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Sample records for alaska harvest regulations

  1. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  2. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... feet from the water's edge. The offshore islands are open to harvest. (1) Season: April 2-June 30 and..., Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes...- specific regulations that go into effect on April 2, 2011, and expire on August 31, 2011. DATES: We...

  3. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... feet from the water's edge. The offshore islands are open to harvest. (1) Season: April 2-June 30 and..., Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes...- specific regulations that would go into effect on April 2, 2014, and expire on August 31, 2014. DATES:...

  4. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ..., and a history, was originally addressed in the Federal Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17353). Recent Federal Register documents, which are all... migratory birds in Alaska in a proposed rule published in the Federal Register on April 17, 2012, (77...

  5. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ..., and a history, was originally addressed in the Federal Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17353). Recent Federal Register documents, which are all final... migratory birds in Alaska in a proposed rule published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2011 (76 FR...

  6. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17353). Recent Federal... 8, 2011 (76 FR 19876). While that proposed rule dealt primarily with the regulatory process for... FR 68264) a proposed rule that provided our proposed migratory bird subsistence harvest...

  7. Ranking Alaska moose nutrition: Signals to begin liberal antlerless harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boertje, R.D.; Kellie, K.A.; Seaton, C.T.; Keech, M.A.; Young, D.D.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Aderman, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We focused on describing low nutritional status in an increasing moose (Alces alces gigas) population with reduced predation in Game Management Unit (GMU) 20A near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. A skeptical public disallowed liberal antlerless harvests of this moose population until we provided convincing data on low nutritional status. We ranked nutritional status in 15 Alaska moose populations (in boreal forests and coastal tundra) based on multiyear twinning rates. Data on age-of-first-reproduction and parturition rates provided a ranking consistent with twinning rates in the 6 areas where comparative data were available. Also, short-yearling mass provided a ranking consistent with twinning rates in 5 of the 6 areas where data were available. Data from 5 areas implied an inverse relationship between twinning rate and browse removal rate. Only in GMU 20A did nutritional indices reach low levels where justification for halting population growth was apparent, which supports prior findings that nutrition is a minor factor limiting most Alaska moose populations compared to predation. With predator reductions, the GMU 20A moose population increased from 1976 until liberal antlerless harvests in 2004. During 1997–2005, GMU 20A moose exhibited the lowest nutritional status reported to date for wild, noninsular, North American populations, including 1) delayed reproduction until moose reached 36 months of age and the lowest parturition rate among 36-month-old moose (29%, n = 147); 2) the lowest average multiyear twinning rates from late-May aerial surveys (x̄ = 7%, SE = 0.9%, n = 9 yr, range = 3–10%) and delayed twinning until moose reached 60 months of age; 3) the lowest average mass of female short-yearlings in Alaska (x̄ = 155 ± 1.6 [SE] kg in the Tanana Flats subpopulation, up to 58 kg below average masses found elsewhere); and 4) high removal (42%) of current annual browse biomass compared to 9–26% elsewhere in boreal forests. When average multiyear twinning

  8. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND....201 Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National...

  9. Rainwater harvesting state regulations and technical resources

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, Susan A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted in-depth research of state-level rainwater harvesting regulations for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help federal agencies strategically identify locations conducive to rainwater harvesting projects. Currently, rainwater harvesting is not regulated by the federal government but rather it is up to individual states to regulate the collection and use of rainwater. There is no centralized information on state-level regulations on rainwater harvesting maintained by a federal agency or outside organization. To fill this information gap, PNNL performed detailed internet searches for each state, which included state agencies, universities, Cooperative Extension Offices, city governments, and related organizations. The state-by-state information on rainwater harvesting regulations was compiled and assembled into an interactive map that is color coded by state regulations. The map provides a visual representation of the general types of rainwater harvesting policies across the country as well as general information on the state programs if applicable. The map allows the user to quickly discern where rainwater harvesting is supported and regulated by the state. This map will be available on the FEMP website by September 2015.

  10. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.201 Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested...

  11. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific...

  12. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  13. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  14. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  15. 77 FR 65201 - Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Household Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Alaska Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... 703-358- 2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of... Department of the Interior as the key agency responsible for managing migratory bird populations...

  16. Using local knowledge, hydrological, and climate data to develop a driftwood harvest model in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kielland, K.

    2011-12-01

    Residents of rural Alaska usually harvest driftwood from the Yukon River during two distinct periods in the summer. Typically, driftwood accompanies high flows on the Yukon River associated with spring break-up. A few weeks later, a second pulse of driftwood associated with the "2nd Rise" typically flows during early June. This study examines the nature of the differential timing of high flow events in the Yukon River to develop a model of the driftwood harvest. Many communities in interior Alaska have grown to rely upon driftwood as an important source of wood, which is used in construction and as a source of fuel. Increasingly, villages in rural Alaska are trying to lessen their dependence upon high-cost fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources. A number of Alaskan villages have recently installed wood chip-fired boilers to generate heat and/or electricity and additional boilers are slated to be installed in rural Alaska in the near future. These boilers are largely fed by driftwood which can be harvested cheaply and processed easily. But if the driftwood harvest is dependent upon high flows in the Yukon, how will fluctuations in river hydrology affect the efficacy and reliability of driftwood harvest? We examined this question using information from local knowledge in conjunction with U.S. census, hydrological, and climate reanalysis data sets to model the magnitude of Yukon River driftwood harvest during summer. It appears that since 1995, high flow events have decreased magnitude, but increased in frequency, compared to the period between 1977 and 1994. Based upon this observation, the annual potential driftwood harvest in Tanana since 1995 was modeled to be greater compared to the average prior to 1994. This pattern was largely driven by a change in the frequency and duration of high flow events. Thus, the availability of driftwood as an energy resource is expected to be commensurate to the recurrence of high flow events on the Yukon River.

  17. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  18. 76 FR 5718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  19. 76 FR 9693 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  20. 50 CFR 92.30 - General overview of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory bird population levels, production, and habitat conditions vary annually. These conditions differ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Annual Regulations.../summer migratory bird subsistence harvest in Alaska. The regulations list migratory bird species that...

  1. 50 CFR 92.30 - General overview of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Migratory bird population levels, production, and habitat conditions vary annually. These conditions differ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Annual Regulations.../summer migratory bird subsistence harvest in Alaska. The regulations list migratory bird species that...

  2. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Federal Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17353... (77 FR 23094), to amend 50 CFR part 20. While that proposed rule dealt primarily with the regulatory... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 58732) a proposed rule that provided our proposed migratory...

  3. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Federal Register citation August 16, 2002 67 FR 53511. July 21, 2003 68 FR 43010. April 2, 2004 69 FR 17318. April 8, 2005 70 FR 18244. February 28, 2006 71 FR 10404. April 11, 2007 72 FR 18318. March 14, 2008 73 FR 13788. May 19, 2009 74 FR 23336. These documents, which are all final rules setting...

  4. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... following Federal Register documents: Date Federal Register citation August 16, 2002 67 FR 53511 July 21, 2003 68 FR 43010 April 2, 2004 69 FR 17318 April 8, 2005 70 FR 18244 February 28, 2006 71 FR 10404 April 11, 2007 72 FR 18318 March 14, 2008 73 FR 13788 May 19, 2009 74 FR 23336 April 13, 2010 75...

  5. Developing recreational harvest regulations for an unexploited lake trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenker, Melissa A; Weidel, Brian C.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Developing fishing regulations for previously unexploited populations presents numerous challenges, many of which stem from a scarcity of baseline information about abundance, population productivity, and expected angling pressure. We used simulation models to test the effect of six management strategies (catch and release; trophy, minimum, and maximum length limits; and protected and exploited slot length limits) on an unexploited population of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Follensby Pond, a 393-ha lake located in New York State’s Adirondack Park. We combined field and literature data and mark–recapture abundance estimates to parameterize an age-structured population model and used the model to assess the effects of each management strategy on abundance, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and harvest over a range of angler effort (0–2,000 angler-days/year). Lake Trout density (3.5 fish/ha for fish ≥ age 13, the estimated age at maturity) was similar to densities observed in other unexploited systems, but growth rate was relatively slow. Maximum harvest occurred at levels of effort ≤ 1,000 angler-days/year in all the scenarios considered. Regulations that permitted harvest of large postmaturation fish, such as New York’s standard Lake Trout minimum size limit or a trophy size limit, resulted in low harvest and high angler CPUE. Regulations that permitted harvest of small and sometimes immature fish, such as a protected slot or maximum size limit, allowed high harvest but resulted in low angler CPUE and produced rapid declines in harvest with increases in effort beyond the effort consistent with maximum yield. Management agencies can use these results to match regulations to management goals and to assess the risks of different management options for unexploited Lake Trout populations and other fish species with similar life history traits.

  6. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the...

  7. 76 FR 11111 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... allowances were published in the Federal Register on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76352). Comments were invited... specifications. After considering public testimony, as well as biological and economic data that were available... of the groundfish fisheries off Alaska. From these data and analyses, the Plan Team estimates...

  8. Sugar regulation of harvest-related genes in asparagus.

    PubMed

    Davies, K M; Seelye, J F; Irving, D E; Borst, W M; Hurst, P L; King, G A

    1996-07-01

    The signals controlling the abundance of transcripts up-regulated (pTIP27, pTIP31, and pTIP32) or down-regulated (pTIP20 and pTIP21) after harvest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were examined. pTIP27 and pTIP31 are known to encode asparagine synthetase (AS) and a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) homolog, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of pTIP20, pTIP21, and pTIP32 were determined, and they encode histone 3, histone 2B, and an unknown product, respectively. Changes in respiration, soluble sugars, and abundance of the five mRNAs were similar in the tips stored as 30-mm lengths or as part of 180-mm spears. We previously hypothesized that sugars may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status in regulating gene expression. Transcript abundance for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 was low in cells in sugar-containing medium but increased within 12 h after transferring cells to a sugar-free medium. Histone 3 and histone 2B transcripts were, in general, abundant in cells on sugar-containing medium but declined in abundance when transferred to sugar-free medium. When cells were returned to sugar-containing medium the abundance of transcripts for histone 3 and histone 2B increased, whereas that for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 decreased. Soluble sugar levels are known to decline rapidly in the tips of harvested spears. Metabolic regulation by sugar status may have a major influence on gene expression in asparagus spears and other tissue after harvest. PMID:8754687

  9. Sugar regulation of harvest-related genes in asparagus.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, K M; Seelye, J F; Irving, D E; Borst, W M; Hurst, P L; King, G A

    1996-01-01

    The signals controlling the abundance of transcripts up-regulated (pTIP27, pTIP31, and pTIP32) or down-regulated (pTIP20 and pTIP21) after harvest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were examined. pTIP27 and pTIP31 are known to encode asparagine synthetase (AS) and a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) homolog, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of pTIP20, pTIP21, and pTIP32 were determined, and they encode histone 3, histone 2B, and an unknown product, respectively. Changes in respiration, soluble sugars, and abundance of the five mRNAs were similar in the tips stored as 30-mm lengths or as part of 180-mm spears. We previously hypothesized that sugars may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status in regulating gene expression. Transcript abundance for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 was low in cells in sugar-containing medium but increased within 12 h after transferring cells to a sugar-free medium. Histone 3 and histone 2B transcripts were, in general, abundant in cells on sugar-containing medium but declined in abundance when transferred to sugar-free medium. When cells were returned to sugar-containing medium the abundance of transcripts for histone 3 and histone 2B increased, whereas that for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 decreased. Soluble sugar levels are known to decline rapidly in the tips of harvested spears. Metabolic regulation by sugar status may have a major influence on gene expression in asparagus spears and other tissue after harvest. PMID:8754687

  10. Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of the first successful mechanical harvester, mechanized cotton harvest has continued to decrease the cost and man hours required to produce a bale of cotton. Cotton harvesting in the US is completely mechanized and is accomplished by two primary machines, the spindle picker a...

  11. 75 FR 6370 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop... hold a workshop on the procedures and process for holding and commenting on an open season for...

  12. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... comments. Absent unusual circumstances, FERC will act on the open season plan within 60 days of its... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Rescheduled Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′...

  17. Regulation of photosystem I light harvesting by zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Alcocer, Marcelo J P; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Viola, Daniele; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Petrozza, Annamaria; Polli, Dario; Fleming, Graham R; Cerullo, Giulio; Bassi, Roberto

    2014-06-10

    In oxygenic photosynthetic eukaryotes, the hydroxylated carotenoid zeaxanthin is produced from preexisting violaxanthin upon exposure to excess light conditions. Zeaxanthin binding to components of the photosystem II (PSII) antenna system has been investigated thoroughly and shown to help in the dissipation of excess chlorophyll-excited states and scavenging of oxygen radicals. However, the functional consequences of the accumulation of the light-harvesting complex I (LHCI) proteins in the photosystem I (PSI) antenna have remained unclarified so far. In this work we investigated the effect of zeaxanthin binding on photoprotection of PSI-LHCI by comparing preparations isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., with violaxanthin) and those isolated from the A. thaliana nonphotochemical quenching 2 mutant, in which violaxanthin is replaced by zeaxanthin. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that zeaxanthin binding leads to a previously unrecognized quenching effect on PSI-LHCI fluorescence. The efficiency of energy transfer from the LHCI moiety of the complex to the PSI reaction center was down-regulated, and an enhanced PSI resistance to photoinhibition was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, zeaxanthin was shown to be effective in inducing dissipative states in PSI, similar to its well-known effect on PSII. We propose that, upon acclimation to high light, PSI-LHCI changes its light-harvesting efficiency by a zeaxanthin-dependent quenching of the absorbed excitation energy, whereas in PSII the stoichiometry of LHC antenna proteins per reaction center is reduced directly.

  18. Composition of Heads and Livers of Yelloweye Rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) Harvested in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to their large size and fillet quality, yelloweye rockfish (YER) are a highly prized species in both commercial and recreational Alaska fisheries. Processing yields for YER are relatively low, thus by-product volume is significant at up to 77% of whole fish weight (WFW). The objective of this re...

  19. Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. T. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci; D. W. Efurd; M. E. Ennis; M. J. Hameedi; J. M. Inkret; T. H. T. Little; G. Miller

    2000-11-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.

  20. Timber harvest transforms ecological roles of salmon in southeast Alaska rain forest streams.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Chaloner, Dominic T; Levi, Peter; Rüegg, Janine; Tank, Jennifer L; Lamberti, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Although species commonly modify habitats and thereby influence ecosystem structure and function, the factors governing the ecological importance of these modifications are not well understood. Pacific salmon have repeatedly been shown to positively influence the abundance of benthic biota by annually transferring large quantities of nutrients from marine systems to the nutrient-poor freshwaters in which they spawn. Conversely, other studies have demonstrated that salmon can negatively influence the abundance of freshwater biota, an effect attributed to bioturbation during upstream migration and nest construction. The factors determining which of these contrasting ecological effects predominates are unknown, including how human activities, such as land use, influence ecological responses to salmon. We sampled a key basal food resource, sediment biofilm, in seven southeast Alaskan streams impacted to varying degrees by timber harvest. Biofilm abundance (measured as chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) was positively related to timber-harvest intensity prior to salmon arrival. However, during the salmon run, an inverse relationship emerged of more abundant biofilm in less-harvested watersheds. Among-stream variability in biofilm response to salmon was largely explained by sediment particle size, which was larger in less-harvested watersheds. Collectively, these results suggest that, by altering stream sediment size, timber harvest transformed the dominant effect of salmon from nutrient enrichment to physical disturbance, thus modifying nutrient linkages between marine and freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  2. Harvester ants use interactions to regulate forager activation and availability

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Bala, Ashwin; Merrell, Andrew; Queirolo, Jovel; Stumpe, Martin C.; Holmes, Susan; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Social groups balance flexibility and robustness in their collective response to environmental changes using feedback between behavioural processes that operate at different timescales. Here we examine how behavioural processes operating at two timescales regulate the foraging activity of colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, allowing them to balance their response to food availability and predation. Previous work showed that the rate at which foragers return to the nest with food influences the rate at which foragers leave the nest. To investigate how interactions inside the nest link the rates of returning and outgoing foragers, we observed outgoing foragers inside the nest in field colonies using a novel observation method. We found that the interaction rate experienced by outgoing foragers inside the nest corresponded to forager return rate, and that the interactions of outgoing foragers were spatially clustered. Activation of a forager occurred on the timescale of seconds: a forager left the nest 3–8 s after a substantial increase in interactions with returning foragers. The availability of outgoing foragers to become activated was adjusted on the timescale of minutes: when forager return was interrupted for more than 4–5 min, available foragers waiting near the nest entrance went deeper into the nest. Thus, forager activation and forager availability both increased with the rate at which foragers returned to the nest. This process was checked by negative feedback between forager activation and forager availability. Regulation of foraging activation on the timescale of seconds provides flexibility in response to fluctuations in food abundance, whereas regulation of forager availability on the timescale of minutes provides robustness in response to sustained disturbance such as predation. PMID:24031094

  3. Harvester ants use interactions to regulate forager activation and availability.

    PubMed

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Bala, Ashwin; Merrell, Andrew; Queirolo, Jovel; Stumpe, Martin C; Holmes, Susan; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-07-01

    Social groups balance flexibility and robustness in their collective response to environmental changes using feedback between behavioural processes that operate at different timescales. Here we examine how behavioural processes operating at two timescales regulate the foraging activity of colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, allowing them to balance their response to food availability and predation. Previous work showed that the rate at which foragers return to the nest with food influences the rate at which foragers leave the nest. To investigate how interactions inside the nest link the rates of returning and outgoing foragers, we observed outgoing foragers inside the nest in field colonies using a novel observation method. We found that the interaction rate experienced by outgoing foragers inside the nest corresponded to forager return rate, and that the interactions of outgoing foragers were spatially clustered. Activation of a forager occurred on the timescale of seconds: a forager left the nest 3-8 s after a substantial increase in interactions with returning foragers. The availability of outgoing foragers to become activated was adjusted on the timescale of minutes: when forager return was interrupted for more than 4-5 min, available foragers waiting near the nest entrance went deeper into the nest. Thus, forager activation and forager availability both increased with the rate at which foragers returned to the nest. This process was checked by negative feedback between forager activation and forager availability. Regulation of foraging activation on the timescale of seconds provides flexibility in response to fluctuations in food abundance, whereas regulation of forager availability on the timescale of minutes provides robustness in response to sustained disturbance such as predation.

  4. Considerations for developing wolf harvesting regulations in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    As gray wolves (Canis lupus) are removed from the federal Endangered Species List, management reverts to the states. Eventually most states will probably allow public wolf harvesting. Open seasons between about 1 November and 1 March accord more with basic wolf biology than during other times. Managers who consider wolf biology and public sensitivities, adapt public-taking regulations accordingly, and adjust harvest regulations as they learn will be best able to maximize the recreational value of wolf harvesting, minimize public animosity toward it, and meet their harvest objectives.

  5. Mourning dove hunting regulation strategy based on annual harvest statistics and banding data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Although managers should strive to base game bird harvest management strategies on mechanistic population models, monitoring programs required to build and continuously update these models may not be in place. Alternatively, If estimates of total harvest and harvest rates are available, then population estimates derived from these harvest data can serve as the basis for making hunting regulation decisions based on population growth rates derived from these estimates. I present a statistically rigorous approach for regulation decision-making using a hypothesis-testing framework and an assumed framework of 3 hunting regulation alternatives. I illustrate and evaluate the technique with historical data on the mid-continent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population. I evaluate the statistical properties of the hypothesis-testing framework using the best available data on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). I use these results to discuss practical implementation of the technique as an interim harvest strategy for mourning doves until reliable mechanistic population models and associated monitoring programs are developed.

  6. Chemical composition of the giant red sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, commercially harvested in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Peter J; Oliveira, Alexandra CM; Demir, Necla; Smiley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumbers, Parastichopus californicus, are commercially harvested in the U.S. Pacific Northwest; however, the nutritional and chemical properties of its edible muscle bands and body wall have not been fully elucidated. In particular are the fatty acid profiles of P. californicus tissues, which have not been documented. Sea cucumbers were delivered live and muscle bands and body wall freeze dried, vacuum packed, and stored at –30°C until analyzed. Proximate composition of freeze-dried tissues varied greatly with muscle bands being composed of 68% protein, 12% ash, 9% carbohydrate, and 5% lipids, while the body wall was composed of 47% protein, 26% ash, 15% carbohydrate, and 8% lipids. The hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine contents of the body wall were much higher than those in muscle bands, consistent with the larger amount of connective tissue. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and iron contents were higher in the body wall than those in muscle bands, whereas the opposite was observed for zinc content. Total long-chain n-3 fatty acid contents were 19% and 32% of total fatty acids in body wall and muscle bands, respectively. Muscle bands had higher content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) than body wall at 22.6% and 12.3%, respectively. High content of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was recorded in both body wall (7.1%) and muscle bands (9.9%). Overall, the fatty acid profiles of body wall and muscle bands of P. californicus resemble those described for other species; however, the distribution and occurrence of certain fatty acids is unique to P. californicus, being representative of the fatty acid composition of temperate-polar marine organisms. The chemical characterization of freeze-dried edible tissues from P. californicus demonstrated that these products have valuable nutritional properties. The body wall, a food product of lower market value than muscle bands, could be better utilized for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID

  7. Dual mechanisms regulate ecosystem stability under decade-long warming and hay harvest

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Xu, Xia; Souza, Lara; Wilcox, Kevin; Jiang, Lifen; Liang, Junyi; Xia, Jianyang; García-Palacios, Pablo; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Past global change studies have identified changes in species diversity as a major mechanism regulating temporal stability of production, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass. However, the dominant plant functional group can also strongly determine the temporal stability. Here, in a grassland ecosystem subject to 15 years of experimental warming and hay harvest, we reveal that warming increases while hay harvest decreases temporal stability. This corresponds with the biomass of the dominant C4 functional group being higher under warming and lower under hay harvest. As a secondary mechanism, biodiversity also explains part of the variation in temporal stability of production. Structural equation modelling further shows that warming and hay harvest regulate temporal stability through influencing both temporal mean and variation of production. Our findings demonstrate the joint roles that dominant plant functional group and biodiversity play in regulating the temporal stability of an ecosystem under global change. PMID:27302085

  8. Dual mechanisms regulate ecosystem stability under decade-long warming and hay harvest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng; Xu, Xia; Souza, Lara; Wilcox, Kevin; Jiang, Lifen; Liang, Junyi; Xia, Jianyang; García-Palacios, Pablo; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Past global change studies have identified changes in species diversity as a major mechanism regulating temporal stability of production, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass. However, the dominant plant functional group can also strongly determine the temporal stability. Here, in a grassland ecosystem subject to 15 years of experimental warming and hay harvest, we reveal that warming increases while hay harvest decreases temporal stability. This corresponds with the biomass of the dominant C4 functional group being higher under warming and lower under hay harvest. As a secondary mechanism, biodiversity also explains part of the variation in temporal stability of production. Structural equation modelling further shows that warming and hay harvest regulate temporal stability through influencing both temporal mean and variation of production. Our findings demonstrate the joint roles that dominant plant functional group and biodiversity play in regulating the temporal stability of an ecosystem under global change. PMID:27302085

  9. Dual mechanisms regulate ecosystem stability under decade-long warming and hay harvest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng; Xu, Xia; Souza, Lara; Wilcox, Kevin; Jiang, Lifen; Liang, Junyi; Xia, Jianyang; García-Palacios, Pablo; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-06-15

    Past global change studies have identified changes in species diversity as a major mechanism regulating temporal stability of production, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass. However, the dominant plant functional group can also strongly determine the temporal stability. Here, in a grassland ecosystem subject to 15 years of experimental warming and hay harvest, we reveal that warming increases while hay harvest decreases temporal stability. This corresponds with the biomass of the dominant C4 functional group being higher under warming and lower under hay harvest. As a secondary mechanism, biodiversity also explains part of the variation in temporal stability of production. Structural equation modelling further shows that warming and hay harvest regulate temporal stability through influencing both temporal mean and variation of production. Our findings demonstrate the joint roles that dominant plant functional group and biodiversity play in regulating the temporal stability of an ecosystem under global change.

  10. Response by anglers to a differential harvest regulation on three black bass species at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Hyler, Randy G.; Fisher, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Angler responses to a differential harvest regulation on black bass, Micropterus spp. at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma was assessed from 1997 to 1999. This regulation allowed anglers to harvest 15 spotted bass, M. punctulatus (Rafinesque) of any size and six largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepède) and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepède greater than 356 mm (in aggregate) per day. Anglers’ ability to differentiate spotted bass increased after the first year of the study, but their willingness to target or harvest spotted bass declined. Mean angler catch rates (number of fish per angling hour) for all three species remained steady throughout the study. Total harvest of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass was reduced by 1999 while total harvest of spotted bass remained steady throughout the study period. Despite the more liberal regulations as incentive, the regulation failed to accomplish the primary objective of increasing angler harvest of spotted bass because of high rates of voluntary catch and release.

  11. Simulation modeling to explore the effects of length-based harvest regulations for Ictalurus fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.; Shoup, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Management of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus for trophy production has recently become more common. Typically, trophy management is attempted with length-based regulations that allow for the moderate harvest of small fish but restrict the harvest of larger fish. However, the specific regulations used vary considerably across populations, and no modeling efforts have evaluated their effectiveness. We used simulation modeling to compare total yield, trophy biomass (Btrophy), and sustainability (spawning potential ratio [SPR] > 0.30) of Blue Catfish and Channel Catfish populations under three scenarios: (1) current regulation (typically a length-based trophy regulation), (2) the best-performing minimum length regulation (MLRbest), and (3) the best-performing length-based trophy catfish regulation (LTRbest; “best performing” was defined as the regulation that maximized yield, Btrophy, and sustainability). The Btrophy produced did not differ among the three scenarios. For each fishery, the MLRbest and LTRbest produced greater yield (>22% more) than the current regulation and maintained sustainability at higher finite exploitation rates (>0.30) than the current regulation. The MLRbest and LTRbest produced similar yields and SPRs for Channel Catfish and similar yields for Blue Catfish; however, the MLRbest for Blue Catfish produced more resilient fisheries (higher SPR) than the LTRbest. Overall, the variation in yield, Btrophy, and SPR among populations was greater than the variation among regulations applied to any given population, suggesting that population-specific regulations may be preferable to regulations applied to geographic regions. We conclude that LTRs are useful for improving catfish yield and maintaining sustainability without overly restricting harvest but are not effective at increasing the Btrophy of catfish.

  12. 50 CFR 92.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations in this part implement the Alaska migratory bird subsistence program as provided for in Article II(4)(b) of the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and...

  13. 50 CFR 92.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations in this part implement the Alaska migratory bird subsistence program as provided for in Article II(4)(b) of the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and...

  14. 50 CFR 92.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations in this part implement the Alaska migratory bird subsistence program as provided for in Article II(4)(b) of the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and...

  15. 50 CFR 92.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations in this part implement the Alaska migratory bird subsistence program as provided for in Article II(4)(b) of the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and...

  16. 50 CFR 92.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations in this part implement the Alaska migratory bird subsistence program as provided for in Article II(4)(b) of the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and...

  17. Two Cyanobacterial Photoreceptors Regulate Photosynthetic Light Harvesting by Sensing Teal, Green, Yellow, and Red Light

    PubMed Central

    Wiltbank, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomes of many photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic bacteria encode numerous phytochrome superfamily photoreceptors whose functions and interactions are largely unknown. Cyanobacterial genomes encode particularly large numbers of phytochrome superfamily members called cyanobacteriochromes. These have diverse light color-sensing abilities, and their functions and interactions are just beginning to be understood. One of the best characterized of these functions is the regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna composition in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon by the cyanobacteriochrome RcaE in response to red and green light, a process known as chromatic acclimation. We have identified a new cyanobacteriochrome named DpxA that maximally senses teal (absorption maximum, 494 nm) and yellow (absorption maximum, 568 nm) light and represses the accumulation of a key light-harvesting protein called phycoerythrin, which is also regulated by RcaE during chromatic acclimation. Like RcaE, DpxA is a two-component system kinase, although these two photoreceptors can influence phycoerythrin expression through different signaling pathways. The peak responsiveness of DpxA to teal and yellow light provides highly refined color discrimination in the green spectral region, which provides important wavelengths for photosynthetic light harvesting in cyanobacteria. These results redefine chromatic acclimation in cyanobacteria and demonstrate that cyanobacteriochromes can coordinately impart sophisticated light color sensing across the visible spectrum to regulate important photosynthetic acclimation processes. PMID:26861023

  18. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  19. Architecture of a charge-transfer state regulating light harvesting in a plant antenna protein.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R

    2008-05-01

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). We found evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a delocalized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can "tune" the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophyll-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  20. Colony variation in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ants

    PubMed Central

    Guetz, Adam; Greene, Michael J.; Holmes, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates variation in collective behavior in a natural population of colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Harvester ant colonies regulate foraging activity to adjust to current food availability; the rate at which inactive foragers leave the nest on the next trip depends on the rate at which successful foragers return with food. This study investigates differences among colonies in foraging activity and how these differences are associated with variation among colonies in the regulation of foraging. Colonies differ in the baseline rate at which patrollers leave the nest, without stimulation from returning ants. This baseline rate predicts a colony's foraging activity, suggesting there is a colony-specific activity level that influences how quickly any ant leaves the nest. When a colony's foraging activity is high, the colony is more likely to regulate foraging. Moreover, colonies differ in the propensity to adjust the rate of outgoing foragers to the rate of forager return. Naturally occurring variation in the regulation of foraging may lead to variation in colony survival and reproductive success. PMID:22479133

  1. Colony variation in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ants.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Deborah M; Guetz, Adam; Greene, Michael J; Holmes, Susan

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates variation in collective behavior in a natural population of colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Harvester ant colonies regulate foraging activity to adjust to current food availability; the rate at which inactive foragers leave the nest on the next trip depends on the rate at which successful foragers return with food. This study investigates differences among colonies in foraging activity and how these differences are associated with variation among colonies in the regulation of foraging. Colonies differ in the baseline rate at which patrollers leave the nest, without stimulation from returning ants. This baseline rate predicts a colony's foraging activity, suggesting there is a colony-specific activity level that influences how quickly any ant leaves the nest. When a colony's foraging activity is high, the colony is more likely to regulate foraging. Moreover, colonies differ in the propensity to adjust the rate of outgoing foragers to the rate of forager return. Naturally occurring variation in the regulation of foraging may lead to variation in colony survival and reproductive success.

  2. Intrinsically unstructured phosphoprotein TSP9 regulates light harvesting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fristedt, Rikard; Carlberg, Inger; Zygadlo, Agnieszka; Piippo, Mirva; Nurmi, Markus; Aro, Eva-Mari; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Vener, Alexander V

    2009-01-20

    Thylakoid-soluble phosphoprotein of 9 kDa, TSP9, is an intrinsically unstructured plant-specific protein [Song, J., et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 15633-15643] with unknown function but established associations with light-harvesting proteins and peripheries of both photosystems [Hansson, M., et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 16214-16222]. To investigate the function of this protein, we used a combination of reverse genetics and biochemical and fluorescence measurement methods in Arabidopsis thaliana. Differential gene expression analysis of plants with a T-DNA insertion in the TSP9 gene using an array of 24000 Arabidopsis genes revealed disappearance of high light-dependent induction of a specific set of mostly signaling and unknown proteins. TSP9-deficient plants had reduced levels of in vivo phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II polypeptides. Recombinant TSP9 was phosphorylated in light by thylakoid membranes isolated from the wild-type and mutant plants lacking STN8 protein kinase but not by the thylakoids deficient in STN7 kinase, essential for photosynthetic state transitions. TSP9-lacking mutant and RNAi plants with downregulation of TSP9 showed reduced ability to perform state transitions. The nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence at high light intensities was also less efficient in the mutant compared to wild-type plants. Blue native electrophoresis of thylakoid membrane protein complexes revealed that TSP9 deficiency increased relative stability of photosystem II dimers and supercomplexes. It is concluded that TSP9 regulates plant light harvesting acting as a membrane-binding protein facilitating dissociation of light-harvesting proteins from photosystem II. PMID:19113838

  3. 75 FR 2448 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    .... Future rules will not have expiration dates but will be revised according to the applicable cycle. This... FR 22940). The Program has subsequently amended these regulations a number of times. Because this... Federally Recognized Indian Tribes (Tribes) as listed in 73 FR 18553 (April 4, 2008). The Alaska...

  4. The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-06-01

    Collective behaviour, arising from local interactions, allows groups to respond to changing conditions. Long-term studies have shown that the traits of individual mammals and birds are associated with their reproductive success, but little is known about the evolutionary ecology of collective behaviour in natural populations. An ant colony operates without central control, regulating its activity through a network of local interactions. This work shows that variation among harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) colonies in collective response to changing conditions is related to variation in colony lifetime reproductive success in the production of offspring colonies. Desiccation costs are high for harvester ants foraging in the desert. More successful colonies tend to forage less when conditions are dry, and show relatively stable foraging activity when conditions are more humid. Restraint from foraging does not compromise a colony's long-term survival; colonies that fail to forage at all on many days survive as long, over the colony's 20-30-year lifespan, as those that forage more regularly. Sensitivity to conditions in which to reduce foraging activity may be transmissible from parent to offspring colony. These results indicate that natural selection is shaping the collective behaviour that regulates foraging activity, and that the selection pressure, related to climate, may grow stronger if the current drought in their habitat persists.

  5. Bacteriophytochrome-dependent regulation of light-harvesting complexes in Rhodopseudomonas palustris anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Noll, Stephan; Beatty, J Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Bacteriophytochromes (Bphs) are photoreceptors that help bacteria sense changes in light wavelength and intensity. Bphs contain a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore that, upon absorption of red or far-red light, undergoes a cis-trans isomerization that leads to a conformational change in the holoprotein. The conformation and type of Bph affects the expression of genes. The linear tetrapyrrole bound by Bphs is thought to come from O(2)-dependent cleavage of heme by a heme oxygenase. We have discovered that the absence of O(2) does not inhibit the normal function of two Bphs in the regulation of Rhodopseudomonas palustris light-harvesting complexes. These observations imply that: (i) a linear tetrapyrrole can be made anaerobically, either through anaerobic heme cleavage by a novel enzyme or directly from the heme precursor hydroxymethylbilane without ring cleavage; or (ii) that Bph-dependent signal transduction does not require a chromophore. PMID:20369239

  6. 75 FR 15336 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Natural Gas Transportation Projects March 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION... amendments are required in order to make clear to prospective applicants for an Alaska natural gas... prospective shippers of an Alaska natural gas transportation project by eliminating any uncertainties...

  7. Light-harvesting regulation from leaf to molecule with the emphasis on rapid changes in antenna size.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da-Quan; Chen, Yue; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2015-05-01

    In the sunlight-fluctuating environment, plants often encounter both light-deficiency and light-excess cases. Therefore, regulation of light harvesting is absolutely essential for photosynthesis in order to maximize light utilization at low light and avoid photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus at high light. Plants have developed a series of strategies of light-harvesting regulation during evolution. These strategies include rapid responses such as leaf movement and chloroplast movement, state transitions, and reversible dissociation of some light-harvesting complex of the photosystem II (LHCIIs) from PSII core complexes, and slow acclimation strategies such as changes in the protein abundance of light-harvesting antenna and modifications of leaf morphology, structure, and compositions. This review discusses successively these strategies and focuses on the rapid change in antenna size, namely reversible dissociation of some peripheral light-harvesting antennas (LHCIIs) from PSII core complex. It is involved in protective role and species dependence of the dissociation, differences between the dissociation and state transitions, relationship between the dissociation and thylakoid protein phosphorylation, and possible mechanism for thermal dissipation by the dissociated LHCIIs. PMID:25773873

  8. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes.

  9. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes. PMID:18324413

  10. Angler Survey Contributes to Socially Acceptable Modification of Harvest Regulations to Preserve Cutthroat Trout Fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed

    Hubert; Gipson

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.KEY WORDS: Rivers; Salmonidae; Trout; Anglers; Regulations; Wyoming

  11. Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) social and economic studies program. Technical report Number 91. Effects of renewable resource harvest disruptions on socio-economic and socio-cultural systems: Wainwright, Alaska. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Luton, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Contents include: ethnographic baseline, Wainright, Alaska; social institutions; the cash economy; kinship; subsistence task groups; subsistence economy; sharing; land mammals; marine mammals - Part 1 and 2; birds; fish, invertebrates, plants, minerals; ethnographic summary and conclusions.

  12. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  13. Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

  14. The back and forth of energy transfer between carotenoids and chlorophylls and its role in the regulation of light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Holleboom, Christoph-Peter; Walla, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects in the regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting of plants are still quite poorly understood. For example, it is still a matter of debate which physical mechanism(s) results in the regulation and dissipation of excess energy in high light. Many researchers agree that electronic interactions between chlorophylls (Chl) and certain states of carotenoids are involved in these mechanisms. However, in particular, the role of the first excited state of carotenoids (Car S1) is not easily revealed, because of its optical forbidden character. The use of two-photon excitation is an elegant approach to address directly this state and to investigate the energy transfer in the direction Car S1 → Chl. Meanwhile, it has been applied to a large variety of systems starting from simple carotenoid-tetrapyrrole model compounds up to entire plants. Here, we present a systematic summary of the observations obtained by two-photon excitation about Car S1 → Chl energy transfer in systems with increasing complexity and the correlation to fluorescence quenching. We compare these observations directly with the energy transfer in the opposite direction, Chl → Car S1, for the same systems as obtained in pump-probe studies. We discuss what surprising aspects of this comparison led us to the suggestion that quenching excitonic Car-Chl interactions could contribute to the regulation of light harvesting, and how this suggestion can be connected to other models proposed.

  15. Role of lake regulation on glacier fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: The Cook Inlet watershed south central Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation. Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet

  16. Regulation of the hunting season as a tool for adaptive harvest management — First results for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, Jesper; Clausen, Kevin; Christensen, Thomas K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2016-01-01

    Adjustment of hunting season length is often used to regulate harvest of waterbirds but the effects are disputed. We describe the first results of season length extension on the harvest of the pink-footed goose, which has been selected as the first test case of adaptive harvest management of waterbirds in Europe. In Denmark, the season (previously 1 September to 31 December) was extended to include January in 2014-15 with the aim to increase the harvest and, in the longer term, reduce the population size. The total harvest in Denmark increased by 52% compared to previous years, and almost 50% of the Danish harvest was taken in the January extension. In the course of the hunting season, the proportion of adults in the bag increased. In this case, the outcomes from the first extension of season suggest that season length adjustment can be an effective tool to regulate harvest, though dependent on winter weather conditions and hunters’ motivation for shooting geese.

  17. Structural insights into energy regulation of light-harvesting complex CP29 from spinach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaowei; Li, Mei; Wan, Tao; Wang, Longfei; Jia, Chenjun; Hou, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xuelin; Zhang, Jiping; Chang, Wenrui

    2011-03-01

    CP29, one of the minor light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant photosystem II, absorbs and transfers solar energy for photosynthesis and also has important roles in photoprotection. We have solved the crystal structure of spinach CP29 at 2.80-Å resolution. Each CP29 monomer contains 13 chlorophyll and 3 carotenoid molecules, which differs considerably from the major light-harvesting complex LHCII and the previously proposed CP29 model. The 13 chlorophyll-binding sites are assigned as eight chlorophyll a sites, four chlorophyll b and one putative mixed site occupied by both chlorophylls a and b. Based on the present X-ray structure, an integrated pigment network in CP29 is constructed. Two special clusters of pigment molecules, namely a615-a611-a612-Lut and Vio(Zea)-a603-a609, have been identified and might function as potential energy-quenching centers and as the exit or entrance in energy-transfer pathways.

  18. Dark excited States of carotenoid regulated by bacteriochlorophyll in photosynthetic light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakagawa, Katsunori; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2011-03-31

    In photosynthesis, carotenoids play important roles in light harvesting (LH) and photoprotective functions, which have been described mainly in terms of two singlet excited states of carotenoids: S(1) and S(2). In addition to the "dark" S(1) state, another dark state, S*, was recently identified and its involvement in photosynthetic functions was determined. However, there is no consistent picture concerning its nature or the mechanism of its formation. One particularly anomalous behavior obtained from femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is that the S*/S(1) population ratio depends on the excitation intensity. Here, we focus on the effect of nearby bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) on the relaxation dynamics of carotenoid in the LH complex. We performed femtosecond TA spectroscopy combined with pre-excitation of BChl in the reconstituted LH1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We observed that the energy flow from S(1), including its vibrationally excited hot states, to S* occurs only when nearby BChl is excited into Q(y), resulting in an increase in S*/S(1). We also examined the excitation-intensity dependence of S*/S(1) by conventional TA spectroscopy. A comparison between the pre-excitation effect and excitation-intensity dependence shows a strong correlation of S*/S(1) with the number of BChls excited into Q(y). In addition, we observed an increase in triplet formation as the S* population increased, indicating that S* is an electronic excited state that is the precursor to triplet formation. Our findings provide an explanation for observed spectroscopic features, including the excitation-intensity dependences debated so far, and offer new insights into energy deactivation mechanisms inherent in the LH antenna.

  19. Binary ionic porphyrin nanosheets: electronic and light-harvesting properties regulated by crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongming; M. Beavers, Christine; Busani, Tito; Martin, Kathleen E.; Jacobsen, John L.; Mercado, Brandon Q.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; van Swol, Frank; Medforth, Craig J.; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-02-01

    Crystalline solids self-assembled from anionic and cationic porphyrins provide a new class of multifunctional optoelectronic micro- and nanomaterials. A 1 : 1 combination of zinc(ii) tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (ZnTPPS) and tin(iv) tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridiniumyl)porphyrin (SnTNMePyP) gives porphyrin nanosheets with high aspect ratios and varying thickness. The room temperature preparation of the nanosheets has provided the first X-ray crystal structure of a cooperative binary ionic (CBI) solid. The unit cell contains one and one-half molecules of aquo-ZnTPPS4- (an electron donor) and three half molecules of dihydroxy-SnTNMePyP4+ (an electron acceptor). Charge balance in the solid is reached without any non-porphyrinic ions, as previously determined for other CBI nanomaterials by non-crystallographic means. The crystal structure reveals a complicated molecular arrangement with slipped π-π stacking only occurring in isolated dimers of one of the symmetrically unique zinc porphyrins. Consistent with the crystal structure, UV-visible J-aggregate bands indicative of exciton delocalization and extended π-π stacking are not observed. XRD measurements show that the structure of the Zn/Sn nanosheets is distinct from that of Zn/Sn four-leaf clover-like CBI solids reported previously. In contrast with the Zn/Sn clovers that do exhibit J-aggregate bands and are photoconductive, the nanosheets are not photoconductive. Even so, the nanosheets act as light-harvesting structures in an artificial photosynthesis system capable of reducing water to hydrogen but not as efficiently as the Zn/Sn clovers.Crystalline solids self-assembled from anionic and cationic porphyrins provide a new class of multifunctional optoelectronic micro- and nanomaterials. A 1 : 1 combination of zinc(ii) tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (ZnTPPS) and tin(iv) tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridiniumyl)porphyrin (SnTNMePyP) gives porphyrin nanosheets with high aspect ratios and varying thickness. The room

  20. 75 FR 3387 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... reader may refer to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. On March 3, 2009, (74 FR 1980), EPA proposed to approve requirements into...

  1. 75 FR 48857 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska, Subpart D; Seasonal Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... FR 22940). These regulations have subsequently been amended several times. Because this Program is a..., 2008 (73 FR 35726), and currently in effect. These actions are authorized and in accordance with 50 CFR..., and C (57 FR 22940, published May 29, 1992), implemented the Federal Subsistence Management...

  2. 75 FR 3392 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Information On September 4, 1992, EPA promulgated 40 CFR part 55,\\1\\ which established requirements to control... FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for...

  3. Demographic response to perturbations: the role of compensatory density dependence in a North American duck under variable harvest regulations and changing habitat.

    PubMed

    Péron, Guillaume; Nicolai, Christopher A; Koons, David N

    2012-09-01

    1. Most wild animal populations are subjected to many perturbations, including environmental forcing and anthropogenic mortality. How population size varies in response to these perturbations largely depends on life-history strategy and density regulation. 2. Using the mid-continent population of redhead Aythya americana (a North American diving duck), we investigated the population response to two major perturbations, changes in breeding habitat availability (number of ponds in the study landscape) and changes in harvest regulations directed at managing mortality patterns (bag limit). We used three types of data collected at the continental scale (capture-recovery, population surveys and age- and sex ratios in the harvest) and combined them into integrated population models to assess the interaction between density dependence and the effect of perturbations. 3. We observed a two-way interaction between the effects on fecundity of pond number and population density. Hatch-year female survival was also density dependent. Matrix modelling showed that population booms could occur after especially wet years. However, the effect of moderate variation in pond number was generally offset by density dependence the following year. 4. Mortality patterns were insensitive to changes in harvest regulations and, in males at least, insensitive to density dependence as well. We discuss potential mechanisms for compensation of hunting mortality as well as possible confounding factors. 5. Our results illustrate the interplay of density dependence and environmental variation both shaping population dynamics in a harvested species, which could be generalized to help guide the dual management of habitat and harvest regulations. PMID:22433018

  4. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  5. Light-harvesting complexes in photosystem II regulate glutathione-induced sensitivity of Arabidopsis guard cells to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Md Sarwar; Nozulaidi, Mohd; Khairi, Mohd; Mat, Nashriyah

    2016-05-20

    Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in photosystem II (PSII) regulate glutathione (GSH) functions in plants. To investigate whether LHCs control GSH biosynthesis that modifies guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, we evaluated GSH content, stomatal aperture, reactive oxygen species (ROS), weight loss and plant growth using a ch1-1 mutant that was defective of LHCs and compared this with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHmee) increased but 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) decreased the GSH content in the guard cells. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants accumulated significantly less GSH than the WT plants. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants also showed higher sensitivity to ABA than the WT plants. The CDNB treatment increased but the GSHmee treatment decreased the ABA sensitivity of the guard cells without affecting ABA-induced ROS production. Dark and light treatments altered the GSH content and stomatal aperture of the guard cells of ch1-1 and WT plants, irrespective of CDNB and GSHmee. The ch1-1 mutant contained fewer guard cells and displayed poor growth, late flowering and stumpy weight loss compared with the WT plants. This study suggests that defective LHCs reduced the GSH content in the guard cells and increased sensitivity to ABA, resulting in stomatal closure.

  6. Light-harvesting complexes in photosystem II regulate glutathione-induced sensitivity of Arabidopsis guard cells to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Md Sarwar; Nozulaidi, Mohd; Khairi, Mohd; Mat, Nashriyah

    2016-05-20

    Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in photosystem II (PSII) regulate glutathione (GSH) functions in plants. To investigate whether LHCs control GSH biosynthesis that modifies guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, we evaluated GSH content, stomatal aperture, reactive oxygen species (ROS), weight loss and plant growth using a ch1-1 mutant that was defective of LHCs and compared this with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHmee) increased but 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) decreased the GSH content in the guard cells. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants accumulated significantly less GSH than the WT plants. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants also showed higher sensitivity to ABA than the WT plants. The CDNB treatment increased but the GSHmee treatment decreased the ABA sensitivity of the guard cells without affecting ABA-induced ROS production. Dark and light treatments altered the GSH content and stomatal aperture of the guard cells of ch1-1 and WT plants, irrespective of CDNB and GSHmee. The ch1-1 mutant contained fewer guard cells and displayed poor growth, late flowering and stumpy weight loss compared with the WT plants. This study suggests that defective LHCs reduced the GSH content in the guard cells and increased sensitivity to ABA, resulting in stomatal closure. PMID:26970687

  7. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  8. Role of lake regulation on glacier-fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: the Cook Inlet watershed, south-central Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Milner, Alexander M.

    2000-10-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation.Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat.

  9. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  10. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  11. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  12. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  13. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and...

  14. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  15. Functional profile of black spruce wetlands in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    The profile describes the ecologic context and wetland functions of black spruce (Picea mariana) wetlands (BSWs) covering about 14 million ha of Alaska taiga. Ecologic descriptions include climate, permafrost, landforms, post-Pleistocene vegetation, fire, successional processes, black spruce community types and adaptations, and characteristics of BSWs. The profile describes human activities potentially affecting BSWs and identifies research literature and data gaps generally applicable to BSWs. Hydrologic, water quality, global biogeochemical, and ecologic functions of BSWs, as well as their socioeconomic uses, appear in the profile, along with potential functional indicators, expected sensitivities of functions to fill placement or weltand drainage, and potential mitigation strategies for impacts. Functional analysis separately considers ombrotrophic and minerotrophic BSWs where appropriate. Depending on trophic status, Alaska`s BSWs perform several low-magnitude hydrologic (groundwater discharge and recharge, flow regulation, and erosion control) and ecologic (nutrient export, nutrient cycling, and food-chain support) functions and several substantial water quality (sediment retention, nutrient transformation, nutrient uptake, and contaminant removal), global biogeochemical (carbon cycling and storage), and ecologic (avian and mammalian habitat) functions. BSWs also provide important socioeconomic uses: harvested of wetland-dependent fish, wildlife, and plant resources and active winter recreation.

  16. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    PubMed

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. PMID:20580887

  17. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1300 Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska;...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1300 - Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1300 Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska;...

  19. 75 FR 78973 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Subsistence Permits and Harvest Logs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Subsistence Permits and Harvest Logs for Pacific Halibut in Waters Off Alaska AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Response: Permit applications, 10 minutes; Community harvest log, 30 minutes; Ceremonial or educational harvest log, 30 minutes; Appeal for permit denial, 4 hours. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours:...

  20. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  1. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  2. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  3. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  4. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mines in Alaska. 716.6 Section 716.6... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines in Alaska. (a) Permittees of surface coal mining operations in Alaska from which coal has been mined on or after August 3, 1977,...

  5. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  6. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  7. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  8. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  9. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  10. 76 FR 12564 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2011-12 and 2012-13 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... published temporary regulations to carry out this program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The... published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The regulations at 36 CFR 242.4 and 50...

  11. 75 FR 37917 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2010-11 and 2011-12 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... regulations to carry out this program in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). These regulations... published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The regulations at 36 CFR 242.4 and 50 CFR... citation Date of following provisions of publication: ----.24: 59 FR 27462 May 27, 1994... Wildlife...

  12. 78 FR 19107 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2013-14 and 2014-15 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... published temporary regulations to carry out this program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and published final regulations in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The... published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The regulations at 36 CFR 242.4 and 50...

  13. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  14. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  15. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  16. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  17. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  18. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  19. 78 FR 2350 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2014-15 and 2015-16 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... to National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA... published temporary regulations to carry out this program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940)....

  20. 76 FR 7758 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-Subpart B, Federal Subsistence Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA, Forest... temporary regulations to carry out this Program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The Program...

  1. 76 FR 56109 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-Subpart B, Federal Subsistence Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...-3888 or subsistence@fws.gov . For questions specific to National Forest System lands, contact Steve... on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The Program has subsequently amended these regulations a number of...

  2. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  3. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  4. 76 FR 6730 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2012-13 and 2013-14 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... National Forest System lands, contact Steve Kessler, Regional Subsistence Program Leader, USDA, Forest... to carry out this program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The Program has...

  5. 77 FR 5204 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2013-14 and 2014-15 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...-3888 or subsistence@fws.gov . For questions specific to National Forest System lands, contact Steve... program in the Federal Register on June 29, 1990 (55 FR 27114), and final regulations were published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). The Program has subsequently amended...

  6. 77 FR 35481 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska-2012-13 and 2013-14 Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940). These regulations have subsequently been amended several... use determinations) was originally published in the Federal Register on May 29, 1992 (57 FR 22940... changes to the Federal Register citation Date of publication following provisions of ----.24 59 FR...

  7. 76 FR 24403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The Administrator, Alaska... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) are revised...

  8. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Identification of common motifs in the regulation of light harvesting: The case of cyanobacteria IsiA.

    PubMed

    Wahadoszamen, Md; D'Haene, Sandrine; Ara, Anjue Mane; Romero, Elisabet; Dekker, Jan P; Grondelle, Rienk van; Berera, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    When cyanobacteria are grown under iron-limited or other oxidative stress conditions the iron stress inducible pigment-protein IsiA is synthesized in variable amounts. IsiA accumulates in aggregates inside the photosynthetic membrane that strongly dissipate chlorophyll excited state energy. In this paper we applied Stark fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy at 77K to IsiA aggregates to gain insight into the nature of the emitting and energy dissipating state(s). Our study shows that two emitting states are present in the system, one emitting at 684 nm and the other emitting at about 730 nm. The new 730 nm state exhibits strongly reduced fluorescence (F) together with a large charge transfer character. We discuss these findings in the light of the energy dissipation mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthesis in plants, cyanobacteria and diatoms. Our results suggest that photosynthetic organisms have adopted common mechanisms to cope with the deleterious effects of excess light under unfavorable growth conditions.

  10. Distribution and abundance of black bass in Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma, after introduction of smallmouth bass and a liberalized harvest regulation on spotted bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Fisher, William L.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year study to examine the trends in abundance and distribution of three sympatric black bass species (Micropterus) in an Oklahoma reservoir after implementation of a differential harvest regulation to reduce the abundance of spotted bass M. punctulatus and after stocking nonnative smallmouth bass M. dolomieu. Largemouth bass M. salmoides were stocked in Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma, immediately after its creation in 1984 to supplement the existing population in the watershed. Nonnative smallmouth bass were stocked in 1990, and their abundance and distribution have increased ever since. Native spotted bass, which have less fishery value than the other two black bass species, increased fivefold in abundance in 1994, became the predominant black bass species by at least 1996, and appeared to displace largemouth bass from many habitats. From boat-mounted electrofishing sampling conducted in April and May 1997–1999, we found that spotted bass abundance (proportion and catch per hour) had decreased while smallmouth bass abundance and distribution within the reservoir steadily increased. Largemouth bass abundance did not change among years. Throughout our study period, spotted bass was always the most abundant black bass species where differences in abundance were found. Our results suggest that the continually expanding smallmouth bass population is displacing spotted bass from many of their formerly used habitats, much like spotted bass had displaced largemouth bass by 1996.

  11. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 679 - Harvest Zone Codes for Use With Vessel Activity Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 679—Harvest Zone Codes for Use With Vessel... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harvest Zone Codes for Use With...

  12. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  13. The regulation of TiO2 nanoparticles on the expression of light-harvesting complex II and photosynthesis of chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ze, Yuguan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Ling; Hong, Mengmeng; Hong, Fashui

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) could significantly promote photosynthesis and plant growth, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this article, we studied the mechanism of light absorption and transfer of chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana caused by TiO2 NPs treated. The results showed that TiO2 NPs could induce significant increases of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) b gene expression and LHCII II content on the thylakoid membrane in A. thaliana, and the increases in LHCII were higher than the non-nano TiO2 (bulk-TiO2) treatment. Meanwhile, spectroscopy assays indicated that TiO2 NPs obviously increased the absorption peak intensity of the chloroplast in red and blue region, the fluorescence quantum yield near 680 nm, the excitation peak intensity near 440 and 480 nm and/or near 650 and 680 nm of the chloroplast. TiO2 NPs treatment could reduce F480/F440 ratio and increase F650/F680 ratio and accelerate the rate of whole chain electron transport and oxygen evolution of the chloroplast. However, the photosynthesis improvement of the non-nanoTiO2 treatment was far less effective than TiO2 NPs treatment. Taken together, TiO2 NPs could promote the light absorption of chloroplast, regulate the distribution of light energy from PS I to PS II by increasing LHCII and accelerate the transformation from light energy to electronic energy, water photolysis, and oxygen evolution.

  14. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  15. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  16. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  17. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  18. Distribution of recoveries of Steller's Eiders banded on the lower Alaska Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dau, C.P.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Molting adult Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) were banded at Izembek Lagoon (1961-1998) and Nelson Lagoon (1995-1997) along the lower Alaska Peninsula to determine breeding distribution and movements. Of 52,985 Steller's Eiders banded, 347 were recovered. The overall low recovery rate may not be indicative of harvest levels but may be due to low reporting rates of bands. Almost all recoveries during summer were from Russia and recovery rates did not differ between sexes. We found no evidence that Steller's Eiders molting in specific locations were more likely to be recovered in specific geographic locations in Russia. Our recoveries suggest that Steller's Eiders molting along the Alaska Peninsula were from Russian breeding sites and from remnant breeding populations in Alaska.

  19. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  20. Alaska OCS (outer continental shelf) social and economic studies program. Technical report number 90. Effects of renewable-resource harvest disruptions on socioeconomic and sociocultural systems impact analysis, Unalakleet, Norton Sound. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, J.G.; Maxwell, J.A.; Katchatag, V.; Katchatag, P.; Zyllis, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Part I of this report briefly analyzes the history, culture, and environment of Unalakeet, the ways in which it is used by the natives. The political economy of dependency that overlays the local subsistence economy, the relation between subsistence and the commercial fishery (and the naturally occurring, renewable resources on which both are based), the local and regional social structures (formal and informal), and the wide networks of kinship and friendship which link Unalakleet villagers to persons and families in distant locales. This report contains a brief summary of the field investigations as Part II. Part III explicates the methodology employed to collect and analyze village level and family level data on which the first and fourth parts of the report are based. It also specifies the restrictions and constraints placed on the investigation by the funding agency as well as the impacts analysis. Part IV is conventionally an impacts analysis defines and rationalizes harvest disruptions of increasing severity--low, medium and high--and offers concluding hypotheses about the probable consequences of disruptions at each level.

  1. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  2. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. 2532.20 Section 2532.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 2532.20 Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. (a) Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. The President may award grants to, and enter...

  3. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. 2532.20 Section 2532.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 2532.20 Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. (a) Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. The President may award grants to, and enter...

  4. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. 2532.20 Section 2532.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 2532.20 Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. (a) Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. The President may award grants to, and enter...

  5. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. 2532.20 Section 2532.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 2532.20 Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. (a) Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. The President may award grants to, and enter...

  6. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. 2532.20 Section 2532.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... § 2532.20 Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. (a) Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska. The President may award grants to, and enter...

  7. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. 91.323 Section 91.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the Federal...

  8. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. 91.323 Section 91.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the Federal...

  9. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. 91.323 Section 91.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the Federal...

  10. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  11. 76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid,...

  12. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012) and inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  13. 75 FR 5251 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3...

  14. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 467, January 5, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  15. Paralytic shellfish poisoning --- southeast Alaska, May--June 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-18

    On June 6, 2011, the Section of Epidemiology (SOE) of the Alaska Division of Public Health was notified of a case of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in southeast Alaska. In collaboration with local partners, SOE investigated and identified a total of eight confirmed and 13 probable PSP cases that occurred during May--June 2011. Warnings to avoid noncommercially harvested shellfish were broadcast on local radio and television and displayed at beaches and in post offices, government offices, and businesses throughout the region. Commercially harvested shellfish, which are tested for the presence of PSP-causing toxins, were safe. Because the risk for PSP is unpredictable, persons who consume noncommercially harvested Alaskan shellfish should know that they are at risk for PSP, and suspected cases should be reported promptly to SOE to initiate control measures in the affected area.

  16. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation during the pre-harvest period on gas exchange, leaf development and crop yield of mature almond trees.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pascual; Navarro, Josefa Maria; García, Francisco; Botía Ordaz, Pablo

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) during the pre-harvest period (kernel-filling stage) on water relations, leaf development and crop yield in mature almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. Cartagenera) trees during a 2-year field experiment. Trees were either irrigated at full-crop evapotranspiration (ETc=100%) (well-irrigated control treatment) or subjected to an RDI treatment that consisted of full irrigation for the full season, except from early June to early August (kernel-filling stage), when 20% ETc was applied. The severity of water stress was characterized by measurements of soil water content, predawn leaf water potential (Psipd) and relative water content (RWC). Stomatal conductance (gs), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), leaf abscission, leaf expansion rate and crop yield were also measured. In both years, Psipd and RWC of well-irrigated trees were maintained above -1.0 MPa and 92%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for trees in the RDI treatment were -2.37 MPa and 82%. Long-term water stress led to a progressive decline in gs, A and E, with significant reductions after 21 days in the RDI treatment. At the time of maximum stress (48 days after commencement of RDI), A, gs and E were 64, 67 and 56% lower than control values, respectively. High correlations between A, E and gs were observed. Plant water status recovered within 15 days after the resumption of irrigation and was associated with recovery of soil water content. A relatively rapid and complete recovery of A and gs was also observed, although the recovery was slower than for Psipd and RWC. Severe water stress during the kernel-filling stage resulted in premature defoliation (caused by increased leaf abscission) and a reduction in leaf growth rate, which decreased tree leaf area. Although kernel yield was correlated with leaf water potential, RDI caused a nonsignificant 7% reduction in kernel yield and had no effect on kernel

  17. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... Location Project purpose FONSI Shell Exploration & Production, Beaufort Sea, Alaska...... Conduct...

  18. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. Regulation of light harvesting in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: the C-terminus of LHCSR is the knob of a dimmer switch.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Nicoletta; Roy, Laura M; Opacic, Milena; Durand, Grégory; Croce, Roberta

    2013-12-11

    Feedback mechanisms that dissipate excess photoexcitations in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) are necessary to avoid detrimental oxidative stress in most photosynthetic eukaryotes. Here we demonstrate the unique ability of LHCSR, a stress-related LHC from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to sense pH variations, reversibly tuning its conformation from a light-harvesting state to a dissipative one. This conformational change is induced exclusively by the acidification of the environment, and the magnitude of quenching is correlated to the degree of acidification of the environment. We show that this ability to respond to different pH values is missing in the related major LHCII, despite high structural homology. Via mutagenesis and spectroscopic characterization, we show that LHCSR's uniqueness relies on its peculiar C-terminus subdomain, which acts as a sensor of the lumenal pH, able to tune the quenching level of the complex.

  1. 76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The harvest specification for the 2011 Greenland turbot... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  2. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and...

  3. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... tons (mt) by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  4. 77 FR 46641 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Flatfish” in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In... groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). The harvest specification for the 2012 ITAC included... Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Flatfish'' in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  5. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2011). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  6. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2011). In accordance with... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for... Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  7. 78 FR 53076 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). The Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS... mt as established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR... in the final 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013)...

  8. 75 FR 13444 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... 2010 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010) are revised as... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  9. 78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26... included in the final 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...

  10. 78 FR 18528 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  11. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  12. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  13. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  14. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  15. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  16. Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Charles W.; Racine, Charles H.; Walker, Donald A.; Johnson, Larry A.; Abele, Gunars

    1990-01-01

    Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades. Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing. Wheeled and tracked ORVs, many used exclusively for recreation or subsistence harvesting by individuals, are now ubiquitous in Alaska. This increased use has led to concern over the cumulative effects of such vehicles on vegetation, soils, and environmental variables including off-site values. Factors affecting impact and subsequent restoration include specific environmental setting; vegetation; presence and ice content of permafrost; microtopography; vehicle design, weight, and ground pressure; traffic frequency; season of traffic; and individual operator practices. Approaches for mitigating adverse effects of ORVs include regulation and zoning, terrain analysis and sensitivity mapping, route selection, surface protection, and operator training.

  17. Broadband pendulum energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  18. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  19. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  20. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  1. Light-regulated and organ-specific expression of types 1, 2, and 3 light-harvesting complex b mRNAs in Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, E; Silverthorne, J; Hohtola, A

    1995-01-01

    In a prior study (E. Chinn and J. Silverthorne [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 727-732) we showed that the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba was completely dependent on light for chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast development and that expression of light-harvesting complex b (Lhcb) mRNAs was substantially increased by light. However, dark-grown seedlings that were transferred to constant white light took significantly longer than angiosperm seedlings to initiate a program of photomorphogenesis and the stems failed to green completely. We have prepared type-specific probes for mRNAs encoding major polypeptides of light-harvesting complex II (Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3) and have used these to analyze the expression of individual Lhcb mRNAs during greening. All three sequences accumulated in the top portions of dark-grown seedlings transferred to light, but, as was seen previously for total Lhcb mRNAs, there was a transient, reproducible decline in the levels of all three mRNAs after 4 d in the light. This transient decrease in Lhcb mRNA levels was not paralleled by a decrease in Chl accumulation. By contrast, there were significantly lower levels of all three Lhcb mRNAs in the lower portions of greening dark-grown stems as well as lower Chl levels. We conclude that although the tops of the plants have the capacity to etiolate and green, Gingko seedling stems continue a program of development into woody tissue in darkness that precludes greening when the seedlings are transferred to the light. PMID:7724674

  2. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  3. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  4. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  5. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  6. Ergonomics of manual harvesting.

    PubMed

    Prussia, S E

    1985-09-01

    Manual harvesting has many advantages compared with the mechanical harvesting of most fruit crops. The most important advantage is visual image processing ability which enables workers rapidly to detect fruit suitable for harvest and direct their hand to the fruit selected for detachment. Lacking the necessary computer based image processing equipment, designers of mechanical harvesters have settled for mass removal approaches that typically results in more damage than normal when fruit is harvested individually. Although manual harvesting has the disadvantage of low capacity, it is expected that much of the world's fruit will continue to be harvested by hand for the foreseeable future. Several ergonomics principles that relate to manual harvesting are discussed. Methods for improving worker conditions and productivity are presented. Worker positioners increase productivity by 20 to 40% and enable use of sun shades, fans, conveyors and other devices that increase comfort and reduce fatigue. Testing and training can yield substantial benefits from small inputs. Tests for visual acuity, colour sensitivity, strength, etc, can help managers assign tasks to the most suitable workers. Training programmes help workers to have a clear mental picture of acceptable fruit and encourage compliance with handling, safety and other procedures. Satisfaction of human drives such as thirst, hunger, thermal comfort and avoidance of pain results in long-range benefits.

  7. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  8. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  9. 50 CFR 679.64 - Harvesting sideboard limits in other fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Harvesting sideboard limits in other fisheries. 679.64 Section 679.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA American Fisheries...

  10. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  11. Striking a Balance: Preserving Nature, Conserving Culture in the Alaska Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Don

    1999-01-01

    In Alaska's extensive parks and preserves, the National Park Service is in the difficult position of mediating between traditional Native subsistence practices and Western concepts of environmental conservation. Ethnographic research has raised awareness of the importance of harvest practices to rural Native groups for survival, cultural…

  12. A Survey of Timber Impacted Schools and Communities in Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    This survey examines the impact of reduced timber harvests and mill closures by the U.S. Forest Service on timber-dependent schools and communities in the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska. One purpose was to recommend educational programs and services that are necessary to remediate these impacts on children. Between 1990 and 1995,…

  13. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cooley, S. R.; Lucey, N.; Colt, S.; Ekstrom, J.; Hurst, T.; Hauri, C.; Evans, W.; Cross, J. N.; Feely, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The highly productive fisheries of Alaska are located in seas projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that are most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) contribute substantially to the state's commercial fisheries and traditional subsistence way of life. Prior studies of OA's potential impacts on human communities have focused only on possible direct economic losses from specific scenarios of human dependence on commercial harvests and damages to marine species. However, other economic and social impacts, such as changes in food security or livelihoods, are also likely to result from climate change. This study evaluates patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. Here, we used a risk assessment framework based on one developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze earth-system global ocean model hindcasts and projections of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The fisheries examined were: shellfish, salmon and other finfish. The final index incorporates all of these data to compare overall risk among Alaska's federally designated census areas. The analysis showed that regions in southeast and southwest Alaska that are highly reliant on fishery harvests and have relatively lower incomes and employment alternatives likely face the highest risk from OA. Although this study is an intermediate step toward our full understanding, the results presented here show that OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains.

  14. Mandatory urban rainwater harvesting: learning from experience.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Jeremy; Trowsdale, Sam; Mistry, Diveshkumar

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting is effectively mandated in several urban areas of New Zealand. To understand the costs and benefits of rainwater harvesting from an end-user perspective, semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 homeowners in northern Auckland affected by these regulations. Residents report differences in four aspects of urban rainwater infrastructure - security of supply, water quality, the learning process and financial costs - that could represent key values for public acceptance. When responses are examined from the perspective of experience that has built empirical knowledge, participants explained how their satisfaction with rainwater harvesting increased over time. We hypothesise that for those lacking experience, urban rainwater consumption is a function of empirical knowledge and has initially rising marginal utility. Regulation that recognises the costs of social learning is likely to be a more effective pathway towards maximising the social benefits associated with integrated urban water management.

  15. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  16. Harvesting rice's dispensable genome.

    PubMed

    Wing, Rod A

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and cost-effective approach has been developed to harvest and map the dispensable genome, that is, population-level natural sequence variation within a species that is not present in static genome assemblies. PMID:26429765

  17. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  19. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  20. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  1. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  2. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  3. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  4. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131 Section... REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest limitations. (a) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of conch in or from treaty waters is...

  5. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest limitations. (a) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of conch in or from...

  6. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131 Section... REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest limitations. (a) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of conch in or from treaty waters is...

  7. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest limitations. (a) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of conch in or from...

  8. 50 CFR 300.131 - Conch harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conch harvest limitations. 300.131... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.131 Conch harvest limitations. (a) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of conch in or from...

  9. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  10. 43 CFR 9264.3 - Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. 9264.3 Section 9264.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.3 Grazing administration—Alaska; reindeer....

  11. 43 CFR 9264.3 - Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. 9264.3 Section 9264.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.3 Grazing administration—Alaska; reindeer....

  12. 43 CFR 9264.3 - Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. 9264.3 Section 9264.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.3 Grazing administration—Alaska; reindeer....

  13. 43 CFR 9264.3 - Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grazing administration-Alaska; reindeer. 9264.3 Section 9264.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Management § 9264.3 Grazing administration—Alaska; reindeer....

  14. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. 334.1325 Section 334.1325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. 334.1325 Section 334.1325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...

  16. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  17. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  18. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  19. Alaska's Young Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Marilyn R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Edgecumbe Enterprises, a four-year-old fish exporting venture run by Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, Alaska, and the students' meeting with business leaders in Tokyo, Japan. The young entrepreneurs spent two weeks studying the Japanese marketing structure. (JOW)

  20. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  1. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  2. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  3. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  4. Duck harvest on public hunting areas in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Hicks, J.M.; Fleskes, J.P.; Connelly, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits and success, and the magnitude and species composition of the duck harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-87. Hunter visits and harvest increased during 1950-74 as new PHAs were added, then declined concurrently with duck populations. Of six geographic regions, the Sacramento Valley, with numerous PHAs and the largest duck concentrations, accounted for the largest portion of PHA hunter visits (28%) and harvest (35%). Duck population levels, regulations, and hunter numbers affected PHA hunter success. Success was highest during 1955-59 but declined with no consistent trend after 1960. Species vulnerability, abundance, distribution, and hunter preference affected harvest composition. Northern pintails, Anas acuta, averaged 27% of the PHA harvest but declined in importance after 1974. Green-winged teal, A. crecca, the most important species in southern regions, averaged 21% of the PHA harvest. Mallards, A. platyrhynchos, averaged 16% of the PHA harvest but increased in importance after 1974 to become the most common duck bagged after 1983. PHA harvest comprised a small (4-16%) portion of the total state harvest. However, this portion increased from 1950-70 because of increased hunter visits to new PHAs and after 1970 because hunter success on PHAs did not decline as on other areas. PHA hunters tended to harvest fewer preferred species and more vulnerable species, as proportions of total bag, than did other hunters. The continued decline in numbers of waterfowl hunters presents important challenges for management of waterfowl areas in California.

  5. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  6. Model-Based Predictions of the Effects of Harvest Mortality on Population Size and Trend of Yellow-Billed Loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) breed in low densities in northern tundra habitats in Alaska, Canada, and Russia. They migrate to coastal marine habitats at mid to high latitudes where they spend their winters. Harvest may occur throughout the annual cycle, but of particular concern are recent reports of harvest from the Bering Strait region, which lies between Alaska and Russia and is an area used by yellow-billed loons during migration. Annual harvest for this region was reported to be 317, 45, and 1,077 during 2004, 2005, and 2007, respectively. I developed a population model to assess the effect of this reported harvest on population size and trend of yellow-billed loons. Because of the uncertainty regarding actual harvest and definition of the breeding population(s) affected by this harvest, I considered 25 different scenarios. Predicted trends across these 25 scenarios ranged from stability to rapid decline (24 percent per year) with halving of the population in 3 years. Through an assessment of literature and unpublished satellite tracking data, I suggest that the most likely of these 25 scenarios is one where the migrant population subjected to harvest in the Bering Strait includes individuals from breeding populations in Alaska (Arctic coastal plain and the Kotzebue region) and eastern Russia, and for which the magnitude of harvest varies among years and emulates the annual variation of reported harvest during 2004-07 (317, 45, and 1,077 yellow-billed loons). This scenario, which assumes no movement of Canadian breeders through the Bering Strait, predicts a 4.6 percent rate of annual population decline, which would halve the populations in 15 years. Although these model outputs reflect the best available information, confidence in these predictions and applicable scenarios would be greatly enhanced by more information on harvest, rates of survival and reproduction, and migratory pathways.

  7. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  8. Alternative perspectives on the sustainability of Alaska's commercial fisheries.

    PubMed

    Loring, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Many believe commercial fisheries in Alaska (U.S.A.) are sustainability success stories, but ongoing socioeconomic problems across the state raise questions about how this sustainability is being defined and evaluated. Problems such as food insecurity and the disenfranchisement of Alaska Natives from fishing rights are well documented, yet these concerns are obscured by marketing campaigns that convey images of flourishing fishing communities and initiatives to certify Alaska's fisheries as responsibly managed. Fisheries management mandates and approaches built on such metrics and technologies as maximum sustainable yield and systems of tradable quotas actually serve to constrain, circumscribe, and marginalize some Alaskans' opportunities for effecting change in how the benefits of these fisheries are allocated. Beneath the narrative of sustainability, these management technologies perpetuate a cognitive ecological model of sustainability that is oriented to single-species outcomes, that casts people as parasites, and thus assumes the necessity of trade-offs between biological and social goals. Alternative cognitive models are available that draw metaphors from different ecological concepts such as keystone species and mutualisms. Such models, when used to inform management approaches, may improve societal outcomes in Alaska and elsewhere by promoting food security and sustainability through diversified natural resource harvest strategies that are more flexible and responsive to environmental variability and change.

  9. Water harvest via dewing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia. PMID:22731870

  10. Educating medical students for Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fortuine, R; Dimino, M J

    1998-01-01

    Because Alaska does not have its own medical school, it has become part of WAMI (Washington, Alaska, Montana, Idaho), an educational agreement with the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM). Each year, 10 Alaskans are accepted into the entering class of UWSM and spend their first year at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). UWSM third- and fourth-year medical students can obtain some of their clinical experience in Alaska. To meet the needs of Alaska, students are chosen based on academic and personal records, as well as the likelihood of their returning to Alaska for practice. To this end, over the last seven years 30% of accepted students have come from rural communities and 10% are Alaska Natives. The curriculum for the first year includes several sessions dedicated to Alaska health problems, cross-cultural issues, and Alaska's unique rural health care delivery system. Students do two preceptorships--one with a private primary care physician and one with a physician at the Alaska Native Medical Center. Additionally, students have the option to spend a week at a rural site to learn about the community's health care system. An Alaska track is being developed whereby an Alaskan UWSM student can do most of the third year in state via clerkships in family medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, psychiatry, internal medicine, and pediatrics. All UWSM students at the end of their first year can elect to participate for one month in the R/UOP (Rural/Underserved Opportunities Program), which includes several Alaska sites. The overall goals of these approaches are to educate UWSM students, especially Alaskans, about the state's health needs and health care system and to encourage UWSM graduates to practice in the state.

  11. Kenaf harvest decision matrix or how should I harvest kenaf?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The correct harvest method for kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is dependent on many factors, including production location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plans, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consistently been hand-harveste...

  12. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  13. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  14. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  15. Possible secondary population-level effects of selective harvest of adult male muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Gorn, Tony S

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6-10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002-2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4-12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8-9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and conservation of

  16. Possible Secondary Population-Level Effects of Selective Harvest of Adult Male Muskoxen

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joshua H.; Gorn, Tony S.

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6–10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002–2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4–12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8–9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and

  17. Possible secondary population-level effects of selective harvest of adult male muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Gorn, Tony S

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6-10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002-2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4-12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8-9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and conservation of

  18. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  19. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  20. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... structural soundness of the airplane and the terrain to be traversed. (d) The maximum certificated...

  1. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... structural soundness of the airplane and the terrain to be traversed. (d) The maximum certificated...

  2. 76 FR 46889 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Avenue in the town of Hyder, Alaska and continues along the Hyder Causeway and trestle to Harbor Island....205, Highway Planning and Construction. The regulations implementing Executive Order 12372...

  3. 75 FR 7515 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Mineral Exploration on the Alaska Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Mineral Exploration on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the... Minerals Management Service (MMS), in accordance with Federal regulations that implement the...

  4. 76 FR 59922 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... FR 11111, March 1, 2011). ] In accordance with Sec. 680.22(e)(2)(i), the Administrator, Alaska Region... Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  5. 76 FR 58414 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 680.22(e)(2)(i), the Administrator, Alaska Region... Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject...

  6. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE ISOLATED FROM A SPOTTED SEAL (PHOCA LARGHA) WITH PYOMETRA IN ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Lieske, Camilla L.; McGilvary, Lisa M.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Miller, Debra L.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to arctic pinnipeds. Zoonotic potential remains unknown. PMID:22946378

  7. Can corals be harvested sustainably?

    PubMed

    Harriott, Vicki J

    2003-03-01

    The international trade in corals has been identified as a potential cause of localized depletion of coral populations in the major coral-exporting countries. The international coral trade is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) agreement, which requires that export of corals is not detrimental to the species. The primary coral importing regions (USA and Europe) have threatened to limit or ban coral imports unless sustainable practices can be demonstrated. The spatial and temporal scale at which sustainability is defined is important in evaluating sustainability, e.g. at geological, regional or local scales. Other major issues are: the ecology of the target species; management options including provision of no-take areas; and the potential for coral culture. Implementation of practices that enhance ecological sustainability in the coral harvest fishery is possible, but may be difficult in some developing countries because of limited natural-resource management capacity.

  8. Biogenesis of light harvesting proteins.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Bressan, Mauro; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The LHC family includes nuclear-encoded, integral thylakoid membrane proteins, most of which coordinate chlorophyll and xanthophyll chromophores. By assembling with the core complexes of both photosystems, LHCs form a flexible peripheral moiety for enhancing light-harvesting cross-section, regulating its efficiency and providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. Upon its first appearance, LHC proteins underwent evolutionary diversification into a large protein family with a complex genetic redundancy. Such differentiation appears as a crucial event in the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to changing environmental conditions and land colonization. The structure of photosystems, including nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded subunits, presented the cell with a number of challenges for the control of the light harvesting function. Indeed, LHC-encoding messages are translated in the cytosol, and pre-proteins imported into the chloroplast, processed to their mature size and targeted to the thylakoids where are assembled with chromophores. Thus, a tight coordination between nuclear and plastid gene expression, in response to environmental stimuli, is required to adjust LHC composition during photoacclimation. In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in elucidating structure, function and regulatory pathways involving LHCs; however, a number of molecular details still await elucidation. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current knowledge on LHC biogenesis, ranging from organization of pigment-protein complexes to the modulation of gene expression, import and targeting to the photosynthetic membranes, and regulation of LHC assembly and turnover. Genes controlling these events are potential candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at optimizing light use efficiency of photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis.

  9. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  10. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  11. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  12. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  13. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  14. 33 CFR 162.240 - Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tongass Narrows, Alaska; navigation. 162.240 Section 162.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.240...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas. 334.1310 Section 334.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1310 Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1310 - Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas. 334.1310 Section 334.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1310 Lutak Inlet, Alaska; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) Army POL dock restricted area. (i) The waters of Lutak Inlet bounded...

  17. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  18. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  19. 76 FR 76903 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and subsequent reallocation (76 FR 54137, August 31, 2011). The Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS (Regional... (76 FR 66655, October 27, 2011). Therefore, in accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(7)(iii)(A),...

  20. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  1. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. 76 FR 39789 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). Consequently, in accordance with Sec. 679.83(a)(3), the Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS, deems it appropriate for.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS deems it appropriate to not open directed fishing...

  3. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). ] In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  4. 77 FR 19564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  5. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  6. 78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  7. 78 FR 4346 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory...

  8. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... by the final 2009 and 2010 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher-Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  9. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  10. 78 FR 54592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central...

  11. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  12. 75 FR 56483 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March... the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) are revised as follows in Tables 8a, 8c, and 8d: Table 8a... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in...

  13. 76 FR 54137 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and reallocation (76 FR 29671, May 23... established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and reallocation (76 FR 24403, May 2, 2011). The Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS,...

  14. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012) and inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3...

  15. 75 FR 15626 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specification for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea...

  16. 76 FR 39792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA547 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1,...

  17. 76 FR 53840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(3) the... FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The harvest specification for the 2011 AI other rockfish, BSAI other... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and Skates in the Bering Sea and...

  18. 77 FR 60649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for pollock by vessels using trawl gear in the Winter Herring Savings Area of the Bering Sea...

  19. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  20. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  1. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  2. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...

  3. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  4. 78 FR 11790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  5. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western...

  6. 77 FR 76425 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... specifications for Pacific cod included in the final 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (77 FR... groundfish in the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), after a 1,627 mt apportionment to the trawl catcher... to the pot and jig gear sectors (77 FR 67579, November 13, 2012). The Administrator, Alaska...

  7. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  8. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  9. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  10. 76 FR 17569 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  11. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  12. 78 FR 9328 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012), inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013), and one reallocation from the jig vessel... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length...

  13. 77 FR 10400 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length...

  14. 76 FR 4081 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 467, January 5, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3...

  15. 75 FR 28502 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specification for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010) and subsequent reallocations on March 17, 2010 (75 FR 13444, March 22, 2010) and April 12, 2010 (75 FR 19562). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS,...

  16. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) are revised as follows: 4,000 mt to the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  17. 78 FR 49200 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013) and reallocation (78 FR 14932, March 8, 2013). As of August 6, 2013, the Administrator, Alaska... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013, 78 FR 14932, March 8, 2013) are revised...

  18. 77 FR 54838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... specifications for groundfish in the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). The Administrator, Alaska Region... included in the final 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific...

  19. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  20. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... 2010 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009)). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  1. 77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and reallocation on September 1, 2012 (77 FR 54838, September 6, 2012... groundfish in the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). The Administrator, Alaska Region (Regional Administrator... 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) are revised...

  2. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). The Administrator, Alaska Region (Regional Administrator) has... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013) is revised as...-and-line gear and vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...

  3. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010 Pacific ocean... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... available data and finds that the ITAC for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea needs to...

  4. Balancing predation and egg harvest in a colonial seabird: A simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zador, S.G.; Piatt, J.F.; Punt, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model to study the effects of different regimes of harvesting eggs and natural predation on reproductive success in a colony of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. The model incorporates the sequence of egg laying, relaying, and incubation to hatching for individual nests and calculates hatching success, incubation length, and the total number of eggs laid (as a result of re-nesting and relaying) in all nests in the colony. Stochasticity is incorporated in the distribution of nest lay dates, predation rates, and nests attacked during predation and harvest events. We estimated parameter values by fitting the model to data collected at a small colony during 1999 and 2000 using maximum likelihood. We then simulated harvests and analyzed model predictions. Model outputs indicate that harvesting early, and at one time, provides a predictable take of eggs with the least impact to gulls.

  5. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  6. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  7. Verification of sex from harvested sea otters using DNA testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Green, B.A.; Gorbics, C.; Bodkin, J.

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to determine the sex of 138 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) harvested from 3 regions of Alaska from 1994 to 1997, to assess the accuracy of post-harvest field-sexing. We also tested each of a series of factors associated with errors in field-sexing of sea otters, including male or female bias, age-class bias, regional bias, and bias associated with hunt characteristics. Blind control results indicated that sex was determined with 100% accuracy using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using primers that co-amplify the zinc finger-Y-X gene, located on both the mammalian Y- and X-chromosomes, and Testes Determining Factor (TDF), located on the mammalian Y-chromosome. DNA-based sexing revealed that 12.3% of the harvested sea otters were incorrectly sexed in the field, with most errors (13 of 17) occurring as males incorrectly reported as females. Thus, female harvest was overestimated. Using logistic regression analysis, we detected no statistical association of incorrect determination of sex in the field with age class, hunt region, or hunt type. The error in field-sexing appears to be random, at least with respect to the variables evaluated in this study.

  8. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  9. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  10. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  11. Terra Harvest software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  12. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary s

  13. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  14. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...Phillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc.,...

  15. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  16. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  17. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  18. Size and perspective in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Towle, Jim

    2006-01-01

    By far America's largest state, Alaska has only 350 members, so effective communication matters in overcoming distance. Alaska has led the way in direct reimbursement, diversity in leadership, member involvement, and a distinctive lifestyle for its practitioners. The tripartite structure of organized dentistry is crucial in building understanding the issues involved in providing oral health care to the members of this vast state. PMID:17585733

  19. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  20. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  1. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  2. 36 CFR 242.18 - Regulation adoption process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 43 CFR part 14. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulation adoption process... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.18 Regulation...

  3. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  4. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  5. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  6. Controls on the quality of harvested rainwater in residential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, S. L.; Phung, D.; Hollingsworth, C.

    2014-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems, in which runoff from roofs is collected and used for irrigation, toilets and other purposes, present a viable solution to limited freshwater supplies and excess stormwater runoff. However, a lack of data on the quality of harvested rainwater hinders adoption of rainwater harvesting systems and makes development of rainwater harvesting regulations difficult. We conducted monthly surveys of 6 existing residential rainwater harvesting systems ranging in age from 1 to 11 years measuring pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and coliform bacteria. We also examined a subset of the samples for iron, lead, mercury and arsenic. Many of the systems routinely met the water quality requirements for non-potable use without additional treatment, which is often required by regulations. In addition, while previous studies have shown that roof runoff contains heavy metals, the water in all systems showed very low or undetectable levels of metal contamination. Coliform bacteria concentration ranged from 20 to greater than 1400 CFU's per 100 mL and correlated with total suspended solids, which ranged from 2 - 7 mg l-1. The relationship between suspended solids and bacteria population was confirmed in a controlled experiment on the impact of filtering the rainwater before storage. Filtration decreased total suspended solids and total coliforms and increased dissolved oxygen concentration. This project provides insight into the effects of system design and a baseline assessment of the quality of harvested rainwater in existing systems.

  7. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  8. Water harvesting applications for rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although water harvesting techniques have been used effectively in irrigated agriculture and domestic water supplies, there seems to have been little continued exploitation of the same techniques in arid and semiarid rangeland restoration. A review of the history of rangeland water harvesting allow...

  9. Do wolves affect white-tailed buck harvest in northeastern Minnesota?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nelson, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    We used simple linear regression to analyze 8-23 years of data on a wolf (Canis lupus) population and human harvest of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) bucks in northeastern Minnesota to determine any effects of wolves on buck harvesting. Over the long term, wolves accounted for at least 14-22% of the inter-year variation in buck harvest in the region, but an unknown amount of variation in hunter effort may have obscured any more precise estimate. For part of the area with poorest habitat, we found strong inverse relationships (r2 = 0.66-0.84) between annual wolf numbers and buck harvests from 1988 to 1995 when hunting pressure was considered relatively constant. However, in better habitat, where our buck harvest sample was larger, we found no evidence of wolves influencing buck harvest. Our findings tend to confirm the suitability of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resource's deer harvest regulations for a sustainable yield.

  10. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  11. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities. PMID:26733282

  12. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress–voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition–voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities. PMID:26733282

  13. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-06

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  14. Alaska Native Education Study: A Statewide Study of Alaska Native Values and Opinions Regarding Education in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell Group, Juneau, AK.

    This document contains four reports detailing a four-phase research project on Alaska Natives' attitudes and values toward education. A literature review examines the history of Native education in Alaska, issues in research on American Indian and Alaska Native education, dropout studies, student assessment, language and culture, learning styles,…

  15. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  16. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  17. Risk for traumatic injuries from helicopter crashes during logging operations--southeastern Alaska, January 1992-June 1993.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    Helicopters are used by logging companies in the Alaska panhandle to harvest timber in areas that otherwise are inaccessible and/or unfeasible for conventional logging (because of rugged terrain, steep mountain slopes, environmental restrictions, or high cost). The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated six helicopter crashes related to transport of logs by cable (i.e., long-line logging*) that occurred in southeastern Alaska during January 1992-June 1993 and resulted in nine fatalities and 10 nonfatal injuries. This report presents case investigations of these incidents. PMID:8007932

  18. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  19. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  20. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  1. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  3. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  4. Benthic invertebrate community structure is influenced by forest succession after clearcut logging in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernandez, O.; Merritt, R.W.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effects of timber harvesting on headwater streams in upland forests, benthic community structure was contrasted among four dominant forest management types (old growth, red alder-dominated young growth, conifer-dominated young growth, clearcut) and instream habitats (woody debris, cobble, gravel) in southeastern Alaska. Benthos in streams of previously harvested areas resulted in increased richness, densities and biomass relative to old growth types, particularly in young growth stands with a red alder-dominated riparian canopy. Woody debris and gravel habitats supported a combination of higher densities and biomass of invertebrates than cobble habitats. In addition, woody debris also supported a richer and more diverse invertebrate fauna than either cobble or gravel substrates. Maintaining both a woody debris source and a red alder component in regenerating riparian forests following timber harvesting should support greater invertebrate densities and diversity following clearcutting. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect

  6. 77 FR 12568 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...). NMFS published proposed program regulations on May 23, 2011 (76 FR 29707), and final program regulations on October 6, 2011 (76 FR 61986), to implement the reduction program. Interested persons should... capacity reduction program referendum for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery. NMFS will hold...

  7. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  8. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  9. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  10. 25 CFR 163.27 - Free-use harvesting without permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free-use harvesting without permits. 163.27 Section 163.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.27 Free-use harvesting without permits. With the consent...

  11. 25 CFR 163.27 - Free-use harvesting without permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Free-use harvesting without permits. 163.27 Section 163.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.27 Free-use harvesting without permits. With the consent...

  12. 25 CFR 163.27 - Free-use harvesting without permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Free-use harvesting without permits. 163.27 Section 163.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.27 Free-use harvesting without permits. With the consent...

  13. 25 CFR 163.27 - Free-use harvesting without permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Free-use harvesting without permits. 163.27 Section 163.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.27 Free-use harvesting without permits. With the consent of...

  14. 25 CFR 163.27 - Free-use harvesting without permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Free-use harvesting without permits. 163.27 Section 163.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.27 Free-use harvesting without permits. With the consent...

  15. Carbon-sequestration and ecosystem services in the boreal ecoregion of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Manies, K.; Labay, K.; Johnson, W. N.; Harden, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Managing public lands for carbon (C) sequestration is increasingly discussed as a component of national carbon policies. However, management of public land to facilitate carbon sequestration must be considered in the context of other management mandates and the effects on other ecosystem services. Of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge lands in Alaska, about 35% are in the boreal ecoregion; primarily in the Intermountain and the Alaska Range Transition ecoregions. These refuges were established to conserve wildlife habitat, fulfill treaty obligations, provide for continued subsistence uses, and ensure necessary water quality and quantity. One of the major factors in determining ecosystem distribution in the boreal ecoregion is disturbance. Fire is the dominant disturbance for Alaska's boreal region. Most USFWS refuge lands are managed with "limited" suppression, where fires burn naturally and are monitored to assure the protection of human life, property, and site specific values (such as historical or religious). However, there is increasing interest in biomass harvest and combustion for local energy production. Harvest and fire can have differing effects on both the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage. The current biomass harvest for energy production proposals are considered to be C neutral because they focus on "hazardous" biomass which would burn naturally or in a prescribed burn. The goal of this effort is to explore the relation between C storage and other public land management priorities, as well as, to explore how disturbance type (fire and harvest) affect C storage and boreal ecosystem distribution in the context of wildlife habitat and subsistence use management priorities. We present a conceptual model that defines the linkages among these management priorities, a data gap analysis, and scenarios to be evaluated.

  16. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.220 If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? If you propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  19. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  20. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  2. 45 CFR 286.190 - If the Secretary, the State of Alaska, or any of the Tribal TANF eligible entities in the State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If the Secretary, the State of Alaska, or any of the Tribal TANF eligible entities in the State of Alaska want to amend the comparability criteria, what is the process for doing so? 286.190 Section 286.190 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...

  3. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  4. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  5. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  6. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  7. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  8. Harvesting in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Douglas R.

    1978-01-01

    Migrant mushroom workers suffer from poor housing and living conditions, low wages, poor health, unsafe working conditions, abuse from crew leaders, and isolation. Farm work advocates feel these abuses will continue without laws guaranteeing access to the camps, minimum standards for camp conditions, and the outlawing or strict regulation of crew…

  9. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  10. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  11. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  12. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  13. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Cristina M; Vogler, Amy J; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Hueffer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state. PMID:22099502

  14. Decline of spectacled eiders nesting in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehn, Robert A.; Dau, Christian P.; Conant, Bruce; Butler, William I.

    1993-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations in western Alaska are now less than 4% of the numbers estimated in the early 1970s. In 1992, an estimated 1721 nesting pairs remained on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Causes of this rapid and continuing decline of -14% per year are undocumented. Many aspects of spectacled eider biology remain unknown, including their marine foraging habitats, food items, migratory movements, and population ecology. A review of some biological characteristics and possible threats to the species suggests the importance of quantifying potential impacts from parasites and disease, subsistence harvest, predation during brood rearing, and alteration of Bering Sea food resources. Factors causing the population decline of spectacled eiders must be determined and appropriate actions taken to reverse the trend.

  15. Differential expression of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in broccoli after harvest.

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, B J; Downs, C G; Davies, K M

    1995-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) floral tissues rapidly differentiate and grow before harvest and then senesce rapidly after harvest. Associated with this postharvest deterioration is an increase in ethylene production by florets. Two cDNA clones having high nucleotide identity to sequences encoding 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase were isolated from senescing florets. The cDNAs, ACC Ox1 and ACC Ox2, apparently encode mRNAs from different genes. ACC Ox1 transcripts were found at low levels in whole florets at the time of harvest and increased markedly in abundance after harvest. ACC Ox1 transcript abundance also increased in sepals after harvest and in excised yellowing leaves. Transcripts corresponding to ACC Ox2 were found exclusively within the reproductive structures. These ACC Ox2 transcripts were absent at harvest but started to increase in abundance within 2 h of harvest and then accumulated to high levels. Hormone treatment did not alter the abundance of ACC Ox1 transcripts, whereas ACC Ox2 transcripts increased in abundance after treatment with abscisic acid and propylene. Wounding did not affect the levels of ACC Ox1 or Ox2 transcripts after harvest. At harvest, individual broccoli florets were closed and remained unpollinated. We propose a model whereby the rapid increase in ACC Ox1 and Ox2 transcript abundance after harvest contributes to increased ethylene production by florets. This ethylene may regulate aspects of postharvest senescence, in particular chlorophyll loss. PMID:7610162

  16. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  17. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  18. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  19. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  20. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...

  1. Erratum To: Indigenous Frameworks for Observing and Responding to Climate Change in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Patricia; Huntington, Orville H.; Pungowiyi, Caleb; Tom, Stanley; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Huntington, Henry P.; Maynard, Nancy G.; Trainor, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    In section 5, item 1 of this article it is stated that: A recent shift in decision-making authority from the politically appointed Board of Game to the Subsistence Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game should make these decisions about hunting regulations more responsive to local observations and needs. We now recognize that this shift in regulatory authority to ADF&G never occurred. We hereby correct this error so that wildlife users in Alaska do not come to ADF&G with expectations that this agency has authority to adjust hunting regulations to accommodate climate change.

  2. A Hip Implant Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancharoen, K.; Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a kinetic energy harvester designed to be embedded in a hip implant which aims to operate at a low frequency associated with body motion of patients. The prototype is designed based on the constrained volume available in a hip prosthesis and the challenge is to harvest energy from low frequency movements (< 1 Hz) which is an average frequency during free walking of a patient. The concept of magnetic-force-driven energy harvesting is applied to this prototype considering the hip movements during routine activities of patients. The magnetic field within the harvester was simulated using COMSOL. The simulated resonant frequency was around 30 Hz and the voltage induced in a coil was predicted to be 47.8 mV. A prototype of the energy harvester was fabricated and tested. A maximum open circuit voltage of 39.43 mV was obtained and the resonant frequency of 28 Hz was observed. Moreover, the power output of 0.96 μW was achieved with an optimum resistive load of 250Ω.

  3. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  4. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  5. Parasites of forage fishes in the vicinity of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) habitat in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Moles, A; Heintz, R A

    2007-07-01

    Fish serve as intermediate hosts for a number of larval parasites that have the potential of maturing in marine mammals such as Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We examined the prevalence of parasites from 229 fish collected between March and July 2002 near two islands used by Steller sea lions in Southeast Alaska and island habitats in the Aleutian Islands. Sea lion populations have remained steady in Southeast Alaska but have been declining over the last 30 yr in the Aleutian Islands. Even though the fish samples near the Southeast Alaska haul-outs were composed of numerous small species of fish and the Aleutian Islands catch was dominated by juveniles of commercially harvested species, the parasite fauna was similar at all locations. Eleven of the 20 parasite taxa identified were in their larval stage in the fish hosts, several of which have been described from mammalian final hosts. Four species of parasite were more prevalent in Southeast Alaska fish samples, and seven parasite species, including several larval forms capable of infecting marine mammals, were more prevalent in fish from the Aleutian Islands. Nevertheless, parasites available to Steller sea lions from common fish prey are not likely to be a major factor in the decline of this marine mammal species. PMID:17699075

  6. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  7. 77 FR 22683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... 14, 2012 (77 FR 15194). A table providing information on 2012 GOA non-American Fisheries Act (AFA... 14, 2012 (77 FR 15194), the following corrections are made to Table 22: 1. On page 15216, in Table 22...,028 106 Octopuses Annual Gulfwide 0.0176 1,455 26 Sculpins Annual Gulfwide 0.0176 5,731 101 \\1\\...

  8. 77 FR 15193 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... in the Federal Register on December 22, 2011 (76 FR 79620). Comments were invited and accepted... higher in 2012 and 2013 than the 2011 ABC sum of 590,121 mt (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). Specification... 1, 2011 (76 FR 74670), effective January 1, 2012. Amendment 83 allocates the Western and Central...

  9. 76 FR 81860 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... limits for Pacific cod at the beginning of the 2012 fishing year consistent with the new Pacific cod... 1, 2011 (76 FR 74670) and is effective January 1, 2012. Amendment 83 to the FMP allocates the... rule published for that action (76 FR 44700, July 26, 2011), as well as in the final rule noted...

  10. 78 FR 13161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2013 and 2014 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) prepared for this action are available from http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . The... December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72297). Comments were invited and accepted through January 4, 2013. NMFS did not... biological and economic data that were available at the Council's December 2012 meeting, NMFS is...

  11. 75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2010 and 2011 Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Federal Register on November 30, 2009 (74 FR 62533). Comments were invited and accepted through December... well as biological and economic data that were available at the Council's December 2009 meeting, NMFS.... From these data and analyses, the Plan Team estimates an ABC for each species or species category....

  12. Annual survival and site fidelity of northern pintails banded on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Flint, Paul L.; Wege, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We banded northern pintails (Anas acuta; n = 13,645) at a single site on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska, USA, from 1990 to 2001. We used recaptures from our site in combination with hunter recoveries to model annual survival, recovery rates, and fidelity to our capture location. Most recoveries (>90%) occurred in the Pacific Flyway with 64% reported from California's Central Valley. Our top candidate models allowed survival to vary by sex but not by age or year. Estimated annual survival was 77.6% (95% CI: 73.9-81.0%) for males and 60.2% (95% CI: 53.2-67.0%) for females. Reporting rates varied by age, sex, and year; estimates for adult males exceeded those for adult females by 3.5 times. Within sexes, reporting rates of hatch-year pintails exceeded those of adults. Estimated recovery rates were considerably lower than those estimated during the 1950s-1970s for winter banded pintails (Hestbeck 1993b), but there were no differences in survival rates. This suggests that changes in harvest regulations may not have influenced annual survival in this population. The propensity of banded pintails to return to our capture site (fidelity rate) varied between sexes and was positively correlated with water conditions in prairie Canada. Our estimates of fidelity rates varied from 77.4% to 87.2% for males and 89.8% to 94.3% for females. Our fidelity estimates suggest that some level of subpopulation structuring may exist for northern pintails. Additionally, our estimates of fidelity support previous observations of northern pintails overflying poor wetland habitat conditions on the Canadian prairies.

  13. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF)...

  14. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  15. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  16. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasulu Raju, S.; Umapathy, M.; Uma, G.

    2015-11-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity.

  17. Piezoelectric MEMS for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2015-12-01

    Recently, piezoelectric MEMS have been intensively investigated to create new functional microdevices, and some of them have already been commercialized such as MEMS gyrosensors or miropumps of inkjet printer head. Piezoelectric energy harvesting is considered to be one of the promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. In this report, we introduce the deposition of the piezoelectric PZT thin films as well as lead-free KNN thin films. We fabricated piezoelectric energy harvesters of PZT and KNN thin films deposited on stainless steel cantilevers and compared their power generation performance.

  18. Rotational Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinulovic, Dragan; Brooks, Michael; Haug, Martin; Petrovic, Tomislav

    This paper presents development of the rotational electromagnetic energy harvesting transducer. The transducer is driven mechanically by pushing a button; therefore, the mechanical energy will be converted into electrical energy. The energy harvesting (EH) transducer consists of multilayer planar coils embedded in a PCB, multipolar NdFeB hard magnets, and a mechanical system for movement conversion. The EH transducer generate an energy of about 4 mJ at a load of 10 Ω. The maximum open circuit output voltage is as high as 2 V and the maximum short circuit output current is 800 mA.

  19. Unified Ecoregions of Alaska: 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowacki, Gregory J.; Spencer, Page; Fleming, Michael; Brock, Terry; Jorgenson, Torre

    2003-01-01

    Major ecosystems have been mapped and described for the State of Alaska and nearby areas. Ecoregion units are based on newly available datasets and field experience of ecologists, biologists, geologists and regional experts. Recently derived datasets for Alaska included climate parameters, vegetation, surficial geology and topography. Additional datasets incorporated in the mapping process were lithology, soils, permafrost, hydrography, fire regime and glaciation. Thirty two units are mapped using a combination of the approaches of Bailey (hierarchial), and Omernick (integrated). The ecoregions are grouped into two higher levels using a 'tri-archy' based on climate parameters, vegetation response and disturbance processes. The ecoregions are described with text, photos and tables on the published map.

  20. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  1. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  2. Quantum mechanical light harvesting mechanisms in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    More than 10 million billion photons of light strike a leaf each second. Incredibly, almost every red-coloured photon is captured by chlorophyll pigments and initiates steps to plant growth. Last year we reported that marine algae use quantum mechanics in order to optimize photosynthesis [1], a process essential to its survival. These and other insights from the natural world promise to revolutionize our ability to harness the power of the sun. In a recent review [2] we described the principles learned from studies of various natural antenna complexes and suggested how to utilize that knowledge to shape future technologies. We forecast the need to develop ways to direct and regulate excitation energy flow using molecular organizations that facilitate feedback and control--not easy given that the energy is only stored for a billionth of a second. In this presentation I will describe new results that explain the observation and meaning of quantum-coherent energy transfer. [4pt] [1] Elisabetta Collini, Cathy Y. Wong, Krystyna E. Wilk, Paul M. G. Curmi, Paul Brumer, and Gregory D. Scholes, ``Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature'' Nature 463, 644-648 (2010).[0pt] [2] Gregory D. Scholes, Graham R. Fleming, Alexandra Olaya-Castro and Rienk van Grondelle, ``Lessons from nature about solar light harvesting'' Nature Chem. 3, 763-774 (2011).

  3. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in harvest probabilities for American black duck

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christian; Cumming, Steven G; McIntire, Eliot JB

    2015-01-01

    Assessing spatial variation in waterfowl harvest probabilities from banding data is challenging because reporting and recovery probabilities have distinct spatial patterns that covary temporally with harvesting regulations, hunter effort, and reporting methods. We analyzed direct band recovery data from American black ducks banded on the Canadian breeding grounds from 1970 through 2010. Data were registered to a 1-degree grid and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression models with spatially correlated errors to estimate the annual probabilities of band recovery and the proportion of individuals recovered in Canada. Probability of harvest was estimated from these values, in combination with independent estimates of reporting probabilities in Canada and the USA. Model covariates included estimates of hunting effort and factors for harvest regulation and band reporting methods. Both the band recovery processes and the proportion of individuals recovered in Canada had significant spatial structure. Recovery probabilities were highest in southern Ontario, along the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec, and in Nova Scotia. Black ducks breeding in Nova Scotia and southern Quebec were harvested predominantly in Canada. Recovery probabilities for juveniles were correlated with hunter effort, while the adult recoveries were weakly correlated with the implementation of stricter harvest regulations in the early 1980s. Mean harvest probability decreased in the northern portion of the survey area but remained stable or even increased in the south. Harvest probabilities for juveniles in 2010 exceeded 20% in southern Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. Our results demonstrate fine-scale variation in harvest probabilities for black duck on the Canadian breeding ground. In particular, harvest probabilities should be closely monitored along the Saint Lawrence River system and in the Atlantic provinces to avoid overexploitation. PMID:26045951

  5. Alaska panel urges oil tanker changes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, S.

    1990-02-05

    A commission assigned by the state of Alaska to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill says the Coast Guard's regulation of oil transportation had grown slack over the decade preceding the 11 million-gallon spill. The vigilance over tanker traffic that was established in the early days of pipeline flow had given way to complacency and neglect, says the commission's report, which calls for a revamping of the U.S. oil transportation system. The review places the blame for the spill not only on the Coast Guard but on the oil industry's thirst for profits in the 1980s and blames the state itself for not living up to its obligation to manage and protect its own waters. The report offers 59 recommendations that cover tanker construction and crew training, spill prevention, strategies for responding to spills and cleanup technologies. The panel also wants to see more stringent tanker safety standards, strengthened enforcement of the new regulations and greater penalties levied against violators. The Coast Guard expects that it will be some time before revisions in its tanker monitoring operations are in place.

  6. Nyala and Bushbuck II: A Harvesting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Greeff, Johanna C.

    1999-01-01

    Adds a cropping or harvesting term to the animal overpopulation model developed in Part I of this article. Investigates various harvesting strategies that might suggest a solution to the overpopulation problem without actually culling any animals. (ASK)

  7. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  8. Proso Millet Harvest: A Comparison of Conventional Harvest and Direct Harvest with a Stripper Header

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to determine if proso millet can be harvested with a stripper header. Stripper headers use extremely fast rotating metal teeth to rip the seed off the plant and leave the majority of residue standing in the field as opposed to cutting off the entire plant and running tha...

  9. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    DOEpatents

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1701 - Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS... § 165.1701 Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska—safety zone. The waters within the following boundaries are...

  11. 36 CFR 242.17 - Determining priorities for subsistence uses among rural Alaska residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA... limitations based on the application of the following criteria to each area, community, or individual... resources. (c) If allocation on an area or community basis is not achievable, then the Board shall...

  12. 43 CFR 2091.9 - Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.9 Segregation and opening resulting from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska. 2091.9 Section 2091.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...

  13. 43 CFR 2091.9 - Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.9 Segregation and opening resulting from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska. 2091.9 Section 2091.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...

  14. 43 CFR 2091.9 - Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.9 Segregation and opening resulting from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska. 2091.9 Section 2091.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...

  15. 43 CFR 2091.9 - Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.9 Segregation and opening resulting from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation and opening resulting from laws specific to Alaska. 2091.9 Section 2091.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...

  16. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  17. 77 FR 74181 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative; Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Regulatory Commission's (Commission's or FERC's) regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486 52 FR 47,897... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative; Alaska; Notice of Availability...

  18. 7 CFR 272.7 - Procedures for program administration in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for program administration in Alaska. 272.7 Section 272.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  19. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., or the Virgin Islands. (a) When is an increased mortgage limit permitted for these areas? For Alaska, Guam, Hawaii or the Virgin Islands, the Commissioner may increase the maximum mortgage amount...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States Army Restricted... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Army Restricted... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...

  2. 78 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska CFR Correction 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 660 to End,...

  3. 75 FR 38758 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... (75 FR 13024). IPHC regulations affecting sport fishing for halibut and charter vessels in IPHC Areas...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International Pacific...

  4. 76 FR 19708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: This interpretation clarifies regulations that apply to vessels operating in the guided sport... its limited access program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery, codified at 50 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1320 Section 334.1320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.1320 Section 334.1320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The northwest portion of Kuluk Bay bounded as...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1325 - United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false United States Army Restricted... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1325 United States Army Restricted Area, Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska. (a) The area. The area within...

  8. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  9. Alaska School District Cost Study Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Bradford H.; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Legislative Budget and Audit Committee of the Alaska Legislature has asked The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage to make certain changes and adjustments to the Geographic Cost of Education Index (GCEI) that the American Institutes for Research (AIR) constructed and reported on in Alaska…

  10. Bill Demmert and Native Education in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the influences of William Demmert's formative years growing up in Alaska and his years as an educator of Native American students upon his career in Native education policy. It focuses on Alaska Native education during a ten-year period between 1980 and 1990 during which time he served as the director of the Center for…

  11. Women's Legal Rights in Alaska. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatter, Sue Ellen; Saville, Sandra K.

    This publication is intended to help women in Alaska learn about their legal rights. Some of the information is of a general nature and will be of interest to women in other states. Some of the laws and resources are relevant to Alaska only. The publication can serve as a model to other states wanting to develop a resource to inform women about…

  12. Culturally Responsive Guidelines for Alaska Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines are predicated on the belief that culturally appropriate service to indigenous peoples is a fundamental principle of Alaska public libraries. While the impetus for developing the guidelines was service to the Alaska Native community, they can also be applied to other cultural groups. A culturally responsive library environment is…

  13. Building a Workforce Development System in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Sally

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Human Resources Investment Council developed a blueprint to guide a system that is needs-driven, accessible, interconnected, accountable, sustainable, and has collaborative governance. Vocational Technical Education Providers (VTEP) representing secondary education, technical schools, proprietary institutions, the University of Alaska,…

  14. Distance Learning in Alaska's Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramble, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information. The audio…

  15. 77 FR 16314 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alaska dated 03/13/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  16. 78 FR 39822 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alaska (FEMA-4122-DR... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  17. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  18. 77 FR 21802 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Kongnikilnomuit Yuita Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Bill Moore's Slough, Alaska, and are located... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... hours. Jennifer Noe, Land Law Examiner, Land Transfer Adjudication II Branch. BILLING CODE 4310-JA-P...

  19. Alaska Head Start. Annual Report for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1998. The report begins with a graphic presentation of the locations of Alaska Head Start programs and a table delineating the administrative and program partners of Head Start, its service population, eligibility requirements, funding sources, service…

  20. Facts & Figures about Education in Alaska, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This collection of tables presents selected facts and figures about education in Alaska. General and district school information about Alaska's 469 public schools in 54 districts and its 276 private and denominational schools is followed by tables of general student information, including average daily membership, enrollment, graduates, and…

  1. Integrating Intercultural Education: The Anchorage Alaska Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    The desire for students to understand and respect each other is a primary motivation for the effort to integrate multicultural education into all aspects of the Anchorage School District (Alaska) curriculum. The Anchorage curriculum emphasizes the cultural heritage of Alaska Natives, other resident ethnic groups and Pacific Rim cultures. In recent…

  2. Viewpoints: Reflections on the Principalship in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David A., Ed.

    In this collection, 32 Alaskan principals, retired principals, assistant principals, and principals-to-be share their experiences as administrators and reflect on their feelings about the nature of the work and about schooling issues in Alaska. Nine of the writings were selected from "Totem Tales," the newsletter of Alaska's Association of…

  3. Water Harvesting II: Working toward Being Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel; Craven, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As you have read in the previous "After the Bell" column, water harvesting is a process of diverting and collecting rainwater. One of the main reasons to harvest rainwater is to reduce the demand on local sources of water. The objective of the harvesting procedure is to gather water from a weather event that is usually lost as runoff and either…

  4. Fundamental Limits to Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear vibration energy harvesting has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. However, fundamental limits on the harvestable energy of a harvester subjected to an arbitrary excitation force and different constraints is not yet fully understood. Understanding these limits is not only essential for an assessment of the technology potential, but it also provides a broader perspective on the current harvesting mechanisms and guidance in their improvement. Here, we derive the fundamental limits on the output power of an ideal energy harvester for arbitrary excitation waveforms and build on the current analysis framework for the simple computation of this limit for more sophisticated setups. We show that the optimal harvester maximizes the harvested energy through a mechanical analog of a buy-low-sell-high strategy. We also propose a nonresonant passive latch-assisted harvester to realize this strategy for an effective harvesting. It is shown that the proposed harvester harvests energy more effectively than its linear and bistable counterparts over a wider range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The buy-low-sell-high strategy also reveals why the conventional bistable harvester works well at low-frequency excitation.

  5. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C. Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-28

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested.

  6. Nonlinear piezomagnetoelastic harvester array for broadband energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadrashta, Deepesh; Yang, Yaowen

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes an array of nonlinear piezomagnetoelastic energy harvesters (NPEHs) for scavenging electrical energy from broadband vibrations with low amplitudes (<2 m/s2). The array consists of monostable NPEHs combined to generate useful power output (˜100 μW) over wide bandwidth. The nonlinearity in each of the NPEHs is induced by the magnetic interaction between an embedded magnet in the tip mass of cantilever and a fixed magnet clamped to the rigid platform. The dynamic responses of two NPEHs, one with attractive configuration and the other with repulsive configuration, are combined to achieve a bandwidth of 3.3 Hz at a power level of 100 μW. A parametric study is carried out to obtain the gap distances between the magnets to achieve wide bandwidth. Experiments are performed to validate the proposed idea, the theoretical predictions, and to demonstrate the advantage of array of NPEHs over the array of linear piezoelectric energy harvesters (LPEHs). The experiments have clearly shown the advantage of NPEH array over its linear counterpart under both harmonic and random excitations. Approximately, 100% increase in the operation bandwidth is achieved by the NPEH array at harmonic excitation level of 2 m/s2. The NPEH array exhibits up to 80% improvement in the accumulated energy under random excitation when compared with the LPEH array. Furthermore, the performance of NPEH array with series and parallel connections between the individual harvesters using standard AC/DC interface circuits is also investigated and compared with its linear counterpart.

  7. Native Pathways to Education: Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks.

    The Alaska Federation of Natives, in cooperation with the University of Alaska, received funding to implement the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI). Over a 5-year period (1995-2000), AKRSI initiatives are systematically documenting the indigenous knowledge systems of Alaska Native people and developing educational policies and practices…

  8. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  9. The Alaska State Writing Consortium: The First Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parson, Gail

    This booklet documents the first 5 years of the Alaska State Writing Consortium, an association made up of 45 Alaska school districts, the Alaska Department of Education, and the University of Alaska. The Consortium, which oversees the organization and implementation of teacher training programs in writing and the teaching of writing, has five…

  10. Hamstring tendon harvesting--Effect of harvester on tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption; cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, C P; Alvi, F; Phaltankar, P; Gagey, O

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of hamstring tendon harvester used can influence harvested tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption. We compared two different types of tendon harvesters with regard to the length of tendon obtained and soft tissue disruption during hamstring tendon harvesting. Thirty six semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were harvested using either a closed stripper or a blade harvester in 18 paired knees from nine human fresh cadavers. Use of the blade harvester gave longer lengths of usable tendon whilst minimising the stripping of muscle and of any non-usable tendon. Our results suggest that the type of harvester per se can influence the length of tendon harvested as well as soft tissue disruption. Requesting such data from the industry prior to deciding which harvester to use seems desirable.

  11. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  12. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  13. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  14. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  15. Motorcycle waste heat energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Environmental concerns coupled with the depletion of fuel sources has led to research on ethanol, fuel cells, and even generating electricity from vibrations. Much of the research in these areas is stalling due to expensive or environmentally contaminating processes, however recent breakthroughs in materials and production has created a surge in research on waste heat energy harvesting devices. The thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in waste heat energy harvesting are governed by the Thermoelectric, or Seebeck, effect, generating electricity from a temperature gradient. Some research to date has featured platforms such as heavy duty diesel trucks, model airplanes, and automobiles, attempting to either eliminate heavy batteries or the alternator. A motorcycle is another platform that possesses some very promising characteristics for waste heat energy harvesting, mainly because the exhaust pipes are exposed to significant amounts of air flow. A 1995 Kawasaki Ninja 250R was used for these trials. The module used in these experiments, the Melcor HT3-12-30, produced an average of 0.4694 W from an average temperature gradient of 48.73 °C. The mathematical model created from the Thermoelectric effect equation and the mean Seebeck coefficient displayed by the module produced an average error from the experimental data of 1.75%. Although the module proved insufficient to practically eliminate the alternator on a standard motorcycle, the temperature data gathered as well as the examination of a simple, yet accurate, model represent significant steps in the process of creating a TEG capable of doing so.

  16. Metalliferous lode deposits of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berg, Henry C.; Cobb, Edward Huntington

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes from repoAs of Federal and State agencies published before August 31, 1965, the geology of Alaska's metal-bearing lodes, including their structural or stratigraphic control, host rock, mode of origin, kinds of .Q minerals, grade, past production, and extent of exploration. In addition, the lists of mineral occurrences that accompany the 35 mineral-deposit location maps constitute an inventory of the State's known lodes. A total of 692 localities where m&alliferous deposits have been found are shown on the maps. The localities include 1,739 mines, prospects, and reported occurrences, of which 821 are described individually or otherwise cited in the text.

  17. 78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan for... implement Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP). This proposed action would modify halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) management in the Gulf of Alaska...

  18. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  19. 33 CFR 165.1710 - Port Valdez and Valdez Narrows, Valdez, Alaska-security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described in 33 CFR 3.85-20 (b). (3) Valdez Narrows, Port Valdez, Valdez, Alaska. All waters 200 yards... point at 61°05′15″ N, 146°37′18″ W. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations in 33 CFR 165.33 apply..., as required under 33 CFR part 161 and § 165.1704, may operate as necessary to ensure safe passage...

  20. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  1. Principles of light harvesting from single photosynthetic complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schlau-Cohen, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic systems harness sunlight to power most life on Earth. In the initial steps of photosynthetic light harvesting, absorbed energy is converted to chemical energy with near-unity quantum efficiency. This is achieved by an efficient, directional and regulated flow of energy through a network of proteins. Here, we discuss the following three key principles of this flow and of photosynthetic light harvesting: thermal fluctuations of the protein structure; intrinsic conformational switches with defined functional consequences; and environmentally triggered conformational switches. Through these principles, photosynthetic systems balance two types of operational costs: metabolic costs, or the cost of maintaining and running the molecular machinery, and opportunity costs, or the cost of losing any operational time. Understanding how the molecular machinery and dynamics are designed to balance these costs may provide a blueprint for improved artificial light-harvesting devices. With a multi-disciplinary approach combining knowledge of biology, this blueprint could lead to low-cost and more effective solar energy conversion. Photosynthetic systems achieve widespread light harvesting across the Earth's surface; in the face of our growing energy needs, this is functionality we need to replicate, and perhaps emulate. PMID:26052423

  2. Principles of light harvesting from single photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Schlau-Cohen, G S

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthetic systems harness sunlight to power most life on Earth. In the initial steps of photosynthetic light harvesting, absorbed energy is converted to chemical energy with near-unity quantum efficiency. This is achieved by an efficient, directional and regulated flow of energy through a network of proteins. Here, we discuss the following three key principles of this flow and of photosynthetic light harvesting: thermal fluctuations of the protein structure; intrinsic conformational switches with defined functional consequences; and environmentally triggered conformational switches. Through these principles, photosynthetic systems balance two types of operational costs: metabolic costs, or the cost of maintaining and running the molecular machinery, and opportunity costs, or the cost of losing any operational time. Understanding how the molecular machinery and dynamics are designed to balance these costs may provide a blueprint for improved artificial light-harvesting devices. With a multi-disciplinary approach combining knowledge of biology, this blueprint could lead to low-cost and more effective solar energy conversion. Photosynthetic systems achieve widespread light harvesting across the Earth's surface; in the face of our growing energy needs, this is functionality we need to replicate, and perhaps emulate. PMID:26052423

  3. The influence of wind and ice on spring walrus hunting success on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Henry P.; Noongwook, George; Bond, Nicholas A.; Benter, Bradley; Snyder, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2013-10-01

    St. Lawrence Island Yupik hunters on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, take hundreds of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) each year. The harvest and associated effort (hunting trips taken), however, are variable from year to year and also from day to day, influenced by physical environmental factors among other variables. We used data from 1996 to 2010 to construct generalized additive models (GAMs) to examine several relationships among the variables. Physical factors explained 18% of the variability in harvest in Savoonga and 25% of the variability in effort; the corresponding figures for Gambell were 24% and 32%. Effort alone explained 63% of the harvest in Savoonga and 59% in Gambell. Physical factors played a relatively smaller role in determining hunting efficiency (walrus taken per hunting trip), explaining 15% of the variability in efficiency in Savoonga and 22% in Gambell, suggesting that physical factors play a larger role in determining whether to hunt than in the outcome of the hunt once undertaken. Combining physical factors with effort explained 70% of the harvest variability in Savoonga and 66% in Gambell. Although these results indicate that other factors (e.g. fuel prices, socioeconomic conditions) collectively cause a greater share of variability in harvest and effort than ice and wind, at least as indicated by the measures used as predictors in the GAMs, they also suggest that environmental change is also likely to influence future harvest levels, and that climate models that yield appropriately scaled data on ice and wind around St. Lawrence Island may be of use in determining the magnitude and direction of those influences.

  4. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  5. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  6. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  7. Sustainable harvest: managing plasticity for resilient crops

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Justin A; Rose, Terry J; King, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining crop production to feed a growing world population is a major challenge for this period of rapid global climate change. No consistent conceptual or experimental framework for crop plants integrates information at the levels of genome regulation, metabolism, physiology and response to growing environment. An important role for plasticity in plants is assisting in homeostasis in response to variable environmental conditions. Here, we outline how plant plasticity is facilitated by epigenetic processes that modulate chromatin through dynamic changes in DNA methylation, histone variants, small RNAs and transposable elements. We present examples of plant plasticity in the context of epigenetic regulation of developmental phases and transitions and map these onto the key stages of crop establishment, growth, floral initiation, pollination, seed set and maturation of harvestable product. In particular, we consider how feedback loops of environmental signals and plant nutrition affect plant ontogeny. Recent advances in understanding epigenetic processes enable us to take a fresh look at the crosstalk between regulatory systems that confer plasticity in the context of crop development. We propose that these insights into genotype × environment (G × E) interaction should underpin development of new crop management strategies, both in terms of information-led agronomy and in recognizing the role of epigenetic variation in crop breeding. PMID:24891039

  8. Sustainable harvest: managing plasticity for resilient crops.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Justin A; Rose, Terry J; King, Graham J

    2014-06-01

    Maintaining crop production to feed a growing world population is a major challenge for this period of rapid global climate change. No consistent conceptual or experimental framework for crop plants integrates information at the levels of genome regulation, metabolism, physiology and response to growing environment. An important role for plasticity in plants is assisting in homeostasis in response to variable environmental conditions. Here, we outline how plant plasticity is facilitated by epigenetic processes that modulate chromatin through dynamic changes in DNA methylation, histone variants, small RNAs and transposable elements. We present examples of plant plasticity in the context of epigenetic regulation of developmental phases and transitions and map these onto the key stages of crop establishment, growth, floral initiation, pollination, seed set and maturation of harvestable product. In particular, we consider how feedback loops of environmental signals and plant nutrition affect plant ontogeny. Recent advances in understanding epigenetic processes enable us to take a fresh look at the crosstalk between regulatory systems that confer plasticity in the context of crop development. We propose that these insights into genotype × environment (G × E) interaction should underpin development of new crop management strategies, both in terms of information-led agronomy and in recognizing the role of epigenetic variation in crop breeding.

  9. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W Stewart; Brenner, Richard E; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  10. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  11. Light harvesting in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2013-10-01

    Water oxidation in photosynthesis takes place in photosystem II (PSII). This photosystem is built around a reaction center (RC) where sunlight-induced charge separation occurs. This RC consists of various polypeptides that bind only a few chromophores or pigments, next to several other cofactors. It can handle far more photons than the ones absorbed by its own pigments and therefore, additional excitations are provided by the surrounding light-harvesting complexes or antennae. The RC is located in the PSII core that also contains the inner light-harvesting complexes CP43 and CP47, harboring 13 and 16 chlorophyll pigments, respectively. The core is surrounded by outer light-harvesting complexes (Lhcs), together forming the so-called supercomplexes, at least in plants. These PSII supercomplexes are complemented by some "extra" Lhcs, but their exact location in the thylakoid membrane is unknown. The whole system consists of many subunits and appears to be modular, i.e., both its composition and organization depend on environmental conditions, especially on the quality and intensity of the light. In this review, we will provide a short overview of the relation between the structure and organization of pigment-protein complexes in PSII, ranging from individual complexes to entire membranes and experimental and theoretical results on excitation energy transfer and charge separation. It will become clear that time-resolved fluorescence data can provide invaluable information about the organization and functioning of thylakoid membranes. At the end, an overview will be given of unanswered questions that should be addressed in the near future.

  12. Geology of the Alaska-Juneau lode system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenhofel, William Stephens

    1952-01-01

    The Alaska-Juneau lode system for many years was one of the worlds leading gold-producing areas. Total production from the years 1893 to 1946 has amounted to about 94 million dollars, with principal values in contained gold but with some silver and lead values. The principal mine is the Alaska-Juneau mine, from which the lode system takes its name. The lode system is a part of a larger gold-bearing belt, generally referred to as the Juneau gold belt, along the western border of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks of the Alaska-Juneau lode system consist of a monoclinal sequence of steeply northeasterly dipping volcanic, state, and schist rocks, all of which have been metamorphosed by dynamic and thermal processes attendant with the intrusion of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks form a series of belts that trend northwest parallel to the Coast Range. In addition to the Coast Range batholith lying a mile to the east of the lode system, there are numerous smaller intrusives, all of which are sill-like in form and are thus conformable to the regional structure. The bedded rocks are Mesozoic in age; the Coast Range batholith is Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in age. Some of the smaller intrusives pre-date the batholith, others post-date it. All of the rocks are cut by steeply dipping faults. The Alaska-Juneau lode system is confined exclusively to the footwall portion of the Perseverance slate band. The slate band is composed of black slate and black phyllite with lesser amounts of thin-bedded quartzite. Intrusive into the slate band are many sill-like bodies of rocks generally referred to as meta-gabbro. The gold deposits of the lode system are found both within the slate rocks and the meta-gabbro rocks, and particularly in those places where meta-gabbro bodies interfinger with slate. Thus the ore bodies are found in and near the terminations of meta-gabbro bodies. The ore bodies are quartz stringer-lodes composed of a great number of quartz veins from 6

  13. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  14. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, P. M.; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-01-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion. PMID:26538883

  15. 50 CFR 92.5 - Who is eligible to participate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.5... harvest area, you will be eligible to harvest migratory birds and their eggs for subsistence purposes... in the spring/summer harvest regulations if recommended by the Alaska Migratory Bird...

  16. Porous ferroelectrics for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscow, J.; Zhang, Y.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of energy harvesting using ferroelectric materials, with a particular focus on the energy harvesting capabilities of porous ferroelectric ceramics for both piezo- and pyroelectric harvesting. The benefits of introducing porosity into ferro- electrics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been known for over 30 years, but the potential advantages for energy harvesting from both ambient vibrations and temperature fluctuations have not been studied in depth. The article briefly discusses piezoelectric and pyro- electric energy harvesting, before evaluating the potential benefits of porous materials for increasing energy harvesting figures of merits and electromechanical/electrothermal coupling factors. Established processing routes are evaluated in terms of the final porous structure and the resulting effects on the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties.

  17. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  18. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  19. Alaska Simulator - A Journey to Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; Wild, Werner

    The Alaska Simulator is an interactive software tool developed at the University of Innsbruck which allows people to test, analyze and improve their own planning behavior. In addition, the Alaska Simulator can be used for studying research questions in the context of software project management and other related fields. Thereby, the Alaska Simulator uses a journey as a metaphor for planning a software project. In the context of software project management the simulator can be used to compare traditional rather plan-driven project management methods with more agile approaches. Instead of pre-planning everything in advance agile approaches spread planning activities throughout the project and provide mechanisms for effectively dealing with uncertainty. The biggest challenge thereby is to find the right balance between pre-planning activities and keeping options open. The Alaska Simulator allows to explore how much planning is needed under different circumstances.

  20. 76 FR 72212 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... published four times in The Delta Discovery. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the...

  1. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The... decision will also be published once a week for four ] consecutive weeks in the Delta Discovery. DATES:...

  2. 77 FR 20046 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... described below pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The lands being approved for conveyance are lands originally selected under ANCSA in the withdrawal area...

  3. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  4. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  5. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2015-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  6. Harvesting Large Fascia Lata Sheaths

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Aharon; Gatot, Albert; Zucker, Gideon; Sagi, Amiram; Fliss, Dan M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes an “S”-shaped incision for the open approach of harvesting wide sheets of fascia lata with reference to the important anatomical landmarks. Forty-three patients required dural replacement in cases of tumors, trauma, or cerebrospinal fluid leak involving the anterior skull base. The extended anterior suberanial approach to the skull base was used for all patients. Early functional status of the operated limb in seven of the patients treated first was assessed by physical examination and then by means of the computerized Kinetic Communicator (Kin-Com; Medex Diagnostics, Canada) dynamometer. None of these patients suffered any significant immediate complications and had good results at the preliminary functional assessment. All other patients were evaluated clinically for functional deficits of the operated lower limb to further assess its morbidity. The technique described herein was shown to enhance the case and control of fascia lata harvesting. It affords low complication rate and donor limb morbidity. Donor limb morbidity did not have any deleterious effect on the patients' normal daily activities and only became apparent during strenuous physical activity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171098

  7. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies. PMID:27546794

  8. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies.

  9. Synthetic polymers for solar harvesting.

    PubMed

    Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Bell, Toby D M; Hooley, Emma N

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic polymers incorporating appropriate chromophores can act as light harvesting antennae for artificial photosynthetic systems. The photophysical processes occurring in a polymer based on phenylene vinylene have been investigated at the single chain level and in bulk solution to study energy transfer processes. Most single chains of an alternating copolymer of 2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene and 1,4-phenylene vinylene (alt-co-MEH-PPV) dispersed in a transparent polymer matrix act as single chromophore emitters demonstrating that energy transfer is an efficient process in these polymers. However for individual polymer chains there are fluctuations in emission intensity ('blinking') and shifts in emission spectra, decay lifetimes and emission dipole orientation occurring on a time-scale of tens of seconds. Fluorescence blinking also occurs on a sub-millisecond time-scale and follows exponential kinetics, whereas the longer blinking is better described by a power law. These observations can be interpreted as arising from environmental relaxation processes and/or changes in the emitter and demonstrate the wide distribution of photophysical behaviours that can be observed among the individual molecules of a polymer sample. The relevance of these studies to the application of polymer materials for solar harvesting is highlighted.

  10. Propagation measurements in Alaska using ACTS beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The placement of an ACTS propagation terminal in Alaska has several distinct advantages. First is the inclusion of a new and important climatic zone to the global propagation model. Second is the low elevation look angle from Alaska to ACTS. These two unique opportunities also present problems unique to the location, such as extreme temperatures and lower power levels. These problems are examined and compensatory solutions are presented.

  11. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  12. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  13. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  14. Exporting Alaska's oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.F.; Copulos, M.; Watkins, D.J.

    1983-02-22

    Federal legislation that prohibits the commercial export of oil and gas is creating a glut and discouraging oil production in California, while raising energy costs by shipping the fuel to the East and Gulf Coasts. The historical security reasons for blocking the export of Alaskan oil no longer exist, yet they continue to impose costs for the taxpayer. The optimum solution appears to be to export liquefied natural gas, using a pipeline paralleling the oil pipeline to Valdez. This would encourage the use and manufacture in Alaska of urea and ammonia fertilizer for export to the Far East, which would enhance US/Japan relations. The possibility of exports of additional oil, bringing a higher return for producers, will encourage production, reduce the need for OPEC oil, and moderate world oil prices. 5 references.

  15. 50 CFR 92.30 - General overview of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-season regulations for migratory game bird hunting. (a) The taking, possession, transportation, and other... within Alaska and throughout North America. Therefore, the regulations governing migratory bird hunting... regulations in this part, like the development of the annual migratory game bird hunting regulations in...

  16. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOEpatents

    Eggen, D.L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester. 8 figs.

  17. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOEpatents

    Eggen, David L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

  18. Vibration energy harvester optimization using artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Kurfurst, J.; Singule, V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization study of a vibration energy harvester. This harvester can be used as autonomous source of electrical energy for remote or wireless applications, which are placed in environment excited by ambient mechanical vibrations. The ambient energy of vibrations is usually on very low level but the harvester can be used as alternative source of energy for electronic devices with an expected low level of power consumption of several mW. The optimized design of the vibration energy harvester was based on previous development and the sensitivity of harvester design was improved for effective harvesting from mechanical vibrations in aeronautic applications. The vibration energy harvester is a mechatronic system which generates electrical energy from ambient vibrations due to precision tuning up generator parameters. The optimization study for maximization of harvested power or minimization of volume and weight are the main goals of our development. The optimization study of such complex device is complicated therefore artificial intelligence methods can be used for tuning up optimal harvester parameters.

  19. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  20. Geologic Map of Central (Interior) Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Dover, James H.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Weber, Florence R.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction: This map and associated digital databases are the result of a compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and limited 1:125,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 416,000 sq km (134,000 sq mi) and encompasses 25 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in central Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Surveys and Analysis project, whose goal is nationwide assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This map is an early product of an effort that will eventually encompass all of Alaska, and is the result of an agreement with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil And Gas, to provide data on interior basins in Alaska. A paper version of the three map sheets has been published as USGS Open-File Report 98-133. Two geophysical maps that cover the identical area have been published earlier: 'Bouguer gravity map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and others, 1996); and 'Merged aeromagnetic map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and Saltus, 1995). These two publications are supplied in the 'geophys' directory of this report.