. In 1994, the activities of the Center for High-Pressure Physics were merged with those of the Center for Geosciences. The Center for Geosciences, headed by Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Astrophysics Research

  19. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): Quinquennial report, November 14-15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tweed, J.

    1996-10-01

    This Quinquennial Review Report of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) branch of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) provides an overview of IGPP-LLNL, its mission, and research highlights of current scientific activities. This report also presents an overview of the University Collaborative Research Program (UCRP), a summary of the UCRP Fiscal Year 1997 proposal process and the project selection list, a funding summary for 1993-1996, seminars presented, and scientific publications. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. University of Texas Institute for Geophysics Seismic Reflection Data Search Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. H.; Gahagan, L. M.; Johnson, K. M.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1974 the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) has been acquiring digital seismic reflection data. UTIG's conventional archive contains the equivalent of approximately 16,000 field tapes and 3000 processed sections. There is no simple means to peruse data that are held in the archives resulting in gross under-utilization. This is a common problem for reflection data at other research institutions as well. Conversion of the archive to a modern online searchable data base and download facility is underway. As the first part of this development, UTIG data in the offshore regions of Southwest Japan and Costa Rica-Nicaragua are now available online. Our present efforts are aimed at (1) ensuring the integrity of the digital data, (2) creating descriptive metadata, and (3) providing rudimentary web access to a searchable database with links to downloadable seismic, navigation and image files. For field records, the bulk of the data, our goal is to provide metadata for independent reprocessing for educational or research needs. Older field data require supporting information about the geometry of the experiment, observer logs and other quality control information available in notebooks. More recent experiments are collecting these data in digital form for easier inclusion in the data base and for metadata construction. All shot data are in binary SEG-Y format. A valuable component of the database is the inclusion of stacks, migrations and single-channel sections produced during the course of project-related research. These processed data include the SEG-Y files, images and trace locations (stored in the SEG-Y headers and duplicated in linked ASCII files). Metadata include a simplified processing history. For specialists, the processed SEG-Y files may be used for additional post-stack processing, display or loading into interpretation systems. For non-specialists and students the images provide instant access to geologic cross sections around the world

  1. Space weather monitoring by ground-based means carried out in Polar Geophysical Center at Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, Alexander

    A real-time information on geophysical processes in polar regions is very important for goals of Space Weather monitoring by the ground-based means. The modern communication systems and computer technology makes it possible to collect and process the data from remote sites without significant delays. A new acquisition equipment based on microprocessor modules and reliable in hush climatic conditions was deployed at the Roshydromet networks of geophysical observations in Arctic and is deployed at observatories in Antarctic. A contemporary system for on-line collecting and transmitting the geophysical data from the Arctic and Antarctic stations to AARI has been realized and the Polar Geophysical Center (PGC) arranged at AARI ensures the near-real time processing and analyzing the geophysical information from 11 stations in Arctic and 5 stations in Antarctic. The space weather monitoring by the ground based means is one of the main tasks standing before the Polar Geophysical Center. As studies by Troshichev and Janzhura, [2012] showed, the PC index characterizing the polar cap magnetic activity appeared to be an adequate indicator of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere and the energy that is accumulating in the magnetosphere. A great advantage of the PC index application over other methods based on satellite data is a permanent on-line availability of information about magnetic activity in both northern and southern polar caps. A special procedure agreed between Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Space Institute of the Danish Technical University (DTUSpace) ensures calculation of the unified PC index in quasi-real time by magnetic data from the Thule and Vostok stations (see public site: http://pc-index.org). The method for estimation of AL and Dst indices (as indicators of state of the disturbed magnetosphere) based on data on foregoing PC indices has been elaborated and testified in the Polar Geophysical Center. It is

  2. Geophysical investigation of the Denali fault and Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the October-November 2002, M = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.; Brocher, T.M.; Booker, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002, M = 7.9 earthquake that ruptured along the right-slip Denali fault in south-central Alaska has been investigated by using gravity and magnetic, magnetotelluric, and deep-crustal, seismic reflection data as well as outcrop geology and earthquake seismology. Strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25°N and extend to depths as great as 20 km. These reflections outline a relict crustal architecture that in the past 20 yr has produced little seismicity. The Denali fault is nonreflective, probably because this fault dips steeply to vertical. The most intriguing finding from geophysical data is that earthquake aftershocks occurred above a rock body, with low electrical resistivity (>10 Ω·m), that is at depths below ∼10 km. Aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake have mainly occurred shallower than 10 km. A high geothermal gradient may cause the shallow seismicity. Another possibility is that the low resistivity results from fluids, which could have played a role in locating the aftershock zone by reducing rock friction within the middle and lower crust.

  3. Geophysical data reveal the crustal structure of the Alaska Range orogen within the aftershock zone of the Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Pellerin, L.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical information, including deep-crustal seismic reflection, magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data, cross the aftershock zone of the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. These data and aftershock seismicity, jointly interpreted, reveal the crustal structure of the right-lateral-slip Denali fault and the eastern Alaska Range orogen, as well as the relationship between this structure and seismicity. North of the Denali fault, strong seismic reflections from within the Alaska Range orogen show features that dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal crustal structures, probably ductile shear zones, that most likely formed during the Late Cretaceous, but these structures appear to be inactive, having produced little seismicity during the past 20 years. Furthermore, seismic reflections mainly dip north, whereas alignments in aftershock hypocenters dip south. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but modeling of MT, gravity, and magnetic data suggests that the Denali fault dips steeply to vertically. However, in an alternative structural model, the Denali fault is defined by one of the reflection bands that dips to the north and flattens into the middle crust of the Alaska Range orogen. Modeling of MT data indicates a rock body, having low electrical resistivity (>10 ??-m), that lies mainly at depths greater than 10 km, directly beneath aftershocks of the Denali fault earthquake. The maximum depth of aftershocks along the Denali fault is 10 km. This shallow depth may arise from a higher-than-normal geothermal gradient. Alternatively, the low electrical resistivity of deep rocks along the Denali fault may be associated with fluids that have weakened the lower crust and helped determine the depth extent of the after-shock zone.

  4. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  5. Deciphering the Transitional Tectonics of the Southern Alaska Margin Through Gulf Sedimentology and Geophysics: IODP Expedition 341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, R.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Alaska is a complex amalgam of tectonic environments, centered on the subduction/collision of the Yakutat Block with North America. Along the Aleutians in the west, the Pacific Plate subducts normally beneath North America, with a gradually shallowing subduction angle towards the Yakutat Terrane to the east. The western region of the Yakutat Block undergoes nearly flat-slab subduction beneath North America, whereas it transitions to collision in the northeast, which is the primary driver for the growth of the Chugach-St. Elias orogen. Farther to the east, the collisional system transitions to a transform boundary with the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte fault system. The collisional system contributes to farfield tectonic effects in many regions, including northern Alaska and the Pacific Plate, but also combines with glaciation to drive sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska. Glaciation has periodically increased in the St. Elias Range since the Miocene, but began dominating erosion and spurred enhanced exhumation since the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, at ~2.5 Ma. Results from IODP Expedition 341 show the first appearance of ice-rafted debris and a doubling of Gulf sedimentation at site U1417 at this age, and a major increase in sedimentation at ~1 Ma at sites U1417 and U1418. Glacigenic sediment flux into the Gulf of Alaska represents the majority of accumulation in the deepwater Surveyor Fan, and was the impetus for formation of the Surveyor Channel system. Climate events correlate to three major differentiable sequences across the Surveyor Fan that have been previously mapped using seismic reflection profiles. The change in morphology observed throughout the sequences allows us to characterize the influence that a glaciated orogen can have in shaping margin processes and the sediment pathways from source to sink. IODP Expedition 341 results allow us to now apply this method at higher resolution time scales (i.e., 100 kyr). We will explore

  6. Enhancing GIS Instruction at 1890 Institutions and HBCUs through Collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Sriharan, S.; Ozbay, G.; SanJuan, F.; Fan, C.; David, V.

    2013-12-01

    A cohort of 1890 land-grant institutions [Virginia State University (VSU) and Delaware State University (DSU)] and Historically Black Colleges and Universities [Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), Bethune-Cookman University (BCU), and Morgan State University (MSU)] have been collaborating for nearly a decade with a land grant institution [University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF)] for enhancing the instruction of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System. The specific objectives included curriculum design, faculty development, student experiential learning, community outreach, and networking. Through a series of workshops funded by the US Department of Agriculture - National Institute for Food and Agriculture from 2004-2013 at UAF, the faculty members of the cohort institutions gained experience in integrating newer geospatial techniques in instruction. In particular participants learned how to collect differential GPS measurements and incorporate GPS observations onto web enabled maps. They also learned how to collect ground-truth data over a wide spectral range. In the optical wavelengths participants acquired high resolution photographs and measured the reflected components of various vegetation using photosynthetically active radiometer (PAR) sensors operating in the 400-700nm range. Faculty members used an ASD Spectrometer operating in 350-2500nm range to record reflectance spectra over a variety of natural targets. In the thermal infrared part of the spectrum they recorded emitted energy in the 7.5 - 13 micro-m broadband range from hot geothermal waters to cold ice targets. These experiences were used to enrich curricula materials offered at the cohort institutions. The early workshops were tailored for training only the faculty members from the cohort. The most recent workshop in 2013 for the first time brought together a faculty-student team from each member university for hands-on learning experiences in field data collection and image analysis

  7. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  8. Application of surface geophysical techniques in a study of the geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a geomorphology study of the lower Copper River, three surface geophysical techniques were tested for their ability to detect infilled scour holes at bridge piers, old river channels, and subbottom deposits in a glacier-formed lake. The methods were (1) ground-penetrating radar, (2) continuous seismic reflection using a color fathometer, and (3) continuous seismic reflection using a tuned transducer. In water depths less than 20 feet, ground-penetrating radar detected infilled scour holes at bridge piers and old river channels on land. Continuous seismic reflection using a tuned transducer was effective in water and detected infilled scour holes at bridge piers and subbottom deposits in a glacier lake. The color fathometer was useful in determining depths of water but was not able to penetrate the subbottom.

  9. Learning Activities Developed at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics Using Ocean Drilling Science, Technology and Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. M.; Stevens, J.; Clarke, D.; Ellins, K.; Tynes, G.; Petkovsek, M.

    2004-12-01

    NSF GK-12 Fellows at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) actively contribute to K-12 education by linking K-12 students and teachers to research scientists and recent discoveries, and by developing hands-on learning activities designed primarily for secondary school learning environments. The excitement of the new Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international research program that explores the history and structure of the Earth by studying the sediments and rocks beneath the seafloor, has provided UTIG's GK-12 Fellows with an incentive to develop new, and revise existing, inquiry-based learning activities based on the science, technology and/or data of scientific ocean drilling. These activities, grouped into a curriculum module, address the mechanics of collecting cores, fossil identification and age relationships within a core, and the interpretation of geophysical logs. They expose teachers and students to the exciting science and advanced technology of the IODP and the achievements of the Ocean Drilling Program, which preceded IODP. UTIG scientists active in the IODP guided the development of the module's science content. The module activities are aligned with U.S. educational standards, but could be adapted for use in other countries that participate in the IODP. Where this isn't possible, they can serve as an example of educational curriculum materials that underscore the vital nature of international collaboration.

  10. Geophysical Investigation of Subsurface Characteristics of Icy Debris Fans with Ground Penetrating Radar in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. F.; Pun, W.; Milkereit, B.

    2011-12-01

    Authors Tracey Smith^1, Rob Jacob^1, Jeffrey Trop^1, Keith Williams^2 and Craig Kochel^1 Bucknell University, Geology and Environmental Geoscience Department, Lewisburg, PA UNAVCO, 6350 Nautilus Dr., Boulder, CO 80301 Icy debris fans have recently been described as deglaciation features on Earth and similar features have been observed on Mars, however, the subsurface characteristics remain unknown. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to non-invasively investigate the subsurface characteristics of icy debris fans near McCarthy, Alaska, USA. The three fans investigated in Alaska are the East, West, and Middle fans which are between the Nabesna ice cap and the McCarthy Glacier. Icy debris fans in general are a largely unexplored suite of paraglacial landforms and processes in alpine regions. Recent field studies focused on direct observations and depositional processes. The results showed that each fan's composition is primarily influenced by the type and frequency of mass wasting processes that supply the fan. Photographic studies show that the East fan receives far more ice and snow avalanches whereas the Middle and West fan receive fewer mass wasting events but more clastic debris is deposited on the Middle and West fan from rock falls and icy debris flows. GPR profiles and WARR surveys consisting of both, common mid-point (CMP), and common shot-point (CSP) surveys investigated the subsurface geometry of the fans and the McCarthy Glacier.All GPR surveys were collected in 2013 with 100MHz bi-static antennas. Four axial profiles and three cross-fan profiles were done on the West and Middle fans as well as the McCarthy Glacier in order to investigate the relationship between the three features. Terrestrial laser surveying of the surface and real-time kinematic GPS provided the surface elevation used to correct the GPR data for topographic changes. GPR profiles yielded reflectors that were continuous for 10+ m and hyperbolic reflections in the subsurface. The WARR

  11. Geophysical Investigation of Subsurface Characteristics of Icy Debris Fans with Ground Penetrating Radar in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. D.; Jacob, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Authors Tracey Smith^1, Rob Jacob^1, Jeffrey Trop^1, Keith Williams^2 and Craig Kochel^1 Bucknell University, Geology and Environmental Geoscience Department, Lewisburg, PA UNAVCO, 6350 Nautilus Dr., Boulder, CO 80301 Icy debris fans have recently been described as deglaciation features on Earth and similar features have been observed on Mars, however, the subsurface characteristics remain unknown. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to non-invasively investigate the subsurface characteristics of icy debris fans near McCarthy, Alaska, USA. The three fans investigated in Alaska are the East, West, and Middle fans which are between the Nabesna ice cap and the McCarthy Glacier. Icy debris fans in general are a largely unexplored suite of paraglacial landforms and processes in alpine regions. Recent field studies focused on direct observations and depositional processes. The results showed that each fan's composition is primarily influenced by the type and frequency of mass wasting processes that supply the fan. Photographic studies show that the East fan receives far more ice and snow avalanches whereas the Middle and West fan receive fewer mass wasting events but more clastic debris is deposited on the Middle and West fan from rock falls and icy debris flows. GPR profiles and WARR surveys consisting of both, common mid-point (CMP), and common shot-point (CSP) surveys investigated the subsurface geometry of the fans and the McCarthy Glacier.All GPR surveys were collected in 2013 with 100MHz bi-static antennas. Four axial profiles and three cross-fan profiles were done on the West and Middle fans as well as the McCarthy Glacier in order to investigate the relationship between the three features. Terrestrial laser surveying of the surface and real-time kinematic GPS provided the surface elevation used to correct the GPR data for topographic changes. GPR profiles yielded reflectors that were continuous for 10+ m and hyperbolic reflections in the subsurface. The WARR

  12. Geophysical Characterization of Interactions Between Pyroclastic Flows and Snow and Water During the 2006 Eruptions of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beget, J.

    2006-12-01

    The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano provided a unique opportunity to test a new, geophysical approach to describing and characterizing pyroclastic flows (PFs) and their complex interactions with snow and water. Field measurements of volume magnetic susceptibility (K) of the 2006 deposits at Augustine Volcano, made with a Bartington MS2F probe, showed the primary magnetic susceptibility of the pyroclastic deposits was strongly affected by secondary interactions with water and steam. Smaller changes in K occurred where pyroclastic debris was found in mixed avalanche deposits associated with snow. Pyroclastic deposits were identified in the field and correlated with specific eruptive events with the aid of M. Coombs, J. Vallance, and K. Bull. Repeated susceptibility measurements were made on the matrix of the PFs and other deposits. The PFs erupted between Jan. 13-Feb. 2 all were characterized by relatively high K (900-1400 x 10-5 SI). Some flows erupted during this eruptive sequence traveled almost to the coast of Augustine Island and buried a small pond. Oxidized pyroclastic deposits at the pond site had markedly lower K values of ca. 400-800 x 10-5 SI. Coeval water-mediated lahars and hyper-concentrated flows derived from the early PFs were also found to have low K. Measurements of K on pyroclastic avalanche debris overlying or mixed with snow were variable, but generally fell into an intermediate range between the fresh PF deposits and those deposits reflecting extensive interaction with water and/or steam. This study demonstrates that the systematic measurement of magnetic susceptibility can be a useful tool in understanding pyroclastic flows and the processes and deposits that result when PFs interact with snow and water on the slopes of active volcanoes.

  13. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  14. High-Resolution Geophysical Constraints on Late Pleistocene-Present Deformation History, Seabed Morphology, and Slip-Rate along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D. S.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dartnell, P.; Conrad, J. E.; Kluesner, J. W.; Hart, P. E.; Witter, R. C.; Balster-Gee, A. F.; Maier, K. L.; Watt, J. T.; East, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault (QCFF) of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia is the dominant fault along the 1200 km-long transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. More than 900 km of the QCFF lies offshore where the style and rates of deformation are poorly constrained due to a lack of high-resolution marine geophysical data. In May 2015, the USGS acquired ~900 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and >2000 line-km of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles between Cross Sound, Yakobi Sea Valley, and Icy Point (the northernmost offshore section of the QCFF) using a 24-ch streamer and 500 Joule minisparker source. During a second cruise in August 2015 we conducted targeted multichannel seismic and subbottom CHIRP profiling in the same region. The new data reveal a single trace of the QCFF expressed as a clear and remarkably straight seafloor lineation for >60 km. Subtle jogs in the fault (<3 degrees) are associated with pop-up structures and en echelon pull-apart basins. The near surface deformation along the fault never exceeds a width of 1.2 km. Northward, as the fault approaches Icy Point and a restraining bend, it splays into multiple strands and displays evidence for uplift and transpression. The fault appears to transition from almost purely strike-slip in the south to oblique-convergence as it steps onshore to the north. The QCFF cuts through the Yakobi Sea Valley and Cross Sound, two elongate bathymetric troughs that were filled with glaciers as recently as 17-19 ka. The southern wall of the Yakobi Sea Valley is offset 890±30 m by the QCFF, providing a late Pleistocene-present slip-rate estimate of 45-54 mm/yr. This suggests that nearly the entire plate boundary slip budget is confined to a single, narrow, strike-slip fault zone, which may have implications for models of plate boundary strain localization.

  15. My Experience as a Student Participant in the Institute for Geophysics/Huston-Tillotson University Geodiversity Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, N.; Ellins, K.; Holt, J.; Olson, H. C.

    2006-12-01

    As a senior pre-service teacher at Huston-Tillotson University, a minority-serving institution in Texas, I found myself in need of a science course and reluctantly enrolled in "Special Topics in the Geosciences," a survey course taught by visiting scientists from The University of Texas at Austin's Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). I had no idea what the geosciences were about. On the first day of class we took a test and I began to feel a sense of foreboding, but after speaking with the instructors, I left filled with excitement. With my limited background in science, I knew that the class was going to be challenging and require a lot of studying. I took every opportunity offered in the class to learn more about the geosciences. If there was a field trip, I went. If there was an opportunity for me to speak to children about what I learned, I did. For example, I participated in the Explore UT open house event where, rather than being an observer as I had expected, I found myself explaining earthquake seismology to students, parents and visitors. The experience was pivotal. As I explained to a small group of 3rd graders how they could use computer applications to observe and understand seismic waves, I realized I wanted to be a science teacher and not an elementary level-teacher as I had planned. Since completing "Special Topics in the Geosciences," I've been an undergraduate research assistant at UTIG. Over the summer, I adapted approximately ten existing UTIG Earth Science learning activities into the 5-E instructional model for the fall 2006 professional development Earth Science Revolution Workshops for in- service teachers, and I developed a new lesson on tides for these workshops. I also participated in presenting both a workshop for minority-serving elementary teachers and a class for alternative certification teachers at HTU. In early September, I joined a group of scientists, engineers, and space-suited "astronauts" in the Arizona desert near Meteor Crater

  16. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  17. American Indian/Alaska Native Voices in the Model of Institutional Adaptation to Student Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Raphael; Wolverton, Mimi; Appleton, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Richardson and Skinner (1991) in their Model of Institutional Adaptation to Student Diversity (MIASD) assert that state higher education boards have significant influence on the degree to which institutions respond to student diversity. The purpose of the study (conducted in the 2001-2002 school year) reported in this article was to determine…

  18. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, P. M.; Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Cubley, J. F.; Samolczyk, M. A.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Transportable Array is deploying about 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute, and Yukon College to spread awareness of earthquakes in Alaska and western Canada and the benefits of the Transportable Array for people living in these regions. We provide an update of ongoing education and outreach activities in Alaska and Canada as well as continued efforts to publicize the Transportable Array in the Lower 48. Nearly all parts of Alaska and portions of western Canada are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska, in particular, requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaskan and western Canadian villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Meetings and interviews with Alaska Native Elders and tribal councils discussing past earthquakes has led to a better understanding of how Alaskans view and understand earthquakes. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska and the Yukon. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor emphasizes the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offers not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan and Canadian understanding of the seismic hazard and

  19. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  20. Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Network Data Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; Haney, M. M.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.; Searcy, C. K.; Stihler, S. D.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) established in 1988 as a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, monitors active volcanoes in Alaska. Thirty-three volcanoes are currently monitored by a seismograph network consisting of 193 stations, of which 40 are three-component stations. The current state of AVO’s seismic network, and data processing and availability are summarized in the annual AVO seismological bulletin, Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaska Volcanoes, published as a USGS Data Series (most recent at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/467). Despite a rich seismic data set for 12 VEI 2 or greater eruptions, and over 80,000 located earthquakes in the last 21 years, the volcanic seismicity in the Aleutian Arc remains understudied. Initially, AVO seismic data were only provided via a data supplement as part of the annual bulletin, or upon request. Over the last few years, AVO has made seismic data more available with the objective of increasing volcano seismic research on the Aleutian Arc. The complete AVO earthquake catalog data are now available through the annual AVO bulletin and have been submitted monthly to the on-line Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) composite catalog since 2008. Segmented waveform data for all catalog earthquakes are available upon request and efforts are underway to make this archive web accessible as well. Continuous data were first archived using a tape backup, but the availability of low cost digital storage media made a waveform backup of continuous data a reality. Currently the continuous AVO waveform data can be found in several forms. Since late 2002, AVO has burned all continuous waveform data to DVDs, as well as storing these data in Antelope databases at the Geophysical Institute. Beginning in 2005, data have been available through a Winston Wave Server housed at the USGS in

  1. Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2007-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute, began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of geoscience, biochemistry, math, business, rural development, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 25 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of the RAHI alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 230 have earned a bachelors degree, twenty-nine have earned masters degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Ph.D., or M.D.), along with 110 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelors degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural Native students in the

  2. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  3. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  4. Graph theory for analyzing pair-wise data: application to geophysical model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Elena C.; Cardiff, Michael; Feigl, Kurt L.

    2016-07-01

    Graph theory is useful for analyzing time-dependent model parameters estimated from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the temporal domain. Plotting acquisition dates (epochs) as vertices and pair-wise interferometric combinations as edges defines an incidence graph. The edge-vertex incidence matrix and the normalized edge Laplacian matrix are factors in the covariance matrix for the pair-wise data. Using empirical measures of residual scatter in the pair-wise observations, we estimate the relative variance at each epoch by inverting the covariance of the pair-wise data. We evaluate the rank deficiency of the corresponding least-squares problem via the edge-vertex incidence matrix. We implement our method in a MATLAB software package called GraphTreeTA available on GitHub (https://github.com/feigl/gipht). We apply temporal adjustment to the data set described in Lu et al. (Geophys Res Solid Earth 110, 2005) at Okmok volcano, Alaska, which erupted most recently in 1997 and 2008. The data set contains 44 differential volumetric changes and uncertainties estimated from interferograms between 1997 and 2004. Estimates show that approximately half of the magma volume lost during the 1997 eruption was recovered by the summer of 2003. Between June 2002 and September 2003, the estimated rate of volumetric increase is (6.2 ± 0.6) × 10^6~m^3/year . Our preferred model provides a reasonable fit that is compatible with viscoelastic relaxation in the five years following the 1997 eruption. Although we demonstrate the approach using volumetric rates of change, our formulation in terms of incidence graphs applies to any quantity derived from pair-wise differences, such as range change, range gradient, or atmospheric delay.

  5. A Program Evaluation of a Summer Research Training Institute for American Indian and Alaska Native Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaback, Tosha; Becker, Thomas M.; Dignan, Mark B.; Lambert, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a unique summer program to train American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health professionals in a variety of health research-related skills, including epidemiology, data management, statistical analysis, program evaluation, cost-benefit analysis, community-based participatory research, grant writing, and…

  6. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  7. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  8. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  9. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  10. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  11. 75 FR 60780 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... education to expand their role and effectiveness in addressing community development needs in their... Partnerships administers HUD's ongoing grant programs to institutions of higher education as well as creates.../ Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities Program Funding Competition, by Institution,...

  12. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  13. ShakeMap Implementation in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosyan, A.; Hansen, R.; Robinson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The ShakeMap (SM) system was developed by the USGS for generating and distributing real-time ground- shaking maps in the aftermath of significant earthquakes. SMs provide vital information within minutes after an earthquake to emergency response agencies, the media and the general public. It is also a tool to produce earthquake planning scenarios and to estimate losses from hypothetical strong earthquakes. SM production in Alaska is based on observed ground motion data (maximum peak ground accelerations and velocities of two horizontal components) and complemented by calculated values using empirical attenuation relationships. These data are collected from more than 80 broadband and 25 strong motion stations throughout the state. The real-time seismic operations in Alaska, including the SM system, are maintained at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) of the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks. The earthquake parameters and waveform measurements are obtained within the Antelope seismic monitoring system. Currently, SMs are produced for events with magnitudes greater that M3.5 with at least 10 associated arrival picks. Moreover, the calculated intensity of the eligible events should be greater than 2.5 at the epicenter. With these settings, about 20 to 30 SMs are triggered in Alaska per month. The maps are generated and posted on the AEIC website 2-3 minutes after the event. The processing time mostly depends on the number of waveforms utilized in the calculation. Several SM updates may be issued for the same event as more reliable data become available. A manual run may be executed afterwards for significant events in order to utilize any additional information, such as extended source geometry or data from external sources.

  14. IMPROVING SCIENCE EDUCATION AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA:The Synergistic Connection between Educational Outreach Efforts in the Copper Valley, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; McCarthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Education Outreach is to enhance the science education opportunities in the Copper Valley region in Alaska. In the process, we also educate local residents about HAARP and its research. Funded jointly by US Air Force and Navy, HAARP is located at Gakona Alaska, a very rural region of central Alaska with a predominantly Native population. The main instrument at HAARP is a vertically directed, phased array RF transmitter which is primarily an ionospheric research tool, however, its geophysical research applications range from terrestrial to near-space. Research is conducted at HAARP in collaboration with scientists and institutions world-wide. The HAARP Education Outreach Program, run through the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been active for over six years and in that time has become an integral part of science education in the Copper Valley for residents of all ages. HAARP education outreach efforts are through direct involvement in local schools in the Copper River School District (CRSD) and the Prince William Sound Community College (PWSCC), as well as public lectures and workshops, and intern and student research programs. These outreach efforts require cooperation and coordination between the CRSD, PWSCC, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Physics Department and the NSF sponsored Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) and HAARP researchers. The HAARP Outreach program also works with other organizations promoting science education in the region, such as the National Park Service (Wrangell- St. Elias National Park) and the Wrangell Institute for Science and Environment (WISE) a newly formed regional non-profit organization. We work closely with teachers in the schools, adapting to their needs and the particular scientific topic they are covering at the time. Because of time and logistic constraints, outreach visits to schools are episodic, occurring roughly

  15. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  16. The Institutional Relations Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan (ASL) Programs, Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. Four issues were…

  17. The Institutional Relations Review, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan Programs (ASLP), Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. Four issues were…

  18. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  19. Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

  20. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  1. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  2. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  3. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2004-09-01

    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  4. Twenty years of Alaska Volcano Observatory's contributions to seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. P.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; West, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys observed its 20th anniversary in 2008. The AVO seismic network, inherited from AVO partners in 1988, consisted of three small-aperture subnetworks on Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano and Augustine Volcano and regional stations for a total of 23 short-period instruments (two with three-components). Twenty years later, the AVO network has expanded to 192 stations (23 three-component short-period, and 15 broadband) on 33 volcanoes spanning 2500 km across the Aleutian arc in one of the most remote and challenging environments in the world. The AVO seismic network provides for a unique data set. Within the seismically active Aleutian Arc, there are instrumented volcanoes which exhibit a variety of chemical compositions and eruptive styles. With each individual volcanic center similarly instrumented and all data analyzed in a consistent manner AVO has produced a data set suitable for making seismic comparisons across a wide suite of volcanoes. In twenty years, the AVO has captured data sets for eruptions at Augustine, Kasatochi, Okmok, Pavlof, Redoubt, Shishaldin, Spurr, and Venianinof. AVO data set also includes several volcanic-tectonic swarms, most notably at Akutan, Iliamna, Mageik, Martin, Shishaldin, and Tanaga. This broad approach to volcano seismology has led to a better understanding of precursory earthquake swarms, variations in background rates, triggered seismicity, the structure of volcanoes, volcanic tremor and deep long period earthquakes, among numerous other topics. The AVO also incorporates data from seismic stations operated by both the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center to help locate some of the 70,000 earthquakes in the AVO catalog. In exchange AVO provides dense seismic data from the

  5. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  6. Investigation of the potential for concealed base-metal mineralization at the Drenchwater Creek Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, northern Alaska, using geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, and airborne electromagnetic geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Garth E.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Abraham, Jared; Kelley, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    No drilling has taken place at the Drenchwater occurrence, so alternative data sources (for example, geophysics) are especially important in assessing possible indicators of mineralization. Data from the 2005 electromagnetic survey define the geophysical character of the rocks at Drenchwater and, in combination with geological and surface-geochemical data, can aid in assessing the possible shallow (up to about 50 m), subsurface lateral extent of base-metal sulfide accumulations at Drenchwater. A distinct >3-km-long electromagnetic conductive zone (observed in apparent resistivity maps) coincides with, and extends further westward than, mineralized shale outcrops and soils anomalously high in Pb concentrations within the Kuna Formation; this conductive zone may indicate sulfide-rich rock. Models of electrical resistivity with depth, generated from inversion of electromagnetic data, which provide alongflight-line conductivity-depth profiles to between 25 and 50 m below ground surface, show that the shallow subsurface conductive zone occurs in areas of known mineralized outcrops and thins to the east. Broader, more conductive rock along the western ~1 km of the geophysical anomaly does not reach ground surface. These data suggest that the Drenchwater deposit is more extensive than previously thought. The application of inversion modeling also was applied to another smaller geochemical anomaly in the Twistem Creek area. The results are inconclusive, but they suggest that there may be a local conductive zone, possibly due to sulfides.

  7. A Prototype Two-tier Mentoring Program for Undergraduate Summer Interns from Minority-Serving Institutions at the University of Alaska Fairbanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Balazs, M. S.; Chittambakkam, A.; Starkenburg, D. P.; Waigl, C.; Cook, S.; Ferguson, A.; Foster, K.; Jones, E.; Kluge, A.; Stilson, K.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) is partnering with Delaware State University, Virginia State University, Elizabeth City State University, Bethune-Cookman University, and Morgan State University on a U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Institute for Food and Agriculture funded grant for ';Enhancing Geographic Information System Education and Delivery through Collaboration: Curricula Design, Faculty, Staff, and Student Training and Development, and Extension Services'. As a part of this grant, in summer 2013, UAF hosted a week long workshop followed by an intense two week undergraduate internship program. Six undergraduate students from partnering Universities worked with UAF graduate students as their direct mentors. This cohort of undergraduate mentees and graduate student mentors were in-turn counseled by the two UAF principal investigators who served as ';super-mentors'. The role of each person in the two-tier mentoring system was well defined. The super-mentors ensured that there was consistency in the way the internship was setup and resources were allocated. They also ensured that there were no technical glitches in the research projects and that there was healthy communication and interaction among participants. Mentors worked with the mentees ahead of time in outlining a project that aligned with the mentees research interest, provided basic reading material to the interns to get oriented, prepared the datasets required to start the project, and guided the undergraduates throughout the internship. Undergraduates gained hands-on experience in geospatial data collection and application of tools in their projects related to mapping geomorphology, landcover, geothermal sites, fires, and meteorological conditions. Further, they shared their research results and experiences with a broad university-wide audience at the end of the internship period. All participants met at lunch-time for a daily science talk from external speakers. The program offered

  8. Automated system for smoke dispersion prediction due to wild fires in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A.; Stuefer, M.; Higbie, L.; Newby, G.

    2007-12-01

    Community climate models have enabled development of specific environmental forecast systems. The University of Alaska (UAF) smoke group was created to adapt a smoke forecast system to the Alaska region. The US Forest Service (USFS) Missoula Fire Science Lab had developed a smoke forecast system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model including chemistry (WRF/Chem). Following the successful experience of USFS, which runs their model operationally for the contiguous U.S., we develop a similar system for Alaska in collaboration with scientists from the USFS Missoula Fire Science Lab. Wildfires are a significant source of air pollution in Alaska because the climate and vegetation favor annual summer fires that burn huge areas. Extreme cases occurred in 2004, when an area larger than Maryland (more than 25000~km2) burned. Small smoke particles with a diameter less than 10~μm can penetrate deep into lungs causing health problems. Smoke also creates a severe restriction to air transport and has tremendous economical effect. The smoke dispersion and forecast system for Alaska was developed at the Geophysical Institute (GI) and the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC), both at University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). They will help the public and plan activities a few days in advance to avoid dangerous smoke exposure. The availability of modern high performance supercomputers at ARSC allows us to create and run high-resolution, WRF-based smoke dispersion forecast for the entire State of Alaska. The core of the system is a Python program that manages the independent pieces. Our adapted Alaska system performs the following steps \\begin{itemize} Calculate the medium-resolution weather forecast using WRF/Met. Adapt the near real-time satellite-derived wildfire location and extent data that are received via direct broadcast from UAF's "Geographic Information Network of Alaska" (GINA) Calculate fuel moisture using WRF forecasts and National Fire Danger

  9. Geophysical research in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, Vladimir

    General interest in Earth studies has a long tradition in the Czech Republic that dates back to the German physician, Georg Agricola, a pioneer in scientific classifications of minerals collected in North Bohemia's Ore Mountains during the early 16th century. Astronomy flourished during the rule of Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612). Modern geophysics developed in the middle of the 18th century from systematic meteorological observations and continued in the 19th century with H. Benndorfs seismological experiment in the mining town of Pribram.In 1920, the State Geophysical Institute was created, with Vaclav Laska as its first director. The institute's research activities concentrated on seismology and geomagnetism. In 1945, the Chair of Geophysics was established at the Charles University in Prague, reflecting the increasing interest in geophysical studies. The Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in 1952, the same year that the first Conference of Czechoslovak Geophysicists passed the resolution that an institute of geophysics should be reestablished within the new academy as the coordinating and leading institution of basic geophysical research.

  10. The Institutional Relations Review, December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan Programs, Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. This first edition also…

  11. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  12. Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of University Research Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D.

    2015-12-01

    Science for Alaska: Public Understanding of Science D. L. Campbell11University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA Around 200 people brave 40-below-zero temperatures to listen to university researchers and scientists give lectures about their work at an event called the Science for Alaska Lecture Series, hosted by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute. It is held once a week, for six weeks during the coldest part of a Fairbanks, Alaska, winter. The topics range from space physics to remote sensing. The lectures last for 45 minutes with 15 minutes for audience questions and answers. It has been popular for about 20 years and is one of many public outreach efforts of the institute. The scientists are careful in their preparations for presentations and GI's Public Relations staff chooses the speakers based on topic, diversity and public interest. The staff also considers the speaker's ability to speak to a general audience, based on style, clarity and experience. I conducted a qualitative research project to find out about the people who attended the event, why they attend and what they do with the information they hear about. The participants were volunteers who attended the event and either stayed after the lectures for an interview or signed up to be contacted later. I used used an interview technique with open-ended questions, recorded and transcribed the interview. I identified themes in the interviews, using narrative analysis. Preliminary data show that the lecture series is a form of entertainment for people who are highly educated and work in demanding and stressful jobs. They come with family and friends. Sometimes it's a date with a significant other. Others want to expose their children to science. The findings are in keeping with the current literature that suggests that public events meant to increase public understanding of science instead draws like-minded people. The findings are different from Campbell's hypothesis that attendance was based

  13. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-01-01

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  14. Centennial of a Pioneer in Meteorology, Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2004-06-01

    In 2004 we celebrate the 100th birthday of a great scientist and a leading proponent of our geophysical disciplines, Hans Ertel, who was formerly professor of geophysics and theoretical mechanics at Humboldt University in Berlin. He was also director of the (German) Institute of Metorology and Geophysics, and vice-president of the German Academy of Sciences; also in Berlin. Ertel was the founder of the Alexander von Humboldt Commission. Under his leadership, and in cooperation with other German academies, a comprehensive collection of letters from and to von Humboldt has been assembled and edited.

  15. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    PDF format to display the location, type, and where applicable, a risk-weighted quantity estimate of energy resources available in a given area or site. The project will be managed and directed by the DNR Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys DGGS over the next five years with a team composed of the Alaska Energy Authority, DNR Division of Forestry, and DNR LRIS.

  16. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  17. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  18. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  19. Use of new and old technologies and methods by the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, T. L.; Nye, C. J.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    The recent eruption of Augustine Volcano was the first significant volcanic event in Cook Inlet, Alaska since 1992. In contrast to eruptions at remote Alaskan volcanoes that mainly affect aviation, ash from previous eruptions of Augustine has affected communities surrounding Cook Inlet, home to over half of Alaska's population. The 2006 eruption validated much of AVO's advance preparation, underscored the need to quickly react when a problem or opportunity developed, and once again demonstrated that while technology provides us with wonderful tools, professional relationships, especially during times of crisis, are still important. Long-term multi-parametric instrumental monitoring and background geological and geophysical studies represent the most fundamental aspect of preparing for any eruption. Once significant unrest was detected, AVO augmented the existing real-time network with additional instrumentation including web cameras. GPS and broadband seismometers that recorded data on site were also quickly installed as their data would be crucial for post-eruption research. Prior to 2006, most of most of AVO's eruption response plans and protocols had focused on the threat to aviation rather than ground-based hazards. However, the relationships and protocols developed for the aviation threat were sufficient to be adapted to the ash fall hazard, though it is apparent that more work, both scientific and with response procedures, is needed. Similarly, protocols were quickly developed for warning of a flank- collapse induced tsunami. Information flow within the observatory was greatly facilitated by an internal web site that had been developed and refined specifically for eruption response. Because AVO is a partnership of 3 agencies (U.S. Geological Survey, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys) with offices in both Fairbanks and Anchorage, web and internet-facing data servers provided

  20. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory to Public Inquiry Concerning the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano provided the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) with an opportunity to test its newly renovated Operations Center (Ops) at the Alaska Science Center in Anchorage. Because of the demand for interagency operations and public communication, Ops became the hub of Augustine monitoring activity, twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, from January 10 through May 19, 2006. During this time, Ops was staffed by 17 USGS AVO staff, and over two dozen Fairbanks-based AVO staff from the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute and USGS Volcano Hazards Program staff from outside Alaska. This group engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding agencies throughout the eruption. Before and during the eruption, reference sheets - ;including daily talking - were created, vetted, and distributed to prepare staff for questions about the volcano. These resources were compiled into a binder stationed at each Ops phone and available through the AVO computer network. In this way, AVO was able to provide a comprehensive, uniform, and timely response to callers and emails at all three of its cooperative organizations statewide. AVO was proactive in scheduling an Information Scientist for interviews on-site with Anchorage television stations and newspapers several times a week. Scientists available, willing, and able to speak clearly about the current activity were crucial to AVO's response. On January 19, 2006, two public meetings were held in Homer, 120 kilometers northeast of Augustine Volcano. AVO, the West Coast Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, and the Kenai Peninsula Borough Office of Emergency Management gave brief presentations explaining their roles in eruption response. Representatives from several local, state, and federal agencies were also available. In addition to communicating with the public by daily media interviews and phone calls to Ops

  3. Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change number 9. Summary report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuisi, J.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the research operations and accomplishments by the Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) program and by outside investigators working cooperatively with GMCC in 1980. It includes descriptions of management and operations at GMCC's four baseline sites, scientific data from the measurement projects, conclusions from analyses of data and recent basic research achievements. The four observatories are located in Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and South Pole.

  4. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    geophysics, geology, engineering, physics, and mathematics. SAGE is sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Branch of the University of California's Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics. More information is available on the SAGE web site at http://www.sage.lanl.gov/.

  5. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  6. Enhanced predictability in chaotic geophysical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brindley, J.; Kapitaniak, T.

    1996-06-01

    Using the Lorenz equations as an example we show that one chaotic system can be controlled by synchronizing its behavior with the chaotic behavior of another system. We particularly discuss the implications of this phenomenon in geophysical systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  8. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules

  9. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Refuge approximately 57 miles along the line of extreme low water of the Arctic Ocean, including all..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt....

  10. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Refuge approximately 57 miles along the line of extreme low water of the Arctic Ocean, including all..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt....

  11. Alaska - Russian Far East connection in volcano research and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Neal, C. A.; Chebrov, V. N.; Girina, O. A.; Demyanchuk, Y. V.; Rybin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kurile-Kamchatka-Alaska portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans for nearly 5400 km. It includes more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three integrated components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) volcanological field schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT). Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in August 2011 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and brought together more than 130 scientists and students from Russia, Japan, and the United States. The key educational component of our collaborative program

  12. Enrollment Trends at University of Alaska Community Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Scott; Hill, Alexandra; Killorin, Mary

    2005-01-01

    In this report, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, investigated the factors that explain change over time in enrollments and credit hours (participation) at the community campuses of the University of Alaska using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sections include: (1) Background; (2) Factors…

  13. Alaska Education Directory, School Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This 1999-2000 directory provides information on Alaska's public schools, school districts, education organizations, and institutions of higher education. A statistical summary indicates that in 1998-99, Alaska enrolled 132,905 students in 503 public schools. Breakdowns by grade configuration and enrollment show that about half the schools served…

  14. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  15. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the central Gulf of Alaska (GOA), June, 2011. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to USGS to......

  16. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  17. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  18. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  19. Geophysical applications of squids

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1983-05-01

    Present and potential geophysical applications of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) include remote reference magnetotellurics, controlledsource electromagnetic sounding, airborne gradiometry, gravity gradiometers, rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism, the location of hydrofractures for hot dry rock geothermal energy and enhanced oil and gas recovery, the detection of internal ocean waves, and underwater magnetotellurics.

  20. Digital release of the Alaska Quaternary fault and fold database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Burns, P.; Combellick, R. A.; Weakland, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has designed a Quaternary fault and fold database for Alaska in conformance with standards defined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Quaternary fault and fold database. Alaska is the most seismically active region of the United States, however little information exists on the location, style of deformation, and slip rates of Quaternary faults. Thus, to provide an accurate, user-friendly, reference-based fault inventory to the public, we are producing a digital GIS shapefile of Quaternary fault traces and compiling summary information on each fault. Here, we present relevant information pertaining to the digital GIS shape file and online access and availability of the Alaska database. This database will be useful for engineering geologic studies, geologic, geodetic, and seismic research, and policy planning. The data will also contribute to the fault source database being constructed by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), Faulted Earth project, which is developing tools to better assess earthquake risk. We derived the initial list of Quaternary active structures from The Neotectonic Map of Alaska (Plafker et al., 1994) and supplemented it with more recent data where available. Due to the limited level of knowledge on Quaternary faults in Alaska, pre-Quaternary fault traces from the Plafker map are shown as a layer in our digital database so users may view a more accurate distribution of mapped faults and to suggest the possibility that some older traces may be active yet un-studied. The database will be updated as new information is developed. We selected each fault by reviewing the literature and georegistered the faults from 1:250,000-scale paper maps contained in 1970's vintage and earlier bedrock maps. However, paper map scales range from 1:20,000 to 1:500,000. Fault parameters in our GIS fault attribute tables include fault name, age, slip rate, slip sense, dip direction, fault line type

  1. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  2. Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stéphane; Harlap, Yaël.; Nordmo, Ivar

    2014-09-01

    An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

  3. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  4. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  5. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic scaling or dimensional analysis reveals that certain scales of geophysical fluid flows (such as stellar, ocean, and planetary atmosphere circulations) can be accurately modeled in the laboratory using a procedure which differs from conventional engineering modeling. Rather than building a model to obtain numbers for a specific design problem, the relative effects of the significant forces are systematically varied in an attempt to deepen understanding of the effects of these forces. Topics covered include: (1) modeling a large-scale planetary atmospheric flow in a rotating cylindrical annulus; (2) achieving a radial dielectric body force; (3) spherical geophysical fluid dynamics experiments for Spacelab flights; (4) measuring flow and temperature; and (5) the possible effect of rotational or precessional disturbances on the flow in the rotating spherical containers.

  6. Geophone design evolution related to non-geophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.

    1996-04-01

    Acoustic velocity sensors, {open_quote}{open_quote}geophones,{close_quote}{close_quote} are used for geophysical exploration in large numbers worldwide. Information is presented to aid potential users in other fields to evaluate the geophone as a viable sensor. Past history and present design are covered in a series of slides and drawings. Intrinsic noise, frequency bandwidth, and dynamic range of typical production geophones are characterized. Some successful non-geophysical applications are described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Sánchez, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Miyamoto, H.

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique microgravity environment that these bodies possess, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesized through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging toward a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that are currently being used to investigate regolith processes occurring on small-body surfaces and that are contributing to the interpretation of observations and the design of future space missions.

  8. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…

  9. State of Alaska Student Financial Aid Programs: Annual Report, 1987-1988. Document Number 89-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This report summarizes the participation levels of the five postsecondary, financial assistance programs in the state of Alaska for 1987-88. The Alaska Student Loan Program (ASLP) awarded approximately 17,000 loans during the period; 53.8% of which went to students attending an institution in Alaska, while 26.7% were awarded to freshmen. The…

  10. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  11. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  12. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  13. Alaska Broad Scale Orthoimagery and Elevation Mapping - Current Statewide Project Progress and Historic Work in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, T. A.; Broderson, D.; Johnson, A.; Slife, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the overall program goals and current status of broad scale, statewide orthoimagery and digital elevation model (DEM) projects currently underway in Alaska. As context, it will also describe the history and successes of previous statewide Alaska mapping efforts over the preceding 75 years. A new statewide orthomosaic imagery baselayer at 1:24,000 NMAS accuracy (12.2-meters CE90) is nearing completion. The entire state (1.56 million square kilometers) has been imaged with the SPOT 5 satellite, and a 2.5-meter spatial resolution, multi-spectral, nearly cloud-free, pan-sharpened orthoimage will be produced by mid-2015. A second major project is collection of an improved accuracy DEM statewide. Airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data has been collected for about half of the state of Alaska and completion of the rest of the state is anticipated within a few years. A 5-meter post spacing, 20-foot contour interval accuracy equivalent (3-meter vertical LE90) DEM and radar backscatter intensity image is being delivered. Historic projects to be described include the 1950's USGS Alaska topographic mapping program, one of the largest and most pioneering, challenging, and successful ever undertaken in North America. These historic and current mapping programs have served as both a baselayer framework and as feedstock for science for virtually every geologic, geophysical, and terrestrial natural science project in the state.

  14. Geologic Map of the Point Lay Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pessel, G.H.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This map is a product of the USGS Digital Geologic Maps of Northern Alaska project, which captures in digital format quadrangles across the entire width of northern Alaska. Sources include geologic maps previously published in hardcopy format and recent updates and revisions based on field mapping by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Individual quadrangles are digitized at either 1:125,000 or 1:250,000 depending on the resolution of source maps. The project objective is to produce a set of digital geologic maps with uniform stratigraphic nomenclature and structural annotation, and publish those maps electronically. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  15. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  16. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  17. Common interests bind AGU and geophysical groups around the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    In continuation of our work to strengthen alliances with key organizations in the Earth and space science community, AGU president Michael McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and I held a series of meetings with leaders from other science societies during the 2011 Fall Meeting. Over the course of 2 days we met with leaders from the Geophysical Society of America, European Geosciences Union, Japan Geosciences Union, Ethiopian Geophysical Union, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Chinese Geophysical Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial. This gave us a valued opportunity to discuss the common interests and challenges we all face and to learn from each other's experience. The meetings allowed AGU to strengthen existing cooperative agreements and reach new levels of understanding between us and other societies. Additionally, we met with representatives from the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute to discuss their intention to establish a geophysical union modeled after AGU.

  18. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  19. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  20. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  1. Building Geophysics Talent and Opportunity in Africa: Experience from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics Field School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Jones, M. Q. W.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges faced by geophysics students and academic staff in Africa that make it difficult to develop effective field and research programs. Challenges to conducting field work that have been identified, and that can be tackled are: lack of training on geophysical equipment and lack of exposure to field program design and implementation. To address these challenges, the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics field school is designed to expose participants to a wide variety of geophysical instruments and the entire workflow of a geophysical project. The AA field school was initially developed for the geophysics students at the University of the Witwatersrand. However, by increasing the number of participants, we are able to make more effective use of a large pool of equipment, while addressing challenging geophysical problems at a remote field site. These additional participants are selected partially based on the likely hood of being able start a field school at their home institution. A good candidate would have access to geophysical equipment, but may not have knowledge of how to use it or how to effectively design surveys. These are frequently junior staff members or graduate students in leadership roles. The three week program introduces participants to the full geophysical field workflow. The first week is spent designing a geophysical survey, including determining the cost. The second week is spent collecting data to address a real geophysical challenge, such as determining overburden thickness, loss of ground features due to dykes in a mine, or finding water. The third week is spent interpreting and integrating the various data sets culminating in a final presentation. Participants are given all lecture material and much of the software is open access; this is done to encourage using the material at the home institution. One innovation has been to use graduate students as instructors, thus building a pool of talent that has developed the logistic and

  2. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  3. Geophysics on Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    A priority for both NSF and AGU is the communication of scientific knowledge to the public. One way of determining where the public is looking for information is to search for geophysical terms on Google. Often the first hit is a Wikipedia site. Wikipedia is often the first place that high school students look. Yet there are few geophysicists who contribute to Wikipedia pages. This is particularly true of paleomagnetism and related subjects. In this project, efforts to improve the extent and quality of paleomagnetism coverage are described. The state of the Wikipedia articles at the beginning of this project is compared with their current state. The process of organizing the large number of articles and prioritizing them is described, along with ways to form collaborations on Wikipedia between geophysicists.

  4. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  5. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  6. The College Hill Chronicles: How the University of Alaska Came of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil

    This volume relates the founding and subsequent history of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. It is written by a retired former student and lifelong faculty member in the geophysics department. Divided into major sections, the first covers the site, early Alaskan history, founding of the school when the focus was on agriculture and mining, the…

  7. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  8. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  9. Geothermal Data via the Virginia Tech and DMME Portal to the National Geothermal Data System for the Eastern and Southeastern United States from the Regional Geophysics Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    DOE Data Explorer

    The former title for this record was "Geothermal Data for the Eastern and Southeastern U.S. from the Regional Geophysics Laboratory of Virginia Tech." The content originally referenced is still available. It includes geothermal maps of seven southeastern states with accompanying data tables. The seven states are: New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caroline, and Georgia. Data types include geothermal data, seismic data, and magnetic and gravity data. Typical geothermal data may include tables of temperature versus depth data, plots of temperature/gradient versus depth, tables of thermal conductivity data, and tables of gamma log data. Other resources available from the RGL provide information about hot springs in the southeastern U.S., temperatures for Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments, and deep fracture permeability in crystalline rocks in the eastern and southeastern U.S. Recently, this website and its collection of geothermal data has been renamed and reorganized as a portal into the National Geothermal Data System, a move that makes far more data both available and integrated.

  10. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  11. 2006 Compilation of Alaska Gravity Data and Historical Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Brown, Philip J., II; Morin, Robert L.; Hill, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity anomalies provide fundamental geophysical information about Earth structure and dynamics. To increase geologic and geodynamic understanding of Alaska, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and processed Alaska gravity data for the past 50 years. This report introduces and describes an integrated, State-wide gravity database and provides accompanying gravity calculation tools to assist in its application. Additional information includes gravity base station descriptions and digital scans of historical USGS reports. The gravity calculation tools enable the user to reduce new gravity data in a consistent manner for combination with the existing database. This database has sufficient resolution to define the regional gravity anomalies of Alaska. Interpretation of regional gravity anomalies in parts of the State are hampered by the lack of local isostatic compensation in both southern and northern Alaska. However, when filtered appropriately, the Alaska gravity data show regional features having geologic significance. These features include gravity lows caused by low-density rocks of Cenozoic basins, flysch belts, and felsic intrusions, as well as many gravity highs associated with high-density mafic and ultramafic complexes.

  12. Summary terrane, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; West, Timothy D.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Baranov, Boris V.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislauv G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Eremin, Roman A.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Gorodinskiy, Mary E.; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W., Jr.; Plafker, George; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is part of a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. The project is to provide critical information for collaborators and customers on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera.

  13. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  14. NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs, the students are not housed together, but are paired, one-on-one, with a PI at his or her home institution. PGGURP interns have worked at sites ranging from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Through NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, the interns' travel and lodging costs are covered, as are a cost-of-living stipend. Approximately 30% of the undergraduate PGGURP participants continue on to graduate school in the planetary sciences. We consider this to be an enormous success, because the participants are among the best and brightest undergraduates in the country with a wide range of declared majors (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, as well as geology). Furthermore, those students that do continue tend to excel, and point to the internship as a turning point in their scientific careers. The NASA PIs who serve as mentors agree that this is a valuable experience for them, too, and many of them have been hosting interns annually for well over a decade. The PI obtains enthusiastic and intelligent undergraduate, free of charge, for a summer, while having the opportunity to work closely with today's students who are the future of planetary science. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, TX, also sponsors a summer undergraduate internship. Approximately 12 students are selected to live together in apartments located near the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Johnson Space Center. Similar to PGGURP, the LPI interns are carefully selected to work one-on-one for ~10 weeks during the summer with one of the LPI staff scientists

  15. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  16. Executive summary of the US Bureau of Mines investigations in the Colville Mining District, Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    During 1991 through 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Bureau) - Alaska Field Operations Center (AFOC) in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - Arctic District Office and the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), conducted exploration, geological, geochemical, geophysical, mineral resource, and mineral potential investigations in the 6.7 million hectare Colville Mining District (CMD) study area. The document discusses the pertinent recent and historical information about the CMD, summarizes the findings of Bureau work performed in the CMD to date, and can be used as a principal reference to information on mineral resources within the CMD study area.

  17. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  18. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  19. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during Fiscal Year 1992. The sheets provide information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations.

  20. Directory of research projects, 1991. Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Ted A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded by the program during fiscal year 1991. Information is provided on the research topic, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed investigators.

  1. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided, including the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during fiscal year 1990. Information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations is also provided.

  2. Earthquake locations determined by the Southern Alaska seismograph network for October 1971 through May 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogleman, Kent A.; Lahr, John C.; Stephens, Christopher D.; Page, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    instrumentation and strengthened antenna systems. The majority of the stations installed since 1980 were operated only temporarily (from one to several years) for special studies in various areas within the network. Due to reduced funding, the network was trimmed substantially in the summer of 1985 with the closure of 15 stations, 13 of which were located in and around the Yakataga seismic gap. To further reduce costs, two telephone circuits were dropped and multiple radio relays were installed in their place. This economy reduced the reliability of these telemetry links. In addition, data collection from the areas around Cordova and Yakutat was compromised by the necessity of relying on triggered event recording using PC-based systems (Rogers, 1993) that were not fully developed and which proved to be less reliable than anticipated. The principal means of recording throughout the time period of this catalog was 20-channel oscillographs on 16-mm film (Teledyne Geotech Develocorder, Model RF400 and 4000D). Initially one Develocorder was operated at the USGS Alaskan headquarters in Anchorage, but in 1972 recording was shifted to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Palmer Observatory (currently the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center). The Develocorders were turned off at the end of May 1989, and after that time recording was done in digital format at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks (GIUA). Thus, this catalog covers the entire period of film recording.

  3. A ``model`` geophysics program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994.

  4. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  5. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  6. Scientists of tomorrow - Geophysics School Lab for Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschämmer, Ellen; Bohlen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2012, the Geophysical Institute (GPI) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed several geophysical experiments for secondary school students which are now part of the Geophysics School Lab at the GPI. Usually, the students visit the School Lab as a class together with their teacher (Physics, Geography, Science), but the School Lab can also be used for extracurricular learning of individual students. The experiments carried out deal with the topics Seismology, Geoelectrics, and Fluid Dynamics: A horizontal seismometer is decoupled from its registration unit for the time of the visit of the students. With this setup, the students can measure the natural period of the pendulum, and adjust the seismometer accordingly. At different experimental stations, students can analyse seismic data registered with this unit, locate earthquakes, or get to know and understand an accelerometer. The accelerometer is attached to a registration unit and data can be visualized in real time. In another experimental setup, the students can measure the viscosity of a fluid as a function of temperature in order to get a better understanding of different magma types and their viscosity. Furthermore, a geoelectric experiment is carried out in a sandbox: The students experience with non-destructive testing, and try to reveal the subsurface structure. For our experiments, secondary school teachers can receive free supportive materials for the preparation of the visit. The aim of the Geophysics School Lab is to encourage and acquaint secondary school students to the concepts of Geophysics, and to enthuse them with the applied issues of Geosciences.

  7. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  8. Report on the Program “Fluid-mediated particle transport in geophysical flows” at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UC Santa Barbara, September 23 to December 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James T.; Meiburg, Eckart; Valance, Alexandre

    2015-09-15

    The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.

  9. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  10. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  11. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  12. Alaska Native Rural Development: The NANA Experience. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Michael J.

    Faced with the need to build new social and economic institutions following the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Natives formed 12 regional non-profit making corporations. One of these, Northwest Arctic Inupiat (NANA), is bringing a human resources development approach to the area in an effort to develop enduring economic and…

  13. Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  14. Integrated Research and Capacity Building in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Nyblade, A.

    2008-05-01

    There have been special opportunities over the past several years to improve the ways that newly-constructed geophysical observatories in Southeast Asia and the Americas are linked with educational and civil institutions. Because these opportunities have been only partially fulfilled, there remains the possibility that new networks will not fully address desired goals or even lose operational capabilities. In contrast, the AfricaArray project continues to progress towards goals for linkages among education, research, mitigation and observatories. With support from the Office of International Science and Education at the US National Science Foundation, we convened a workshop to explore lessons learned from the AfricaArray experience and their relevance to network development opportunities in other regions. We found closer parallels than we expected between geophysical infrastructure in the predominantly low income countries of Africa with low risk of geophysical disasters and the mostly middle-income countries of Southeast Asia and the Americas with high risk of geophysical disasters. Except in larger countries of South America, workshop participants reported that there are very few geophysicists engaged in research and observatory operations, that geophysical education programs are nearly non-existent even at the undergraduate university level, and that many monitoring agencies continue to focus on limited missions even though closer relationships researchers could facilitate new services that would make important contributions to disaster mitigation and sustainable operations. Workshop participants began discussing plans for international research collaborations that, unlike many projects of even the recent past, would include long-term capacity building and disaster mitigation among their goals. Specific project objectives would include national or regional hazard mapping, development of indigenous education programs, training to address the needs of local

  15. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  16. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  17. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  18. Permafrost distribution mapping and temperature modeling along the Alaska Highway corridor, Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Santosh K.

    An up-to-date permafrost distribution map is critical for making engineering decisions during the planning and design of any engineering project in Interior Alaska. I used a combination of empirical-statistical and remote sensing techniques to generate a high-resolution spatially continuous near-surface (< 1.6 m) permafrost map by exploiting the correlative relationships between permafrost and biophysical terrain parameters. A Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) model was used to establish the relationship between vegetation type, aspect-slope and permafrost presence. The logistic coefficients for each variable class obtained from the BLR model were supplied to respective variable classes mapped from remotely sensed data to estimate permafrost probability for every pixel. The BLR model predicts permafrost presence/absence at an accuracy of 88%. Near-surface permafrost occupies 37% of the total study area. A permafrost map based on the interpretation of airborne electromagnetic (EM) resistivity data shows 22.5 -- 43.5% of the total study area as underlain by permafrost. Permafrost distribution statistics from both the maps suggest near-surface permafrost distribution in the study area is sporadic (10 -- 50 % of the area underlain by permafrost). Changes in air temperature and/or winter snow depth are important factors responsible for permafrost aggradation or degradation. I evaluated the effects of past and recent (1941-2008) climate changes on permafrost and active-layer dynamics at selected locations using the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory model. Results revealed that active-layer thickness reached 0.58 and 1.0 m, and mean annual permafrost temperature increased by 1.6 and 1.7 °C during 1966-1994 at two sites in response to increased mean annual air temperature, mean summer air temperature and winter snow depth. The study found that active-layer thickness is not only a function of summer air temperature but also of mean annual air temperature and

  19. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  20. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data, Styx River Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.; Burns, L.; Emond, A.

    2014-12-01

    A joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) aims to add value to public domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, collected in Alaska, through the application of newly developed advanced inversion methods to produce resistivity depth sections along flight lines. Derivative products are new geophysical data maps, interpretative profiles and displays. An important task of the new processing is to facilitate calibration or leveling between adjacent surveys flown with different systems in different years. The new approach will facilitate integration of the geophysical data in the interpretation and construction of geologic framework, resource evaluations and to geotechnical studies. Four helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been flown in the Styx River area by the DGGS; Styx River, Middle Styx, East Styx, and Farewell. The Styx River flown in 2008 and Middle Styx in flown 2013, cover an area of 2300 square kilometers. These data consist of frequency-domain DIGHEM V surveys which have been numerically processed and interpreted to yield a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity. We describe the numerical interpretation methodology (inversion) in detail, from quality assessment to interpretation. We show two methods of inversion used in these datasets, deterministic and stochastic, and describe how we use these results to define calibration parameters and assess the quality of the datasets. We also describe the difficulties and procedures for combining datasets acquired at different times.

  1. AAGRUUK: the Arctic Archive for Geophysical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. D.; Edwards, M. H.; Wright, D.; Dailey, M.

    2005-12-01

    The key to developing and maintaining a unified community database lies in building and supporting a general organizational structure linking distributed databases through the worldwide web via a portal that contains key information, links, and search engines, is maintained and updated by people familiar with the data sets, and contains sufficient information to be useful across many disciplines encompassed by research scientists. There must also be enough flexibility in the approach to support two disparate types of principal investigators who wish to contribute data: those who desire or require relinquishing their data to a repository managed by others and those who wish to maintain control of their data and online archives. To provide this flexibility and accommodate the diversity, volume, and complexity of multidisciplinary geological and geophysical data for the Arctic Ocean we are developing AAGRUUK, an online data repository combined with a web-based archive-linking infrastructure to produce a distributed Data Management System. The overarching goal of AAGRUUK is to promote collaborative research and multidisciplinary studies and foster new scientific insights for the Arctic Basin. To date the archive includes bathymetry, sidescan and subbottom data collected by the nuclear-powered submarines during the Science Ice Exercises (SCICEX), multibeam bathymetry collected by the USCGC HEALY and the Nathaniel B. Palmer, plus near-shore data around Barrow, Alaska as well as ice camp T3 and nuclear submarine soundings. Integration of the various bathymetric datasets has illustrated a number of problems, some of which aren't readily apparent until multiple overlapping datasets have been combined. Foremost among these are sounding errors caused by mapping while breaking ice and navigational misalignments in the SCICEX data. The former error is apparent in swath data that follow an irregular navigational track, indicating that a ship was unable to proceed directly from

  2. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  3. Beppu geothermal field and the Geophysical Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Bathing in hot springs has always been an important part of life in Japan. There are over 2,000 spas in Japan, visited every year by over 100 million people. In spite of this interest in hot-springs, very few institutes are dedicated to research in the hot-spring sciences. In this regard, the Geophysical Research Station of Kyoto University, Beppu, is unique because of its broad range of scientific studies of geothermal phenomena. The studies include geochemical, geophysical, geological, and hydrological research on geothermal systems in their natural and modified states. The Geophysical Research Station has an ideal location on the Beppu geothermal system, one of the largest geothermal systems in Japan on the Island of Kyushu. This island is the southernmost of the four main islands of Japan, at the northeastern end of the Philippines-Kyushu volcanic arc. The Beppa geothermal system is described briefly and research projects are discussed.

  4. SAGE celebrates 25 years of learning geophysics by doing geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiracek, G.R.; Baldridge, W.S.; Sussman, A.J.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L.W.; Ferguson, J.F.; Gilpin, B.E.; McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing world demand and record-high costs for energy and mineral resources, along with the attendant environmental and climate concerns, have escalated the need for trained geophysicists to unprecedented levels. This is not only a national need; it's a critical global need. As Earth scientists and educators we must seriously ask if our geophysics pipeline can adequately address this crisis. One program that has helped to answer this question in the affirmative for 25 years is SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). SAGE continues to develop with new faculty, new collaborations, and additional ways to support student participation during and after SAGE. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  6. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  7. Object Storage for Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Readey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Object storage systems (such as Amazon S3 or Ceph) have been shown to be cost-effective and highly scalable for data repositories in the Petabyte range and larger. However traditionally data storage used for geophysical software systems has centered on file-based systems and libraries such as NetCDF and HDF5. In this session we'll discuss the advantages and challenges of moving to an object store-based model for geophysical data. We'll review a proposed model for a geophysical data service that provides an API-compatible library for traditional NetCDF and HDF5 applications while providing high scalability and performance. One further advantage of this approach is that any dataset or dataset selection can be referenced as a URI. By using versioning, the data the URI references can be guaranteed to be unmodified, thus enabling reproducibility of referenced data.

  8. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  9. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF...

  10. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nikolas I.

    Nearly 80 years ago, Yugoslavian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic recognized, while studying a Balkan earthquake, that velocities of seismic waves increase abruptly at a few tens of kilometers depth , giving rise to the seismological definition of the crust. Since that discovery, many studies concerned with the nature of both the continental and oceanic crusts have appeared in the geophysical literature.Recently, interest in the continental crust has cascaded. This is largely because of an infusion of new data obtained from major reflection programs such as the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) and British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) and increased resolution of refraction studies. In addition, deep continental drilling programs are n ow in fashion. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach is a summary of present knowledge of the continental crust. Meissner has succeeded in writing a book suited to many different readers, from the interested undergraduate to the professional. The book is well documented , with pertinent figures and a complete and up-to-date reference list.

  11. Map, tables, and summary of fossil and isotopic age data, Mount Hayes Quadrangle, eastern Alaska range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Dutro, J. Thomas, Jr.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Silberling, Norman J.; Silva, Steven R.; Smith, Thomas E.; Turner, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes, summarizes, and interprets all known bedrock fossil and isotopic age studies for the Mount Hayes quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska. The accompanying map shows the location of all known bedrock fossil and isotopic sample localities in the quadrangle on a generalized geologic base map. These fossil and isotopic age data are obtained from new studies, unpublished data of the U.S. Geological Survey, contributed unpublished data, and published data. This report is one result of a five-year mineral resource assessment of the quadrangle that was done during the summers of 1978 through 1982, with additional topical studiesin 1985 and 1986. This report is one part of a folio on the geological, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource assessment studies of the quadrangle prepared as part of the Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  13. Resources for History of Geophysics at AIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The history programs of the American Institute of Physics -- the Center for History of Physics and the Niels Bohr Library & Archives -- maintain a wide variety of research resources for the history of physics generally, and for the history of geophysics in particular. AIP has over 20,000 photographs online, nearly 1000 oral history interview transcripts, and much more. The International Catalog of Sources provides an online union catalog of manuscript collections held worldwide. An important collection of IUGG records is available onsite, as also is the recently accessioned collection of AGU papers. As the 2019 centenary of AGU approaches, these resources will be of interest to both AGU members and historians of science.;

  14. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  15. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  16. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  17. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  18. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  19. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  20. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  1. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  2. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  3. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  4. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

  5. Geophysical applications of satellite altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwell, D.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Publications related to geophysical applications of Seasat and Geosat altimetry are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include geoid and gravity errors, regional geoid heights and gravity anomalies, local gravity field/flexure, plate tectonics, and gridded geoid heights/gravity anomalies. 99 refs.

  6. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  7. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  8. Restructuring the University of Alaska Statewide System of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Thomas A.; Rogers, Brian

    The radical restructuring of Alaska's public higher education system brought on by the state's 1986 economic collapse is discussed. The plan called for a merger of 11 community colleges with three universities into three multi-campus institutions. It realigned statewide programs in vocational technical education, fisheries and ocean sciences,…

  9. Statistical Abstract 1987. [University of Alaska System of Higher Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Thomas A.; And Others

    The 1987 edition of the statistical abstract for the University of Alaska System offers data to be used by public officials, institutional administrators, and the Board of Regents in developing university programs and plans. In 1987 the University used its old organizational structure for the last time due to state funding reductions, and this…

  10. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  11. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  12. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  13. More on South American geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  14. Environmental geophysics - fad or future?

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    For ten years, the oil industry has suffered cycles of downsizing, out-sourcing, and reorganization. As layoffs and early retirement have become widespread, an increasing number of geophysicists have seen the environmental business as an opportunity to stay in their chosen professions. There have been predictions that the use of geophysics for environmental mapping and characterization could spawn an industry larger than oil exploration. These predictions have come from serious financial analysts as well as from hopeful geophysicists, so they cannot be ignored. There also are reputable professionals who believe that environmentalism is a fad which will die out as soon as the next oil shortage occurs. They point to recent publicity about excessive expenditures for waste remediation as a signal of the beginning of the end. These conflicting views raise serious questions about the form and function of, and the future for, environmental geophysics. This paper reviews these views.

  15. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  16. Geophysical investigations at Momotombo, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Cordon, U.J.; Zurflueh, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua was investigated in three exploration stages, using a number of geophysical techniques. Stage 1 of the investigations by Texas Instruments, Inc., (1970) located and delineated a potential geothermal field, with the dipole mapping surveys and electromagnetic soundings being most effective. Stage 2 of the investigations, performed in 1973 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), outlined the resistivity anomalies in the area west of the previously selected field; Schlumberger VES soundings and constant depth profiling (SCDP) proved most useful. During Stage 3 of the investigations, Electroconsult (ELC) performed 20 additional Schlumberger VES soundings as part of the 1975 plant feasibility studies. Results of these geophysical techniques are summarized and their effectiveness briefly discussed.

  17. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  18. News and Views: Missing the boat; Wanted: geophysics for teachers; Government seeks geo-engineering information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The Institute of Physics is seeking short summaries of geophysics topics to support school teachers, in a move aimed at boosting the teaching and awareness of geophysics in schools. The UK government Department of Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills is seeking information on geo-engineering as a case study within its major enquiry into engineering. The field described by the DUISS is broad and covers areas in which geophysicists may be working and in a position to supply useful information.

  19. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  1. Geophysics of Ceres from Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Hughson, K.; Jaumann, R.; McCord, T.; Presuker, F.; Schenck, P.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-10-01

    Dawn's 16-month investigation of Ceres will return comprehensive data elucidating its geology and morphology, composition, and gravity field. One of the objectives of the investigation is to understand Ceres' interior structure and the possibility of communication between the subsurface ocean, thought to have existed during the first half of Ceres' evolution, and the surface. Geophysical data collected to date provide a preliminary assessment of the structure and composition of the ice shell and implications for past mobility.

  2. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. Historians probe geophysics in Seattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James R.

    The history of geophysics is becoming a “hot topic” among historians of science and technology. While previous annual meetings of the History of Science Society had few papers on the topic, the latest meeting of the society on October 25-28, 1990, in Seattle featured three sessions with a total of 11 papers. Two “works in progress” papers were also on geophysical topics.The first session on the history of geophysics was Climate Change in Historical Perspective. In spite of all the recent attention given to global warming, it is important to remember that climatic change is not a new issue. Indeed, measured over the course of centuries, approaches to the study of climate and ideas about climatic change have been changing more rapidly than the climate itself. In addition to being interesting in its own right, the history of climatic change is beginning to play a crucial role in global change education, research, and policy decisions. Papers in this session spanned 200 years of the history of climatology as a science and climatic change as an issue.

  4. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  5. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  6. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  7. Geophysical Model Research and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Flanagan, M

    2004-07-07

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics: (1) a priori geophysical models, (2) surface wave models, (3) receiver function derived profiles, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. The first, a priori models, can be used to predict a host of geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. Use of these models is particularly important in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, where data of direct measurements might not exist. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA) model which has been evaluated using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis (Pasyanos et al., 2004). We have joined this model with our Yellow Sea - Korean Peninsula (YSKP) model and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) East Asia model to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. Secondly, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. We are also using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In a collaborative project with Ammon, et al., they have been focusing on stations throughout western Eurasia and North Africa, while we have been focusing on LLNL deployments in the Middle East, including Kuwait, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. Finally, we have been

  8. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  9. Progress in geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Allan R.

    Geophysical fluid dynamics deals with the motions and physics of the atmosphere, oceans and interior of the earth and other planets: the winds, the swirls, the currents that occur on myriads of scales from millimeter to climatological. Explanations of natural phenomena, basic processes and abstractions are sought. The rotation of the earth, the buoyancy of its fluids and the tendency towards large-scale turbulence characterize these flows. But geophysical fluid dynamics is importantly a part of modern fluid dynamics which is contributing to the development of nonlinear mechanics generally. Some general insights are emerging for nonlinear systems which must be regarded as partly deterministic and partly random or which are complex and aperiodic. Contributions from geophysical fluid dynamics come from its methodology, from the experience of examples, and from the perspective provided by its unique scale. Contributions have been made to turbulent, chaotic and coherently structured nonlinear process research. Turbulent vortices larger than man himself naturally invite detailed investigation and deterministic physical studies. Examples are storms in the atmosphere and large ring vortices spun off by the Gulf Stream current in mid-ocean. The statistics of these events determine critical aspects of the general circulations. Fluid dynamicists generally now know that it is often relevant or necessary to study local dynamical processes of typical eddies even though only the average properties of the flow are of interest; progress in understanding the turbulent boundary layer in pipes involves the study of millimeter-scale vortices. Weather-related studies were seminal to the construction of the new scientific field of chaos. Coherent vortices abound of which the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a spectacular example. Geophysical fluid dynamicists have been among forefront researchers in exploiting the steadily increasing speed and capacity of modern computers. Supercomputers

  10. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  11. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  12. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika

    2003-10-31

    Cost effective monitoring of reservoir fluid movement during CO{sub 2} sequestration is a necessary part of a practical geologic sequestration strategy. Current petroleum industry seismic techniques are well developed for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost of time-lapse seismic monitoring can be born because the cost to benefit ratio is small in the production of profit making hydrocarbon. However, the cost of seismic monitoring techniques is more difficult to justify in an environment of sequestration where the process produces no direct profit. For this reasons other geophysical techniques, which might provide sufficient monitoring resolution at a significantly lower cost, need to be considered. In order to evaluate alternative geophysical monitoring techniques we have undertaken a series of numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} sequestration scenarios. These scenarios have included existing projects (Sleipner in the North Sea), future planned projects (GeoSeq Liberty test in South Texas and Schrader Bluff in Alaska) as well as hypothetical models based on generic geologic settings potentially attractive for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In addition, we have done considerable work on geophysical monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection into existing oil and gas fields, including a model study of the Weyburn CO{sub 2} project in Canada and the Chevron Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot in Southern California (Hoversten et al. 2003). Although we are specifically interested in considering ''novel'' geophysical techniques for monitoring we have chosen to include more traditional seismic techniques as a bench mark so that any quantitative results derived for non-seismic techniques can be directly compared to the industry standard seismic results. This approach will put all of our finding for ''novel'' techniques in the context of the seismic method and allow a quantitative analysis of the cost/benefit ratios of the newly considered methods compared to the traditional

  13. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  14. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  15. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  16. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  17. Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) social and economic studies program. Technical report Number 91. Effects of renewable resource harvest disruptions on socio-economic and socio-cultural systems: Wainwright, Alaska. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Luton, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Contents include: ethnographic baseline, Wainright, Alaska; social institutions; the cash economy; kinship; subsistence task groups; subsistence economy; sharing; land mammals; marine mammals - Part 1 and 2; birds; fish, invertebrates, plants, minerals; ethnographic summary and conclusions.

  18. Research in American Indian and Alaska Native communities: navigating the cultural universe of values and process.

    PubMed

    Norton, I M; Manson, S M

    1996-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health's guidelines for recruiting ethnic minorities and women into clinical research have raised numerous questions among investigators. Highlighted in this article are a number of important issues for those researchers seeking to include American Indians and Alaska Natives in their studies; that is, defining the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives for inclusion in a study, participation of the tribes in research and approval by the Institutional Review Board, issues of confidentiality and anonymity of individuals and tribes, identifying potential benefits to American Indian and Alaska Native communities, and the importance of evaluating the scientific merit of a proposed study. Awareness and a commitment to ongoing education regarding these issues will enhance the quality and benefits of research among American Indian and Alaska Native people. PMID:8916611

  19. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  20. Geophysical Model Applications for Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Gok, R; Rodgers, A

    2005-07-11

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics and their applications: (1) surface wave models, (2) receiver function profiles, (3) regional tomography models, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. First, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. One application of the group velocities is to construct phase-matched filters in combination with regional surface-wave magnitude formulas to improve the mb:Ms discriminant and extend it to smaller magnitude events. Next, we are using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In the past year, we have been focusing on deployments throughout the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey. By assembling the results from many stations, we can see how regional seismic phases are affected by complicated upper mantle structure, including lithospheric thickness and anisotropy. The next geophysical model item, regional tomography models, can be used to predict regional travel times such as Pn and Sn. The times derived by the models can be used as a background model for empirical measurements or, where these don't exist, simply used as is. Finally, we have been exploring methodologies such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to generate data-driven stochastic models. We have applied this technique to the YSKP region using surface wave dispersion data, body wave travel time data, receiver functions, and gravity data. The models

  1. Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipenko, G.; Marchenko, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Groshev, V.; Sazonova, T.

    2004-12-01

    Given the possibility of climate warming in the near future, an evaluation of the magnitude of changes in the ground thermal regime becomes desirable for assessments of possible ecosystem responses and impacts on infrastructure in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. In the past, a soil model GIPL 1.0 developed at the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab was used to simulate the dynamics of the active layer thickness and mean annual ground temperature, both retrospectively and prognostically, using climate forcing from Global Climate Models. The GIPL 1.0 model is a quasi-transitional, spatially distributed, analytical model for the active layer thickness and mean annual ground temperature. This model is incorporated into GIS, which contains the information on geology, soils properties, vegetation, and snow distribution. GIS allows visualization of input and output parameters and their representation in the form of digital maps. As a further significant step in the GIPL model development, we replaced the analytical solution with a numerical model based on a finite difference method for the non-linear Heat Conduction Equation. In this model the process of soil freezing/thawing is occurring in accordance with the unfrozen water content curve, which is specific for each soil layer and for each geographical location. For each grid point on the map we used a one-dimensional multi-layer model of soil down to the depth of a constant geothermal heat flux (typically 500 to 1000 m). At the upper boundary, there are insulating layers of snow and vegetation that can change their properties with time. Special Enthalpy formulation of the energy conservation law makes it possible to use a coarse vertical resolution without loss of latent heat effects in phase transition zone even in case of fast temporally and spatially varying temperature fields. The new version of GIPL (GIPL 2.0) calculates soil temperature and liquid water content fields for the entire spatial domain with daily

  2. Research and career opportunities in the geophysical sciences for physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    The field of geophysics involves using most branches of physics to investigate the physical structure and process that characterize the solid and fluid parts of our planet. Major advances in geophysics have come about from physicists crossing disciplinary boundaries and using their skills and knowledge to address first-order problems about the nature and structure of our planet and how the planet has changed over time. Indeed, some of the largest scientific breakthroughs in geophysics have come from physicists. As a way to introduce students to the field of geophysics and to provide them with information about research and career opportunities in geophysics, this talk will focus on one area of geophysics, seismology. This is an area of geophysics that has not only been instrumental in advancing our understanding of solid Earth structure and processes, but one that also has an applied side used for oil, gas and mineral exploration, as well as for environmental work. Examples of research projects involving seismic wave propagation and tomographic imaging will be presented, along the short descriptions of career opportunities in industry, government and academic institutions. In collaboration with Solomon Bililign, North Carolina A&T State University.

  3. Current Legislative Initiatives and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S. G.

    2002-05-01

    Geophysical research will be most effective in the fight against terrorism if it is done in cooperation with the expectations of local, state and federal policy makers. New tools to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism are coming from all fields, including geoscience. Globally, monitoring the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space for unusual and suspicious activities can help prevent terrorist acts. Closer to home, geoscience research is used to plan emergency transportation routes and identify infrastructure vulnerabilities. As important as it is for Congress and other policy makers to appreciate the promises and limitations of geophysical research, scientists need to be aware of legislative priorities and expectations. What does Congress expect from the geoscience community in the fight against terrorism and how well does reality meet these expectations? What tools do the 44 different federal agencies with stated Homeland Security missions need from geoscientists? I will address these questions with an overview of current legislative antiterrorism initiatives and policies that relate to the geoscience community.

  4. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  5. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  6. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  7. Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on glacier change shows recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in three climatic regions of the United States. These long periods of record provide clues to the climate shifts that may be driving glacier change. The USGS Benchmark Glacier Program began in 1957 as a result of research efforts during the International Geophysical Year (Meier and others, 1971). Annual data collection occurs at three glaciers that represent three climatic regions in the United States: South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State; Wolverine Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula near Anchorage, Alaska; and Gulkana Glacier in the interior of Alaska (fig. 1).

  8. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University at SAGEEP 2008: Geophysical Instruction for Non-Geophysicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey G. Paine

    2009-03-13

    The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), a nonprofit professional organization, conducted an educational series of seminars at the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) in Philadelphia in April 2008. The purpose of these seminars, conducted under the name Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University (EEGU) over three days in parallel with the regular SAGEEP technical sessions, was to introduce nontraditional geophysical conference attendees to the appropriate use of geophysics in environmental and engineering projects. Five half-day, classroom-style sessions were led by recognized experts in the application of seismic, electrical, gravity, magnetics, and ground-penetrating radar methods. Classroom sessions were intended to educate regulators, environmental program managers, consultants, and students who are new to near-surface geophysics or are interested in learning how to incorporate appropriate geophysical approaches into characterization or remediation programs or evaluate the suitability of geophysical methods for general classes of environmental or engineering problems.

  9. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

  10. Numerical modeling of submarine landslide-generated tsunamis as a component of the Alaska Tsunami Inundation Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suleimani, E.; Lee, H.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Hansen, R.

    2006-01-01

    Tsunami waves are a threat for manyAlaska coastal locations, and community preparedness plays an important role in saving lives and property. The GeophysicalInstitute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating andmapping potential tsunami inundation of selected coastal communities in Alaska. We develop hypothetical tsunamiscenarios based on the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes and landslides for a specified coastal community. The modeling results are delivered to the community for localtsunami hazard planning and construction of evacuation maps. For the community of Seward, located at the head of Resurrection Bay, tsunami potential from tectonic and submarinelandslide sources must be evaluated for comprehensiveinundation mapping. Recent multi-beam and high-resolution sub-bottom profile surveys of Resurrection Bay show medium- and large-sized blocks, which we interpret as landslide debris that slid in the 1964 earthquake. Numerical modeling of the 1964 underwater slides and tsunamis will help to validate and improve the models. In order to construct tsunami inundation maps for Seward, we combine two different approaches for estimating tsunami risk. First, we observe inundation and runup due to tsunami waves generated by the 1964 earthquake. Next we model tsunami wave dynamics in Resurrection Bay caused by superposition of the local landslide- generated waves and the major tectonic tsunami. We compare modeled and observed values from 1964 to calibrate the numerical tsunami model. In our second approach, we perform a landslide tsunami hazard assessment using underwater slope stability analysis and available characteristics of potentially unstable sediment bodies. The approach produces hypothetical underwater slides and resulting tsunami waves. We use a three-dimensional numerical model of an incompressible viscous slide with full interaction between the slide

  11. The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON): Hands-on Experiential K- 12 Learning in the North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K.; Jeffries, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Lake Ice and Snow Observatory Network (ALISON) was initiated by Martin Jeffries (UAF polar scientist), Delena Norris-Tull (UAF education professor) and Ron Reihl (middle school science teacher, Fairbanks North Star Borough School District). The snow and ice measurement protocols were developed in 1999-2000 at the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) by Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska scientists and tested by home school teacher/students in winter 2001-2002 in Fairbanks, AK. The project was launched in 2002 with seven sites around the state (PFRR, Fairbanks, Barrow, Mystic Lake, Nome, Shageluk and Wasilla). The project reached its broadest distribution in 2005-2006 with 22 sites. The schools range from urban (Wasilla) to primarily Alaska native villages (Shageluk). They include public schools, charter schools, home schooled students and parents, informal educators and citizen scientists. The grade levels range from upper elementary to high school. Well over a thousand students have participated in ALISON since its inception. Equipment is provided to the observers at each site. Measurements include ice thickness (with a hot wire ice thickness gauge), snow depth and snow temperature (surface and base). Snow samples are taken and snow density derived. Snow variables are used to calculate the conductive heat flux through the ice and snow cover to the atmosphere. All data are available on the Web site. The students and teachers are scientific partners in the study of lake ice processes, contributing to new scientific knowledge and understanding while also learning science by doing science with familiar and abundant materials. Each autumn, scientists visit each location to work with the teachers and students, helping them to set up the study site, showing them how to make the measurements and enter the data into the computer, and discussing snow, ice and polar environmental change. A number of 'veteran' teachers are now setting up the study sites on

  12. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  13. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  14. Satellite Relaying of Geophysical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) for transmitting surface data to an orbiting satellite for relaying to a central data distribution center are being used in a number of geophysical applications. "Off-the-shelf" DCP's, transmitting through Landsat or GOES satellites, are fully capable of relaying data from low-data-rate instruments, such as tiltmeters or tide gauges. In cooperation with the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Goddard has successfully installed DCP systems on a tide gauge and tiltmeter array on Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Because of the high-data-rate requirements, a practical relay system capable of handling seismic information is not yet available. Such a system could become the basis of an operational hazard prediction system for reducing losses due to major natural catastrophies such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or tsunamis.

  15. Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goulty, N. R.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of sensitive strainmeters and tiltmeters have been developed, and it is now becoming clear which geophysical applications are most suitable for these instruments. In general, strainmeters and tiltmeters are used for observing ground deformation at periods of minutes to days. Small-scale lateral inhomogeneities at the instrument sites distort signals by a few percent, although the effects of large structures can be calculated. In earth tide work these lateral inhomogeneities and unknown ocean loading signals prevent accurate values of the regional tide from being obtained. This limits tidal investigations to looking for temporal variations, possibly associated with pre-earthquake dilatancy, and spatial variations caused by gross elasticity contrasts in the local geological structure. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are well suited for observing long-period seismic waves, seismic slip events on faults and volcano tumescence, where small site-induced distortions in the measured signals are seldom important.

  16. Workshop on geophysical grain flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Daniel M.

    Geophysical Grain Flows: Fluid-Grain Interactions in Coastal Sand Transport” was the focus of a workshop held from March 10 to 14 on Amelia Island, Fla. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the University of Florida. Approximately thirty-five participants from ten different countries attended, representing universities, government laboratories, and private companies. During the workshop, one of the largest and strongest storms in the recorded history of North America impacted the eastern half of the United States. The local response of the beach at Amelia Island to this storm was striking and somewhat surprising. There was substantial accretion and widening of the beach. While the morphological changes in the beach profile were of medium to large scale, it is intriguing to realize that the changes resulted from the integrated motion of an uncountable number of sand grains, each moving more or less independently, yet cumulatively producing a wider beach.

  17. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  18. Solar flare emissions and geophysical disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1973-01-01

    Various geophysical phenomena are produced by both wave and particle emissions from solar flares. Using the observed data for these emissions, a review is given on the nature of solar flares and their development. Geophysical phenomena are discussed by referring to the results for solar flare phenomena.

  19. Responsibilities, opportunities and challenges in geophysical exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Rytle, R.J.

    1982-05-04

    Geophysical exploration for engineering purposes is conducted to decrease the risk in encountering site uncertainties in construction of underground facilities. Current responsibilities, opportunities and challenges for those with geophysical expertise are defined. These include: replacing the squiggly line format, developing verification sites for method evaluations, applying knowledge engineering and assuming responsibility for crucial national problems involving rock mechanics expertise.

  20. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  1. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  2. Agricultural geophysics: Past/present accomplishments and future advancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods have become an increasingly valuable tool for application within a variety of agroecosystems. Agricultural geophysics measurements are obtained at a wide range of scales and often exhibit significant variability both temporally and spatially. The three geophysical methods predomi...

  3. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  4. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  5. Tectonic Origin of the 1899 Yakutat Bay Earthquakes, Alaska, and Insights into Future Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. S.; LeVoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    On September 10th the largest of four earthquakes (Mw 8.2) that occurred in southeast Alaska on 1899 produced a 6 m tsunami and may have produced as much as 14 m of co-seismic uplift. This earthquake had an epicenter somewhere near Yakutat or Disenchantment Bays. These bays lie at the transition between the Fairweather Fault (the Pacific-North American strike-slip plate boundary), and the Yakutat Terrane-North American subduction zone. The deformation front of this subduction zone is thought to include the eastern fault in the Pamplona Zone offshore, the Malaspina Fault onshore, and the Esker Creek Fault near Yakutat Bay. The 10 September 1899 event could have taken place on a Yakutat-North American megathrust that daylights in Yakutat or Disenchantment Bay. Alternatively, the 10 September 1899 earthquake could have originated from the Fairweather-Boundary and Yakutat faults, transpressive components of the Fairweather strike-slip system present in the Yakutat Bay region, or from thrusting along the Yakutat and Otemaloi Faults on the southeast flank of Yakutat Bay. Characterizing fault slip during the Alaskan earthquakes of 1899 is vital to assessing both subduction zone structure and seismic hazards in the Yakutat Bay area. Each possible fault model has a different implication for modern hazards. These results will be used to update seismic hazard and fault maps and assess future risk to the Yakutat Bay and surrounding communities. During Aug. 6-17th, we anticipate acquiring high-resolution, marine multichannel seismic data aboard the USGS vessel Alaskan Gyre in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays to search for evidence of recent faulting and directly test these competing theories for the 10 September 1899 event. This survey uses the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' mini-GI gun, 24-channel seismic streamer, portable seismic compressor system, and associated gun control and data acquisition system to acquire the data. The profiles have a nominal common

  6. Student Research Projects in Geophysics Through a Consortium of Undergraduate Geology Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, G. C.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1987, and continuing to the present, the Keck Geology Consortium, a group of 12 undergraduate institutions, has sponsored a series of summer research projects. These projects typically involve from 9 to 12 students and 3 to 4 faculty members and consist of a 4 to 5 week summer research program followed by continuation of the research at the students' home institutions, often as a senior thesis. Many of these projects have included extensive field and laboratory geophysical components. In order for students to carry out successful research projects in geophysics, several hurdles have to be cleared. Frequently these students have not had a formal course in geophysics, so although they may have strong geologic and quantitative skills, there is usually the need for a concentrated classroom immersion in the geophysical theory and methods related to the project. Field geophysics projects are labor intensive, so it is common for a group of three or more students to produce only one or two complete data sets in the course of the summer program. Generating individualized projects so that students feel ownership of their thesis research can be challenging. Most of the departments do not have a geophysicist on the faculty, so follow-up support for the student research involves continued long-distance collaboration between project directors, students and sponsoring faculty. The impact of the internet on this collaboration cannot be overstated. Finally, diverse computing environments at the participating institutions were a significant problem in the early years. Migration of geophysical software to Windows from Unix, and the widespread availability of Linux has mitigated these problems in recent years. The geophysical components of these projects have been largely successful. A series of vignettes is presented showing the range and nature of geophysical projects that have been carried out. In addition to anecdotal evidence of student satisfaction, there is

  7. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  8. 1984 Results of trans-Alaska crustal transect in Chugach Mountains and Copper River Basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Ambos, E.L.; Fuis, G.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Page, R.A.; Plafker, G.; Campbell, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) program, a multidisciplinary investigation of the continental crust and its evolution along the Trans-Alaska pipeline corridor was started by the USGS during 1984. Preliminary results of geologic, geophysical, and wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained across the Chugach terrane (CGT) and the composite Wrangellia/Peninsular terrane (WRT/PET) suggest the following: (a) the CGT is composed of accretionary sequences that include, from south to north, Late Cretaceous schistose flysch, uppermost Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sheared melange, and Early(.) Jurassic blueschist/greenschist. (b) The CGT accretionary sequences have local broad, low-amplitude magnetic or gravity anomalies. (c) Seismic data show that the CGT along latitude 61/sup 0/N, by alternating high- (6.9-8.0. km/sec) and low-velocity layers is suggestive of multiple thin slices of subducted oceanic crust and upper mantle. (d) Mafic and ultramafic cumulate rocks along the south margin of the WRT/PET have strong magnetic and gravity signatures and are interpreted as the uplifted root of a Jurassic magmatic arc superimposed on a late Paleozoic volcanic arc. Magnetic data suggest that comparable rocks underlie most of the PET. (e) The Northdipping border Ranges fault (BRF) marks the suture along which the northern margin of the CGT was relatively underthrust at least 40 km beneath the WRT/PET. (f) Beneath the northern CGT and southern WRT/PET, a prominent seismic reflector (v = 7.7 km/sec), suggestive of oceanic upper mantle rocks, dips about 3/sup 0/N and extends from a depth of 12 km beneath the Tasnuna River to 16 km beneath the BRF, where the dip appears to steepen to about 15/sup 0/ beneath the southern margin of the PET.

  9. Geophysical characterization of shallow karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzbach, Cedric; Jordi, Claudio; Sollberger, David; Doetsch, Joseph; Kaufmann, Manuela; Robertsson, Johan; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2015-04-01

    In seismic exploration, karstified areas are known to be notoriously difficult ground for subsurface imaging. Apart from problems of effective source and receiver coupling to the ground, karst can cause strong near-surface scattering effects, which interfere with the signals of interest. A detailed understanding of the geometry and geophysical properties of karstified near-surface layers and the impact of karst structures on seismic-wave propagation are therefore critical to mitigate imaging problems related to karst. Most geophysical investigations of karst phenomena focus on the most prominent karst features such as sinkholes (dolines) and caves because these are spectacular and/or may represent hazards. However, understanding karst evolution and the interaction of weathering, lithology, and tectonic history of a karstified area requires a thorough understanding of the entire near-surface zone between the surface and the intact carbonate rock at depth. Motivated by the need to study karstification at two field locations and to understand its impact on seismic wave propagation at these sites, we conducted a multi-method geophysical field campaign in the Swiss Jura Mountains (Western Switzerland). The area is covered by a thin soil layer (thickness generally < 1m), which is underlain by karstified Malm limestones. We conducted single-component and multi-component seismic reflection and refraction experiments to image the subsurface at scales of 10's to 100's of meters. In addition, we acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data to resolve resistivity variations in the topmost several 10's of meters. The ERT data were complemented at the meter to 10-meter scale by depth soundings with two different electromagnetic systems (EM31 and EM34). Finally, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were conducted to image the uppermost few meters of the subsurface in great detail. Overall, data of high quality were obtained with all methods. The final P

  10. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  11. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...

  12. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  13. Introduction of Special Physics Topics (Geophysics) Through the Use of Physics Laboratory Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, R. H.; Whittles, A. B. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives and content of a physics laboratory program for freshman students at the British Columbia Institute of Technology. The first part of the program consists of basic physics experiments, while the second part emphasizes student work on projects in geophysics that have direct technical applications. (LC)

  14. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), a part of the University of California, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the eastern tropical Pacific......

  15. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  16. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  17. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...

  18. Vibrator for seismic geophysical prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, J.M.

    1987-04-21

    An improved vibrator system is described for seismic geophysical prospecting, comprising: a vibrator comprising a first part, or dynamic vibrator part (VD) attached to a base plate in contact with the earth and a second part or vibrator stationary part (VS). Sound attenuating ear protection apparatus is described comprising: a pair of air evacuated, sealed chamber members disposably covering the ears of a user to lie between the user eardrums and an ear external source of undesirable sound energy; the air evacuated sealed chamber members each including first and second smooth surface portions with each surface portion having a spherical segment terminated by an annular flange lip shape and being disposable over one external ear of the user with one spherical segment, adjacent the ear being of different, higher mechanical resonance frequency with respect to the other spherical segment distal of the ear; the surface segment distal of the ear; the annular flange lips of the first and second surface portions being joined together in a junction disposed intermediate of the first and second spherical surface portions and perpendicular of the flange lips; resilient suspension means engaged with the head of the user and with the sealed chamber members for supporting the sealed chamber members in selected position over the user external ears.

  19. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  20. Geophysical Inversion Through Hierarchical Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, A.; Huisman, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical investigation is a powerful tool that allows non-invasive and non-destructive mapping of subsurface states and properties. However, non-uniqueness associated with the inversion process prevents the quantitative use of these methods. One major direction researchers are going is constraining the inverse problem by hydrological observations and models. An alternative to the commonly used direct inversion methods are global optimization schemes (such as genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods). However, the major limitation here is the desired high resolution of the tomographic image, which leads to a large number of parameters and an unreasonably high computational effort when using global optimization schemes. Two innovative schemes are presented here. First, a hierarchical approach is used to reduce the computational effort for the global optimization. Solution is achieved for coarse spatial resolution, and this solution is used as the starting point for finer scheme. We show that the computational effort is reduced in this way dramatically. Second, we use a direct ERT inversion as the starting point for global optimization. In this case preliminary results show that the outcome is not necessarily beneficial, probably because of spatial mismatch between the results of the direct inversion and the true resistivity field.

  1. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  2. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  3. Investigation of coastal areas in Northern Germany using airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, Marion; Siemon, Bernhard; Wiederhold, Helga; Steuer, Annika; Ibs-von Seht, Malte; Voß, Wolfgang; Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Since 2000, the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) carried out several airborne geophysical surveys in Northern Germany to investigate the coastal areas of the North Sea and some of the North and East Frisian Islands. Several of those surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG). Two helicopter-borne geophysical systems were used, namely the BGR system, which collects simultaneously frequency-domain electromagnetic, magnetic and radiometric data, and the SkyTEM system, a time-domain electromagnetic system developed by the University of Aarhus. Airborne geophysical surveys enable to investigate huge areas almost completely with high lateral resolution in a relatively short time at economic cost. In general, the results can support geological and hydrogeological mapping. Of particular importance are the airborne electromagnetic results, as the surveyed parameter - the electrical conductivity - depends on both lithology and groundwater status. Therefore, they can reveal buried valleys and the distribution of sandy and clayey sediments as well as salinization zones and fresh-water occurrences. The often simultaneously recorded magnetic and radiometric data support the electromagnetic results. Lateral changes of Quaternary and Tertiary sediments (shallow source - several tens of metres) as well as evidences of the North German Basin (deep source - several kilometres) are revealed by the magnetic results. The radiometric data indicate the various mineral compositions of the soil sediments. This BGR/LIAG project aims to build up a geophysics data base (http://geophysics-database.de/) which contains all airborne geophysical data sets. However, the more significant effort is to create a reference data set as basis for monitoring climate or man-made induced changes of the salt-water/fresh-water interface at the German North Sea coast. The significance of problems for groundwater extraction

  4. Comparison of geophysical investigations for detection of massive ground ice (pingo ice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Leuschen, C.; Ikeda, A.; Harada, K.; Gogineni, P.; Hoekstra, P.; Hinzman, L.; Sawada, Y.; Matsuoka, N.

    2006-06-01

    Six different geophysical investigations, (1) ground-penetrating radar, (2) DC resistivity sounding, (3) seismic refraction, (4) very low frequency (VHF) electromagnetic, (5) helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM), and (6) transient electromagnetic (TEM) techniques, were employed to obtain information on the ice body properties of pingos near Fairbanks, Alaska. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were also compared from similar sites near one of the study pingos. The geophysical investigations were undertaken, along with core sampling and permafrost drilling, to enable measurement of the ground temperature regime. Drilling (ground truthing) results support field geophysical investigations, and have led to the development of a technique for distinguishing massive ice and overburden material of the permafrost. The two-dimensional DC resistivity sounding tomography and ground-penetrating radar profiling are useful for ice detection under heterogeneous conditions. However, the DC resistivity sounding investigation required high-quality ground contact and less area coverage. The active layer thickness and the homogeneous horizontal structure of the overburden material are important parameters influencing detection of massive ice in permafrost for most methods such as seismic, TEM, or surface NMR.

  5. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  6. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...

  7. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska. 32.21 Section 32.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to...

  8. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This publication is an annotated listing of 143 books about Alaska or the Arctic, received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries in 1986. Most of the material is current or published in recent years, with the exception of government publications. Categories are juvenile, adult non-fiction, adult fiction, and reference. A few Alaska state and…

  9. 33 CFR 80.1705 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alaska. 80.1705 Section 80.1705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Alaska § 80.1705 Alaska. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all the sounds,...

  10. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  11. Physicist + Geologist points to Geophysics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.; Stueber, Alan M.

    1974-01-01

    A two-quarter introductory course in geophysics at the advanced undergraduate/beginning graduate level is described. An outline of course content is provided, and mechanics of instruction are discussed. (DT)

  12. Electromagnetic geophysical observation with controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the new theoretical and methodical approaches are examined for detailed investigations of the structure and state of the geological medium, and its behavior as a dynamic system in reaction to external man-made influences. To solve this problem it is necessary to use geophysical methods that have sufficient resolution and that are built on more complicated models than layered or layered-block models. One of these methods is the electromagnetic induction frequency-geometrical method with controlled sources. Here we consider new approaches using this method for monitoring rock shock media by means of natural experiments and interpretation of the practical results. That method can be used by oil production in mines, where the same events of non stability can occur. The key ideas of twenty first century geophysics from the point of view of geologist academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy [Dmitrievskiy, 2009] are as follows. "The geophysics of the twenty first century is an understanding that the Earth is a self-developing, self-supporting geo-cybernetic system, in which the role of the driving mechanism is played by the field gradients; the evolution of geological processes is a continuous chain of transformations and the interaction of geophysical fields in the litho- hydro- and atmosphere. The use of geophysical principles of a hierarchical quantum of geophysical space, non-linear effects, and the effects of reradiating geophysical fields will allow the creation of a new geophysics. The research, in which earlier only pure geophysical processes and technologies were considered, nowadays tends to include into consideration geophysical-chemical processes and technologies. This transformation will allow us to solve the problems of forecasting geo-objects and geo-processes in previously unavailable geological-technological conditions." The results obtained allow us to make the following conclusions, according to the key ideas of academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy: the rock

  13. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  15. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  16. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  17. Community-scale Coastal Vulnerability Mapping in Alaska: Status and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, N.; Gould, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska's extensive shorelines are incompletely mapped and under-instrumented to proceed with widespread assessments of coastal vulnerability. Despite this baseline data shortage, many of Alaska's coastal communities are involved in mitigation or adaptation efforts in response to natural hazards such as erosion and flooding. To provide coastal communities with the tools that are necessary to support local decision-making, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has undertaken focused field studies to improve quality, quantity and access to coastal datasets such as topography, nearshore bathymetry, rates of shoreline change and relevant water levels. These efforts are inclusive of both standard approaches (e.g. lidar, repeat coastal profile measurements, Digital Shoreline Analysis System assessments and fully-instrumented tide stations) as well as alternative methodologies that improve our ability to economically accomplish this work in harsh, remote areas (e.g. Structure From Motion surface models, quantification of local knowledge observations, stop-gap tidal datum conversion tools, and pressure-sensor water level networks). We present a comprehensive summary of the geographic variability of coastal dynamics and geohazard potential along the Alaska shoreline, from the erosion-prone North Slope coastline to low-lying areas in western Alaska that are at elevated risk to storm surge inundation. This work provides a graphical summary of the existing quality and spatial extent of data in Alaskan coastal communities while highlighting critical data gaps, such as high-precision elevation models, which are delaying more robust flood and erosion vulnerability mapping. By outlining ongoing work and providing examples from recent DGGS projects we will showcase some of the new vulnerability mapping tools under development for our state and also identify opportunities for necessary collaborations in the Alaska coastal zone.

  18. Geology and tectonic development of the continental margin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Eittreim, S.; Dinter, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska, as interpreted from seismic reflection profiles, is of the Atlantic type and consists of three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. The Chukchi sector, on the west, is characterized by the deep late Mesozoic and Tertiary North Chukchi basin and the Chukchi Continental Borderland. The Barrow sector of central northern Alaska is characterized by the Barrow arch and a moderately thick continental terrace build of Albian to Tertiary clastic sediment. The terrace sedimentary prism is underlain by lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Barter Island sector of northeastern Alaska and Yukon Territory is inferred to contain a very thick prism of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary marine and nonmarine clastic sediment. Its structure is dominated by a local deep Tertiary depocenter and two regional structural arches. We postulate that the distinguishing characteristics of the three sectors are inherited from the configuration of the rift that separated arctic Alaska from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago relative to old pre-rift highlands, which were clastic sediment sources. Where the rift lay relatively close to northern Alaska, in the Chukchi and Barter Island sectors, and locally separated Alaska from the old source terranes, thick late Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary prisms extend farther south beneath the continental shelf than in the intervening Barrow sector. The boundary between the Chukchi and Barrow sectors is relatively well defined by geophysical data, but the boundary between the Barrow and Barter Island sectors can only be inferred from the distribution and thickness of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. These boundaries may be extensions of oceanic fracture zones related to the rifting that is postulated to have opened the Canada Basin, probably beginning during the Early Jurassic. ?? 1979.

  19. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  20. Prediction of Geophysical Flow Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Piersanti, A.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of the mobility of geophysical flows to assess their hazards is one of the main research goals in the earth sciences. Our laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to understand the effects of grain size and flow volume on the mobility of the centre of mass of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments that have pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches as counterpart in nature. We focus on the centre of mass because it provides information about the intrinsic ability of a flow to dissipate more or less energy as a function of its own features. We show that the grain size and flow volume effects can be expressed by a linear relationship between scaling parameters where the finer the grain size or the smaller the flow volume, the more mobile the centre of mass of the granular flow. The grain size effect is the result of the decrease of particle agitation per unit of flow mass, and thus, the decrease of energy dissipation per unit of travel distance, as grain size decreases. In this sense, flows with different grain sizes are like cars with engines with different fuel efficiencies. The volume effect is the result of the fact that the deposit accretes backward during its formation on a slope change (either gradual or abrupt). We adopt for the numerical simulations a 3D discrete element modeling which confirms the grain size and flow volume effects shown by the laboratory experiments. This confirmation is obtained without prior fine tuning of the parameter values to get the desired output. The numerical simulations reveal also that the larger the initial compaction of the granular mass before release, the more mobile the flow. This behaviour must be taken into account to prevent misinterpretation of laboratory and field data. Discrete element modeling predicts the correct effects of grain size and flow volume because it takes into consideration particle interactions that are responsible for the energy dissipated by the flows.

  1. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  2. Early lunar geology and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  3. Reservoir quality and potential, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Seidlitz, A.; Gibson, C.; Bascle, R.; Dygas, J. )

    1991-03-01

    As part of the reservoir management, resource assessment, and planning programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska, the oil and gas resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) is undergoing review in light of new technical information, as well as changing national and international socioeconomic conditions. Emphasis is on integration of geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and engineering information to provide a refined, more technically substantive knowledge base for resource assessment and management. Brookian clastic rocks - in particular the Nanushuk Group and underlying Torok/Topagoruk intervals - have been the principal horizons of concern. Petrologic-mineralogic characteristics have been reinvestigated, related to petrophysical parameters and wireline log responses, and integrated with available engineering data, for key wells within and peripheral to the NPRA. Particular attention has been directed to diagenetic relationships, effects on reservoir quality, and implications for untested portions of this sizable basin. Similar efforts have been directed to pre-Brookian strata as well. Only some 127 exploratory wells (all but one under government aegis) have been drilled within or adjacent to NPRA (a geographic area on the order of 37,000 mi{sup 2} - about the size of the state of Indiana), many only to shallow depths. In almost every well drilled to any appreciable depth in the area, there have been manifestations of the presence of hydrocarbons. The results to date are actually rather promising from a qualitative geologic-geochemical perspective, in terms of potential for significant resources to be present.

  4. Reservoir quality studies, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Banet, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Reservoir quality studies are part of the reservoir management and resource assessment programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska. Petrographic analyses have been carried out of samples collected from surface exposures in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska, to evaluate surface materials as to their potential reservoir rock qualities in the subsurface. This entails characterization of relevant petrologic-petrophysical properties, integration with regional geological-geophysical relationships, and synthesis in terms of likely diagenetic, structural, and stratigraphic conditions in the subsurface. There is a paucity of relevant data in this region. Inferences must be predicated largely on general principles and known relationships elsewhere. A spectrum of lithologies were studied, representing a substantial portion of the regional stratigraphic column. In a number of cases, particularly among the pre-Brookian samples, the rocks appear to have low reservoir potential, based on their present high degree of diagenetic maturity. There is always the possibility - deemed somewhat unlikely here - of subsurface equivalents with more favorable characteristics, due to different original compositions, textures, and/or geologic histories. Brookian sandstones and conglomerates feature samples with fair-good reservoir characteristics, with prospects of being equally good or better in the subsurface. The samples studied suggest the likelihood of horizons with viable reservoir qualities in the subsurface within the ANWR region.

  5. Strategies for joint geophysical survey design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakas, Alexis; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the use of multiple geophysical techniques to image the subsurface has become a popular option. Joint inversions of geophysical datasets are based on the assumption that the spatial variations of the different physical subsurface parameters exhibit structural similarities. In this work, we combine the benefits of joint inversions of geophysical datasets with recent innovations in optimized experimental design. These techniques maximize the data information content while minimizing the data acquisition costs. Experimental design has been used in geophysics over the last twenty years, but it has never been attempted to combine various geophysical imaging methods. We combine direct current geoelectrics, magnetotellurics and seismic refraction travel time tomography data to resolve synthetic 1D layered Earth models. An initial model for the subsurface structure can be taken from a priori geological information and an optimal joint geophysical survey can be designed around the initial model. Another typical scenario includes an existing data set from a past survey and a subsequent survey that is planned to optimally complement the existing data. Our results demonstrate that the joint design methodology provides optimized combinations of data sets that include only a few data points. Nevertheless, they allow constraining the subsurface models equally well as data from a densely sampled survey. Furthermore, we examine the dependency of optimized survey design on the a priori model assumptions. Finally, we apply the methodology to geoelectric and seismic field data collected along 2D profiles.

  6. Solar-geophysical data number 499, March 1986, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This supplement contains the description and explanation of the data in the monthly publication Solar-Geophysical Data, compiled by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colo., USA. Solar-Geophysical Data is intended to keep research workers informed on a timely schedule of the major events of solar activity and the associated interplanetary, ionospheric, radio propagation and other geophysical effects.

  7. Structure and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment of the northern Gulf of Alaska continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses the structure, geologic history, and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment, the part of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska. As part of a program of geological and geophysical investigations of the continental margin in the northern Gulf of Alaska, the US Geological Survey collected multichannel seismic reflection data along about 2000 km of tracklines in the study area during 1975, 1977, and 1978. In addition, dredge samples from the continental slope were acquired during the 1977, 1978, and 1979 field seasons. The first part of this paper presents an interpretation of the seismic reflection and refraction data, including structure contour maps, isopach maps, and interpreted seismic sections; the second part is a discussion of the implications for petroleum potential. The primary area of interest is the continental shelf and slope, but some data from strata at the base of the slope are also included.

  8. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  9. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  10. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  11. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  12. Geophysical Investigation of Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, S. E.; Webb, S. J.; Dirks, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai, which means "Mountain of God" in Maasai, is a 2886 m high stratovolcano situated in Northern Tanzania, next to one of the large fault scarps that defines the western edge of the East African Rift Valley. Lengai is the only volcano in the world that erupts natrocarbonatite lava and has been in a state of near-eruption since 1983. A large amount of work has been done in terms of the geology and petrology of this unique volcano, but very little has been done in terms of geophysics. A research team from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa will be conducting a gravity and differential GPS survey on Lengai during December 2006 and January 2007. Seismic monitoring of the volcano will also take place for the duration of the survey using vertical 1 Hz geophones. A gravity profile collected over the volcano by the British Schools Exploring Society in 2004 shows a negative anomaly of approximately 185 mGals. This is after a terrain correction is applied to the data using 1:50000 digitized maps and a vertical prism formula. A single seismometer, with a frequency of 1Hz and then 0.033 Hz, was set up on the volcano in 2001 and 2002 by a graduate student from the University of Washington. A few local volcanotectonic (VT) events were recorded; however the research team was unable to conclude whether the events were from Lengai or the nearby rift. A sustained non-harmonic tremor signal with a fairly broad spectral peak was also observed, but no very long-period (VLP) signals. The gravity and DGPS data collected during the 2006/2007 survey will be processed and used as a baseline for future measurements on the volcano. The data will also be modeled in an attempt to determine the size and position of the magma chamber. These gravity data will be compared with the profile collected in 2004 in an attempt to see whether there have been any large subsurface mass changes over the past two years, or the extent of weathering. Recorded seismicity will be used

  13. The Environmental Geophysics Web Site and Geophysical Decision Support System (GDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product provides assistance to project managers, remedial project managers, stakeholders, and anyone interested in on-site investigations or environmental geophysics. The APM is the beta version of the new U.S. EPA Environmental Geophysics Web Site which includes the Geophys...

  14. Roald Amundsen among the Magneticians: Polar Geophysics in the early 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) is best known as a polar explorer, the first to lead a team to the South Pole in 1911. He did, however, have a serious interest in science, in particular, in geomagnetism. His expedition through the Northwest Passage above Canada in 1903 to 1906 and his Maud expedition through the Arctic ice in 1918 to 1925 included full complements of magnetic instrumentation. He and his magnetic researchers collaborated with the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and with the Prussian Geomagnetic Observatory in Potsdam for training, instruments, and research programs. Amundsen's expeditions provided magnetic and other geophysical data for important geographical regions, while gaining support for polar and geophysical research generally. His work is part of a broader 20th-century story that includes the International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year.

  15. Geophysics in the multidisciplinary reservoir description team: The RAZOR Project, Prudhoe Bay unit, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.; Natenstedt, C.; Wiener, R.; Montague, S.; Clippard, M.; Gallagher, P.; Vralsted, D.; Romine, K.

    1994-12-31

    The RAZOR Project was a multi-disciplinary multi-company team formed to provide a detailed geologic description of the Lower Ivishak reservoir in support of comprehensive reservoir management efforts. Interpreting and mapping multiple stratigraphic horizons, interpreting and tying faults in three dimensions,and detailed integration with sequence stratigraphy resulted in an improved understanding of reservoir architecture. The overall impact has been to achieve a more proactive and effective integration of geoscience products into the reservoir management process.

  16. An ice-motion tracking system at the Alaska SAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.; Mcconnell, Ross

    1990-01-01

    An operational system for extracting ice-motion information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is being developed as part of the Alaska SAR Facility. This geophysical processing system (GPS) will derive ice-motion information by automated analysis of image sequences acquired by radars on the European ERS-1, Japanese ERS-1, and Canadian RADARSAT remote sensing satellites. The algorithm consists of a novel combination of feature-based and area-based techniques for the tracking of ice floes that undergo translation and rotation between imaging passes. The system performs automatic selection of the image pairs for input to the matching routines using an ice-motion estimator. It is designed to have a daily throughput of ten image pairs. A description is given of the GPS system, including an overview of the ice-motion-tracking algorithm, the system architecture, and the ice-motion products that will be available for distribution to geophysical data users.

  17. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  18. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  19. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  20. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  1. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  2. Leafhoppers and potatoes in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted from 2004 to 2006 in the main potato production areas of Alaska resulted in the identification of 41 leafhopper species associated with agricultural settings. Two species, Davisonia snowi (Dorst) and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål), made up approximately 60% of the total number of i...

  3. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. Looking Forward to the electronic Geophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Thompson, B.; Barton, C.; Kihn, E.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We discuss plans to aggregate measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make information available and useful to the scientific community, to the user community, and to the general public. We are examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of data and utilization of forecast tools in order to provide users with advanced space weather capabilities. This program will provide powerful tools for education and public outreach concerning the connected Sun-Earth System.

  5. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  6. NCES Studies on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. NCES 2005-535

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Indian Education (OIE) helps support local education agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities in their efforts to address the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) so that these students can meet the same challenging…

  7. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions (ANNH) Programs; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  8. Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Floret, Nathalie; Viel, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Hoen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low. PMID:16704799

  9. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density.

  10. Negligible risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters.

    PubMed

    Floret, Nathalie; Viel, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Hoen, Bruno; Piarroux, Renaud

    2006-04-01

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low. PMID:16704799

  11. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.

    2015-12-01

    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  12. Geophysical Models for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M

    2003-07-16

    Geophysical models are increasingly recognized as an important component of regional calibrations for seismic monitoring. The models can be used to predict geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. While empirical measurements of these geophysical parameters might be preferred, in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, this data might not exist. In these cases, models represent a 'best guess' of the seismic properties in a region, which improves on global models such as the PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) or the IASPEI (International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior) models. The model-based predictions can also serve as a useful background for the empirical measurements by removing trends in the data. To this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the WENA model for Western Eurasia and North Africa. This model is constructed using a regionalization of several dozen lithospheric (crust and uppermost mantle) models, combined with the Laske sediment model and 3SMAC upper mantle. We have evaluated this model using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis. Similarly, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a geophysical model for East Asia, allowing LLNL/LANL to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. These models continue to evolve as new and updated datasets are used to critically assess the predictive powers of the model. Research results from this meeting and other reports and papers can be used to update and refine the regional boundaries and regional models. A number of other groups involved in monitoring have also developed geophysical models. As these become available, we will be assessing the models and their constitutive components for their suitability for inclusion in the National Nuclear Security

  13. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  14. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  15. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  16. A Newly Adopted Helicopter Platform for Geophysical and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Hannover owns a Sikorsky S-76B helicopter for geophysical and remote sensing airborne surveys. This platform has been completely refurbished and in parts newly designed to be fit for easy installations of complex geophysical instruments underneath, upon and within the helicopter. The airborne platform is equipped with a modern basic navigation equipment consisting of several GNSS antennae, state of the art inertial navigation systems, laser altimeter and video camera systems. Different other modules can be added to the helicopter as a state of the art gamma spectrometer, a laser scanner, airborne gravity meters etc. within the cabin. Moreover, external sensing systems as a photogrammetric camera, infraread camera or optional mulitspectral systems can be installed on the outer skin of the cabin. Different kinds of bird systems towed underneath the helicopter can be hooked up using standard cabling, glas fibres or wireless LAN. Available birds are equipped for frequency domain electromagnetics or gradient magnetics (IPHT Jena & Supracon, Jena). Besides, large georadar systems can be installed as well. The helicopter is able as well to carry TEM-gear or system in development. Main survey targets are groundwater systems, mineral deposits and natural hazards.

  17. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  18. A Feasibility Study of Non-Seismic Geophysical Methods forMonitoring Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2006-07-01

    Because of their wide application within the petroleumindustry it is natural to consider geophysical techniques for monitoringof CO2 movement within hydrocarbon reservoirs, whether the CO2 isintroduced for enhanced oil/gas recovery or for geologic sequestration.Among the available approaches to monitoring, seismic methods are by farthe most highly developed and applied. Due to cost considerations, lessexpensive techniques have recently been considered. In this article, therelative merits of gravity and electromagnetic (EM) methods as monitoringtools for geological CO2 sequestration are examined for two syntheticmodeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhancedoil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, theSchrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The secondscenario is a simplified model of a brine formation at a depth of 1,900m.

  19. Problems of Geophysics that Inspired Fractal Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbrot, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Fractal geometry arose when the speaker used then esoteric mathematics and the concept of invariance as a tool to understand diverse ``down-to-earth'' practical needs. The first step consisted in using discontinuous functions to represent the variation of speculative prices. The next several steps consisted in introducing infinite-range (global) dependence to handle data from geophysics, beginning with hydrology (and also again in finance). This talk will detail the speaker's debt and gratitude toward several specialists from diverse areas of geophysics who had the greatest impact on fractal geometry in its formative period.

  20. Geophysical monitoring using 3D joint inversion of multi-modal geophysical data with Gramian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, M. S.; Gribenko, A.; Wilson, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical monitoring of reservoir fluids and rock properties is relevant to oil and gas production, carbon sequestration, and enhanced geothermal systems. Different geophysical fields provide information about different physical properties of the earth. Multiple geophysical surveys spanning gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, seismic, and thermal methods are often interpreted to infer geology from models of different physical properties. In many cases, the various geophysical data are complimentary, making it natural to consider a formal mathematical framework for their joint inversion to a shared earth model. We introduce a new approach to the 3D joint inversion of multiple geophysical datasets using Gramian spaces of model parameters and Gramian constraints, computed as determinants of the corresponding Gram matrices of the multimodal model parameters and/or their attributes. The basic underlying idea of this approach is that the Gramian provides a measure of correlation between the model parameters. By imposing an additional requirement of the minimum of the Gramian, we arrive at the solution of the joint multimodal inverse problem with the enhanced correlation between the different model parameters and/or their attributes. We demonstrate that this new approach is a generalized technique that can be applied to the simultaneous joint inversion of any number and combination of geophysical datasets. Our approach includes as special cases those extant methods based on correlations and/or structural constraints of different physical properties. We illustrate this approach by a model study of reservoir monitoring using different geophysical data.

  1. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  2. Statewide Repository and Interactive Map of Coastal Elevation Profiles for Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A.; Kinsman, N.; Southerland, L.

    2014-12-01

    Beach elevation profiles are a type of temporal coastal data that can be used to better understand coastal environments, document change and assess hazard vulnerability. The value of these measurements increases when sites are revisited seasonally and/or interannually to capture the dynamic range of coastal landforms. Static measurements of the shoreface have been collected by a number of stakeholders in Alaska since the 1960s, but, have not historically been published or made readily accessible. In cooperation with the Alaska Ocean Observing System, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has designed a universal data repository to house these coastal measurements. This new database has an interactive map interface that enables easy access to existing profile locations to encourage repeat observations. Users can explore profile measurements collected by DGGS and others as time-series plots and location-based images of the shoreface environment. The database has been designed to accommodate datasets collected with differing techniques, including differential leveling, survey-grade GPS or extraction from lidar-derived digital elevation models. Non-DGGS profile measurements, including community-led efforts, University of Alaska project datasets, and archived United States Geological Survey coastal profiles have also been incorporated into the database and contributions from other entities are welcomed. In addition to exhibiting the new interactive map capabilities, we also provide a case study example from Yakutat, Alaska illustrating how this tool can be incorporated into broader investigations of coastal dynamics and how these measurements can augment shoreline change assessments. The readily accessible nature of this database also promotes local involvement in community-based coastal monitoring, also demonstrated in the Yakutat example.

  3. New Insights on the Geologic Framework of Alaska and Potential Targets of Opportunity for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K.; Trop, J. M.; Finzel, E.; Brennan, P. R.; Gilbert, H. J.; Flesch, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies the past decade have fundamentally changed our perspective on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic configuration of Alaska. New concepts include: 1) A link exists between Mesozoic collisional zones, Cenozoic strike-slip fault systems, and active deformation that is related to lithospheric heterogeneities that remain over geologic timescales. The location of the active Denali fault and high topography, for example, is within a Mesozoic collisional zone. Rheological differences between juxtaposed crustal blocks and crustal thickening in this zone have had a significant influence on deformation and exhumation in south-central Alaska. In general, the original configuration of the collisional zone appears to set the boundary conditions for long-term and active deformation. 2) Subduction of a spreading ridge has significantly modified the convergent margin of southern Alaska. Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction resulted in surface uplift, unconformity development and changes in deposystems in the forearc region, and magmatism that extended from the paleotrench to the retroarc region. 3) Oligocene to Recent shallow subduction of an oceanic plateau has markedly reconfigured the upper plate of the southern Alaska convergent margin. This ongoing process has prompted growth of some of the largest mountain ranges on Earth, exhumation of the forearc and backarc regions above the subducted slab, development of a regional gap in arc magmatism above the subducted slab as well as slab-edge magmatism, and displacement on the Denali fault system. In the light of these new tectonic concepts for Alaska, we will discuss targets of opportunity for future integrated geologic and geophysical studies. These targets include regional strike-slip fault systems, the newly recognized Bering plate, and the role of spreading ridge and oceanic plateau subduction on the location and pace of exhumation, sedimentary basin development, and magmatism in the upper plate.

  4. Drilling and Testing the DOI041A Coalbed Methane Well, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur; Barker, Charles E.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    The need for affordable energy sources is acute in rural communities of Alaska where costly diesel fuel must be delivered by barge or plane for power generation. Additionally, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel pose great difficulty in these regions. Although small-scale energy development in remote Arctic locations presents unique challenges, identifying and developing economic, local sources of energy remains a high priority for state and local government. Many areas in rural Alaska contain widespread coal resources that may contain significant amounts of coalbed methane (CBM) that, when extracted, could be used for power generation. However, in many of these areas, little is known concerning the properties that control CBM occurrence and production, including coal bed geometry, coalbed gas content and saturation, reservoir permeability and pressure, and water chemistry. Therefore, drilling and testing to collect these data are required to accurately assess the viability of CBM as a potential energy source in most locations. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), the Doyon Native Corporation, and the village of Fort Yukon, organized and funded the drilling of a well at Fort Yukon, Alaska to test coal beds for CBM developmental potential. Fort Yukon is a town of about 600 people and is composed mostly of Gwich'in Athabascan Native Americans. It is located near the center of the Yukon Flats Basin, approximately 145 mi northeast of Fairbanks.

  5. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  6. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  7. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  8. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: I. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The...

  9. Computers and geophysics: Requirements outlined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The use of computers to process enormous volumes of data is likely to improve our abilities to predict earthquakes and issue tsunami warnings, geophysicist J. Freeman Gilbert recently told a House of Representatives task force on science policy. Gilbert, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, testified before the task force on September 11, in one of a series of hearings intended to explore the “impact of the information age on science.” Scientists and administrators from universities and private industry served as witnesses during the 3 days of hearings.Rep. George E. Brown, J r . , (D-Calif.) asked Gilbert to compare the amount of damage done by tsunamis in the United States to the cost of improved detection and warning systems. “I think it's worth the effort,” Gilbert responded, adding that as in the case of hurricane warnings, tsunami warnings would affect only a small proportion of the nation's population but could be crucial to protect their lives and property. Such a system, Gilbert said, “represents technology that is easy to implement.”

  10. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives fiscal year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Brunstein, F. Craig, (Edited By)

    2006-01-01

    The USGS works in cooperation with American Indian and Alaska Native governments to conduct research on (1) water, energy, and mineral resources, (2) animals and plants that are important for traditional lifeways or have environmental or economic significance, and (3) natural hazards. This report describes most of the activities that the USGS conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2004. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Other activities were conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities.

  11. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called 'data fusion' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  12. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M., (compiler); Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  13. Geophysical imaging of alpine rock glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Hansruedi; Hauck, Christian

    Slope instabilities caused by the disappearance of ice within alpine rock glaciers are an issue of increasing concern. Design of suitable counter-measures requires detailed knowledge of the internal structures of rock glaciers, which can be obtained using geophysical methods. We examine benefits and limitations of diffusive electromagnetics, geoelectrics, seismics and ground-penetrating radar (georadar) for determining the depth and lateral variability of the active layer, the distributions of ice and water, the occurrence of shear horizons and the bedrock topography. In particular, we highlight new developments in data acquisition and data analysis that allow 2-D or even 3-D structures within rock glaciers to be imaged. After describing peculiarities associated with acquiring appropriate geophysical datasets across rock glaciers and emphasizing the importance of state-of-the-art tomographic inversion algorithms, we demonstrate the applicability of 2-D imaging techniques using two case studies of rock glaciers in the eastern Swiss Alps. We present joint interpretations of geoelectric, seismic and georadar data, appropriately constrained by information extracted from boreholes. A key conclusion of our study is that the different geophysical images are largely complementary, with each image resolving a different suite of subsurface features. Based on our results, we propose a general template for the cost-effective and reliable geophysical characterization of mountain permafrost.

  14. Global Change Geodesy: A Geophysical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.

    2014-12-01

    It is a truism that as the precision of geodetic measurement techniques improves, the accuracy of the geophysical modeling of processes that contribute to the observations must keep pace. Studies of the Earth's response to human-induced climate change provide many notable, and pressing, illustrations of this axiom. For example, estimates of recent ice volume changes, as inferred from satellite gravity measurements, tide gauge and satellite-altimetry records of sea level changes, or astronomical and space-geodetic constraints on Earth rotation, require improved theoretical and numerical treatments of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age. However, the interplay between geodesy and geophysics is not a one-way street; geophysical modeling has emphasized, for example, that the geographic variability in sea level measurements - once considered a nuisance in efforts to infer long term trends - provides a powerful constraint on both the individual sources of meltwater and their sum. In this talk, I will discuss a series of case studies that demonstrate how interdisciplinary research at the interface between geodesy and geophysics has recently resolved several outstanding problems in global change research, including Walter Munk's enigma of global sea-level rise and the apparent failure to close the budget of twentieth century sea level. Moreover, in the same interdisciplinary context, I will highlight uncertainties that currently limit our understanding of polar ice sheet stability in a progressively warming world.

  15. Field Geophysics Class at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Ecuador's erupting Volcán Tungurahua was the recent site of a 3-week graduate-level geophysical course on volcanoes, hosted by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IG-EPN) and the Department of Earth Science at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT). Sixteen students from 12 universities and four countries participated in the intensive course, which entailed broadband seismometer and infrasound sensor deployment followed by subsequent data processing, analysis, interpretation, and result synthesis. Hardware for the course was provided by the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) through the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) as well as the IG-EPN and NMT geophysics programs. Since the start of its most recent eruptive period (in 1999), Tungurahua has proved itself a reliable source of both seismicity and infrasound radiating from its typically open vent. As such, Tungurahua provides the ultimate outdoor teaching laboratory where students can deploy instruments for just a few days and then collect earthquake and explosion data. Tungurahua's activity in June 2009 did not disappoint class participants: Frequent earthquakes included long-period and volcano tectonic events, various types of tremor events, and explosion earthquakes manifested by booming “cannon-shot” blasts. Some of the explosion shock waves were recorded 10 kilometers from the vent with excess pressure amplitudes greater than 50 pascals in the infrasonic band. Had these intense sounds been audible, their sound pressure levels at 10 kilometers would have been in excess of about 130 decibels!

  16. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  17. Alaska Volcano Observatory's KML Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcic, L.; Webley, P. W.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are now giving the scientific community a new medium to present data, which is compatible across multiple disciplines. They also provide scientists the ability to display their data in real-time, a critical factor in hazard assessment. The Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group has developed Keyhole Markup Language (KML) tools that are used to display satellite data for volcano monitoring and forecast ash cloud movement. The KML tools allow an analyst to view the satellite data in a user-friendly web based environment, without a reliance on non-transportable, proprietary software packages. Here, we show how the tools are used operationally for thermal monitoring of volcanic activity, volcanic ash cloud detection and dispersion modeling, using the Puff model. animate.images.alaska.edu/

  18. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  19. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  20. Bering Strait, Alaska, United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer run off from the Yukon River, the source of which is hidden by clouds on image right, is filling the Norton Sound (image center) with brownish sediment. The Bering Sea (image left) appears to be supporting a large phytoplankton population, as blue-green swirls are evident from north to south in this true-color MODIS image of Alaska. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  1. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  2. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  3. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  4. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  5. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  6. Petrologic-petrophysical-engineering relationships, selected wells near the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Gibson, C.; Seidlitz, A.; Bascle, R.; Dygas, J. )

    1991-03-01

    In the context of the reservoir management and resource assessment programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska, selected stratigraphic horizons were studied in a number of wells adjacent to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), northeast Alaska. Petrographic analyses were integrated with petrophysical and engineering data, in order to provide a substantive knowledge base from which to infer reservoir potentials elsewhere in the region, using geological and geophysical methods. Of particular interest in the latter regard is the ANWR area. Horizons of concern with regard to reservoir characteristics include Franklinian through Brookian strata. Of particular interest are clastic Ellesmerian 'Break-up/Rift Sequence' sediments such as the Lower Cretaceous Thomson sand, and deeper-water marine clastics, as exemplified by the Brookian Colville Group 'turbidites.' Also of concern are pre-Ellesmerian 'basement' rocks, some of which are hosts to hydrocarbon accumulations in the Point Thomson field. Petrologic-mineralogic characteristics have been keyed to various wireline log responses and related to available engineering data, as feasible, for the wells considered. Synthesis of this information in terms of the regional geological framework, tied in with geophysical data, will facilitate more refined, effective resource assessment and management.

  7. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Dau, C.P.; Lee, T.; Sedinger, J.S.; Anderson, B.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  9. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2009-05-01

    Because applicable physical, chemical, and mathematical studies of the Earth system must be both interdisciplinary and international, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was formed in 1919 as an non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change. The Union brings together eight International Associations that address different disciplines of Earth sciences. Through these Associations, IUGG promotes and enables studies in the geosciences by providing a framework for collaborative research and information exchange, by organizing international scientific assemblies worldwide, and via research publications. Resolutions passed by assemblies of IUGG and its International Associations set geophysical standards and promote issues of science policy on which national members agree. IUGG has initiated and/or vigorously supported collaborative international efforts that have led to highly productive worldwide interdisciplinary research programs, such as the International Geophysical Year and subsequent International Years (IPY, IYPE, eGY, and IHY), International Lithosphere Programme, World Climate Research Programme, Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and Integrated Research on Risk Disaster. IUGG is inherently involved in the projects and programs related to climate change, global warming, and related environmental impacts. One major contribution has been the creation, through the International Council for Science (ICSU), of the World Data Centers and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services. These are being transformed to the ICSU World Data System, from which the data gathered during the major programs and data products will be available to researchers everywhere. IUGG cooperates with UNESCO, WMO, and some other U.N. and non-governmental organizations in the study of natural catastrophes

  10. Institution Closures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the need to accelerate the closing of institutions for people with mental retardation. Articles are by both current and former residents of institutions and by professionals, and include: "The Realities of Institutions" (Tia Nelis); "I Cry Out So That I Won't Go Insane" (Mary F. Hayden); "Trends in…

  11. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  12. 78 FR 33811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...NMFS has received an application from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), a part of the University of California at San Diego, for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the tropical western Pacific Ocean, September to October 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal......

  13. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This annual bibliography of Alaska- and Arctic-related publications received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries is divided into three categories. There are 26 titles in the "Juvenile Fiction" section, 122 in the "Adult Non-Fiction" section, and 19 in the "Adult Fiction" section. Government publications are generally not included, although a…

  14. Some Books about Alaska Received in 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    This is the 1987 edition of an annual annotated listing of Alaska-Arctic related publications received by the Alaska Division of State Libraries. Divided into four sections, this bibliography describes each book, identifies the publisher and price per copy, and includes ISBN numbers. Some of the entries also include the Library of Congress numbers…

  15. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  16. Viewpoints: Reflections on the Principalship in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David A., Ed.

    In this collection, 32 Alaskan principals, retired principals, assistant principals, and principals-to-be share their experiences as administrators and reflect on their feelings about the nature of the work and about schooling issues in Alaska. Nine of the writings were selected from "Totem Tales," the newsletter of Alaska's Association of…

  17. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  18. 40 CFR 81.302 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alaska. 81.302 Section 81.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.302 Alaska. Alaska—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  19. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  20. 78 FR 42543 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  1. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  2. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... decision may be obtained from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State......

  3. Culturally Responsive Guidelines for Alaska Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines are predicated on the belief that culturally appropriate service to indigenous peoples is a fundamental principle of Alaska public libraries. While the impetus for developing the guidelines was service to the Alaska Native community, they can also be applied to other cultural groups. A culturally responsive library environment is…

  4. Distance Learning in Alaska's Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information. The audio…

  5. Seamonster: A Smart Sensor Web in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Heavner, M. J.; Hood, E.; Connor, C.; Nagorski, S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES) program is supporting a wireless sensor network project as part of its Advanced Information Systems Technology "Smart Sensor Web" initiative. The project, entitled Seamonster (for SouthEast Alaska MONitoring Network for Science, Telecomm, and Education Research) is led by the University of Alaska Southeast (Juneau) in collaboration with Microsoft- Vexcel in Boulder Colorado. This paper describes both the data acquisition components and science research objectives of Seamonster. The underlying data acquisition concept is to facilitate geophysics data acquisition by providing a wireless backbone for data recovery. Other researchers would be encouraged to emplace their own sensors together with short-range wireless (ZigBee, Bluetooth, etc). Through a common protocol the backbone will receive data from these sensors and relay them to a wired server. This means that the investigator can receive their data via email on a daily basis thereby cutting cost and monitoring sensor health. With environmental hardening and fairly high bandwidth and long range (100kbps/50km to 5mpbs/15km per hop) the network is intended to cover large areas and operate in harsh environments. Low power sensors and intelligent power management within the backbone are the dual ideas to contend with typical power/cost/data dilemmas. Seamonster science will focus over the next three years on hydrology and glaciology in a succession of valleys near Juneau in various stages of deglaciation, in effect providing a synopsis of a millennium-timescale process in a single moment. The instrumentation will include GPS, geophones, digital photography, met stations, and a suite of stream state and water quality sensors. Initial focus is on the Lemon Creek watershed with expansion to follow in subsequent years. The project will ideally expand to include marine and biological monitoring components.

  6. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  7. Three-dimensional numerical models of flat slab subduction and the Denali fault driving deformation in south-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, Margarete A.; Billen, Magali I.; Roeske, Sarah M.

    2013-08-01

    Early theories of plate tectonics assumed plates were rigid with deformation limited to within a few tens of kilometers of the plate boundary. However, observations indicate most continental plates defy such rigid behavior with deformation extending over 1000 kilometers inboard. We construct three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates in Alaska to investigate the relative controls of flat slab subduction, continental scale faulting, and a non-linear rheology on deformation in the overriding plate. The models incorporate a realistic slab shape based on seismicity and seismic tomography and a variable thermal structure for both the subducting and overriding plates based on geologic and geophysical observables. The inclusion of the Denali fault in the models allows for the portion of south-central Alaska between the Denali fault and the trench to partially decouple from the rest of North America, forming an independently moving region that correlates to what has been described from geologic and geodetic studies as the Wrangell block. The motion of the Wrangell block tracks the motion of the flat slab in the subsurface indicating the subducting plate is driving the motion of the Wrangell block. Models using a composite (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) viscosity predict compressional motion along the northern bend in the Denali fault, consistent with thermochronologic data that show significant late Neogene exhumation in the central Alaska Range, including at Mt. McKinley, the tallest mountain in North America. These 3D numerical models of the Pacific-North American margin in Alaska show the subducting slab is the main driver of overriding plate deformation in south-central Alaska and combined with the Denali fault can reproduce several first order tectonic features of the region including the motion of the Wrangell block, uplift in the central Alaska Range, subsidence in the Cook Inlet-Susitna Basins, and upwelling

  8. Review of geophysical characterization methods used at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    GV Last; DG Horton

    2000-03-23

    This paper presents a review of geophysical methods used at Hanford in two parts: (1) shallow surface-based geophysical methods and (2) borehole geophysical methods. This review was not intended to be ``all encompassing'' but should represent the vast majority (>90% complete) of geophysical work conducted onsite and aimed at hazardous waste investigations in the vadose zone and/or uppermost groundwater aquifers. This review did not cover geophysical methods aimed at large-scale geologic structures or seismicity and, in particular, did not include those efforts conducted in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. This review focused primarily on the more recent efforts.

  9. Sessions on history of space and geophysics spark interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    Three sessions at international conferences were held in 1997 to discuss the history of space and geophysics and its different disciplines. The first session was held during the Assembly of the German Geophysical Society in March in Potsdam, Germany. Topics included the theory of relativity and gravitation in geophysics; work by Albert Abraham Michelson, Leon Foucault, and Ernst Mach; work by Hermann von Helmholtz; and the physical application and geophysical evidence of Werner Heisenberg's research. Also included were discussions relevant to the history of geophysics, aeronomy, meteor astronomy, and geodetical research, including developments in instrumentation during the last few decades.

  10. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere. PMID:20307182

  11. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.

  12. Earth Rotational Variations Excited by Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Modern space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations". for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

  13. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  14. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  15. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V. |; Morrison, H.F. |

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Geophysics smorgasbord was spread in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    1987-06-12

    Geophysicists specializing in everything from atmospheric science to volcanology converged on Baltimore for the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union held 18 to 21 May. The range of fare was huge, but here is a sampler: two high-energy phenomena-nuclear testing and the less frequent cratering by large impacts-and an imperceptibly slow process-the motion of the tectonic plates. PMID:17793225

  17. Some geologic observations concerning lunar geophysical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of lunar geologic units in space and time and their mode of origin were considered since they provided significant data which bear on a number of current problems in lunar geophysics. Observations and problems were discussed which deal with the characterization of the upper 25 km of the lunar crust, the tectonic style of the crust, the formation of mascons within major basins, analysis of lunar magnetic anomalies, and the history of the lunar crust.

  18. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  19. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)

  20. The World Data Fabric: A New Concept for Geophysical Data Collection and Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papitashvili, V.; Papitashvili, N.

    2005-12-01

    Nowadays, a multitude of digital geophysical data have become available via the World Wide Web from a variety of sources, including the World Data Centers (WDC), their suppliers (discipline-specific observatories, research institutions, government agencies), and short-lived, sporadic datasets produced by individual investigators from their research grants. As a result, worldwide geophysical databases become diverse and distributed, urging for sophisticated search engines capable of identifying discipline-specific data on the Web and then retrieving requested intervals for scientific analyses or practical applications. Here we introduce a concept of the World Data Fabric (WDF) emerged from the essence of World Data Centers system that successfully served geophysical communities since the International Geophysical Year (1957-58). We propose to unify both components of the WDC System - data centers and data providers - into a worldwide data network (data fabric), where the WDC role would become more proactive through their direct interaction with the data producers. It suggested that the World Data Centers would become a backbone of the World Data Fabric, watching and copying newly ``Webbed'' geophysical data to the center archives - to preserve at least 2-3 copies (or as many as Centers exist) of the new datasets within the entire WDF. Thus, the WDF would become a self-organized system of the data nodes (providers) and data portals (the WDCs as``clearinghouse''). The WDF would be then developing similarly to the Web, but its focus would be on geophysical data rather than on the content of a specific geophysical discipline. Introducing the WDF concept, we face a number of challenges: (a) data providers should make their datasets available via the Internet using open (but secure) access protocols; (b) multiple copies of every dataset would spread across WDF; (c) every WDF dataset (original or copied) must be digitally signed by the data providers and then by the data

  1. Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, William I.

    2016-05-01

    Graduate students in the natural sciences - including not only geophysics and space physics but also atmospheric and planetary physics, ocean sciences, and astronomy - need a broad-based mathematical toolbox to facilitate their research. In addition, they need to survey a wider array of mathematical methods that, while outside their particular areas of expertise, are important in related ones. While it is unrealistic to expect them to develop an encyclopedic knowledge of all the methods that are out there, they need to know how and where to obtain reliable and effective insights into these broader areas. Here at last is a graduate textbook that provides these students with the mathematical skills they need to succeed in today's highly interdisciplinary research environment. This authoritative and accessible book covers everything from the elements of vector and tensor analysis to ordinary differential equations, special functions, and chaos and fractals. Other topics include integral transforms, complex analysis, and inverse theory; partial differential equations of mathematical geophysics; probability, statistics, and computational methods; and much more. Proven in the classroom, Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics features numerous exercises throughout as well as suggestions for further reading. * Provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to the subject * Covers vector and tensor analysis, ordinary differential equations, integrals and approximations, Fourier transforms, diffusion and dispersion, sound waves and perturbation theory, randomness in data, and a host of other topics * Features numerous exercises throughout * Ideal for students and researchers alike * An online illustration package is available to professors

  2. Geophysical mapping of solution and collapse dolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Karst rocks such as limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, or salt can be dissolved physically by water or chemically by water enriched with carbon dioxide. The dissolution driven by water flowing through the karst aquifer either occurs along fractures and bedding partings in telogenetic rocks, or within the primary interconnected pore space in eogenetic rocks. The enlargement of either fractures or pores by dissolution creates a large secondary porosity typical for karst rocks, which is often very heterogenously distributed and results in preferential flow pathes in the sub-surface, with cavities as large-scale end members of the sub-surface voids. Once the sub-surface voids enlarged by dissolution grow to a certain size, the overburden rock can become instable and voids and caves can collapse. Depending of the type of overburden, the collapse initiated at depth propagates towards the surface and finally results in a collapse structure, such as collapse dolines, sinkholes, and tiangkengs on the very large scale. We present results from geophysical surveys over existing karst structures based on gravimetric, electrical, and geomagnetical methods. We have chosen two types of dolines, solution and collapse dolines, to capture and compare the geophysical signals resulting from these karst structures. We compare and discuss our geophysical survey results with simplified theoretical models describing the evolution of the karst structure and three-dimensional structural models for the current situation derived for the different locations.

  3. Geophysical mapping of solution and collapse sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg

    2014-12-01

    Karst rocks such as limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, or salt can be dissolved physically by water or chemically by water enriched with carbon dioxide. The dissolution is driven by water flowing through the karst aquifer and either occurs along fractures and bedding partings in telogenetic rocks, or within the primary interconnected pore space in eogenetic rocks. The enlargement of either fractures or pores by dissolution creates a large secondary porosity typical of soluble rocks, which is often very heterogenously distributed and results in preferential flow paths in the sub-surface, with cavities as large-scale end members of the sub-surface voids. Once the sub-surface voids enlarged by dissolution grow to a certain size, the overburden rock can become unstable and voids and caves can collapse. Depending on the type of overburden, the collapse initiated at depth may propagate towards the surface and finally results at the surface as collapse sinkholes and tiangkengs on the very large scale. We present results from geophysical surveys over existing karst structures based on gravimetric, electrical, and geomagnetical methods. We have chosen two types of sinkholes, solution and collapse sinkholes, to capture and compare the geophysical signals resulting from these karst structures. We compare and discuss our geophysical survey results with simplified theoretical models describing the evolution of the karst structure, and we derive three-dimensional structural models of the current situation for the different locations with our numerical tool PREDICTOR.

  4. Using geophysics to characterize levee stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Laura M.

    Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

  5. Cloud computing for geophysical applications (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M.; Kihn, E. A.; Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Weigel, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    Cloud computing offers a scalable on-demand resource allocation model to evolving needs in data intensive geophysical applications, where computational needs in CPU and storage can vary over time depending on modeling or field campaign. Separate, sometimes incompatible cloud platforms and services are already available from major computing vendors (Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Apps Engine), government agencies (NASA Nebulae) and Open Source community (Eucalyptus). Multiple cloud platforms with layered virtualization patterns (hardware-platform- software-data-or-everything as a service) provide a feature-rich environment and encourage experimentation with distributed data modeling, processing and storage. However, application and especially database development in the Cloud is different from the desktop and the compute cluster. In this presentation we will review scientific cloud applications relevant to geophysical research and present our results in building software components and cloud services for a virtual geophysical data center. We will discuss in depth economy, scalability and reliability of the distributed array and image data stores, synchronous and asynchronous RESTful services to access and model georefernced data, virtual observatory services for metadata management, and data visualization for web applications in Cloud.

  6. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Geophysical Medium Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Nguyen, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    Polarimetric remote sensing of structures in geophysical media is studied in this paper based on their symmetry properties. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Experimental observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented to illustrate the use of symmetry properties. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mount Shasta area and mixed forests neir Presque Isle show evidence of the centrical symmetry at C band. In sea ice from the Beaufort Sea, multiyear sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. For first-year sea ice, e is much smaller than e(sub 0) as a result of preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering sea, it is observed that e and e(sub 0) are increasing with incident angle and e is greater than e(sub 0) at L band because of the directional feature of sea surface waves. Use of symmetry properties of geophysical media for polarimetric radar calibration is also suggested.

  7. Geophysical fluid dynamics: whence, whither and why?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the role of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) in understanding the natural environment, and in particular the dynamics of atmospheres and oceans on Earth and elsewhere. GFD, as usually understood, is a branch of the geosciences that deals with fluid dynamics and that, by tradition, seeks to extract the bare essence of a phenomenon, omitting detail where possible. The geosciences in general deal with complex interacting systems and in some ways resemble condensed matter physics or aspects of biology, where we seek explanations of phenomena at a higher level than simply directly calculating the interactions of all the constituent parts. That is, we try to develop theories or make simple models of the behaviour of the system as a whole. However, these days in many geophysical systems of interest, we can also obtain information for how the system behaves by almost direct numerical simulation from the governing equations. The numerical model itself then explicitly predicts the emergent phenomena—the Gulf Stream, for example—something that is still usually impossible in biology or condensed matter physics. Such simulations, as manifested, for example, in complicated general circulation models, have in some ways been extremely successful and one may reasonably now ask whether understanding a complex geophysical system is necessary for predicting it. In what follows we discuss such issues and the roles that GFD has played in the past and will play in the future. PMID:27616918

  8. Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, tides, hydrological water redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. With only a few exceptions on the Earth surface, the temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have the capability of monitoring certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. These techniques include the very-long-baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging and Doppler tracking, and the Global Positioning System, all entail global observational networks. While considerable advances have been made in observing and understanding of the dynamics of Earth's rotation, only the lowest-degree gravitational variations have been observed and limited knowledge of geocenter motion obtained. New space missions, projects and initiatives promise to further improve the measurements and hence our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding and modeling capability of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as the solid Earth's response to such changes in constraining the modeling of Earth's mechanical properties.

  9. Magnetotelluric Investigation of Melt Storage Beneath Okmok Caldera, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, N. L.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Zelenak, G.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska accounts for nearly 99% of the seismic moment release within the US. Much of this is associated with the Aleutian volcanic arc, the most tectonically active region in North America, and an ideal location for studying arc magmatism. Okmok is an active volcano located in the central Aleutian arc, defined by a pair of nested, 10 km diameter calderas. The subdued topography of Okmok, relative to other Aleutian volcanoes, improves access and permits dense sampling within the caldera closer to the underlying magmatic system. Okmok volcano was selected as the site of study for this project due to frequent volcanic activity and the presence of a crustal magma reservoir as inferred from previous coarse resolution seismic studies. In June-July 2015, we carried out an amphibious geophysical field deployment at Okmok. Onshore work in and around the volcano included collection of an array of magnetotelluric (MT) stations and installation of a temporary, year-long seismic array. A ring of 3D offshore MT deployments made around the island augments the onshore array. An additional 2D tectonic-scale profile spans the trench, volcanic arc, and backarc. This new geophysical data will be used to gain a greater understanding of Aleutian arc melt generation, migration, and storage beneath an active caldera. We present results from the analysis of the newly collected amphibious 3D MT data. This data will be used to model the distribution and migration of melt within Okmok's crustal magma reservoir. Initial processing of the data shows strong MT signal levels, in particular from a geomagnetic storm that occurred from June 21-23, 2015. A companion abstract discussing the 2D tectonic scale MT profile, which constrains the mantle and deep crust beneath Okmok volcano, is discussed by Zelenak et al.

  10. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: radar observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Mann, Dörte; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, David

    2000-01-01

    ERS-1/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This suggests changes in the surface backscattering characteristics and was probably related to cooling and compaction processes. Third, the atmospheric delay anomalies in the deformation interferograms were quantitatively assessed. Atmospheric delay anomalies in some of the interferograms were significant and consistently smaller than one to two fringes in magnitude. For this reason, repeat observations are important to confidently interpret small geophysical signals related to volcanic activities. Finally, using two-pass differential interferometry, we analyzed the preemptive inflation, coeruptive deflation, and posteruptive inflation and confirmed the observations using independent image pairs. We observed more than 140 cm of subsidence associated with the 1997 eruption. This subsidence occurred between 16 months before the eruption and 5 months after the eruption, was preceded by ∼18 cm of uplift between 1992 and 1995 centered in the same location, and was followed by ∼10 cm of uplift between September 1997 and 1998. The best fitting model suggests the magma reservoir resided at 2.7 km depth beneath the center of the caldera, which was ∼5 km from the eruptive vent. We estimated the volume of the erupted material to be 0.055 km3 and the average thickness of the erupted lava to be ∼7.4 m. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. 76 FR 45217 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program; Amendment 88 AGENCY: National Marine... submitted Amendment 88 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) for review... gains realized under the Rockfish Pilot Program and viability of the Gulf of Alaska fisheries....

  12. A Distributed Data Management System to Support Arctic Geology and Geophysics: A Resource for Extended EEZ Claims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M.; Johnson, P.; Wright, D.; Dailey, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been an explosion in the volume of geophysical data collected in the Arctic Basin. Prior to the 1990's geophysical data for the Arctic Ocean largely consisted of a few scattered multi-channel seismic lines, single-beam bathymetric profiles and comprehensive aeromagnetic and aerogravity datasets. The deployment of the nuclear-powered submarines in the arctic during the 1993-1999 Science Ice Exercises (SCICEX) increased the quantity of available arctic geophysical data by several orders of magnitude, providing the first comprehensive bathymetric and sidescan surveys of most of the topographic highs in the Arctic Basin including the Lomonosov and Gakkel Ridges and large portions of the Alaska margin and Chukchi Borderland. Many of these ridges figure prominently in the claims of arctic nations to extend their exclusive economic zones into the Arctic Ocean. Since 2000, surveys conducted on icebreakers have continued to rapid expansion of arctic geophysical datasets. The collection of geophysical data collected during SCICEX and subsequent icebreaker cruises includes swath bathymetry, sidescan and amplitude data, gravity subbottom chirp profiles and this year, multi-channel seismic data. We are currently developing an online data archive that combines a data repository with a web-based archive-linking infrastructure to produce a distributed Data Management System (DMS) named the "Arctic Archive for Geophysical Research: Unlocking Undersea Knowledge" (AAGRUUK). This DMS promotes the ability to locate specific types of data as well as diverse types of data for specific locations. It provides access to derived products plus processed and, where feasible, raw data. AAGRUUK also provides the ability to integrate diverse types of data from distributed databases and archives, access to metadata, standardized approaches for incorporating newly acquired data, and contact and reference information for datasets in the archive. The AAGRUUK datasets

  13. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  14. Non equilibrium statistical mechanics of geophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, F.

    2012-04-01

    Onsager first proposed to explain the self organization of turbulent flows using the statistical mechanics framework. Generalization of those ideas to the class of 2D-Euler and Quasi-Gestrophic models led to the Robert-Sommeria-Miller theory. This approach was successful in modeling many geophysical phenomena: the Great Red Spot of Jupiter [2, 1], drift of mesoscale ocean vortices [3, 1], self-organization of Quasi-Geostrophic dynamics in mid-basin jets similar to the Gulf-Stream and the Kuroshio [3, 1], and so on. However, this type of equilibrium theories fail to take into account forces and dissipation. This is a strong limitation for many geophysical phenomena. Interestingly, it is possible to circumvent these difficulties using the most modern theoretical development of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: large deviation [4] and instanton theories. As an example, we will discuss geophysical turbulent flows which have more than one attractor (bistability or mutistability). For instance, paths of the Kuroshio [5], the Earth's magnetic field reversal, atmospheric flows [6], MHD experiments [7], 2D turbulence experiments [8, 9], 3D flows [10] show this kind of behavior. On Navier-Stokes and Quasi-Geostrophic turbulent flows, we predict the conditions for existence of rare transitions between attractors, and the dynamics of those transitions. We discuss how these results are probably connected to the long debated existence of multi-stability in the atmosphere and oceans, and how non-equilibrium statistical mechanics can allow to settle this issue. Generalization of statistical mechanics to more comprehensive hydrodynamical models, which include gravity wave dynamics and allow for the possibility of energy transfer through wave motion, would be extremely interesting. Namely, both are essential in understanding energy balance of geophysical flows. However, due to difficulties in essential theoretical parts of the statistical mechanics approach, previous methods

  15. Integrated Geophysical Analysis at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Mellors, R. J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We integrate magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), gravity, and seismic data to develop a unified and consistent model of the subsurface at the U20ak site on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada National Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The 1985 test, conducted in tuff at a depth of approximately 600 m did not collapse to the surface or produce a crater. The purpose of the geophysical measurements is to characterize the subsurface above and around the presumed explosion cavity. The magnetic data are used to locate steel borehole casings and pipes and are correlated with surface observations. The EM data show variation in lithology at depth and clear signatures from borehole casings and surface cables. The gravity survey detects a clear gravity low in the area of the explosion. The seismic data indicates shallow low velocity zone and indications of a deeper low velocity zones. In this study, we conduct 2D inversion of EM data for better characterization of site geology and use a common 3D density model to jointly interpret both the seismic and gravity data along with constraints on lithology boundaries from the EM. The integration of disparate geophysical datasets allows improved understanding of the non-prompt physical signatures of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). LLNL Release Number: LLNL-ABS-675677. The authors express their gratitude to the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, and the Comprehensive Inspection Technologies and UNESE working group, a multi-institutional and interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers. This work was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory under award number DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  16. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  17. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate-related fire impacts in rural and urban interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainor, Sarah F.; Calef, Monika; Natcher, David; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; McGuire, Anthony; Huntington, Orville; Duffy, Paul A; Rupp, T. Scott; DeWilde, La'Ona; Kwart, Mary; Fresco, Nancy; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores whether fundamental differences exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska. We further examine how communities and fire managers have responded to these changes and what additional adaptations could be put in place. We engage a variety of social science methods, including demographic analysis, semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops and observations of public meetings. This work is part of an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions between climate, vegetation, fire and human components of the Boreal forest social–ecological system of interior Alaska. We have learned that although urban and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate change, important differences exist in their sensitivity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression response, financial resources and institutional connections vary between urban and rural communities. These differences depend largely on social, economic and institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management and suppression action motivated by political, economic or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic responses may be required, given the magnitude of the expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensification of the fire regime in interior Alaska.

  18. The Role of Geophysics/Geology in the Environmental Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannkuch, H. O.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental problems are created by interaction between the Anthroposphere and Geosphere. Principles and laws governing behavior and interaction between them have to be fully understood to properly address environmental problems. A particular problem arises by inadequate communication between practitioners and/or decision makers in each sphere. A perfect analysis or solution in the Geosphere based solely on geophysical, geochemical principles will go nowhere if institutional, socio economic principles are ignored, or vice versa: no matter how well socio-economic relations are used in the Anthroposphere if they violate basic laws of physics . Two conceptual representations of the environment system are: Nöosphere with three domains: Physical, Institutional, Symbolic and their interactions. It is where environmental problems arise, decisions are made and implemented. The Physical Domain comprises physical, chemical, biological, geopsphere realities. Problems are treated by the scientific method. The Institutional Domain with economy, sociology, administration and political institutions, solves by negotiation (vote, ballot). The elements of the Symbolic Domain. spiritual, moral, religious, esthetic principles are revealed. All are intimately connected and interdependent. Activity in one affects the state of the others. A particularly strong and effective interactive relation exists between the Physical and the Institutional domains with regards to environmental problem definition, analysis and resolution. Hierarchic structure of interaction pyramid. Geosphere, Biosphere and Anthroposphere are open systems and are organized in successive levels forming a pyramid shape or aspect. The Geosphere forms the bottom level, the Anthroposphere the top. One fundamental attribute is that level (n) is limited by the restrictions obtaining in level (n-1), and conversely, level (n) represents the restrictions and limitations for level (n+1). In the environmental discourse this

  19. Negotiating Institutional Performance and Change: Strategies for Engaged Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andes, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes how University of Alaska Anchorage (a) mapped academic-based engagement activities into its institutional context and mission and (b) explored academic and administrative leadership strategies to reflect its commitment to engagement. Higher education governing bodies, legislators, administrators, and faculty increasingly…

  20. Distribution of near-surface permafrost in Alaska: estimates of present and future conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Nield, Shawn J.; Johnson, Kristofer D.; Finley, Andrew O.

    2015-01-01

    High-latitude regions are experiencing rapid and extensive changes in ecosystem composition and function as the result of increases in average air temperature. Increasing air temperatures have led to widespread thawing and degradation of permafrost, which in turn has affected ecosystems, socioeconomics, and the carbon cycle of high latitudes. Here we overcome complex interactions among surface and subsurface conditions to map nearsurface permafrost through decision and regression tree approaches that statistically and spatially extend field observations using remotely sensed imagery, climatic data, and thematic maps of a wide range of surface and subsurface biophysical characteristics. The data fusion approach generated medium-resolution (30-m pixels) maps of near-surface (within 1 m) permafrost, active-layer thickness, and associated uncertainty estimates throughout mainland Alaska. Our calibrated models (overall test accuracy of ~85%) were used to quantify changes in permafrost distribution under varying future climate scenarios assuming no other changes in biophysical factors. Models indicate that near-surface permafrost underlies 38% of mainland Alaska and that near-surface permafrost will disappear on 16 to 24% of the landscape by the end of the 21st Century. Simulations suggest that near-surface permafrost degradation is more probable in central regions of Alaska than more northerly regions. Taken together, these results have obvious implications for potential remobilization of frozen soil carbon pools under warmer temperatures. Additionally, warmer and drier conditions may increase fire activity and severity, which may exacerbate rates of permafrost thaw and carbon remobilization relative to climate alone. The mapping of permafrost distribution across Alaska is important for land-use planning, environmental assessments, and a wide-array of geophysical studies.

  1. Simulating Tsunami Inundation in Southern Oregon, USA Using Hypothetical Cascadia and Alaska Earthquake Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, R. C.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, K.; Priest, G. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Stimely, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    We develop 15 full-margin rupture models for Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes that define vertical seafloor deformation used to simulate tsunami inundation at Bandon, Oregon. We consider rupture models that include slip partitioned to a splay fault in the accretionary wedge and models that vary the updip limit of slip on the megathrust. The design of coseismic slip models is based on the interpretation of paleoseismic and paleotsunami data, especially turbidite records offshore and a tsunami deposit sequence at Bradley Lake in southern Oregon. Alternative scenarios are evaluated using a logic tree that ranks model consistency with geophysical and geological data. The hydrodynamic computer model, SELFE, is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation and inundation for the 15 Cascadia earthquake sources and two Alaska earthquake sources: the 1964 Mw 9.2 Prince William Sound earthquake and a maximum hypothetical earthquake beneath the Gulf of Alaska. Results describe levels of confidence (in percent) that a Cascadia tsunami will not exceed simulated wave runup. Maximum Cascadia tsunami wave elevations at the shoreline vary between ˜4 and ˜25 m above the model tide (mean higher high water) for earthquakes with 9 to 44 m slip and moment magnitude (Mw) 8.7 to 9.2. The simulated inundation for all Cascadia scenarios is consistent with minimum constraints from the spatial extent of deposits left by the AD 1700 Cascadia tsunami and older predecessors. Simulations of the 1964 Alaska tsunami agree with limited historical observations of wave heights and runup in Bandon. We recommend using the maximum Cascadia tsunami scenario and the maximum Alaska tsunami scenario for delineating evacuation zones for the Oregon coast. The tsunami scenario most consistent with paleoseismic data or the larger splay fault scenario, which encompass ~80 to 95 percent of the hazard, should be considered for land use planning and future revisions to building codes along the coast.

  2. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  3. Archaeological geophysics in Israel: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2010-04-01

    In Israel occur a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. Different kinds of noise complicate geophysical methods employment at archaeological sites. Geodynamical active, multi-layered, and geologically variable surrounding media in many cases damages ancient objects and disturbs their physical properties. This calls to application of different geophysical methods armed by the modern interpretation technology. The main attention is focused on the geophysical methods most frequently applying in Israeli archaeological sites: GPR and high-precise magnetic survey. Other methods (paleomagnetic, resistivity, near-surface seismics, piezoelectric, etc.) are briefly described and reviewed. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing, and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. Several examples illustrate effective application of geophysical methods over some typical archaeological remains. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past (1990), (2) present (1990-2009), and (3) future (2010). The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques. It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases, employment of all possible indicators for 4-D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction, as well as application of combined geophysical multilevel surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes.

  4. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  5. [Institutional Renewal].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this journal issue is "Institutional Renewal." Projects designed to address the issues of the 1980s at 18 colleges are described, and 15 definitions of institutional renewal are presented. Participating colleges were provided expert advice through the Association of American College's (AAC) Project Lodestar (renamed Consultation and…

  6. Institutional History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory

    1985-01-01

    Discusses recent work on scientific institutions in the United States, indicating that although historians have explored the origins of institutions, few have pursued these organizations into their later and perhaps equally complex years. Learned/professional organizations, museums, publications, and philanthropy are among the major topic areas…

  7. Human Knowledge and the Institution's Knowledge. Communication in Patterns and Retention in a Public University, Final Report (October 1, 1980 - December 31, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Ron

    The high attrition rate of Alaska Native students at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, was evaluated as an example of the broader issue of the responsiveness of a large bureaucratic institution to an environmental population that is different from it in world view. It was found that the phrasing of the problem as a problem of retention was in…

  8. Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    At the 2008 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the USGS will release the results of the first assessment of the undiscovered technically recoverable gas hydrate resources on the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources -- that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced by using current technology. The assessment is based on the geologic elements used to define a Total Petroleum System (TPS), including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties, seismic attribute development, and prospecting), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located about 4.8 km north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering about 114,765 square km. For the first time, the USGS has assessed gas hydrates, a traditionally unconventional resource with no confirmed production history, as a producible resource occurring in discrete hydrocarbon traps and structures. The approach used to assess the gas hydrate resources in northern Alaska followed standard geology-based USGS assessment methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, it was documented through the analysis of three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. The USGS conventional assessment approach also assumes that the hydrocarbon resource being assessed can be produced by

  9. Seasonal nutrient dynamics in three stream types in SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. T.; Norberg, E.; Fellman, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Tongass National Forest encompasses over 5,000 salmon streams draining a wide variety of lithologies, microclimates and landforms. To predict management outcomes and responses to climate change, managers need an understanding of how ecosystem processes in streams vary over large spatial scales and with major controlling landscape variables. We measured forms of N, P and DOM in three common stream types: glacial, brownwater and clearwater near Juneau, AK. Glacial and clearwater streams showed strong seasonal trends in nitrate and total nitrogen related to snow melt and summer uptake, whereas brownwater streams were variable but not highly seasonal. Total nitrogen concentrations were dominated by inorganic forms in clearwater streams, organic forms in brownwater streams and varied seasonally between organic and inorganic forms in glacial streams. DOC concentrations were low in clearwater and glacial streams and varied little seasonally. Brownwater stream DOC values were high, variable and varied with discharge, with an increasing trend during summer. The Tongass NF recently classified SE Alaska forest lands into ecological subsections based on large-scale geophysical factors such as lithology and surficial geology. Partitioning Tongass streams using this approach may lead to better management predictions by more accurately incorporating natural variation in baseline stream dynamics.

  10. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  11. Global Geophysical Fluids Center of IERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.; Wilson, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC) and its seven Special Bureaus (SB, for Atmosphere, Oceans, Tides, Hydrology, Mantle, Core and Gravity/Geocenter) were establishes by the International Earth Rotation Service in 1998, to support global geodynamic research. Mass transports in the geophysical fluids of the Earth system will cause observable geodynamic effects on a broad time scale.These include (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, and new exciting data will be available by space gravity, altimetry, SAR, and magnetic missions. In this sense the precise space geodetic techniques have become effective means of remote sensing of global mass transports. The GGFC and its SBs have the responsibility of supporting, facilitating, and providing services to the worldwide research community in the related research areas. We compute, analyze, compare, archive, and disseminate the time series of the angular momenta and the related torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift for all geophysical fluids, based on global observational data, and/or products from state-of-the-art models some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. This paper reviews our activities, reports the status, and looks forward into the future.

  12. Small High School Programs for Rural Alaska. Vol. I, A Preliminary Report of the Small High Schools Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray; And Others

    Focusing on examination of the current status of small high schools, identification of the elements of successful programs, and formulation of a general program design, the report of the first year of the Small High Schools Project for Rural Alaska presents over 100 recommendations to help small high schools develop into effective institutions.…

  13. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  14. Geophysical - new technology, lower cost gearing search

    SciTech Connect

    Heitman, L.B.

    1985-12-01

    Seismic companies will remain competitive only if they reduce costs and at the same time increase the technological capabilities of their products. Overcapacity and lower prices plague geophysical films. Several key improvements in offshore seismic data collection were made during 1985, e.g., wide-tow seismic source arrays that improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by reducing various unwanted noise compounds have become standard and seismic source levels have also been increased by a wider variety of air and water gun offering. These improvement in data collection are discussed.

  15. Field studies in geophysical diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Stevens, S.S.; King, W.C.; Ursic, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) is a quantitative, high- resolution technique for subsurface imaging. This method has been used in a number of shallow applications to image buried waste, trenches, soil strata, tunnels, synthetic magma chambers, and the buried skeletal remains of seismosaurus, the longest dinosaur ever discovered. The theory associated with the GDT inversion and implementing software have been developed for acoustic and scalar electromagnetic waves for bistatic and monostatic measurements in cross-borehole, offset vertical seismic profiling and reflection geometries. This paper presents an overview of some signal processing algorithms, a description of the instrumentation used in field studies, and selected imaging results.

  16. Field studies in geophysical diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Stevens, S.S. ); King, W.C. . Dept. of Geography and Environmental Engineering); Ursic, J.R. . Region V)

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) is a quantitative, high- resolution technique for subsurface imaging. This method has been used in a number of shallow applications to image buried waste, trenches, soil strata, tunnels, synthetic magma chambers, and the buried skeletal remains of seismosaurus, the longest dinosaur ever discovered. The theory associated with the GDT inversion and implementing software have been developed for acoustic and scalar electromagnetic waves for bistatic and monostatic measurements in cross-borehole, offset vertical seismic profiling and reflection geometries. This paper presents an overview of some signal processing algorithms, a description of the instrumentation used in field studies, and selected imaging results.

  17. Time-reversal methods in geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene S.; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2010-08-15

    Before the 20th century there were few seismometers. So Earth's dynamic geophysical processes were poorly understood. Today the potential for understanding those processes is enormous: The number of seismic instruments is continually increasing, their data are easily stored and shared, and computing power grows exponentially. As a result, seismologists are rapidly discovering new kinds of seismic signals in the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz, as well as relatively large nonseismic displacements, monitored by the global positioning system, occurring over days or weeks.

  18. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  19. Geophysical investigation at Fort Detrick Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of 15 suspected disposal areas at Area B, Fort Detrick, Maryland, are presented. Between 1943 and 1969, Fort Detrick served as the nation's center for military offensive and defensive biological research. As a result of this activity, chemically and biologically contaminated materials were generated and disposed in burial pits at Site B. Based on historical and visual information, 15 sites suspected of containing burial pits were selected to be examined in greater detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigations were designed to detect anomalous conditions indicative of past disposal activities. The geophysical program included electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and seismic refraction methods. Anomalous conditions were found at several of the sites tested and noted. The anomalous conditions may have resulted from the presence of buried material or from physical and/or chemical soil changes caused by disposal activities.... Geophysics, Electromagnetics ground penetrating radar, Geophysical surveys, Magnetics, Seismic refraction.

  20. A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Slater, L.D.; Robinson, J.L.; Williams, J.H.; Boyden, C.L.; Werkema, D.D.; Lane, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical technologies have the potential to improve site characterization and monitoring in fractured rock, but the appropriate and effective application of geophysics at a particular site strongly depends on project goals (e.g., identifying discrete fractures) and site characteristics (e.g., lithology). No method works at every site or for every goal. New approaches are needed to identify a set of geophysical methods appropriate to specific project goals and site conditions while considering budget constraints. To this end, we present the Excel-based Fractured-Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST). We envision the FRGT-MST (1) equipping remediation professionals with a tool to understand what is likely to be realistic and cost-effective when contracting geophysical services, and (2) reducing applications of geophysics with unrealistic objectives or where methods are likely to fail.

  1. Geological and geophysical characterization of the southeastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results obtained by the joint analysis of in situ geophysical surveys, aerial photos interpretation, morphotectonic investigation, geological field survey and borehole data. The joint analysis of different data allowed us (1) to show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) to detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) to image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) to characterize the geometry of an active landslide affecting the study area.

  2. 78 FR 54481 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Dina L. Torres, Land Transfer Resolution Specialist..., Alaska T. 25 N., R. 18 W., Sec. 20. Containing 639.92 acres. Notice of the decision will also...

  3. 78 FR 35047 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Ralph L. Eluska, Sr., Land Transfer Resolution...: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 45 W., Secs. 30 and 31. Containing 1,254.64 acres. Notice of...

  4. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  5. Alaska Simulator - A Journey to Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; Wild, Werner

    The Alaska Simulator is an interactive software tool developed at the University of Innsbruck which allows people to test, analyze and improve their own planning behavior. In addition, the Alaska Simulator can be used for studying research questions in the context of software project management and other related fields. Thereby, the Alaska Simulator uses a journey as a metaphor for planning a software project. In the context of software project management the simulator can be used to compare traditional rather plan-driven project management methods with more agile approaches. Instead of pre-planning everything in advance agile approaches spread planning activities throughout the project and provide mechanisms for effectively dealing with uncertainty. The biggest challenge thereby is to find the right balance between pre-planning activities and keeping options open. The Alaska Simulator allows to explore how much planning is needed under different circumstances.

  6. Pacific Northwest and Alaska bioenergy program glossary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    A glossary of terms for the bioenergy program of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska is presented. A table with physical constants for individual gases most frequently found in fuel gases is also presented in this publication.

  7. 78 FR 10634 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...) to Huna Totem Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... Huna Totem Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hoonah, Alaska, and are located in:...

  8. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  9. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  10. CSCAPES Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  11. Using Geophysical Data to Improve Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G. E.

    2002-12-01

    Although relatively few students will become professional geoscientists (i.e. producers of scientific information), essentially every student is a future consumer of scientific information. Government agencies, environmental organizations, businesses, and special interest groups use scientific arguments to set policy, create legislation, and develop international agreements. Often, decisions must be made even though the data are incomplete, ambiguous, or contradictory. In addition, such decisions frequently have severe social, economic, and political consequences. At Princeton University, we have developed courses designed to make students sophisticated consumers of scientific information. The courses are among the most popular and top rated courses in the University. Through a series of actual case studies that use geophysical data, students learn how to make decisions using scientific information in concert with engineering, economic, political, and social considerations. For each issue, they analyze the scientific arguments, evaluate the geophysical data upon which they are based, and determine the scientific credibility, political feasibility, and economic consequences of the various options. The class's actions are then compared against those of the actual decision-makers, and the accuracy of their predictions is evaluated against the outcome. Students gain first-hand experience with concepts such as valid inference, representative sampling, boundary values, and data discrimination.

  12. Geophysical investigation and characterization with USRADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, C. R.; Blair, M. S.; Nyquist, J. E.

    This paper describes two recent case histories in which commercially available geophysical instruments were used with an innovative tracking and mapping system called USRADS (UltraSonic Ranging And Data System) that automates data location and collection. USRADS uses ultrasonics to provide real-time surveyor positioning and radio links to transmit the surveyor data to an on-site computer for storage and real-time display. USRADS uses a standard 386 computer for data collection and includes real-time color display of the findings. It also includes numerous analysis and display formats for on-site, as well as utilities to facilitate post-process analysis of the findings. The objective of one project was to locate several suspect waste disposal trenches and to map their boundaries. The second was to locate and map the presence of subsurface unexploded ordinance (UXO) at a suspect artillery impact area. A Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter interfaced to USRADS was used to map the suspect trenches. A Schonstedt GA-52C magnetometer interfaced to USRADS was used to map the subsurface UXO. Correlation of findings to known site features and additional knowledge about the sites indicates that these efforts did locate and map the geophysical features including the suspect waste trenches and the subsurface UXO. Images of the findings generated on-site and during post-processing are included.

  13. Integrated Geophysical Detection of DNAPL Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Identification of subsurface organic contamination, particularly dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is one of the highest priorities - and among the most difficult - for remediation of numerous sites, including those of the DOD and DOE. Complex resistivity (CR) is the only geophysical method that has been demonstrated in the laboratory to have high sensitivity to organic compounds, by detecting responses indicative of clay-organic electrochemistry. However, direct detection of organics in the field has been elusive, in part due to the difficulty of obtaining robust measurements at very low contaminant levels in the presence of heterogeneous geological materials and cultural interference (such as metallic utilities and remediation plumbing). This project sought to improve the capability to detect DNAPL by (1) better geophysical imaging of geological pathways that control DNAPL movement and (2) direct detection by detailed comparison of CR lab to field data using this improved imaging. For the first goal, algorithms were developed for the joint tomographic imaging of seismic and resistivity data. The method requires that an empirical relationship can be established between seismic and resistivity; if values are ultimately tied to specific lithologies, then the final tomographic product can be an actual geological cross-section. Because shallow subsurface investigations are now commonly performed using a cone penetrometer (CPT) a new vibratory seismic source was developed to identify sites with clay-organic reactions measurable in the lab from core samples, perform reconnaissance field surveys, and proceed to detailed 2D or 3D cross-hole imaging.

  14. Efficient stochastic superparameterization for geophysical turbulence.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Ian; Majda, Andrew J

    2013-03-19

    Efficient computation of geophysical turbulence, such as occurs in the atmosphere and ocean, is a formidable challenge for the following reasons: the complex combination of waves, jets, and vortices; significant energetic backscatter from unresolved small scales to resolved large scales; a lack of dynamical scale separation between large and small scales; and small-scale instabilities, conditional on the large scales, which do not saturate. Nevertheless, efficient methods are needed to allow large ensemble simulations of sufficient size to provide meaningful quantifications of uncertainty in future predictions and past reanalyses through data assimilation and filtering. Here, a class of efficient stochastic superparameterization algorithms is introduced. In contrast to conventional superparameterization, the method here (i) does not require the simulation of nonlinear eddy dynamics on periodic embedded domains, (ii) includes a better representation of unresolved small-scale instabilities, and (iii) allows efficient representation of a much wider range of unresolved scales. The simplest algorithm implemented here radically improves efficiency by representing small-scale eddies at and below the limit of computational resolution by a suitable one-dimensional stochastic model of random-direction plane waves. In contrast to heterogeneous multiscale methods, the methods developed here do not require strong scale separation or conditional equilibration of local statistics. The simplest algorithm introduced here shows excellent performance on a difficult test suite of prototype problems for geophysical turbulence with waves, jets, and vortices, with a speedup of several orders of magnitude compared with direct simulation. PMID:23487800

  15. Efficient stochastic superparameterization for geophysical turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Ian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient computation of geophysical turbulence, such as occurs in the atmosphere and ocean, is a formidable challenge for the following reasons: the complex combination of waves, jets, and vortices; significant energetic backscatter from unresolved small scales to resolved large scales; a lack of dynamical scale separation between large and small scales; and small-scale instabilities, conditional on the large scales, which do not saturate. Nevertheless, efficient methods are needed to allow large ensemble simulations of sufficient size to provide meaningful quantifications of uncertainty in future predictions and past reanalyses through data assimilation and filtering. Here, a class of efficient stochastic superparameterization algorithms is introduced. In contrast to conventional superparameterization, the method here (i) does not require the simulation of nonlinear eddy dynamics on periodic embedded domains, (ii) includes a better representation of unresolved small-scale instabilities, and (iii) allows efficient representation of a much wider range of unresolved scales. The simplest algorithm implemented here radically improves efficiency by representing small-scale eddies at and below the limit of computational resolution by a suitable one-dimensional stochastic model of random-direction plane waves. In contrast to heterogeneous multiscale methods, the methods developed here do not require strong scale separation or conditional equilibration of local statistics. The simplest algorithm introduced here shows excellent performance on a difficult test suite of prototype problems for geophysical turbulence with waves, jets, and vortices, with a speedup of several orders of magnitude compared with direct simulation. PMID:23487800

  16. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2015-10-01

    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophy-sical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate how these geophysical processes depend on the mass and interior structure of terrestrial planets. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2). One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations if their mass and/or iron content exceeds a critical value, reducing their possible surface habitability.

  17. Minimax approach to inverse problems of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balk, P. I.; Dolgal, A. S.; Balk, T. V.; Khristenko, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach is suggested for solving the inverse problems that arise in the different fields of applied geophysics (gravity, magnetic, and electrical prospecting, geothermy) and require assessing the spatial region occupied by the anomaly-generating masses in the presence of different types of a priori information. The interpretation which provides the maximum guaranteed proximity of the model field sources to the real perturbing object is treated as the best interpretation. In some fields of science (game theory, economics, operations research), the decision-making principle that lies in minimizing the probable losses which cannot be prevented if the situation develops by the worst-case scenario is referred to as minimax. The minimax criterion of choice is interesting as, instead of being confined to the indirect (and sometimes doubtful) signs of the "optimal" solution, it relies on the actual properties of the information in the results of a particular interpretation. In the hierarchy of the approaches to the solution of the inverse problems of geophysics ordered by the volume and quality of the retrieved information about the sources of the field, the minimax approach should take special place.

  18. Geophysical Investigation of Neal Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, C.; Van Wijk, K.; Liberty, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present newly acquired geophysical data that characterizes a geothermal system at Neal Hot Springs in eastern Oregon. The hot springs are in a region of complex and intersecting fault trends associated with two major extensional events, the Oregon-Idaho Graben and the western Snake River Plain. From surface observations and several boreholes in the area, it appears that a steeply dipping normal fault forms a half-graben basin and serves as a conduit for heated water at depth to migrate to the surface at Neal Hot Springs. We identify and characterize this fault with seismic reflection, gravity, magnetic, and electrical resistivity surveys. A self-potential survey indicates that water is upwelling over the fault plane, and suggests that the fault does provide the means for heated water to migrate to the surface. Smaller scale structure is also evident in both the gravity and seismic surveys, and could interact with the migration of water, and how the hot springs recharge. These preliminary results will be built upon in the upcoming years and a solid structural understanding of Neal Hot Springs and the surrounding area will be gained through the use of geophysics.

  19. Geophysical Monitoring of Soil Stabilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of population led to the need of urban expansion into lands with problematic soils. For safe land development, the stability of problematic soils has to be enhanced. Among the many methods utilized, microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is of particular interest as a low energy, cost efficient and potentially long term ground improvement technique. As with other soil improvement methods though, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring methods are missing. Geophysical methods can fill that gap, by efficiently complementing and extending current monitoring practices. Geophysical methods can offer low cost, no intrusive, continuous and spatially extensive monitoring of ground improvement techniques. With this work we test two of the most promising methods for monitoring MICP, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); additionally, we performed shear wave velocity measurements - the established standard on soil strength characterization - for direct comparison with NMR and SIP. The tests were performed in columns filled with unconsolidated porous media (e.g. Ottawa sand, glass beads) while binding was promoted with the addition of calcite. For the first part of the experiment we used abiotic methods for Calcite formation, while the second part involves microbial induced processes. The objective of this work is to quantify the sensitivity of NMR and SIP on soil strengthening as a result of calcite precipitation. Early results suggest that both methods, SIP and NMR, are sensitive calcite precipitation and dissolution processes.

  20. Geophysical imaging using trans-dimensional trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    In geophysical inversion, inferences of Earth's properties from sparse data involve a trade-off between model complexity and the spatial resolving power. A recent Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) technique formalized by Green, the so-called trans-dimensional samplers, allows us to sample between these trade-offs and to parsimoniously arbitrate between the varying complexity of candidate models. Here we present a novel framework using trans-dimensional sampling over tree structures. This new class of McMC sampler can be applied to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Cartesian and spherical geometries. In addition, the basis functions used by the algorithm are flexible and can include more advanced parametrizations such as wavelets, both in Cartesian and Spherical geometries, to permit Bayesian multiscale analysis. This new framework offers greater flexibility, performance and efficiency for geophysical imaging problems than previous sampling algorithms. Thereby increasing the range of applications and in particular allowing extension to trans-dimensional imaging in 3-D. Examples are presented of its application to 2-D seismic and 3-D teleseismic tomography including estimation of uncertainty.

  1. 77 FR 59220 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    .... Survey No. 9993, Alaska. Containing 129.97 acres. Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 5 S., R. 24 W., Tract A. Containing 1,242.28 acres. T. 6 S., R. 24 W., Secs. 6, 21, 22, 28, and 33. Containing 3,164.08 acres. T. 6 S., R. 25 W., Tracts Q, R, and S; Tracts T, X, and Z. Containing approximately 1,683...

  2. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  3. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  4. Propagation measurements in Alaska using ACTS beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The placement of an ACTS propagation terminal in Alaska has several distinct advantages. First is the inclusion of a new and important climatic zone to the global propagation model. Second is the low elevation look angle from Alaska to ACTS. These two unique opportunities also present problems unique to the location, such as extreme temperatures and lower power levels. These problems are examined and compensatory solutions are presented.

  5. 75 FR 13296 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management will issue an appealable decision approving the conveyance of surface and subsurface estates in certain lands pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act to Bristol Bay Native Corporation for 2.72 acres located southeast of the Native village of Koliganek, Alaska. Notice of the decision will also......

  6. Visibility, Healing and Resistance: Voices from the 2005 Dena'ina Language Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lindsay; Marlow, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the complexities of institutional involvement in Native language programming by looking at a program in Kenai, Alaska. The work contrasts learner goals with stated grant goals in order to investigate the tensions between institutional (university, funding agency) and individual learner goals in a language revitalization effort.…

  7. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  8. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  9. Scaphopoda from the Alexander Terrane, Southeast Alaska-The first occurrence of Scaphopoda in the Silurian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.

    2006-01-01

    The scaphopods Dentalium hecetaensis n. sp. and Rhytiodentalium cf. kentuckyensis Pojeta et Runnegar, 1979, are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. This is the first occurrence of Silurian scaphopods known to date. They are part of a diverse macrobenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted southern Alaskan terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  10. Geophysical mapping of variations in soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioane, Dumitru; Scradeanu, Daniel; Chitea, Florina; Garbacea, George

    2010-05-01

    The geophysical investigation of soil characteristics is a matter of great actuality for agricultural, hydrogeological, geotechnical or archaeological purposes. The geophysical mapping of soil quality is subject of a recently started scientific project in Romania: "Soil investigation and monitoring techniques - modern tools for implementing the precision agriculture in Romania - CNCSIS 998/2009". One of the first studied soil parameter is moisture content, in irrigated or non-irrigated agricultural areas. The geophysical techniques employed in two areas located within the Romanian Plain, Prahova and Buzau counties, are the following: - electromagnetic (EM), using the EM38B (Geonics) conductivity meter for getting areal distribution of electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility; - electric resistivity tomography (ERT), using the SuperSting (AGI) multi-electrode instrument for getting in-depth distribution of electric resistivity. The electric conductivity mapping was carried out on irrigated cultivated land in a vegetable farm in the Buzau county, the distribution of conductivity being closely related to the soil water content due to irrigation works. The soil profile is represented by a chernozem with the following structure: Am (0 - 40 cm), Bt (40-150 cm), Bt/C (150-170 cm), C (starting at 170 cm). The electromagnetic measurements showed large variations of this geophysical parameter within different cultivated sectors, ranging from 40 mS/m to 85 mS/m. The close association between conductivity and water content in this area is illustrated by such geophysical measurements on profiles situated at ca 50 m on non-irrigated land, displaying a mean value of 15 mS/m. This low conductivity is due to quite long time interval, of about three weeks, without precipitations. The ERT measurements using multi-electrode acquisition systems for 2D and 3D results, showed by means of electric resistivity variations, the penetration of water along the cultivated rows from the

  11. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  12. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  13. Alaska

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... This image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye. It may help to darken the room lights when viewing the image on a computer screen. The Yukon River is ...

  14. Alaska Geothermal Sites Map and Database: Bringing together legacy and new geothermal data for research, exploration and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, J. G.; Harun, N. T.; Hughes, C. A.; Weakland, J. R.; Cameron, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal exploration activities in Alaska from the late 1970s into the 1980s generated vast quantities of scientific data that currently is in unpublished, forgotten and obscure, as well as published formats. Alaska has 61 hot springs (hotter than 50°C) and 34 'warm to cool springs' (cooler than 50°C). Thirty-seven thermal springs are located within the Aleutian and Alaska Peninsula volcanic arc into and are related to elevated heat flows in areas of arc volcanism as well as crustal scale faults associated with accretionary tectonism. The central interior belt that extends from the Seward Peninsula to Circle Hot Springs contains 37 thermal springs that formed due to mostly extensional tectonic forces. An additional 17 thermal springs are in southeast Alaska and 4 are in the Wrangell Mountains. A new cycle of geothermal exploration is underway in Alaska and is producing a wealth of new geothermal data. The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), funded by the National Geothermal Data System, is compiling both new and legacy geothermal data into a comprehensive database accessible on the ADGGS website. ADGGS has created a new ';Geothermal Sites of Alaska Map' and associated database that includes data on geothermal hot springs, direct use of geothermal resources, volcanic vents, aqueous geochemistry, borehole temperatures, core descriptions, rock chemistry, earthquakes in proximity to hot springs, and active faults. Geothermal hot springs includes locality, temperature, flow rate, sources and related resources. Direct use of geothermal resources contains facilities, capacity, energy use, temperature, flow rate and contact information from geothermal hot springs that are or have recently been used for recreational use, space heating, agricultural or energy use. Volcanic vents records 395 volcanic vents and fumaroles throughout the state that are Holocene or younger. It includes their age, location, elevation, geologic history, composition

  15. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Toksook Bay, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Toksook Bay, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, average wind turbine output, average diesel plant output, thermal load data, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  16. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  17. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  18. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  19. New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

  20. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  1. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 6 - Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Southeast Alaska presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 9 Southeast census divisions, data are presented for the 40 communities of the…

  2. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in Alaska for the 2014 season. These regulations would enable the continuation of customary and traditional subsistence uses of migratory birds in Alaska and prescribe regional information on when and where the harvesting of birds may occur. These regulations were developed under a......

  3. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  5. Tidal investigations at Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Sekowski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    In 2009 three LaCoste&Romberg model G gravimeters owed by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK) were equipped with a modern type of feedback system (LRFB-300) which gives a wide range of possibilities for gravimetric measurements. One of the modified LCR gravimeters (G1036) is used for continuous tidal recordings in Borowa Gora Geodetic - Geophysical Observatory of IGiK, is situated north of Warsaw. Good quality data is now collected from February of 2012. A set of Linux shell scripts have been developed to provide reliable readout recordings (via bluetooth) as well as automatic handling of any exceptional situations. The system runs with the LCR-G1036 from the beginning of February 2012, and since then the completeness of the recording visibly improved compared to previous recordings reaching nearly 98%. The tidal observation have been calibrated several times during the course of recordings, four times with the A10-020 and once with the FG5-230. Also some results concerning the calibration of the tidal recordings with relative meters is presented. A special period (end of 2013) is emphasized where the A10-020 performs measurements every hour for a two weeks alongside three LCR meters. The local tidal model is developed and presented with comparison to the model used in absolute gravity determinations with the A10-020 at Borowa Gora and on the stations of the gravity control.

  6. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in physical space. While

  7. Multiparametric Geophysical Signature of Vulcanian Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottsmann, J.; de Angelis, S.; Fournier, N.; van Camp, M. J.; Sacks, S. I.; Linde, A. T.; Ripepe, M.

    2010-12-01

    Extrusion of viscous magma leading to lava dome-formation is a common phenomenon at arc volcanoes recently demonstrated at Mount St. Helens (USA), Chaiten (Chile), and SoufriËre Hills Volcano (British West Indies). The growth of lava domes is frequently accompanied by vigorous eruptions, commonly referred to as Vulcanian-style, characterized by sequences of short-lived (tens of seconds to tens of minutes) explosive pulses, reflecting the violent explosive nature of arc volcanism. Vulcanian eruptions represent a significant hazard, and an understanding of their dynamics is vital for risk mitigation. While eruption parameters have been mostly constrained from observational evidence, as well as from petrological, theoretical, and experimental studies, our understanding on the physics of the subsurface processes leading to Vulcanian eruptions is incomplete. We present and interpret a unique set of multi-parameter geophysical data gathered during two Vulcanian eruptions in July and December, 2008 at SoufriËre Hills Volcano from seismic, geodetic, infrasound, barometric, and gravimetric instrumentation. These events document the spectrum of Vulcanian eruptions in terms of their explosivity and nature of erupted products. Our analysis documents a pronounced difference in the geophysical signature of the two events associated with priming timescales and eruption triggering suggesting distinct differences in the mechanics involved. The July eruption has a signature related to shallow conduit dynamics including gradual system destabilisation, syn-eruptive decompression of the conduit by magma fragmentation, conduit emptying and expulsion of juvenile pumice. In contrast, sudden pressurisation of the entire plumbing system including the magma chambers resulted in dome carapace failure, a violent cannon-like explosion, propagation of a shock wave and pronounced ballistic ejection of dome fragments. We demonstrate that with lead times of between one and six minutes to the

  8. Report of the workshop on enhancing methods for locating, accessing, and integrating population and environmental data related to marine resources in Alaska. Held in Anchorage, Alaska on April 5-7, 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover-Miller, A.

    1995-03-01

    Many federal and state agencies and private institutions have conducted and are conducting research related to Alaska`s living marine resources. Data from this research are not being stored in a central repository and there is no convenient means for scientists and managers to locate and access it. Recent advances in computer technology could help overcome this problem. To examine the possibilities created by such advances, the Marine Mammal Commission sponsored a workshop in Anchorage, Alaska on 5-7 April 1994. Discussions during and following the workshop lead to recommendations, described in this report, on ways to improve knowledge of and communication among users regarding the existence, nature, and availability of potentially useful data.

  9. Interplay Between the Equatorial Geophysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.

    2006-11-01

    r_sridharanspl@yahoo.com With the sun as the main driving force, the Equatorial Ionosphere- thermosphere system supports a variety of Geophysical phenomena, essentially controlled by the neutral dynamical and electro dynamical processes that are peculiar to this region. All the neutral atmospheric parameters and the ionospheric parameters show a large variability like the diurnal, seasonal semi annual, annual, solar activity and those that are geomagnetic activity dependent. In addition, there is interplay between the ionized and the neutral atmospheric constituents. They manifest themselves as the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ), Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), Equatorial Spread F (ESF), Equatorial Temperature and Wind Anomaly (ETWA). Recent studies have revealed that these phenomena, though apparently might show up as independent ones, are in reality interlinked. The interplay between these equatorial processes forms the theme for the present talk.

  10. A Network of Geophysical Observatories for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Christensen, Ulrich; Crisp, David; Dehant, Veronique; Delory, Greg; Lognonne, Philippe; Sotin, Christophe; Spohn, Tilman

    2005-01-01

    For the past 30 years there has been a strong consensus within the international scientific community in favor of sending a network of geophysical landers to Mars to characterize the near-surface weather and climate, determine the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and explore the interior structure and composition. Despite this scientific support, there has been an unbroken string of proposed missions over the past fifteen years which have failed for programmatic reasons to progress beyond the design stage (Mars Network Mission, MESUR, Marsnet, InterMarsnet, NetLander). In this presentation, we review the scientific rationale and technical requirements for such a mission, and discuss current activities aimed toward its implementation.

  11. Software complex for geophysical data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, Ilya A.; Tyugin, Dmitry Y.; Kurkin, Andrey A.; Kurkina, Oxana E.

    2013-04-01

    The effectiveness of current research in geophysics is largely determined by the degree of implementation of the procedure of data processing and visualization with the use of modern information technology. Realistic and informative visualization of the results of three-dimensional modeling of geophysical processes contributes significantly into the naturalness of physical modeling and detailed view of the phenomena. The main difficulty in this case is to interpret the results of the calculations: it is necessary to be able to observe the various parameters of the three-dimensional models, build sections on different planes to evaluate certain characteristics and make a rapid assessment. Programs for interpretation and visualization of simulations are spread all over the world, for example, software systems such as ParaView, Golden Software Surfer, Voxler, Flow Vision and others. However, it is not always possible to solve the problem of visualization with the help of a single software package. Preprocessing, data transfer between the packages and setting up a uniform visualization style can turn into a long and routine work. In addition to this, sometimes special display modes for specific data are required and existing products tend to have more common features and are not always fully applicable to certain special cases. Rendering of dynamic data may require scripting languages that does not relieve the user from writing code. Therefore, the task was to develop a new and original software complex for the visualization of simulation results. Let us briefly list of the primary features that are developed. Software complex is a graphical application with a convenient and simple user interface that displays the results of the simulation. Complex is also able to interactively manage the image, resize the image without loss of quality, apply a two-dimensional and three-dimensional regular grid, set the coordinate axes with data labels and perform slice of data. The

  12. Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-05-01

    Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

  13. Symmetries in geology and geophysics

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Newman, William I.

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth’s topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719

  14. Opening doors for geophysics in soil sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Martin

    Urban soils are subject to strong variations in environmental conditions such as water flow, solute transport, and heat budget. For soil scientists, the effects of the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil moisture distribution on the sorption and release of contaminants is crucial for understanding soil processes.The INTERURBAN research project was formed in 2001 in Berlin, Germany, to study the dynamics of water and materials at urban locations while giving special consideration to spatial heterogeneity organic soil substance, and soil-biological transformation processes. The project is the cooperative effort of six departments of the Technical University of Berlin and the Free University of Berlin; namely, the departments of soil sciences, water quality control, environmental chemistry microbiology soil zoology, and applied geophysics.

  15. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  16. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  17. 43 CFR 3141.2-1 - Geophysical exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2-1 Geophysical exploration. Geophysical exploration in Special Tar Sand Areas shall be governed by part 3150 of this title. Information obtained under a permit shall...

  18. 43 CFR 3141.2-1 - Geophysical exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2-1 Geophysical exploration. Geophysical exploration in Special Tar Sand Areas shall be governed by part 3150 of this title. Information obtained under a permit shall...

  19. 43 CFR 3141.2-1 - Geophysical exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2-1 Geophysical exploration. Geophysical exploration in Special Tar Sand Areas shall be governed by part 3150 of this title. Information obtained under a permit shall...

  20. 43 CFR 3141.2-1 - Geophysical exploration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.2-1 Geophysical exploration. Geophysical exploration in Special Tar Sand Areas shall be governed by part 3150 of this title. Information obtained under a permit shall...