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Sample records for alaska highway gas

  1. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  2. 75 FR 70349 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highways in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Highway from Lucus Road to Big Lake Road, in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough, State of Alaska. Those actions... improvements between Lucus Road and Big Lake Road, a distance of approximately eight miles. The five-lane section east of the project would be extended one mile west from Lucus Road to Church Road and...

  3. Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway

    PubMed Central

    Godduhn, Anna; Duffy, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Background A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP). Objective The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems. Design This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n=325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist). Results The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems. Conclusion Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article

  4. Gas main installed under a major four-lane highway

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, G.R. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and installation of a natural gas pipeline in Richmond, British Columbia. Because of problems with existing utility lines, pressure requirements, safety concerns, socio-economic interests, it was decided that the only alternative was down the center-line of the highway. The paper reviews the geologic site conditions which favored directional drilling operations along with the actual drilling equipment involved. It reviews the problems encountered and how such problems were overcome.

  5. Permafrost distribution mapping and temperature modeling along the Alaska Highway corridor, Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Santosh K.

    An up-to-date permafrost distribution map is critical for making engineering decisions during the planning and design of any engineering project in Interior Alaska. I used a combination of empirical-statistical and remote sensing techniques to generate a high-resolution spatially continuous near-surface (< 1.6 m) permafrost map by exploiting the correlative relationships between permafrost and biophysical terrain parameters. A Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) model was used to establish the relationship between vegetation type, aspect-slope and permafrost presence. The logistic coefficients for each variable class obtained from the BLR model were supplied to respective variable classes mapped from remotely sensed data to estimate permafrost probability for every pixel. The BLR model predicts permafrost presence/absence at an accuracy of 88%. Near-surface permafrost occupies 37% of the total study area. A permafrost map based on the interpretation of airborne electromagnetic (EM) resistivity data shows 22.5 -- 43.5% of the total study area as underlain by permafrost. Permafrost distribution statistics from both the maps suggest near-surface permafrost distribution in the study area is sporadic (10 -- 50 % of the area underlain by permafrost). Changes in air temperature and/or winter snow depth are important factors responsible for permafrost aggradation or degradation. I evaluated the effects of past and recent (1941-2008) climate changes on permafrost and active-layer dynamics at selected locations using the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory model. Results revealed that active-layer thickness reached 0.58 and 1.0 m, and mean annual permafrost temperature increased by 1.6 and 1.7 °C during 1966-1994 at two sites in response to increased mean annual air temperature, mean summer air temperature and winter snow depth. The study found that active-layer thickness is not only a function of summer air temperature but also of mean annual air temperature and

  6. Hydrology and modeling of flow conditions at Bridge 339 and Mile 38-43, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The Copper River basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles in south-central Alaska. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. The Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, has been affected by channel planform reconfiguration. Currently (2012), two areas of the Copper River Highway are at risk: at Mile 38-43, the road grade is too low and the highway could be flooded by high flows of the Copper River, and at Mile 36, the main channel of the Copper River has migrated directly toward Bridge 339. Because Bridge 339 was not designed and built to convey the main flow of the Copper River, as much as 50 feet of scour occurred at the piers in 2011. The piers can no longer absorb the lateral or vertical loads, resulting in closure of the bridge and the Copper River Highway. The U.S. Geological Survey Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model was used to simulate the flow of the Copper River and produce simulations of depth, water-surface elevation, and velocity. At the Mile 38-43 area, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of raising the road grade 5 feet, and at Mile 36, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of constructing a channel to divert flow away from Bridge 339. Results from FaSTMECH indicate that if raising the road grade 5 feet in the Mile 38-43 area, a flood with an annual exceedance probability of 2 percent (400,000 cubic feet per second) would not overtop the highway. In the Bridge 339 area, results from FaSTMECH indicate that a design channel could divert flows as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second away from Bridge 339.

  7. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    The great earthquake that struck Alaska about 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, Friday, March 27, 1964 (03:36:1.3.0, Greenwich mean time, March 28, 1964), severely crippled the highway system in the south-central part of the State. All the major highways and most secondary roads were impaired. Damage totaled more than $46 million, well over $25 million to bridges and nearly $21 million to roadways. Of the 204 bridges in south-central Alaska, 141 were damaged; 92 were severely damaged or destroyed. The earthquake damaged 186 of the 830 miles of roadway in south-central Alaska, 83 miles so severely that replacement or relocation was required. Earthquake damage to the roadways and bridges was chiefly by (1) seismic shaking, (2) compaction of fills as well as the underlying sediments, (3) lateral displacement of the roadway and bridges, (4) fractures, (5) landslides, (6) avalanches, (7) inundation by seismic sea waves, (8) scouring by seismic sea waves, (9) regional tectonic subsidence, causing inundation and erosion by high tides in subsided areas. The intensity of damage was controlled primarily by the geologic environment (including the depth of the water table) upon which the highway structures rested, and secondarily by the engineering characteristics of the structures. Structures on bedrock were only slightly damaged if at all, whereas those on unconsolidated sediments were slightly to severely damaged, or were completely destroyed by seismic shaking. The low-lying areas underlain by saturated sediments, such as the Snow River Crossing and Turnagain Arm sections of the Seward-Anchorage Highway, were the most severely damaged stretches of the highway system in south-central Alaska. At Snow River and Turnagain Arm, the sediments underlying the roadway are fine grained and the water table is shallow. These factors were responsible for the intense damage along this stretch of the highway. All the bridges on the Copper River Highway except for one on bedrock were

  8. Seismic velocity models for the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Ratchkovski, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal-scale seismic-velocity models across the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway show a 50-km-thick crust, a near vertical fault trace, and a 5-km-wide damage zone associated with the fault near Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station 10, which provided the closest strong ground motion recordings of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. We compare models, derived from seismic reflection and refraction surveys acquired in 1986 and 1987, to laboratory measurements of seismic velocities for typical metamorphic rocks exposed along the profiles. Our model for the 1986 seismic reflection profile indicates a 5-km-wide low-velocity zone in the upper 1 km of the Denali fault zone, which we interpret as fault gouge. Deeper refractions from our 1987 line image a 40-km wide, 5-km-deep low-velocity zone along the Denali fault and nearby associated fault strands, which we attribute to a composite damage zone along several strands of the Denali fault zone and to the obliquity of the seismic line to the fault zone. Our velocity model and other geophysical data indicate a nearly vertical Denali fault zone to a depth of 30 km. After-shocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake and our velocity model provide evidence for a flower structure along the fault zone consisting of faults dipping toward and truncated by the Denali fault. Wide-angle reflections indicate that the crustal thickness beneath the Denali fault is transitional between the 60-km-thick crust beneath the Alaska Range to the south, and the extended, 30-km-thick crust of the Yukon-Tanana terrane to the north.

  9. Crustal structure of the alaska range orogen and denali fault along the richardson highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Pellerin, L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of geophysical data obtained along the Richardson Highway crosses the eastern Alaska Range and Denali fault and reveals the crustal structure of the orogen. Strong seismic reflections from within the orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal what is probably a shear zone that transects most of the crust and is part of a crustal-scale duplex structure that probably formed during the Late Cretaceous. These structures, however, appear to be relict because over the past 20 years, they have produced little or no seismicity despite the nearby Mw = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake that struck in 2002. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but we interpret modeled magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data to propose that the fault dips steeply to vertically. Modeling of MT data shows that aftershocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake occurred above a rock body that has low electrical resistivity (>10 ohm-m), which might signify the presence of fluids in the middle and lower crust. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Riches from the earth: A geologic tour along the Dalton highway, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, W.R.; Banet, A.

    1993-12-31

    ;Contents: Oil--Catalyst for Change; The Haul Road--Highway to the Arctic; Origins: The Geologic Setting; Glaciers Shape the Land; Glaciation and Wildlife Distribution; Permafrost and the Periglacial Environment; The Dalton Highway Road Log; Glossary; and Selected References.

  11. Multi-decadal degradation and persistence of permafrost in the Alaska Highway corridor, northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Megan; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Smith, Sharon L.; Miceli, Christina M.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in permafrost distribution in the southern discontinuous zone were evaluated by repeating a 1964 survey through part of the Alaska Highway corridor (56° N-61° N) in northwest Canada. A total of 55 sites from the original survey in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon were located using archival maps and photographs. Probing for frozen ground, manual excavations, air and ground temperature monitoring, borehole drilling and geophysical techniques were used to gather information on present-day permafrost and climatic conditions. Mean annual air temperatures have increased by 1.5-2.0 ° C since the mid-1970s and significant degradation of permafrost has occurred. Almost half of the permafrost sites along the entire transect which exhibited permafrost in 1964 do so no longer. This change is especially evident in the south where two-thirds of the formerly permafrost sites have thawed and the limit of permafrost appears to have shifted northward. The permafrost that persists is patchy, generally less than 15 m thick, has mean annual surface temperatures >0 ° C, mean ground temperatures between -0.5 and 0 ° C, is in peat or beneath a thick organic mat, and appears to have a thicker active layer than in 1964. Its persistence may relate to the latent heat requirements of thawing permafrost or to the large thermal offset of organic soils. The study demonstrates that degradation of permafrost has occurred in the margins of its distribution in the last few decades, a trend that is expected to continue as the climate warms.

  12. 76 FR 46889 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Alex Viteri, Senior Transportation Engineer, FHWA Alaska Division, P.O. Box 21648, Juneau, Alaska 99802- 1648; office hours 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (AST), phone (907) 586-7544; e- mail Alex..., Juneau, Alaska 99811-2506; office hours 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. (AST), phone (907) 465-4499, e-mail...

  13. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... docket, FERC enacted regulations under the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Act which established...

  14. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2016-02-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  15. Pollen, vegetation, and climate relationships along the Dalton Highway, Alaska, USA: a basis for holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.K.; Andrews, J.T.; Webber, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dalton Highway extends from Fairbanks, in the interior of Alaska, to Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Over this 600-km transect, July temperatures vary from 17 to 5/sup 0/C. Studies of vegetation along the Dalton Highway identified nine major zones. During the vegetation survey moss polsters were collected within the survey quadrats. Two hundred and nineteen individual moss polsters document regional variations in the modern pollen spectra along this vegetation/climate transect. Treeline is distinguished by a change from dominance by spruce and shrub (especially alder) pollen to the south to herb and shrub (especially willow) pollen dominance to the north; a shift from high modern pollen concentration values to very low values is also noted. Discriminant analysis indicated that the vegetation zones are also defined by different pollen assemblages, suggesting that former changes in vegetation during the Holocene, as recorded in peat deposits, could be interpreted from pollen diagrams. Transfer functions were developed to examine the statistical association between the modern pollen rain and several climatic parameters. The correlation between pollen taxa and mean July temperature was r = 0.84. The most important taxa in the equation are Picea, Alnus, Pinus, Sphagnum, and Betula. 59 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  16. 77 FR 44472 - Safety Zone; Port Valdez, Alaska Maritime Highway System Ferry Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Ferry Terminal AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Marine Highway System (AMHS) Terminal in Port Valdez when an AMHS Ferry is arriving or departing when... AMHS Ferry Terminal. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of passenger vessels...

  17. Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Robertson, E.P.

    1995-07-01

    For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.

  18. Application of the Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road. Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  19. Engineered Water Highways in Fuel Cells: Radiation Grafting of Gas Diffusion Layers.

    PubMed

    Forner-Cuenca, Antoni; Biesdorf, Johannes; Gubler, Lorenz; Kristiansen, Per Magnus; Schmidt, Thomas Justus; Boillat, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    A novel method to produce gas diffusion layers with patterned wettability for fuel cells is presented. The local irradiation and subsequent grafting permits full design flexibility and wettability tuning, while modifying throughout the whole material thickness. These water highways have improved operando performance due to an optimized water management inside the cells. PMID:26395373

  20. Scour assessment at bridges from Flag Point to Million Dollar Bridge, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve bridges are located along the Copper River Highway from Flag Point (Mile 27) to lhe Million Dollar Bridge (Mile 48). These bridges cross all or parts of the Copper River. Channel scour at these bridges was assessed by collecting and analyzing discharge and sediment data, analyzing aerial photography for eight different years, surveying and comparing cross sections, and utilizing scour equations. Between 1968 and 1992, scour occurring at Bridge 331 has formed two distinct channels at the bridge. The channel at Bridge 1187 has remained relatively unchanged between 1968 and 1992. During this same time period, the channel at Bridge 332 appears to have gradually filled. However, during the 1992 runoff season, the channel at this bridge scoured significantly, probably because of its unstable nature. The most significant scour has occurred at Bridge 342. A high-water period in 1981 probably shifted much of the flow of the Copper River through this bridge. As a result, severe contraction scour occurred which required major repairs to the bridge. During 1991 and 1992, the approach channel to Bridge 342 has been migrating, causing scour in the left side of the channel. Bed material at the Million Dollar Bridge consists of hard unweathered boulders nested in dense gravel. Because of this type of erosion-resistant material, no significant scour has occurred at this site. Contraction scour equations overestimated the mean depth of flow at Bridge 331 by 2.6 to 5.0 ft, but were within 1.0 ft of the mean depth of flow for Bridge 1187. The local scour equations generally overestimated local scour at both Bridge 331 and Bridge 1187. The accuracy of some equations was probably affected because water velocities could not be obtained upstream from the piers.

  1. Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

  3. Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the stability of gas hydrates in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamath, A.; Godbole, S.P.; Ostermann, R.D.; Collett, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    The factors which control the distribution of in situ gas hydrate deposits in colder regions such as Northern Alaska include; mean annual surface temperatures (MAST), geothermal gradients above and below the base of permafrost, subsurface pressures, gas composition, pore-fluid salinity and the soil condition. Currently existing data on the above parameters for the forty-six wells located in Northern Alaska were critically examined and used in calculations of depths and thicknesses of gas hydrate stability zones. To illustrate the effect of gas hydrate stability zones, calculations were done for a variable gas composition using the thermodynamic model of Holder and John (1982). The hydrostatic pressure gradient of 9.84 kPa/m (0.435 lbf/in2ft), the salinity of 10 parts per thousand (ppt) and the coarse-grained soil conditions were assumed. An error analysis was performed for the above parameters and the effect of these parameters on hydrate stability zone calculations were determined. After projecting the hydrate stability zones for the forty-six wells, well logs were used to identify and to obtain values for the depth and thickness of hydrate zones. Of the forty-six wells, only ten wells showed definite evidence of the presence of gas hydrates. ?? 1987.

  5. Information highway: Alliances and their impact on the gas industry. Topical report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The report describes the major developments in digital information networks, the key industry players and their alliances and technologies, and the significance of their activities to the gas industry. The newly-integrated industries involved in creating the 'information highway' are likely to promote standards based on open protocols and accelerate the pace of technology implementation in new products that link home systems and external network systems. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Factors leading to the development of a new communications infrastructure and the alliances driving it were analyzed in order to best define opportunities and interests for the gas industry.

  6. Information highway and the gas industry: A threat or opportunity. Topical report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    This topical report discusses the likely infrastructure and services of the information highway, or I-Way, and examines I-Way activities already being undertaken by major players in the communications and energy industries. The report outlines the threats and opportunities to gas utilities that are posed by the development of a national information infrastructure. Research was conducted using primary and secondary sources, on-line databases, and documentary research. Competitive factors are analyzed and innovative technology trials are examined both theoretically and through the use of case studies. Specific competitive threats and business opportunities for the gas industry are discussed.

  7. Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Houseknect, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed the first assessment of the undiscovered technically recoverable gas-hydrate resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources within gas hydrates in northern Alaska.

  8. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  9. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  10. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and gas activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  11. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and...

  12. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  13. 75 FR 6370 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop... hold a workshop on the procedures and process for holding and commenting on an open season for...

  14. 75 FR 15336 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...The Commission is amending its regulations, in order to clarify them in response to Order Nos. 717 and 717- A, governing the Standards of Conduct for transmission providers. These amendments are required in order to make clear to prospective applicants for an Alaska natural gas transportation project which Standards of Conduct are applicable to conducting open seasons for Alaska natural gas......

  15. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Rescheduled Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop February 17, 2010....

  16. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production

  17. Evaluation of cased and uncased gas distribution and transmission piping under railroads and highways, Phase 2. Annual report, November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, T.D.; Stewart, H.E.; Ingraffea, A.R.; Nyman, K.J.; Crossley, C.W.

    1987-11-01

    A comprehensive methodology is being developed for evaluating stresses in natural gas pipelines at railroad and highway crossings. The methodology accounts for soil-structure interaction and the three-dimensional distribution of pipeline stresses. The methodology involves delineating field loads and geometries through detailed site observations and discussions with industry personnel, and using computer graphics to analyze pipeline stresses under the complex three-dimensional conditions which prevail in the field. Field experiments will be performed to substantiate the predicted pipeline stresses at railroad crossings. Guidelines will be developed for pipeline crossings acceptable to representatives of gas, railroad, and highway industries.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-03-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO2-e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using /metric-ton CO2-e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment.

  19. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  20. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  1. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  2. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  4. Construction guidelines for oil and gas exploration in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crory, F.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report addresses the unique problems associated with oil and gas explorations in northern Alaska and provides background information on the climate and environment, including the permanently frozen ground that exists throughout the area. Information on exploration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s is also included to demonstrate what happens when summertime operations disturb the surface vegetation and thermal regime of the frozen tundra, being the basis for why such operations are no longer permitted. Separate chapters are provided on the design, construction and operation of winter trails, roads, airfields and drill pads, including a separate chapter on their abandonment. Emphasis is placed on how, why and when to accomplish the various tasks to successfully accomplish an exploration.

  5. Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Tables, and Massive Ice within Multi-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar Profiles Recorded Beneath Highways in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Road Radar generally refers to ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys intended to investigate pavement construction using pulses centered above 1 GHz. In interior Alaska thick sand and gravel grading and its frozen state by late winter generally afford up to 10 m of signal penetration at lower frequencies. Consequently, this penetration potentially allows identification of pavement issues involving frost heave and thaw settlement, while the smooth surface allows assessment of GPR performance in permafrost areas under ideal survey conditions. Here I discuss profiles using pulse center frequencies from 50 to 360 MHz, recorded over sections of the Steese and Elliott Highways within and just north of Fairbanks, respectively, and of the Tok Highway near Glennallen. Construction fill is easily recognized by its stratification; where marginally present along the Elliott it is replaced by steeply dipping horizons from the underlying schist. The frost depth and water table horizons are recognized by phase attributes of the reflected pulse, as dictated by the contrasts present in dielectric permittivity, their relative depths, and their continuity. Undulating stratification in the sand and gravel fill indicates thaw settlement, as caused by the melting of buried massive ice. The Tok section reveals the top and likely the bottom of massive ice. Generally, signal penetration is greatly reduced beneath the water table and so the highest resolution, at 360 MHz, covers all horizons. There is rare evidence of a permafrost table because it is most likely masked or nearly coincident with the water table. Permafrost penetration in frozen silts is a long-standing problem for GPR, for which I discuss a possible cause related to Maxwell-Wagner dielectric relaxation losses associated with unfrozen water.

  6. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold a National...

  7. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Permafrost-associated natural gas hydrate occurrences on the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.W.; Agena, W.F.; Miller, J.J.; Lewis, K.A.; Zyrianova, M.V.; Boswell, R.; Inks, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s Russian scientists made what was then a bold assertion that gas hydrates should occur in abundance in nature. Since this early start, the scientific foundation has been built for the realization that gas hydrates are a global phenomenon, occurring in permafrost regions of the arctic and in deep water portions of most continental margins worldwide. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey made the first systematic assessment of the in-place natural gas hydrate resources of the United States. That study suggested that the amount of gas in the gas hydrate accumulations of northern Alaska probably exceeds the volume of known conventional gas resources on the North Slope. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually become a producible energy resource, yet technical and economic hurdles have historically made gas hydrate development a distant goal. This view began to change in recent years with the realization that this unconventional resource could be developed with existing conventional oil and gas production technology. One of the most significant developments was the completion of the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on the Alaska North Slope, which along with the Mallik project in Canada, have for the first time allowed the rational assessment of gas hydrate production technology and concepts. Almost 40 years of gas hydrate research in northern Alaska has confirmed the occurrence of at least two large gas hydrate accumulations on the North Slope. We have also seen in Alaska the first ever assessment of how much gas could be technically recovered from gas hydrates. However, significant technical concerns need to be further resolved in order to assess the ultimate impact of gas hydrate energy resource development in northern Alaska. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... Management's (BLM) Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold an oil and gas lease sale...

  10. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 in the National... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale...

  11. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 in the National... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National...

  12. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  13. A petroleum system model for gas hydrate deposits in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, Timothy S.; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are common on the North Slope of Alaska around Prudhoe Bay, however the extent of these deposits is unknown outside of this area. As part of a United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) gas hydrate research collaboration, well cutting and mud gas samples have been collected and analyzed from mainly industry-drilled wells on the Alaska North Slope for the purpose of prospecting for gas hydrate deposits. On the Alaska North Slope, gas hydrates are now recognized as an element within a petroleum systems approach or TPS (Total Petroleum System). Since 1979, 35 wells have been samples from as far west as Wainwright to Prudhoe Bay in the east. Geochemical studies of known gas hydrate occurrences on the North Slope have shown a link between gas hydrate and more deeply buried conventional oil and gas deposits. Hydrocarbon gases migrate from depth and charge the reservoir rock within the gas hydrate stability zone. It is likely gases migrated into conventional traps as free gas, and were later converted to gas hydrate in response to climate cooling concurrent with permafrost formation. Gas hydrate is known to occur in one of the sampled wells, likely present in 22 others based gas geochemistry and inferred by equivocal gas geochemistry in 11 wells, and absent in one well. Gas migration routes are common in the North Slope and include faults and widespread, continuous, shallowly dipping permeable sand sections that are potentially in communication with deeper oil and gas sources. The application of this model with the geochemical evidence suggests that gas hydrate deposits may be widespread across the North Slope of Alaska.

  14. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  15. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska north slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Lee, M.W.; Anderson, B.J.; Rose, K.; Lewis, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation

  16. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Lee, Myung W.; Anderson, Brian J.; Rose, Kelly K.; Lewis, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation.

  17. Airborne Gas Surveillance of Volcanoes in Western USA and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.

    2002-05-01

    Volcanoes of the western USA and Alaska pose challenges to gas surveillance of volcano unrest. Locations are remote, and ground access is generally difficult. Wet climates and melt from glaciers and thick winter snowpack foster hydrothermal and ground waters that can scrub acid gases (SO2, HCl, HF) before they reach the surface, thereby masking their degassing from shallow vapor-saturated subvolcanic magma. These gases may not exhibit significant increases in emission rates until dry pathways or magma itself reaches the surface. Background or low emissions of the acid gases may thus give a false sense of security. CO2 is more likely to give early indication of subvolcanic magma degassing. It is the second most abundant magmatic volatile; it is among the least soluble magmatic volatiles; and it is far less susceptible to scrubbing than SO2, HCl, or HF. Rising H2S emissions are also a plausible early warning, since unlike SO2, HCl and HF, H2S is strongly volatilized from boiling water. Unfortunately, remote sensing of early increases in volcanic CO2 and H2S emissions is usually problematic, owing to high atmospheric CO2 levels, water vapor interference, and poor H2S infrared absorbance. We have therefore developed an aircraft-mounted system that directly measures these gases by extraction sampling of plumes. The system includes an infrared spectrometer for CO2 and an electrochemical sensor for H2S, in addition to a COSPEC and high-precision barometer, temperature probe, and GPS receiver. Measurements are made at different elevations along traverses orthogonal to plume direction or along orbits around a volcano if plume is not visible. Data for all gases are recorded in a data logger at 1-s intervals and tagged with clock time, latitude, longitude, altitude, temperature, and pressure. In-flight wind data are also acquired. Plume cross-sections are constructed with mapping software and used to calculate emission rates. Several campaigns to date show that emission rates

  18. Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    At the 2008 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, the USGS will release the results of the first assessment of the undiscovered technically recoverable gas hydrate resources on the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources -- that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced by using current technology. The assessment is based on the geologic elements used to define a Total Petroleum System (TPS), including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties, seismic attribute development, and prospecting), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located about 4.8 km north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering about 114,765 square km. For the first time, the USGS has assessed gas hydrates, a traditionally unconventional resource with no confirmed production history, as a producible resource occurring in discrete hydrocarbon traps and structures. The approach used to assess the gas hydrate resources in northern Alaska followed standard geology-based USGS assessment methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, it was documented through the analysis of three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. The USGS conventional assessment approach also assumes that the hydrocarbon resource being assessed can be produced by

  19. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Lee, Myung W.; Anderson, Brian J.; Rose, Kelly K.; Lewis, Kristen A.

    2012-01-01

    The results of short-duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy-resource potential of gas hydrates and have justified the need for long-term gas-hydrate-production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gashydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas-hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with the US Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas-hydrate-production test sites. The test-site-assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas-hydrate testing. The site-selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas-hydrate-production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area and provides new information on the nature of gas-hydrate occurrence and the potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well-log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  1. Gas hydrate prospecting using well cuttings and mud-gas geochemistry from 35 wells, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are common on the North Slope of Alaska around Prudhoe Bay; however, the extent of these deposits is unknown outside of this area. As part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management gas hydrate research collaboration, well-cutting and mud-gas samples have been collected and analyzed from mainly industry-drilled wells on the North Slope for the purpose of prospecting for gas hydrate deposits. On the Alaska North Slope, gas hydrates are now recognized as an element within a petroleum systems approach or "total petroleum system." Since 1979, 35 wells have been sampled from as far west as Wainwright to Prudhoe Bay in the east. Regionally, the USGS has assessed the gas hydrate resources of the North Slope and determined that there is about 85.4 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable hydrate-bound gas within three assessment units. The assessment units are defined mainly by three separate stratigraphic sections and constrained by the physical temperatures and pressures where gas hydrate can form. Geochemical studies of known gas hydrate occurrences on the North Slope have shown a link between gas hydrate and more deeply buried conventional oil and gas deposits. The link is established when hydrocarbon gases migrate from depth and charge the reservoir rock within the gas hydrate stability zone. It is likely gases migrated into conventional traps as free gas and were later converted to gas hydrate in response to climate cooling concurrent with permafrost formation. Results from this study indicate that some thermogenic gas is present in 31 of the wells, with limited evidence of thermogenic gas in four other wells and only one well with no thermogenic gas. Gas hydrate is known to occur in one of the sampled wells, likely present in 22 others on the basis of gas geochemistry, and inferred by equivocal gas geochemistry in 11 wells, and one well was without gas hydrate. Gas migration routes are common in the North Slope and

  2. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  3. Commercial possibilities for stranded conventional gas from Alaska's North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stranded gas resources are defined for this study as gas resources in discrete accumulations that are not currently commercially producible, or producible at full potential, for either physical or economic reasons. Approximately 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of stranded gas was identified on Alaska’s North Slope. The commercialization of this resource requires facilities to transport gas to markets where sales revenue will be sufficient to offset the cost of constructing and operating a gas delivery system. With the advent of the shale gas revolution, plans for a gas pipeline to the conterminous US have been shelved (at least temporarily) and the State and resource owners are considering a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project that targets Asian markets. This paper focuses on competitive conditions for Asian gas import markets by estimating delivered costs of competing supplies from central Asia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia in the context of a range of import gas demand projections for the period from 2020 to 2040. These suppliers’ costs are based on the cost of developing, producing, and delivering to markets tranches of the nearly 600 TCF of recoverable gas from their own conventional stranded gas fields. The results of these analyses imply that Alaska’s gas exports to Asia will likely encounter substantial competitive challenges. The sustainability of Asia’s oil-indexed LNG pricing is also discussed in light of a potentially intense level of competition.

  4. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Assessment of the Eileen Gas Hydrate Accumulation, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy S. Collett; David J. Taylor; Warren F. Agena; Myung W. Lee; John J. Miller; Margarita Zyrianova

    2005-04-30

    Using detailed analysis and interpretation of 2-D and 3-D seismic data, along with modeling and correlation of specially processed log data, a viable methodology has been developed for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (HSZ) and associated ''sub-hydrate'' free gas prospects in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska (Figure 1). The seismic data, in conjunction with modeling results from a related study, was used to characterize the conditions under which gas hydrate prospects can be delineated using conventional seismic data, and to analyze reservoir fluid properties. Monte Carlo style gas hydrate volumetric estimates using Crystal Ball{trademark} software to estimate expected in-place reserves shows that the identified prospects have considerable potential as gas resources. Future exploratory drilling in the Milne Point area should provide answers about the producibility of these shallow gas hydrates.

  5. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Alaska State Office, under the authority of 43 CFR 3131.2, is issuing a call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest Planning Areas of the NPR-A. A map of the NPR-A showing available areas is online......

  6. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Alaska State Office, under the authority of 43 CFR 3131.2, is issuing a call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve--Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest Planning Areas of the NPR-A. Maps of the NPR-A showing available areas are online at......

  7. Critical fishery species in Alaska offshore oil and gas lease areas

    SciTech Connect

    Arbegast, J.; Allen, M.

    1980-11-01

    Offshore oil and gas development in Alaska is governed through sales of lease blocks in designated areas. USBLM manages these sales and prepares the necessary environmental impact statement prior to each sale. Collected fishery data are tabulated, linking critical crustacean and fishery species with their associated lease areas. Listed are critical species, organized by taxonomic name, associated common name, and taxonomic code numbers. Each critical species is linked to one or more of the lease area numbers, derived from USBLM planning units.

  8. Near-road multipollutant profiles: associations between volatile organic compounds and a tracer gas surrogate near a busy highway.

    PubMed

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Ciesielski, Anna; Shores, Richard C; Thoma, Eben D; Seila, Robert L; Isakov, Vlad; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-05-01

    This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m transect normal to a highway in Raleigh, North Carolina for five sampling periods spanning four days. Samples were subsequently measured for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using an electron capture gas chromatograph. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a finite line source adjacent to the roadway for two of the sampling periods, collected in the canisters and measured with the VOCs. Associations between each VOC, and between VOCs and the tracer, were quantified with Pearson correlation coefficients to assess the consistency of the multi-pollutant dispersion profiles, and assess the tracer as a potential surrogate for mobile source pollutants. As expected, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m,p- and o-xylenes (collectively, BTEX) show strong correlations between each other; further BTEX shows a strong correlation to SF6. Between 26 VOCs, correlation coefficients were greater than 0.8, and 14 VOCs had coefficients greater than 0.6 with the tracer gas. Even under non-downwind conditions, chemical concentrations had significant correlations with distance. Results indicate that certain VOCs are representative of a larger multi-pollutant mixture, and many VOCs are well-correlated with the tracer gas. PMID:22696809

  9. Pre- and post-drill comparison of the Mount Elbert gas hydrate prospect, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Agena, W.F.; Collett, T.S.; Inks, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) completed a detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data, along with seismic modeling and correlation with specially processed downhole well log data for identifying potential gas hydrate accumulations on the North Slope of Alaska. A methodology was developed for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area. The study revealed a total of 14 gas hydrate prospects in this area.In order to validate the gas hydrate prospecting protocol of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a longer-term production testing program, a stratigraphic test well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in the Milne Point area in early 2007. The drilling confirmed the presence of two prominent gas-hydrate-bearing units in the Mount Elbert prospect, and high quality well logs and core data were acquired. The post-drill results indicate pre-drill predictions of the reservoir thickness and the gas-hydrate saturations based on seismic and existing well data were 90% accurate for the upper unit (hydrate unit D) and 70% accurate for the lower unit (hydrate unit C), confirming the validity of the USGS approach to gas hydrate prospecting. The Mount Elbert prospect is the first gas hydrate accumulation on the North Slope of Alaska identified primarily on the basis of seismic attribute analysis and specially processed downhole log data. Post-drill well log data enabled a better constraint of the elastic model and the development of an improved approach to the gas hydrate prospecting using seismic attributes. ?? 2009.

  10. Evaluation of Gas Production Potential of Hydrate Deposits in Alaska North Slope using Reservoir Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandanwar, M.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, the recognition of the importance of gas hydrates as a potential energy resource has led to more and more exploration of gas hydrate as unconventional source of energy. In 2002, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) started an assessment to conduct a geology-based analysis of the occurrences of gas hydrates within northern Alaska. As a result of this assessment, many potential gas hydrate prospects were identified in the eastern National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) region of Alaska North Slope (ANS) with total gas in-place of about 2 trillion cubic feet. In absence of any field test, reservoir simulation is a powerful tool to predict the behavior of the hydrate reservoir and the amount of gas that can be technically recovered using best suitable gas recovery technique. This work focuses on the advanced evaluation of the gas production potential of hydrate accumulation in Sunlight Peak - one of the promising hydrate fields in eastern NPRA region using reservoir simulations approach, as a part of the USGS gas hydrate development Life Cycle Assessment program. The main objective of this work is to develop a field scale reservoir model that fully describes the production design and the response of hydrate field. Due to the insufficient data available for this field, the distribution of the reservoir properties (such as porosity, permeability and hydrate saturation) are approximated by correlating the data from Mount Elbert hydrate field to obtain a fully heterogeneous 3D reservoir model. CMG STARS is used as a simulation tool to model multiphase, multicomponent fluid flow and heat transfer in which an equilibrium model of hydrate dissociation was used. Production of the gas from the reservoir is carried out for a period of 30 years using depressurization gas recovery technique. The results in terms of gas and water rate profiles are obtained and the response of the reservoir to pressure and temperature changes due to depressurization and hydrate

  11. Long-term autonomous volcanic gas monitoring with Multi-GAS at Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Ketner, D. M.; Kern, C.; Lahusen, R. G.; Lockett, C.; Parker, T.; Paskievitch, J.; Pauk, B.; Rinehart, A.; Werner, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the USGS Volcano Hazards Program has worked to implement continuous real-time in situ volcanic gas monitoring at volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Alaska. The main goal of this ongoing effort is to better link the compositions of volcanic gases to other real-time monitoring data, such as seismicity and deformation, in order to improve baseline monitoring and early detection of volcanic unrest. Due to the remote and difficult-to-access nature of volcanic-gas monitoring sites in the Cascades and Alaska, we developed Multi-GAS instruments that can operate unattended for long periods of time with minimal direct maintenance from field personnel. Our Multi-GAS stations measure H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S gas concentrations, are comprised entirely of commercial off-the-shelf components, and are powered by small solar energy systems. One notable feature of our Multi-GAS stations is that they include a unique capability to perform automated CO2, SO2, and H2S sensor verifications using portable gas standards while deployed in the field, thereby allowing for rigorous tracking of sensor performances. In addition, we have developed novel onboard data-processing routines that allow diagnostic and monitoring data - including gas ratios (e.g. CO2/SO2) - to be streamed in real time to internal observatory and public web pages without user input. Here we present over one year of continuous data from a permanent Multi-GAS station installed in August 2014 in the crater of Mount St. Helens, Washington, and several months of data from a station installed near the summit of Augustine Volcano, Alaska in June 2015. Data from the Mount St. Helens Multi-GAS station has been streaming to a public USGS site since early 2015, a first for a permanent Multi-GAS site. Neither station has detected significant changes in gas concentrations or compositions since they were installed, consistent with low levels of seismicity and deformation.

  12. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  13. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and to contribute to knowledge of the storage, fluxes, and balance of carbon and methane gas in ecosystems of Alaska. The carbon and methane variables were examined for major terrestrial ecosystems (uplands and wetlands) and inland aquatic ecosystems in Alaska in two time periods: baseline (from 1950 through 2009) and future (projections from 2010 through 2099). The assessment used measured and observed data and remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models. The national assessment, conducted using the methodology described in SIR 2010-5233, has been completed for the conterminous United States, with results provided in three separate regional reports (PP 1804, PP 1797, and PP 1897).

  14. Near-highway aerosol and gas-phase measurements in a high-diesel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2015-04-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of light duty vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September 2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter - DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the vehicle type, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen-containing aerosol with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel from that of gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are typically found to have low oxygen incorporation, OOA was found to comprise the majority of the measured organic aerosol, and isotopic analysis showed that the measured OOA contained mainly modern carbon, not fossil-derived carbon. Thus, even in this heavily vehicular-emission-impacted environment, photochemical processes

  15. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  16. Digital Dead Ends along Alaska's Information Highway: Broadband Access for Students and Teachers in Alaska's High School One-to-One Laptop Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Pamela Jo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the potential impact community broadband availability has on personal and classroom levels of technology adoption for high school students and teachers in Alaska. Community broadband availability was defined as, (a) terrestrial broadband availability; (b) satellite broadband availability; and (c) no broadband available.…

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  18. Assessment of unconvential (tight) gas resources in Upper Cook Inlet Basin, South-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Anderson, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    A geologic model was developed for the assessment of potential Mesozoic tight-gas resources in the deep, central part of upper Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska. The basic premise of the geologic model is that organic-bearing marine shales of the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group achieved adequate thermal maturity for oil and gas generation in the central part of the basin largely due to several kilometers of Paleogene and Neogene burial. In this model, hydrocarbons generated in Tuxedni source rocks resulted in overpressure, causing fracturing and local migration of oil and possibly gas into low-permeability sandstone and siltstone reservoirs in the Jurassic Tuxedni Group and Chinitna and Naknek Formations. Oil that was generated either remained in the source rock and subsequently was cracked to gas which then migrated into low-permeability reservoirs, or oil initially migrated into adjacent low-permeability reservoirs, where it subsequently cracked to gas as adequate thermal maturation was reached in the central part of the basin. Geologic uncertainty exists on the (1) presence of adequate marine source rocks, (2) degree and timing of thermal maturation, generation, and expulsion, (3) migration of hydrocarbons into low-permeability reservoirs, and (4) preservation of this petroleum system. Given these uncertainties and using known U.S. tight gas reservoirs as geologic and production analogs, a mean volume of 0.64 trillion cubic feet of gas was assessed in the basin-center tight-gas system that is postulated to exist in Mesozoic rocks of the upper Cook Inlet Basin. This assessment of Mesozoic basin-center tight gas does not include potential gas accumulations in Cenozoic low-permeability reservoirs.

  19. Assessing Gas-Hydrate Prospects on the North Slope of Alaska - Theoretical Considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas-hydrate resource assessment on the Alaska North Slope using 3-D and 2-D seismic data involved six important steps: (1) determining the top and base of the gas-hydrate stability zone, (2) 'tying' well log information to seismic data through synthetic seismograms, (3) differentiating ice from gas hydrate in the permafrost interval, (4) developing an acoustic model for the reservoir and seal, (5) developing a method to estimate gas-hydrate saturation and thickness from seismic attributes, and (6) assessing the potential gas-hydrate prospects from seismic data based on potential migration pathways, source, reservoir quality, and other relevant geological information. This report describes the first five steps in detail using well logs and provides theoretical backgrounds for resource assessments carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey. Measured and predicted P-wave velocities enabled us to tie synthetic seismograms to the seismic data. The calculated gas-hydrate stability zone from subsurface wellbore temperature data enabled us to focus our effort on the most promising depth intervals in the seismic data. A typical reservoir in this area is characterized by the P-wave velocity of 1.88 km/s, porosity of 42 percent, and clay volume content of 5 percent, whereas seal sediments encasing the reservoir are characterized by the P-wave velocity of 2.2 km/s, porosity of 32 percent, and clay volume content of 20 percent. Because the impedance of a reservoir without gas hydrate is less than that of the seal, a complex amplitude variation with respect to gas-hydrate saturation is predicted, namely polarity change, amplitude blanking, and high seismic amplitude (a bright spot). This amplitude variation with gas-hydrate saturation is the physical basis for the method used to quantify the resource potential of gas hydrates in this assessment.

  20. Diffuse gas emissions at the Ukinrek Maars, Alaska: Implications for magmatic degassing and volcanic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; McGimsey, R.G.; Hunt, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse CO2 efflux near the Ukinrek Maars, two small volcanic craters that formed in 1977 in a remote part of the Alaska Peninsula, was investigated using accumulation chamber measurements. High CO2 efflux, in many places exceeding 1000 g m-2 d-1, was found in conspicuous zones of plant damage or kill that cover 30,000-50,000 m2 in area. Total diffuse CO2 emission was estimated at 21-44 t d-1. Gas vents 3-km away at The Gas Rocks produce 0.5 t d-1 of CO2 that probably derives from the Ukinrek Maars basalt based on similar ??13C values (???-6???), 3He/4He ratios (5.9-7.2 RA), and CO2/3He ratios (1-2 ?? 109) in the two areas. A lower 3He/4He ratio (2.7 RA) and much higher CO2/3He ratio (9 ?? 1010) in gas from the nearest arc-front volcanic center (Mount Peulik/Ugashik) provide a useful comparison. The large diffuse CO2 emission at Ukinrek has important implications for magmatic degassing, subsurface gas transport, and local toxicity hazards. Gas-water-rock interactions play a major role in the location, magnitude and chemistry of the emissions.

  1. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  2. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  3. Physical properties of sediment from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.; Walker, Michael; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray M.; Rose, Kelly K.; Waite, William F.; Torres, Marta; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes cored and logged sedimentary strata from the February 2007 BP Exploration Alaska, Department of Energy, U.S. Geological Survey (BPXA-DOE-USGS) Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The physical-properties program analyzed core samples recovered from the well, and in conjunction with downhole geophysical logs, produced an extensive dataset including grain size, water content, porosity, grain density, bulk density, permeability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and petrography. This study documents the physical property interrelationships in the well and demonstrates their correlation with the occurrence of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate (GH) occurs in three unconsolidated, coarse silt to fine sand intervals within the Paleocene and Eocene beds of the Sagavanirktok Formation: Unit D-GH (614.4 m-627.9 m); unit C-GH1 (649.8 m-660.8 m); and unit C-GH2 (663.2 m-666.3 m). These intervals are overlain by fine to coarse silt intervals with greater clay content. A deeper interval (unit B) is similar lithologically to the gas-hydrate-bearing strata; however, it is water-saturated and contains no hydrate. In this system it appears that high sediment permeability (k) is critical to the formation of concentrated hydrate deposits. Intervals D-GH and C-GH1 have average "plug" intrinsic permeability to nitrogen values of 1700 mD and 675 mD, respectively. These values are in strong contrast with those of the overlying, gas-hydrate-free sediments, which have k values of 5.7 mD and 49 mD, respectively, and thus would have provided effective seals to trap free gas. The relation between permeability and porosity critically influences the occurrence of GH. For example, an average increase of 4% in porosity increases permeability by an order of magnitude, but the presence of a second fluid (e.g., methane from dissociating gas hydrate) in the reservoir reduces permeability by more than an

  4. Brookian sequence well log correlation sections and occurrence of gas hydrates, north-central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Kristen A.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline, ice-like substances that consist of natural gas molecules trapped in a solid-water lattice. Because of the compact nature of their structure, hydrates can effectively store large volumes of gas and, consequently, have been identified as a potential unconventional energy source. First recognized to exist geologically in the 1960s, significant accumulations of gas hydrate have been found throughout the world. Gas hydrate occurrence is limited to environments such as permafrost regions and subsea sediments because of the pressure and temperature conditions required for their formation and stability. Permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulations have been discovered in many regions of the Arctic, including Russia, Canada, and the North Slope of Alaska. Gas hydrate research has a long history in northern Alaska. This research includes the drilling, coring, and well log evaluation of two gas hydrate stratigraphic test wells and two resource assessments of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. Building upon these previous investigations, this report provides a summary of the pertinent well log, gas hydrate, and stratigraphic data for key wells related to gas hydrate occurrence in the north-central North Slope. The data are presented in nine well log correlation sections with 122 selected wells to provide a regional context for gas hydrate accumulations and the relation of the accumulations to key stratigraphic horizons and to the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Also included is a well log database that lists the location, available well logs, depths, and other pertinent information for each of the wells on the correlation section.

  5. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  6. Coalbed methane, Cook Inlet, south-central Alaska: A potential giant gas resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Barker, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Cook Inlet Basin of south-central Alaska is a forearc basin containing voluminous Tertiary coal deposits with sufficient methane content to suggest a major coalbed gas resource. Coals ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 ft (0.6 to 15 m) and in gas content from 50 to 250 scf/ton (1.6 to 7.8 cm2/g) occur in Miocene-Oligocene fluvial deposits of the Kenai Group. These coals have been identified as the probable source of more than 8 tcf gas that has been produced from conventional sandstone reservoirs in the basin. Cook Inlet coals can be divided into two main groups: (1) those of bituminous rank in the Tyonek Formation that contain mainly thermogenic methane and are confined to the northeastern part of the basin (Matanuska Valley) and to deep levels elsewhere; and (2) subbituminous coals at shallow depths (<5000 ft [1524 m]) in the Tyonek and overlying Beluga formations, which contain mainly biogenic methane and cover most of the central and southern basin. Based on core and corrected cuttings-desorption analyses, gas contents average 230 scf/ton (7.2 cm2/g) for bituminous coals and 80 scf/ton (2.5 cm2/g) for subbituminous coals. Isotherms constructed for samples of both coal ranks suggest that bituminous coals are saturated with respect to methane, whereas subbituminous coals at shallow depths along the eroded west-central basin margin are locally unsaturated. A preliminary estimate of 140 tcf gas in place is derived for the basin.

  7. Geologic cross section, gas desorption, and other data from four wells drilled for Alaska rural energy project, Wainwright, Alaska, coalbed methane project, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy costs in rural Alaskan communities are substantial. Diesel fuel, which must be delivered by barge or plane, is used for local power generation in most off-grid communities. In addition to high costs incurred for the purchase and transport of the fuel, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel products pose significant difficulties in logistically challenging and environmentally sensitive areas. The Alaska Rural Energy Project (AREP) is a collaborative effort between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management Alaska State Office along with State, local, and private partners. The project is designed to identify and evaluate shallow (<3,000 ft) subsurface resources such as coalbed methane (CBM) and geothermal in the vicinity of rural Alaskan communities where these resources have the potential to serve as local-use power alternatives. The AREP, in cooperation with the North Slope Borough, the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, and the Olgoonik Corporation, drilled and tested a 1,613 ft continuous core hole in Wainwright, Alaska, during the summer of 2007 to determine whether CBM represents a viable source of energy for the community. Although numerous gas-bearing coal beds were encountered, most are contained within the zone of permafrost that underlies the area to a depth of approximately 1,000 ft. Because the effective permeability of permafrost is near zero, the chances of producing gas from these beds are highly unlikely. A 7.5-ft-thick gas-bearing coal bed, informally named the Wainwright coal bed, was encountered in the sub-permafrost at a depth of 1,242 ft. Additional drilling and testing conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 indicated that the coal bed extended throughout the area outlined by the drill holes, which presently is limited to the access provided by the existing road system. These tests also confirmed the gas content of the coal reservoir within this area. If producible, the Wainwright coal bed

  8. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska's North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  9. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway..., announced the availability of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for..., 2011, at 76 FR 77300, the FHWA published a notice in the Federal Register inviting comments to...

  10. Blue Mountain and The Gas Rocks: Rear-Arc Dome Clusters on the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    Behind the single-file chain of stratovolcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, independent rear-arc vents for mafic magmas are uncommon, and for silicic magmas rarer still. We report here the characteristics, compositions, and ages of two andesite-dacite dome clusters and of several nearby basaltic units, all near Becharof Lake and 15 to 20 km behind the volcanic front. Blue Mountain consists of 13 domes (58-68 weight percent SiO2) and The Gas Rocks of three domes (62-64.5 weight percent SiO2) and a mafic cone (52 weight percent SiO2). All 16 domes are amphibole-biotite-plagioclase felsite, and nearly all are phenocryst rich and quartz bearing. Although the two dome clusters are lithologically and chemically similar and only 25 km apart, they differ strikingly in age. The main central dome of Blue Mountain yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 632?7 ka, and two of the Gas Rocks domes ages of 25.7?1.4 and 23.3?1.2 ka. Both clusters were severely eroded by glaciation; surviving volumes of Blue Mountain domes total ~1 km3, and of the Gas Rocks domes 0.035 km3. Three basaltic vents lie close to The Gas Rocks, another lies just south of Blue Mountain, and a fifth is near the north shore of Becharof Lake. A basaltic andesite vent 6 km southeast of The Gas Rocks appears to be a flank vent of the arc-front center Mount Peulik. The basalt of Ukinrek Maars has been called transitionally alkalic, but all the other basaltic rocks are subalkaline. CO2-rich gas emissions near the eponymous Gas Rocks domes are not related to the 25-ka dacite dome cluster but, rather, to intracrustal degassing of intrusive basalt, one batch of which erupted 3 km away in 1977. The felsic and mafic vents all lie along or near the Bruin Bay Fault where it intersects a broad transverse structural zone marked by topographic, volcanologic, and geophysical discontinuities.

  11. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  12. Volcanic gas emissions during active dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Alaska, August 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Cynthia; Kern, Christoph; Lyons, John; Kelly, Peter; Schneider, David; Wallace, Kristi; Wessels, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic gas emissions and chemistry data were measured for the first time at Mount Cleveland (1730 m) in the Central Aleutian arc, Alaska, on August 14-15, 2015 as part of the NSF-GeoPRISMS initiative, and co-funded by the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) and the USGS Alaska Volcano Observatory. The measurements were made in the month following two explosive events (July 21 and August 7, 2015) that destroyed a small dome (˜50x85 m), which had experienced episodic growth in the crater since November, 2014. These explosions resulted in the elevation of the aviation color code and alert level from Yellow/Advisory to Orange/Watch on July 21, 2015. Between the November, 2014 and July, 2015 dome-destroying explosions, the volcano experienced: (1) frequent periods of elevated surface temperatures in the summit region (based on Mid-IR satellite observations), (2) limited volcano-seismic tremor, (3) visible degassing as recorded in webcam images with occasionally robust plumes, and (4) at least one aseismic volcanic event that deposited small amounts of ash on the upper flanks of the volcano (detected by infrasound, observed visually and in Landsat 8 images). Intermittent plumes were also sometimes detectable up to 60 km downwind in Mid-IR satellite images, but this was not typical. Lava extrusion resumed following the explosion as indicated in satellite data by highly elevated Mid-IR surface temperatures, but was not identifiable in seismic data. By early-mid August, 2015, a new dome growing in the summit crater had reached 80 m across with temperatures of 550-600 C as measured on August 4 with a helicopter-borne thermal IR camera. A semitransparent plume extended several kilometers downwind of the volcano during the field campaign. A helicopter instrumented with an upward-looking UV spectrometer (mini DOAS) and a Multi-GAS was used to measure SO2 emission rates and in situ mixing ratios of H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S in the plume. On August 14 and 15, 2015, a total of 14

  13. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  14. Geologic interrelations relative to gas hydrates within the North Slope of Alaska: Task No. 6, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Magoon, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    The five primary objectives of the US Geological Survey North Slope Gas Hydrate Project were to: (1) Determine possible geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate; (2) locate and evaluate possible gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs; (3) estimate the volume of gas within the hydrates; (4) develop a model for gas-hydrate formation; and (5) select a coring site for gas-hydrate sampling and analysis. Our studies of the North Slope of Alaska suggest that the zone in which gas hydrates are stable is controlled primarily by subsurface temperatures and gas chemistry. Other factors, such as pore-pressure variations, pore-fluid salinity, and reservior-rock grain size, appear to have little effect on gas hydrate stability on the North Slope. Data necessary to determine the limits of gas hydrate stability field are difficult to obtain. On the basis of mud-log gas chromatography, core data, and cuttings data, methane is the dominant species of gas in the near-surface (0--1500 m) sediment. Gas hydrates were identified in 34 wells utilizing well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were actually recovered in a core by an oil company. A possible scenario describing the origin of the interred gas hydrates on the North Slope involves the migration of thermogenic solution- and free-gas from deeper reservoirs upward along faults into the overlying sedimentary rocks. We have identified two (dedicated) core-hole sites, the Eileen and the South-End core-holes, at which there is a high probability of recovering a sample of gas hydrate. At the Eileen core-hole site, at least three stratigraphic units may contain gas hydrate. The South-End core-hole site provides an opportunity to study one specific rock unit that appears to contain both gas hydrate and oil. 100 refs., 72 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Resource Characterization and Quantification of Natural Gas-Hydrate and Associated Free-Gas Accumulations in the Prudhoe Bay - Kuparuk River Area on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2008-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have long been considered a nuisance by the petroleum industry. Hydrates have been hazards to drilling crews, with blowouts a common occurrence if not properly accounted for in drilling plans. In gas pipelines, hydrates have formed plugs if gas was not properly dehydrated. Removing these plugs has been an expensive and time-consuming process. Recently, however, due to the geologic evidence indicating that in situ hydrates could potentially be a vast energy resource of the future, research efforts have been undertaken to explore how natural gas from hydrates might be produced. This study investigates the relative permeability of methane and brine in hydrate-bearing Alaska North Slope core samples. In February 2007, core samples were taken from the Mt. Elbert site situated between the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk oil fields on the Alaska North Slope. Core plugs from those core samples have been used as a platform to form hydrates and perform unsteady-steady-state displacement relative permeability experiments. The absolute permeability of Mt. Elbert core samples determined by Omni Labs was also validated as part of this study. Data taken with experimental apparatuses at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, ConocoPhillips laboratories at the Bartlesville Technology Center, and at the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation's facilities in Anchorage, Alaska, provided the basis for this study. This study finds that many difficulties inhibit the ability to obtain relative permeability data in porous media-containing hydrates. Difficulties include handling unconsolidated cores during initial core preparation work, forming hydrates in the core in such a way that promotes flow of both brine and methane, and obtaining simultaneous two-phase flow of brine and methane necessary to quantify relative permeability using unsteady-steady-state displacement methods.

  16. Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from −86.4 to −80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from −50.1 to −43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from −48.2 to −48.0‰ in the C sand and from −48.4 to −46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from −238 to −230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

  17. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  18. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  19. Successful gas hydrate prospecting using 3D seismic - A case study for the Mt. Elbert prospect, Milne Point, North Slope Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inks, T.L.; Agena, W.F.

    2008-01-01

    In February 2007, the Mt. Elbert Prospect stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, North Slope Alaska encountered thick methane gas hydrate intervals, as predicted by 3D seismic interpretation and modeling. Methane gas hydrate-saturated sediment was found in two intervals, totaling more than 100 ft., identified and mapped based on seismic character and wavelet modeling.

  20. Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M.T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

  1. Molecular and isotopic analyses of the hydrocarbon gases within gas hydrate-bearing rock units of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valin, Zenon C.; Collett, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are crystalline substances of water molecules that encase gas molecules, have the potential for being a significant source of natural gas. World-wide estimates for the amount of gas contained in hydrates range from 1.1 x 105 to 2.7 x 108 trillion cubic feet. Gas hydrates exist in many Arctic regions, including the North Slope of Alaska. The two primary objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Research Project are (1) to map the distribution of in-situ gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska, and (2) to evaluate the geologic parameters that control the distribution of these gas hydrates. To aid in this study, British Petroleum Exploration, ARCO Alaska, Exxon Company USA, and the Continental Oil Company allowed the U.S. Geological Survey to collect geochemical samples from drilling North Slope production wells. Molecular analysis of gaseous drill cutting and free-flowing gas samples from 10 production wells drilled in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, and Milne Point oil fields indicates that methane is the primary hydrocarbon gas in the gas hydrate-bearing stratigraphic units. Isotopic data for several of these rock units indicate that the methane within the inferred gas hydrate occurences originated from both microbial and thermogenic processes.

  2. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.

  3. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.

  4. Investigation of gas hydrate-bearing sandstone reservoirs at the "Mount Elbert" stratigraphic test well, Milne Point, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, R.M.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.; Digert, S. Inc., Anchorage, AK); Hancock, S.; Weeks, M. Inc., Anchorage, AK); Mt. Elbert Science Team

    2008-01-01

    In February 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc., and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive data collection effort at the "Mount Elbert #1" gas hydrates stratigraphic test well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The 22-day field program acquired significant gas hydrate-bearing reservoir data, including a full suite of open-hole well logs, over 500 feet of continuous core, and open-hole formation pressure response tests. Hole conditions, and therefore log data quality, were excellent due largely to the use of chilled oil-based drilling fluids. The logging program confirmed the existence of approximately 30 m of gashydrate saturated, fine-grained sand reservoir. Gas hydrate saturations were observed to range from 60% to 75% largely as a function of reservoir quality. Continuous wire-line coring operations (the first conducted on the ANS) achieved 85% recovery through 153 meters of section, providing more than 250 subsamples for analysis. The "Mount Elbert" data collection program culminated with open-hole tests of reservoir flow and pressure responses, as well as gas and water sample collection, using Schlumberger's Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool. Four such tests, ranging from six to twelve hours duration, were conducted. This field program demonstrated the ability to safely and efficiently conduct a research-level openhole data acquisition program in shallow, sub-permafrost sediments. The program also demonstrated the soundness of the program's pre-drill gas hydrate characterization methods and increased confidence in gas hydrate resource assessment methodologies for the ANS.

  5. Information Highway's Educator's Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Richard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes construction of the information highway and some of the current players. Alternative uses of the information highway being developed by several private companies are described. The impact of the information highway on education and how it will be delivered to all grades and ages are considered. (Contains two references.) (KRN)

  6. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  7. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  8. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.

    2009-09-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  9. Near-Road Mulltipollutant Profiles: Association between Volatile Organic Compounds and a Tracer Gas Surrogate Near a Busy Highway

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m ...

  10. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Stephen B., (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

  11. Characterization of hydrocarbon gas within the stratigraphic interval of gas-hydrate stability on the North Slope of Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Magoon, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    In the Kuparuk River Unit 2D-15 well, on the North Slope of Alaska, a 60 m-thick stratigraphic interval that lies within the theoretical pressure-temperature field of gas-hydrate stability is inferred to contain methane hydrates. This inference is based on interpretations from well logs: (1) release of methane during drilling, as indicated by the mud log, (2) an increase in acoustic velocity on the sonic log, and (3) an increase of electrical resistivity on the electric logs. Our objective was to determine the composition and source of the gas within the shallow gas-hydrate-bearing interval based on analyses of cutting gas. Headspace gas from canned drill cuttings collected from within the gas-hydrate-bearing interval of this well has an average methane to ethane plus propane [C1/(C2 + C3)] ratio of about 7000 and an average methane ??13C value of -46% (relative to the PDB standard). These compositions are compared with those obtained at one well located to the north of 2D-15 along depositional strike and one down-dip well to the northeast. In the well located on depositional strike (Kuparuk River Unit 3K-9), gas compositions are similar to those found at 2D-15. At the down-dip well (Prudhoe Bay Unit R-1), the C1/(C2 + C3) ratios are lower (700) and the methane ??13C is heavier (-33%). We conclude that the methane within the stratigraphic interval of gas hydrate stability comes from two sources-in situ microbial gas and migrated thermogenic gas. The thermal component is greatest at Prudhoe Bay. Up-dip to the west, the thermogenic component decreases, and microbial gas assumes more importance. ?? 1990.

  12. 75 FR 19645 - Denali-The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request for Approval of Plan for Conducting an Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... for Conducting an Open Season April 8, 2010. Take notice that on April 7, 2010, pursuant to section 157.38 of the Commission's Regulations governing Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation... for Conducting an Open Season. The proposed Open Season is being held to solicit binding...

  13. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at

  14. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  15. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  16. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  18. A Compilation of Gas Emission-Rate Data from Volcanoes of Cook Inlet (Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Fourpeaked, Griggs, Mageik, Martin, Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Veniaminof), Alaska, from 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.; McGee, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents gas emission rates from data collected during numerous airborne plume-measurement flights at Alaskan volcanoes since 1995. These flights began in about 1990 as means to establish baseline values of volcanic gas emissions during periods of quiescence and to identify anomalous levels of degassing that might signal the beginning of unrest. The primary goal was to make systematic measurements at the major volcanic centers around the Cook Inlet on at least an annual basis, and more frequently during periods of unrest and eruption. A secondary goal was to measure emissions at selected volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula. While the goals were not necessarily met in all cases due to weather, funding, or the availability of suitable aircraft, a rich dataset of quality measurements is the legacy of this continuing effort. An earlier report (Doukas, 1995) presented data for the period from 1990 through 1994 and the current report provides data through 2006. This report contains all of the available measurements for SO2, CO2, and H2S emission rates in Alaska determined by the U. S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 2006; airborne measurements for H2S began in Alaska in 2001. The results presented here are from Cook Inlet volcanoes at Spurr, Crater Peak, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine and cover periods of unrest at Iliamna (1996) and Spurr (2004-2006) as well as the 2006 eruption of Augustine. Additional sporadic measurements at volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula (Douglas, Martin, Mageik, Griggs, Veniaminof, Ukinrek Maars, Peulik, and Fourpeaked during its 2006 unrest) are also reported here.

  19. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway... Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public review and comment. The draft plans outline a... United States Code Section 204 requires all Federal land management agencies to conduct long...

  20. Biogenic and thermogenic origins of natural gas in Cook Inlet basin, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claypool, G.E.; Threlkeld, C.N.; Magoon, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of natural gas occurences are present. The major reserves (1.8 x 1011m3) occur in shallow (less than 2.300 m), nonassociated dry gas fields that contain methane with del13C in the range of -63 to -56 per mil. These gas fields are in sandstones interbedded with coals, the gas fields are interpreted as biogenic in origin. Lesser reserves of natural gas are associated with oil in the deeper Hemlock Conglomerate at the base of the Tertiary section; associated gas contains methane with del13C of about -46 per mil. These gases are thermogenic in origin.- from Authors

  1. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  2. Secondary gas emissions during coal desorption, Marathon Grassim Oskolkoff-1 Well, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: Implications for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dallegge, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from the Oligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska show secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistent with renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption. The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorption measurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbed gas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement. About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas began and continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volume reached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres, some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gases released during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signature over time of methane from ??13CCH4 of -53.60 ??? and ??DCH4 of -312.60 ??? at the first day to ??13CCH4 of -57.06 ??? and ??DCH4 of -375.80 ??? after 809 days, when the experiment was arbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. These isotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shift from a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of natural gases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook Inlet Basin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source. However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissions with a ??13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 ???, interpreted using the carbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986), indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operative during renewed gas emission. Adding nutrients to the coal cuttings and canister water and culturing the microbial consortia under anaerobic conditions led to additional methane-rich gas generation in the laboratory. After this anaerobic culturing, ultraviolet microscopy showed that canister water contained common, fluorescent, rod-like microbes comparable to Methanobacterium sp. Scanning electron microscope

  3. Enhanced Turbulent Mixing on Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P.; Brook, J.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Traffic emissions have a substantial effect on air quality and turbulence affects how these emissions mix with the surrounding air. In July and August of 2010, measurements of turbulent fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy were made on highways in the Toronto area (Ontario, Canada) as part of the ALMITEE (Advancing Local-scale Modeling through Inclusion of Transportation Emission Experiments) subproject FEVER (Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways). The aim of this project was to study and parameterize the turbulent mixing of traffic emissions on highways as a function of traffic density, speed, and vehicle type. The mobile station CRUISER (Canadian Regional and Urban Investigation System for Environmental Research) was equipped with two sonic anemometers, an air flow probe (AIMMS-20), inertial motion sensing, GPS, video recording equipment, and various particle and gas measurement instrumentation. This allowed in-situ turbulence measurements while driving on the highway with traffic. These measurements differ from previous studies in that turbulence can be measured in realistic conditions, while traffic densities, vehicle types, and vehicle to measurement distances can be extracted from video recording by automated video processing software. Although the turbulent motion of air is often measured from aircraft and ship-based instrumentation, the analysis and interpretation of sonic anemometer measurements from a highway-speed vehicle, moving over uneven and often bumpy terrain presents a very different challenge. Various analytical approaches to process these measurements will be compared and the development of the video processing software to determine vehicle size and following distance will be discussed. Results will be presented which demonstrate a strong dependence of turbulent energy on vehicle type, speed, and following distance.

  4. Ground temperatures across the old and new roads at mile 130, Richardson highway during 1954-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, H.; Brewer, M.C.; Perkins, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Year-round studies of the geothermal impacts of road construction in a "warm" permafrost area were undertaken during 1954-1962 at six road sections across the Richardson and Glenn Highways, in the vicinity of Glennallen, Alaska. As a result, significant information was obtained regarding the temperatures, and changes in temperatures, in the permafrost beneath and adjacent to the highway sections.

  5. Governors Highway Safety Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... occupant protection, impaired driving, and speeding. GHSA provides leadership and advocacy for the states and territories to improve traffic safety , influence national policy , enhance program management and promote best practices . What's New National Highway ...

  6. National Highway Planning Network

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  7. A HIGHWAY MODEL FOR THE ADVECTION, DIFFUSION AND CHEMICAL REACTION OF POLLUTANTS RELEASED BY AUTOMOBILES: PART I. ADVECTION AND DIFFUSION OF SF6 TRACER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference model simulating a highway has been developed which is able to handle linear and nonlinear chemical reactions. Transport of the pollutants is accomplished by use of an upstream-flux-corrected algorithm developed at the Naval Research Laborator...

  8. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  9. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Gas geothermometry for typical and atypical hydrothermal gases: A case study of Mount Mageik and Trident Volcanoes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taryn, Lopez; Tassi, Franco; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fiebig, Jens; Rizzo, Andrea; Caliro, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of volcanic gases can be used to detect subsurface magma, qualitatively constrain magma degassing depth, evaluate temperature and pressure conditions of hydrothermal reservoirs, and constrain volatile sources, all of which are important for volcano monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard mitigation. Two persistently degassing and seismically active volcanoes from the Katmai Volcanic Complex, Alaska, were targeted during this study to characterize subvolcanic conditions. Fumarole and steam condensate samples were collected for chemical and isotopic analysis from Mount Mageik and Trident Volcanoes in July 2013. These volcanoes are located within 10 km of each other, both show evidence for active hydrothermal systems, and both have boiling point temperature fumaroles, yet emit notably different gas compositions. Mount Mageik's gases are composed primarily of H20, CO2, H2S, and N2, with minor CH4, CO and H2 and negligible HCl amounts, reflecting a typical "hydrothermal" gas composition. Although, Trident's gases are somewhat similar in composition to those of Mount Mageik, they show several unusual features for hydrothermal fluids, most notably extremely high concentrations of reduced gas species. Specifically, the H2/H2O values are ≈1 log-unit lower (i.e. more reducing) than those produced by the rock redox buffers commonly dominating in a hydrothermal environment. These anomalous ratios are accompanied by relatively high concentrations high-temperature (CO, and H2S), and low temperature (CH4) gases, suggesting a strong chemical disequilibrium and/or chemical-physical conditions far from those typically acting on hydrothermal fluids. Additionally, when δ13C ratios of methane, ethane and propane are considered, a deviation from the expected "hydrothermal" carbon number trend is observed for Trident volcano, suggesting an "abiogenic reversal". Gas geothermometry in the H2O-CO2-H2-CO-CH4 system provides estimated temperatures

  11. Geologic Model for Oil and Gas Assessment of the Kemik-Thomson Play, Central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2008-01-01

    A geologic model was developed to assess undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Kemik-Thomson Play of the Central North Slope, Alaska. In this model, regional erosion during the Early Cretaceous produced an incised valley system on the flanks and crest of the Mikkelsen High and formed the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. Locally derived, coarse-grained siliciclastic and carbonate detritus from eroded Franklinian-age basement rocks, Carboniferous Kekiktuk Conglomerate (of the Endicott Group), Lisburne Group, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group may have accumulated in the incised valleys during lowstand and transgression, forming potential reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone (informal term). Continued transgression resulted in the deposition of the mudstones of the over-lying Cretaceous pebble shale unit and Hue Shale, which form top seals to the potential reservoirs. Petroleum from thermally mature facies of the Triassic Shublik Formation, Jurassic Kingak Shale, Hue Shale (and pebble shale unit), and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Canning Formation might have charged Thomson and Kemik sandstone reservoirs in this play during the Tertiary. The success of this play depends largely upon the presence of reservoir-quality units in the Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone.

  12. Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Microbial Consortia from a Biogenic Gas Field in Alaska's Cook Inlet Basin

    PubMed Central

    Strąpoć, Dariusz; Huizinga, Brad; Lidstrom, Ulrika; Ashby, Matt; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Filter-collected production water samples from a methane-rich gas field in the Cook Inlet basin of Alaska were investigated using whole-cell rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Both techniques were consistent in determining the microbial community composition, including the archaeal or bacterial dominance of samples. The archaeal community is dominated by the obligate methylotrophic methanogen genus Methanolobus as well as the nutritional generalist methanogen genus Methanosarcina, which is capable of utilizing acetate, CO2, and methyl-bearing compounds. The most-abundant bacterial groups are Firmicutes, notably of the Acetobacterium genus, and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides species (CFBs) affiliated with the order Bacteroidales. We observed spatial variation among samples in both the percentage of members of Archaea compared to that of members of Bacteria and the dominant members of the bacterial community, differences which could not be explained with the available geochemical data. Based upon the microbial community composition and the isotopic signature of methane associated with the Cook Inlet basin site, we propose a simplified reaction network beginning with the breakdown of coal macromolecules, followed by fermentation and methylotrophic and acetoclastic methane production. PMID:22427501

  13. Impact origin of the Avak structure, Arctic Alaska, and genesis of the Barrow gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E. ); Grantz, A.; Mullen, M.W. )

    1992-05-01

    Geophysical and subsurface geologic data suggest that the Avak structure, which underlies the Arctic Coastal Plain 12 km southeast of Barrow, Alaska, is a hypervelocity meteorite or comet impact structure. The structure is a roughly circular area of uplifted, chaotically deformed Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks 8 km in diameter that is bounded by a ring of anastomosing, inwardly dipping, listric normal faults 12 km in diameter. A zone of gently outward-dipping sedimentary country rocks forms a discontinuous ring of rim anticlines within the peripheral ring of normal faults. Beyond these anticlines, the sedimentary rocks are almost flat-lying. Data concerning the age of the Avak structure are not definitive. If submarine landslide deposits in the upper part of the Aptian and Albian Torok Formation, in the subsurface 200 km to the east, were triggered by the Avak event, then the Avak meteorite struck a submerged marine shelf about 100 [plus minus] 5 Ma. However, the impact features found at Avak characterize the distal zones of meteorite impact structures. Fused rocks, plastic deformation, and shock-metamorphic minerals found in more proximal zones of impact structures are apparently missing. These observations, and the lack of Avak ejecta in cuttings and cores from the Torok Formation and Nanushuk Group in surrounding test wells, indicate that the impact event postdated these beds. In this case, the Avak meteorite struck a Late Cretaceous or Tertiary marine shelf or coastal plain between the Cenomanian (ca. 95 Ma), and deposition of the basal beds of the overlying late Pliocene and Quaternary Gubik Formation (ca. 3 Ma).

  14. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  15. Continuous monitoring of soil gas efflux with Forced Diffusion (FD) chamber technique in a tundra ecosystem, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S. J.; Lee, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux provide essential information about the soil carbon budget in response to an abruptly changing climate at Arctic and Subarctic scales. The Forced Diffusion (FD) chamber technique has a gas permeable membrane, which passively regulates the mixing of atmosphere and soil air in the chamber, in place of the active pumping system inside a regular dynamics efflux chamber system (Risk et al., 2011). Here the system has been modified the sampling routine to eliminate the problem of sensor drift. After that, we deployed the FD chamber system in a tundra ecosystem over the discontinuous permafrost regime of Council, Alaska. The representative understory plants are tussock (17 %), lichen (32 %), and moss (51 %), within a 40 נ40 m plot at an interval of five meters (81 points total) for efflux-measurement by dynamic chamber. The FD chamber monitored soil CO2 efflux from moss, lichen, and tussock regimes at an interval of 30 min during the growing season of 2015. As the results, mean soil CO2 effluxes in sphagnum moss, lichen, and tussock were 1.98 ± 1.10 (coefficient of variance: 55.8 %), 3.34 ± 0.84 (CV: 25.0 %), and 5.32 ± 1.48 (CV: 27.8 %) gCO2/m2/d, respectively. The difference between the 30-min efflux interval and the average efflux of three 10-min intervals is not significant for sphagnum (n = 196), lichen (n = 918), and tussock (n = 918) under a 95 % confidence level. The deploying interval was then set to 30 min and synchronized with eddy covariance tower data. During the deployment period of 2015, soil CO2 efflux over moss, lichen, and tussock using the FD chamber system were 44 ± 24, 73 ± 18, and 117 ± 33 gCO2/m2/period, respectively. Using the dynamic chamber, mean ecosystem respiration (Re) ranges for moss, lichen, and tussock were 2.2-2.6, 1.8-2.0, and 3.3-3.6 gCO2/m2/d, respectively, during June and July of 2015. These techniques provide the representativeness of spatiotemporal variation of soil

  16. Persistence of triclopyr in Alaska subarctic environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field dissipation and vertical mobility of the butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr was assessed in two distinct geographic locations within the state of Alaska. Interior sites near Delta Junction included vegetated plots within highway rights-of-way (ROW) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields and...

  17. Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18

  18. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Mary Romero, Project Manager, Alaska District Regulatory Division,...

  19. Atmospheric contribution of gas emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska during the 2006 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Doukas, M.P.; McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Wessels, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne surveillance of gas emissions from Augustine for SO2, CO2 and H2S showed no evidence of anomalous degassing from 1990 through May 2005. By December 20, 2005, Augustine was degassing 660 td-1 of SO2, and ten times that by January 4, 2006. The highest SO2 emission rate measured during the 2006 eruption was 8650 td-1 (March 1); for CO2, 13000 td-1 (March 9), and H2S, 8 td-1 (January 19). Thirty-four SO2 measurements were made from December 2005 through 2006, with 9 each for CO2 and H2S. Augustine released 1 ?? 106 tonnes of CO2 to the atmosphere during 2006, a level similar to the output of a medium-sized natural gas-fired power plant, and thus was not a significant contributor of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere compared to anthropogenic sources. Augustine released about 5 ?? 105 tonnes of SO2 during 2006, similar to that released in 1976 and 1986.

  20. A Stellar Highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, Case

    2015-10-01

    Thomas Henderson, at the Royal Observatory of the Cape, was the first person to measure the distance to a star in 1834. Robert Innes, at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, discovered that Proxima Centauri was the nearest star to the Sun in 1915. The idea of marking the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Proxima Centauri in 2015 led to the development of a Stellar Highway, similar to the well-known scale models of the Solar System or Planetary Highways, but showing the scaled distance between stars.

  1. Impact origin of the Avak structure, Arctic Alaska, and genesis of the Barrow gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Grantz, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Geophysical and subsurface geologic data confirm that the Avak structure, which underlies the coastal plain 12 km southeast of Barrow, is an impact crater. The structure is a roughly circular area of chaotically deformed Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks 8 km in diameter bounded by a ring of anastomozing, inwardly dipping, listric normal faults. Beyond the ring, these rocks are almost flat. Basement is strongly deformed Ordovician and Silurian argillite. Strong density and seismic velocity contrast between the argillite and the overlying strata produce gravity and seismic reflection signatures that define ring anticlines around the disturbed zone and a structural high at its center. The Mesozoic strata are about 760 m thick in the adjacent Barrow gas fields, where the Neocomian pebble shale unit and the gas-producing Lower Jurassic Barrow sandstone lie at average subsea depths of 438 m and 670 m, respectively. In the Avak well, drilled on the central high, the pebble shale unit and Barrow sandstone lie near the surface, documenting more than 500 m of uplift at the high. The cores in this well also show steep dips (30-90{degree}), abundant tectonic breccia with argillite clasts 90 m above basement, fractured quartz grains, and shatter cones resembling those found in well-documented meteorite craters. Stratigraphic data suggest that the Avak meteorite struck a late Early Cretaceous marine shelf, produced peripheral highs that trapped gas in the Barrow fields, and triggered massive landslides on the adjacent outer shelf. The age of the landslides dates the impact at about 105 Ma.

  2. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  3. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  4. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  5. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  6. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  7. Canopy gas exchange of white spruce in contrasting habitats near the Arctic treeline in northwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, P.; Mcnown, R. W.; Sveinbjornsson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent work near the Arctic treeline has revealed that an increasing number of white spruce are showing negative growth responses to rising air temperatures. Researchers have speculated that these negative responders are experiencing warm temperature-induced drought stress. Measurements of white spruce needle gas exchange near the Arctic treeline are rare and, to our knowledge, measurements of whole canopy gas exchange have not been made. In this study, we measured sap flow to estimate whole canopy transpiration at hourly intervals for the entire growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 in white spruce growing on a riverside terrace, in a hillslope forest and at the treeline. We used weekly measurements of needle-scale photosynthesis, transpiration and needle δ13C to estimate water use efficiency at each site. We then applied these estimates of water use efficiency to our sap flow data in order to estimate hourly whole canopy photosynthesis at each site for the two growing seasons. Our results show evidence of stomatal control when the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit exceeds approximately 1.0 kPa, but no evidence of complete stomatal closure. Trees growing on the riverside terrace, where soils are relatively warm and dry, are more efficient in their water use, have greater leaf area and assimilate more carbon per unit basal diameter than trees in the forest and at the treeline. We found that the month of September, after growth has almost completely ceased, can be an important time for carbon uptake in white spruce near the Arctic treeline.

  8. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  9. Using SAR Interferometry to Assess Infrastructure Hazards From Frozen Debris Lobes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Darrow, M. M.; Gong, W.; Daanen, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are slow-moving earth flows along permafrost-affected slopes. FDLs consist of soil, rock, debris, and potentially ice, although only preliminary surface investigations have been conducted on these features thus far. Within the corridor of the 667 km Dalton Highway in Alaska's Brooks Range, we have identified 43 FDLs, with 23 occurring less than one mile upslope of the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline (TAP), which runs parallel to the Dalton Highway. Due to their proximity to the highway and pipeline, FDLs pose significant risks to these key infrastructure assets. The closest FDL to the highway, FDL-A, is less than 41.5 m from the embankment when measured in August 2014, and could encroach upon the Dalton Highway/TAP within one year. Upon reaching the highway, FDLs could significantly impede the flow of essential goods and services to the oil and gas fields on the North Slope, creating severe economic losses. This study addresses the following two research goals: In an initial step, we assessed the performance of InSAR for FDL analysis as a function of data resolution, season, and vegetation cover. We were able to conclude that moderate resolution SAR systems are sufficient for monitoring FDLs during winter, when top surfaces are frozen and slopes are moving more consistently. In summer, however, surface flows show stronger spatial variation, and higher resolution sensors are required to preserve coherence and examine details. Subsequently, we began a long-term analysis of FDL behavior using SAR acquisitions over the last 20 years, expanded to include more recent data from the high-resolution TerraSAR-X sensor. We calculated flow parameters from the InSAR data and combined them with geological information from field measurements to perform a geophysical analysis of FDLs and assess their hazard potential. Our preliminary results show that (1) FDLs have been progressively moving down slope since the 1990s; (2) the down slope

  10. 2005 Crater Lake Formation, Lahar, Acidic Flood, and Gas Emission From Chiginagak Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J. R.; Scott, W. E.; McGimsey, R. G.; Jorgenson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A 400-m-wide crater lake developed in the formerly snow-and-ice-filled crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between August 2004 and June 2005, presumably due to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system. We are also evaluating the possible role of magma intrusion and degassing. In early summer 2005, clay-rich debris and an estimated 5.6 million cubic meters of acidic water from the crater exited through tunnels in the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 kilometers downstream, the acidic waters of the flood reached approximately 1.5 meters above current water levels and inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying at least the surface water of Mother Goose Lake (approximately 1 cubic kilometer in volume) and preventing the annual salmon run. No measurements of pH were taken until late August 2005. At that time the pH of water sampled from the Mother Goose Lake inlet, lake surface, and outlet stream (King Salmon River) was 3.2. Defoliation and leaf damage of vegetation along affected streams, in areas to heights of over 70 meters in elevation above flood level, indicates that a cloud of detrimental gas or aerosol accompanied the flood waters. Analysis of stream water, lake water, and vegetation samples is underway to better determine the agent responsible for the plant damage. This intriguing pattern of gas-damaged vegetation concentrated along and above the flood channels is cause for further investigation into potential hazards associated with Chiginagak's active crater lake. Anecdotal evidence from local lodge owners and aerial photographs from 1953 suggest that similar releases occurred in the mid-1970s and early 1950s.

  11. Carbon Flux and Isotopic Character of Soil and Soil Gas in Stabilized and Active Thaw Slumps in Northwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, A.; Crosby, B. T.; Mora, C. I.; Lohse, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost soils store nearly half the world's global carbon. Warming of arctic landscape results in permafrost thaw which causes ground subsidence or thermokarst. On hillslopes, these features rapidly and dramatically alter soil structure, temperature, and moisture, as well as the content and quality of soil organic matter. These changes alter both the rate and mechanism of carbon cycling in permafrost soils, making frozen soils available to both anaerobic and aerobic decomposition. In order to improve our predictive capabilities, we use a chronosequence thaw slumps to examine how fluxes from active and stabilized features differ. Our study site is along the Selawik River in northwest Alaska where a retrogressive thaw slump initiated in the spring of 2004. It has grown to a surface area of 50,000 m2. Products of the erosion are stored on the floor of the feature, trapped on a fan or flushed into the Selawik River. North of slump is undisturbed tundra and adjacent to the west is a slump feature that stabilized and is now covered with a second generation of spruce trees. In this 2 year study, we use measurements of CO2 efflux, δC13 in soil profiles and CO2 and CH4 abundance to constrain the response of belowground carbon emissions. We also focused on constraining which environmental factors govern C emissions within each of the above ecosystems. To this end, we measured soil temperature, and moisture, abundance and quality of soil organic carbon (SOC), water content, and bulk carbon compositions. Preliminary data from the summer of 2011 suggest that vegetation composition and soil temperature exert the strong control on CO2 efflux. The floor of the active slump and fan are bare mineral soils and are generally 10 to 15°C warmer than the tundra and stabilized slump. Consistently decreasing δC13 soil gas profiles in the recovered slump confirm that this region is a well-drained soil dominated by C3 vegetation. The δC13 gas profiles for the tundra, active slump

  12. A comparison of gas geochemistry of fumaroles in the 1912 ash-flow sheet and on active stratovolcanoes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheppard, D.S.; Janik, C.J.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fumarolic gas samples collected in 1978 and 1979 from the stratovolcanoes Mount Griggs, Mount Mageik, and the 1953-68 SW Trident cone in Katmai National Park, Alaska, have been analysed and the results presented here. Comparison with recalculated analyses of samples collected from the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) in 1917 and 1919 demonstrates differences between gases from the short-lived VTTS fumaroles, which were not directly magma related, and the fumaroles on the volcanic peaks. Fumarolic gases of Mount Griggs have an elevated total He content, suggesting a more direct deep crustal or mantle source for these gases than those from the other volcanoes. ?? 1992.

  13. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.A.; Doukas, M.P.; Kelly, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cook Inlet volcanoes that experienced an eruption between 1989 and 2006 had mean gas emission rates that were roughly an order of magnitude higher than at volcanoes where unrest stalled. For the six events studied, mean emission rates for eruptions were ~13,000 t/d CO2 and 5200 t/d SO2, but only ~1200 t/d CO2 and 500 t/d SO2 for non-eruptive events (‘failed eruptions’). Statistical analysis suggests degassing thresholds for eruption on the order of 1500 and 1000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively. Emission rates greater than 4000 and 2000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively, almost exclusively resulted during eruptive events (the only exception being two measurements at Fourpeaked). While this analysis could suggest that unerupted magmas have lower pre-eruptive volatile contents, we favor the explanations that either the amount of magma feeding actual eruptions is larger than that driving failed eruptions, or that magmas from failed eruptions experience less decompression such that the majority of H2O remains dissolved and thus insufficient permeability is produced to release the trapped volatile phase (or both). In the majority of unrest and eruption sequences, increases in CO2 emission relative to SO2 emission were observed early in the sequence. With time, all events converged to a common molar value of C/S between 0.5 and 2. These geochemical trends argue for roughly similar decompression histories until shallow levels are reached beneath the edifice (i.e., from 20–35 to ~4–6 km) and perhaps roughly similar initial volatile contents in all cases. Early elevated CO2 levels that we find at these high-latitude, andesitic arc volcanoes have also been observed at mid-latitude, relatively snow-free, basaltic volcanoes such as Stromboli and Etna. Typically such patterns are attributed to injection and decompression of deep (CO2-rich) magma into a shallower chamber and open system degassing prior to eruption. Here we argue that the C/S trends probably represent

  14. Wireless monitoring of highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Richard; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John A.; Armitage, Robert; Rodgers, Dale; Hendroff, Adrian

    1999-05-01

    Electronic hardware has been developed to telemetrically transmit temperature and strain measurements from within a public highway in the UK. These measurements provide an important health check for monitoring fatigue damage in pavements. Previous attempts at measuring strain and temperature have required lengths of cable to be installed in the highway. The installation of these cables is both expensive and damaging to the pavement and provides potentially unreliable electrical connections. The new systems consist of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure. The core contains all the electronics necessary to record two temperatures and two strains. An analogue front end provides signal conditioning which is digitized and passed to microcontroller for endcoding. From there the data is transmitted via a low power radio link to a receiver and data logger positioned by the side of the road. The system has an in-situ operating life of 6 months on AA alkaline batteries. Results are presented of power management and fault tolerant radio protocol techniques, long term temperature variations, dynamic strain measurements within the highway, and RF transmission capabilities through a layer of asphalt.

  15. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  16. Highways of hope

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  17. Roadmap to quieter highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbisier, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Research in Europe, as documented by an FHWA/AASHTO European Scan Tour held in May 2004, and recent activity in Arizona and California, has fostered much interest in ``quiet pavements.'' On September 14-16, 2004, an FHWA sponsored Roadmap to Quieter Highways workshop was held at Purdue University. Participants were from the disciplines of pavement, safety, and noise from FHWA, State departments of transportation, industry (paving associations, general contractors, tire, and vehicle manufacturers), and academia. After several breakout sessions in the areas of policy, construction, maintenance, analysis (measurement and prediction), research, and design, the group had identified the knowledge gaps and developed a plan to fill those gaps. Several activities have been implemented based on the Roadmap to Quieter Highways. An Expert Task Group was formed to provide a draft provisional standard for the measurement methodologies, e.g., source, wayside, pavement absorption. A Tire/Pavement 101 workshop is being developed to educate pavement practitioners in noise concepts and noise practitioners in pavement concepts. A Tire/Pavement Noise clearinghouse is being developed as a one-stop location for all current tire/pavement noise or quiet pavement activities. Several research studies have been started and a second workshop will be held in 2006 to assess progress of the Roadmap.

  18. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  19. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  20. Formation pressure testing at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Operational summary, history matching, and interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.; Hancock, S.; Wilson, S.; Enger, C.; Collett, T.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy, BP Exploration (Alaska), and the U.S. Geological Survey, collected open-hole pressure-response data, as well as gas and water sample collection, in a gas hydrate reservoir (the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool. Four such MDT tests, ranging from six to twelve hours duration, and including a series of flow, sampling, and shut-in periods of various durations, were conducted. Locations for the testing were selected based on NMR and other log data to assure sufficient isolation from reservoir boundaries and zones of excess free water. Test stages in which pressure was reduced sufficiently to mobilize free water in the formation (yet not cause gas hydrate dissociation) produced readily interpretable pressure build-up profiles. Build-ups following larger drawdowns consistently showed gas-hydrate dissociation and gas release (as confirmed by optical fluid analyzer data), as well as progressive dampening of reservoir pressure build-up during sequential tests at a given MDT test station.History matches of one multi-stage, 12-h test (the C2 test) were accomplished using five different reservoir simulators: CMG-STARS, HydrateResSim, MH21-HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH. +. HYDRATE. Simulations utilized detailed information collected across the reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (11.3. m, 37 ft.), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), both mobile and immobile water saturations, intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3-3.9 ??C). This paper will present the approach and preliminary results of the history-matching efforts, including estimates of initial formation permeability and analyses of the various unique features exhibited by the MDT results. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 244 for OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau... Proposed OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (Proposed Program) identifies Sale 244 as a... Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (Final Program) or to lease in the Cook Inlet Planning...

  2. 76 FR 78642 - TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings... would transport gas produced on the Alaska North Slope to the Alaska-Canada border to connect with a pipeline system in Canada for onward delivery to markets in North America. The APP is being...

  3. Integration of gas chromatographs into the Federal Highway Administration/Environmental Protection Agency near road MSAT study in Las Vegas, NV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper documents the technical evaluation of a semi-continuous gas chromatograph (GC) for the measurement of benzene and 1,33butadiene in the near road environment. This paper will also consider the some of the non-technical implications associated with the operation of a GC ...

  4. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  5. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Felzer, B.S.; Hu, S.

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are ???3 Tg CH 4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH 4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr). ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  7. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  8. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  9. Evaluation of a deposit in the vicinity of the PBU L-106 Site, North Slope, Alaska, for a potential long-term test of gas production from hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.; Boyle, K.L.; Zhang, K.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the technical feasibility of gas production from hydrate deposits, a long-term field test (lasting 18-24 months) is under consideration in a project led by the U.S. Department of Energy. We evaluate a candidate deposit involving the C-Unit in the vicinity of the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska. This deposit is stratigraphically bounded by impermeable shale top and bottom boundaries (Class 3), and is characterized by high intrinsic permeabilities, high porosity, high hydrate saturation, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The C-unit deposit is composed of two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30-ft-thick shale interlayer, and its temperatrure across its boundaries ranges between 5 and 6.5 C. We investigate by means of numerical simulation involving very fine grids the production potential of these two deposits using both vertical and horizontal wells. We also explore the sensitivity of production to key parameters such as the hydrate saturation, the formation permeability, and the permeability of the bounding shale layers. Finally, we compare the production performance of the C-Unit at the PBU-L106 site to that of the D-Unit accumulation at the Mount Elbert site, a thinner, single-layer Class 3 deposit on the North Slope of Alaska that is shallower, less-pressurized and colder (2.3-2.6 C). The results indicate that production from horizontal wells may be orders of magnitude larger than that from vertical ones. Additionally, production increases with the formation permeability, and with a decreasing permeability of the boundaries. The effect of the hydrate saturation on production is complex and depends on the time frame of production. Because of higher production, the PBU-L106 deposit appears to have an advantage as a candidate for the long-term test.

  10. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  11. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  12. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Bulletin, 1920, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    On May 14-15, in Washington, a Conference on Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport was held. This was attended by about 75 highway engineers, deans and supervisors of engineering in colleges, universities, and technical schools, National, State, and County highway commissioners, and men interested in highway and automotive…

  13. Modeling spatial variations of black carbon particles in an urban highway-buildings environment

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zheming; Wang, Yan; Patel, Molini; Kinney, Patrick; Chrillrud, Steven; Zhang, K. Max

    2011-01-01

    Highway-building environments are prevalent in metropolitan areas. This paper presents our findings in investigating pollutant transport in a highway-building environment by combing field measurement and numerical simulations. We employ and improve the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model to simulate the spatial variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations near highway I-87 and an urban school in the South Bronx, New York. The results of CTAG simulations are evaluated against and agree adequately with the measurements of wind speed, wind directions and BC concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the BC concentration at the measurement point of the urban school could decrease by 43–54% if roadside buildings were absent. Furthermore, we characterize two generalized conditions in a highway-building environment, i.e., highway-building canyon and highway viaduct-building. The former refers to the canyon between solid highway embankment and roadside buildings, where the spatial profiles of BC depend on the equivalent canyon aspect ratio and flow recirculation. The latter refers to the area between a highway viaduct (i.e., elevated highway with open space underneath) and roadside buildings, where strong flow recirculation is absent and the spatial profiles of BC are determined by the relative heights of the highway and buildings. The two configurations may occur at different locations or in the same location with different wind directions when highway geometry is complex. Our study demonstrates the importance of incorporating highway-building interaction into the assessment of human exposure to near-road air pollution. It also calls for active roles of building and highway designs in mitigating near-road exposure of urban population. PMID:22084971

  14. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior...'') is the initial step in the prelease process for Lease Sale 237 in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area... leasing, exploration, and development that might result from an OCS oil and gas lease sale for the...

  15. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  16. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  18. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  19. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  20. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Modeling the Injection of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen into a Methane Hydrate Reservoir and the Subsequent Production of Methane Gas on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; McGuire, P. C.; Liu, Y.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    HydrateResSim (HRS) is an open-source finite-difference reservoir simulation code capable of simulating the behavior of gas hydrate in porous media. The original version of HRS was developed to simulate pure methane hydrates, and the relationship between equilibrium temperature and pressure is given by a simple, 1-D regression expression. In this work, we have modified HydrateResSim to allow for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates made from gas mixtures. This modification allows one to model the ConocoPhillips Ignik Sikumi #1 field test performed in early 2012 on the Alaska North Slope. The Ignik Sikumi #1 test is the first field-based demonstration of gas production through the injection of a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gases into a methane hydrate reservoir and thereby sequestering the greenhouse gas CO2 into hydrate form. The primary change to the HRS software is the added capability of modeling a ternary mixture consisting of CH4 + CO2 + N2 instead of only one hydrate guest molecule (CH4), therefore the new software is called Mix3HydrateResSim. This Mix3HydrateResSim upgrade to the software was accomplished by adding primary variables (for the concentrations of CO2 and N2), governing equations (for the mass balances of CO2 and N2), and phase equilibrium data. The phase equilibrium data in Mix3HydrateResSim is given as an input table obtained using a statistical mechanical method developed in our research group called the cell potential method. An additional phase state describing a two-phase Gas-Hydrate (GsH) system was added to consider the possibility of converting all available free water to form hydrate with injected gas. Using Mix3HydrateResSim, a methane hydrate reservoir with coexisting pure-CH4-hydrate and aqueous phases at 7.0 MPa and 5.5°C was modeled after the conditions of the Ignik Sikumi #1 test: (i) 14-day injection of CO2 and N2 followed by (ii) 30-day production of CH4 (by depressurization of the well). During the

  3. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 (Lease Sale 237) MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... addition of the map entitled ``Chukchi Sea Planning Area for Information and Nominations Lease Sale 237... Lease Sale 237 in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area, scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in...

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  6. Aviation response to a widely dispersed volcanic ash and gas cloud from the August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Schneider, David J.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Hall, Tony; Bensimon, Dov R.; Salinas, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive volcanic cloud from Kasatochi's 2008 eruption caused widespread disruptions to aviation operations along Pacific oceanic, Canadian, and U.S. air routes. Based on aviation hazard warnings issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, the Federal Aviation Administration, and Meteorological Service of Canada, air carriers largely avoided the volcanic cloud over a 5 day period by route modifications and flight cancellations. Comparison of time coincident GOES thermal infrared (TIR) data for ash detection with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ultraviolet data for SO2 detection shows congruent areas of ash and gas in the volcanic cloud in the 2 days following onset of ash production. After about 2.5 days, the area of SO2 detected by OMI was more extensive than the area of ash indicated by TIR data, indicating significant ash depletion by fall out had occurred. Pilot reports of visible haze at cruise altitudes over Canada and the northern United States suggested that SO2 gas had converted to sulfate aerosols. Uncertain about the hazard potential of the aging cloud, airlines coped by flying over, under, or around the observed haze layer. Samples from a nondamaging aircraft encounter with Kasatochi's nearly 3 day old cloud contained volcanic silicate particles, confirming that some fine ash is present in predominantly gas clouds. The aircraft's exposure to ash was insufficient to cause engine damage; however, slightly damaging encounters with volcanic clouds from eruptions of Reventador in 2002 and Hekla in 2000 indicate the possibility of lingering hazards associated with old and/or diffuse volcanic clouds.

  7. Gas hydrate as a proxy for contemporary climate change and shallow heat flow on the US east coast and north slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phrampus, Benjamin J.

    Methane hydrates, ice-like solids that sequester large quantities of methane in their crystal structure, are stable at moderate pressures and low temperature. The methane contained within these naturally occurring deposits is typically derived from organic matter that is broken down by thermogenic or biogenic activity. Methane hydrate is found world-wide on nearly every continental margin on Earth where the thermodynamic conditions and methane gas permit the formation of hydrate. Hydrate potentially represents the largest reservoir of hydrocarbon on the planet, yet their response to evolving thermodynamic conditions are poorly understood. This dissertation is a summary of several projects that investigate the unique properties of gas hydrate, and the information we can gain from detailed analysis of these natural deposits. Gas hydrate response to contemporary warming is currently poorly understood. Determining if current or past warming trends are having direct effects on the hydrate stability regime is a region of active interest. The observed zone of hydrate stability is deduced from the current distribution of hydrate. Using current geologic and hydrologic conditions, we can compare the model-predicted zone of hydrate stability and directly compare the data with the observed stability regime. Due to the low thermal diffusivity of sediments, heat conduction is slow, thus if the thermodynamic conditions changed recently, the observed zone of stability will not have time to reach equilibrium and will appear anomalous compared with the predicted stability zone. Using this technique, combined with observations of recent changes in ocean temperatures, I identify two regions currently experiencing ocean warming induced hydrate dissociation: The U.S. East Coast (N. Atlantic) and the North Slope of Alaska (Beaufort Sea). These regions are currently experiencing hydrate dissociation due to contemporary climate forcing. Hydrates also offer unique insights into the

  8. Fluid inclusion gas chemistry as a potential minerals exploration tool: Case studies from Creede, CO, Jerritt Canyon, NV, Coeur d'Alene district, ID and MT, southern Alaska mesothermal veins, and mid-continent MVT's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, G.P.; Hofstra, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation now permit quantitative analysis of gas species from individual fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion gas data can be applied to minerals exploration empirically to establish chemical (gas composition) signatures of the ore fluids, and conceptually through the development of genetic models of ore formation from a framework of integrated geologic, geochemical, and isotopic investigations. Case studies of fluid inclusion gas chemistry from ore deposits representing a spectrum of ore-forming processes and environments are presented to illustrate both the empirical and conceptual approaches. We consider epithermal silver-gold deposits of Creede, Colorado, Carlin-type sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits of Jerritt Canyon, Nevada, metamorphic silver-base-metal veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana, gold-quartz veins in accreted terranes of southern Alaska, and the mid-continent base-metal sulfide deposits of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT's). Variations in gas chemistry determine the redox state of the ore fluids, provide compositional input for gas geothermometers, characterize ore fluid chemistry (e.g., CH4CO2, H2SSO2, CO2/H2S, organic-rich fluids, gas-rich and gas-poor fluids), identify magmatic, meteoric, metamorphic, shallow and deep basin fluids in ore systems, locate upwelling plumes of magmatic-derived volatiles, zones of boiling and volatile separation, interfaces between contrasting fluids, and important zones of fluid mixing. Present techniques are immediately applicable to exploration programsas empirical studies that monitor fluid inclusion gas threshold concentration levels, presence or absence of certain gases, or changes in gas ratios. We suggest that the greater contribution of fluid inclusion gas analysis is in the integrated and comprehensive chemical dimension that gas data impart to genetic models, and in the exploration concepts based on processes and environments of ore formation derived from

  9. 43 CFR 3101.5-3 - Alaska wildlife areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska wildlife areas. 3101.5-3 Section 3101.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.5-3 Alaska wildlife areas. No lands within...

  10. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  11. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  12. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  13. Heading South on 'Erebus Highway'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently traveling southward over a pavement of outcrop dubbed the 'Erebus Highway.' 'Erebus Crater,' the rover's next target, lies less than 100 meters (328 feet) south of its current position. This view is a mosaic produced from from frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 582nd martian day, or sol (Sept. 13, 2005). It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes. Mars Exploration Rover team scientists are investigating both the composition of the rocks and the processes by which the distinctive fracture pattern arose.

  14. Weight Control for Highway Trucking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LODEC, Inc. scales use load cell technology, a spinoff from aerospace technology, in manufacturing electronic axle scales for weighing trucks and trailers to insure that they are within legal highway limits. The scales trace their origin to the space program of the 1960's when ELDEC Corporation, then LODEC parent company, acquired advanced electronic technology as a subcontractor on such projects as Apollo and Saturn launch vehicles. LODEC scales come in both permanent and portable versions with accuracy of within one percent and frequently better.

  15. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND...

  16. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND...

  17. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND...

  18. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND...

  19. 23 CFR 470.113 - National Highway System procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for system actions on the National Highway System shall include a route description, a statement of... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Highway System procedures. 470.113 Section 470.113 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND...

  20. 23 CFR 1.28 - Diversion of highway revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversion of highway revenues. 1.28 Section 1.28 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.28 Diversion of highway revenues. (a) Reduction in apportionment. If the Secretary shall...

  1. HIGHWAY 3. 1: An enhanced HIGHWAY routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S. ); Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M. . Transportation Center)

    1993-03-01

    The HIGHWAY program provides a flexible tool for predicting highway routes for transporting radioactive materials in the United States. The HIGHWAY data base is essentially a computerized road atlas that currently describes over 240,000 miles of highways. Complete descriptions of all Interstate System and most US highways (except those that parallel a nearby Interstate highway) are included in the data base. Many of the principal state highways and a number of local and county highways are also identified. The data base also includes locations of nuclear facilities and major airports. Several different types of routes may be calculated, depending on a set of user-supplied constraints. Routes are calculated by minimizing the total impedance between the origin and the destination. Basically, the impedance is defined as a function of distance and driving time along a particular highway segment. Several routing constraints can be imposed during the calculations. One of the special features of the HIGHWAY model is its ability to calculate routes that maximize use of Interstate System highways. This feature allows the user to predict routes for shipments of radioactive materials that conform to the US Department of Transportation routing regulations. Other features of the model include the ability to predict routes that bypass a specific state, city, town, or highway segment. Two special features have been incorporated in HIGHWAY, version 3.1. The first is the ability to automatically calculate alternative routes. Frequently, there are a number of routes between the source and destination that vary slightly in distance and estimated driving time. The HIGHWAY program offers a selection of different but nearly equal routes. The second special feature is the capability to calculate route-specific population density statistics. The population density distribution is calculated for each highway segment in the route and is reported on a state-by-state basis.

  2. ALASKA NORTH SLOPE OIL-FIELD RESTORATION RESEARCH STRATEGY (ANSORRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including...

  3. Analysis of Alaska hydro power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    Alaska leads the world in terms of total potential for hydropower development, yet Alaska is 91% dependent on fossil fuels. A mix of gas, diesel and coal-fired power plants generate all but 9% of its electricity. This dependence on fossil fuels stems from the abundance of cheap gas, coal and oil-nonrenewable resources that are becoming more costly. Hydro power is also costly; however, most hydro projects are justified by long term returns. Once the water hits the turbine in a hydro project, the operating and maintenance cost is practically nil. The successful completion of two complex thin-arch concrete dams and several other hydro projects are discussed in order to meet Alaska's power demand.

  4. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... CFR 470. In its final rule published in the Federal Register on June 19, 1997, at 62 FR 33355, the... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 470 RIN 2125-AF35 Highway Systems; Technical Correction.... SUMMARY: This rule makes a technical correction to the regulations that govern the designation of...

  5. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, on behalf of a particular state can be and... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421...

  6. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, on behalf of a particular state can be and... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421...

  7. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, on behalf of a particular state can be and... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421...

  8. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, on behalf of a particular state can be and... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421...

  9. 32 CFR 644.421 - Highway purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, on behalf of a particular state can be and... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highway purposes. 644.421 Section 644.421... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.421...

  10. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Procedures of the Department (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979). It is also not considered a major rule for... Maritime Administration 46 CFR Part 393 RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime... Transportation published an interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which...

  11. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  12. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance...

  13. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance...

  14. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance...

  15. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public highways. 169.28 Section 169.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.28 Public... for authority to open public highways across tribal and individually owned lands in accordance...

  16. 49 CFR 1.84 - The Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environment. (e) Surveying and constructing forest highway system roads, defense highways and access roads... on the U.S. economy by encouraging domestic manufacturing on highway projects through the...

  17. 49 CFR 1.84 - The Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... environment. (e) Surveying and constructing forest highway system roads, defense highways and access roads... on the U.S. economy by encouraging domestic manufacturing on highway projects through the...

  18. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. HOV on the information highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Sick of rush-hour traffic jams? Tired of bottlenecks that keep you from getting where you want to go? Frustrated by sluggish drivers who tie you up on your way to work? The National Science Foundation (NSF) is hoping to put scientists back in the fast lane—of the Internet, that is.The recent boom in the popularity of the Internet has brought traffic on some parts of the information highway to a crawl. Since all packets of information sent across the Internet are treated equally, e-mail love letters and playful web browsing can interfere with scientific data transfers and high-performance on-line experiments and conferences.

  20. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  1. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  2. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  3. Testing of Elmendorf Air Force Base heat and power plant, gas-fired boilers 3 and 5, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Final report, 21-29 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron-Ocasio, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A source emission testing for criteria pollutants was conducted on gas-fired boilers 3 and 5 at the Elmendorf AFB Heat and Power Plant during 21-29 April 1992 by the Air Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. The State of Alaska has indicated it will approve a permit modification to allow operation of the Heat and Power Plant boilers in excess of 60% of the nameplant design capacity upon source emissions compliance. This report contains a detailed evaluation of each pollutant and a comparison of the two boilers. Boiler 5 was selected as the most efficient boiler while boiler 3 was the least efficient. Results demonstrated that both boilers generated approximately the same amount of pollutants.

  4. 30 CFR 250.1166 - What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region? 250.1166 Section 250.1166 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... development is jointly regulated by MMS and the State of Alaska, MMS and the Alaska Oil and Gas...

  5. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  6. 76 FR 16807 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Tangle Lakes, Alaska, Glennallen Field Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Alaska along the Denali Highway at milepost 21.5 and lies within the nationally designated Delta Wild and... 2011. The improvements will provide designated campsites with tables, tent or trailer space and fire... the public through meetings for the update of the Delta Wild and Scenic River management plan....

  7. 25 CFR 169.28 - Public highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... road and must submit a map of definite location on tracing linen showing the width of the proposed road... for public highway rights-of-way over and across roadless and wild areas shall be considered...

  8. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  9. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  10. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  11. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  12. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  13. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  14. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., CFR part 21 (Department of Transportation Regulations for the implementation of Title VI of the Civil... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State highway agency responsibilities. 200.9 Section 200.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE...

  15. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., CFR part 21 (Department of Transportation Regulations for the implementation of Title VI of the Civil... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State highway agency responsibilities. 200.9 Section 200.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE...

  16. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., CFR part 21 (Department of Transportation Regulations for the implementation of Title VI of the Civil... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State highway agency responsibilities. 200.9 Section 200.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE...

  17. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., CFR part 21 (Department of Transportation Regulations for the implementation of Title VI of the Civil... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State highway agency responsibilities. 200.9 Section 200.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE...

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  19. Regional analyses of highway energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, G.; Greene, D.L.; Walton, G.H.; Collins, M.J.; Shonka, D.B.; Blue, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    Regional variation among selected factors affecting energy use in highway transportation is described and analyzed. Highway vehicle use accounts for about 95% of all motor gasoline used and a substantial portion of the diesel fuel consumed in the US. For the purposes of analysis, highway energy use can be divided into three sectoral users: household, commercial, and government. Chapter 1, Nonhighway Use of Gasoline, covers agriculture, marine, aviation, industrial and commercial, construction, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Chapter 2, Topics in Commercial Highway Energy Use, includes the following: Commercial Use of Gasoline in Highway Transportation, Automotive Fleets and Electric Vehicle Applicability; Local and Short-Haul Commercial Trucking; Intercity Trucking; and Intracity Bus Service. Chapter 3, Selected Characteristics of Highway Energy Use by the Household Sector, includes sections entitled: Regional Gasoline Use; Ownership of New and Used Vehicles; Fuel Efficiencies and Market Shares of New Vehicle Registrations; Regional Trends in Import Passenger Car Sales and in Light Truck and Van Sales; Regional Variations in Recreational Vehicle Shipments and in Gasoline Consumption, 1977; Regional Patterns of Motorcycle and Moped Use; and An Analysis of the Differences in Carpooling Across Metropolitan Areas.

  20. Rapid organic aerosol formation downwind of a highway: Measured and model results from the FEVER study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Craig A.; Liggio, John; Zhang, Jie; Gordon, Mark; Staebler, Ralf M.; Makar, Paul A.; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Shao-Meng; Mihele, Cristian; Lu, Gang; Wang, Daniel K.; Wentzell, Jeremy; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Evans, Greg J.

    2014-02-01

    The Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadway (FEVER) study was undertaken to strategically measure pollutant gradients perpendicular to a major highway north of Toronto, Canada. A case study period was analyzed when there was an average perpendicular wind direction. Two independent, fast response measurements were used to infer rapid organic aerosol (OA) growth on a spatial scale from 34 m to 285 m at the same time as a decrease was observed in the mixing ratio of primary emitted species, such as CO2 and NOx. An integrated organic gas and particle sampler also showed that near the highway, the aerosol had a larger semivolatile fraction than lower volatile fraction, but over a relatively short distance downwind of the highway, the aerosol transformed to being more low volatile with the change being driven by both evaporation of semivolatile and production of lower volatile organic aerosol. A new 1-D column Lagrangian atmospheric chemistry model was developed to help interpret the measured increase in the ∆OA/∆CO2 curve from 34 m to 285 m downwind of highway, where the ∆ refers to background-corrected concentrations. The model was sensitive to the assumptions for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Different combinations of SVOC emissions and background mixing ratios were able to yield similar model curves and reproduce the observations. Future measurements of total gas-phase SVOC in equilibrium with aerosol both upwind and downwind of the highway would be helpful to constrain the model.

  1. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  2. Preliminary Geologic Application of ERTS-1 Imagery in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.; Tailleur, I. L.; Patton, W. W., Jr.; Fischer, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The geologic application of ERTS-1 imagery in Alaska is discussed. The results of the investigation are relevant to the three national problems of: (1) identifying minable minerals, (2) accelerating the finding and development of sources of petroleum and gas, and (3) the need to preserve the environment. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in developing a netallogenetic map of Alaska is described. Illustrations of the accomplishments produced by ERTS-1 data are provided.

  3. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  4. Uses of recycled rubber tires in highways: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Epps, J.A.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis on the use of recycled rubber tires in highways will be of interest to administrators and policymakers; pavement, materials, geotechnical, environmental, and traffic operations engineers; and research engineers involved with highway design and construction issues. Information is provided on the uses of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials as well as other uses, such as on fills and embankments, for erosion control and on railroad grade crossings. Specifically, information is included which identifies the highway agencies using or implementing applications for recycled rubber tires and defines the design parameters, technical and construction limitations, performance, costs, benefits, environmental limitations, specifications, and availability. This synthesis of information defines the use of recycled rubber tires in highways and is based on a review of nearly 500 references and on information recorded from state highway agency responses to a 1991 survey of practice.

  5. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-07

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R&D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R&D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with the

  7. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  8. Fuel used for off-highway recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

    1994-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

  9. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  10. Highway operation and plant damage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leiser, A.T.; Palaniyandi, R.; Paul, J.L.; Raabe, R.

    1980-04-01

    A five year study investigated the relationship between highway operation and plant damage in the Tahoe Basin and adjacent highways. These studies include field surveys, greenhouse studies, soil salt application trials, foliar salt application trials, an Armillaria root rot inoculation study, a seasonal fluctuation of salt study, the effect of temperature on salt uptake and a bark absorption of salt study. Highway deicing salt is a cause of damage on conifers, usually limited to 30 feet from the pavement edge. Drainage patterns and salt carried by aerosols may extend damage farther from the pavement. Of the four principal conifers in the study area, Jeffrey pine and lodgepole pine appeared the most tolerant of salt and incense cedar was the most susceptible.

  11. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  12. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and users' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Gibson, S.M.

    1982-12-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire interstate highway system, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations > 100,000. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment.

  13. Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

  14. Seismic design guidelines for highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, R. L.; Sharpe, R. L.

    1981-10-01

    Guidelines for the seismic design of highway bridges are given. The guidelines are the recommendations of a team of nationally recognized experts which included consulting engineers, academicians, State highway, and Federal agency representatives from throughout the United States. The guidelines are comprehensive in nature and they embody several new concepts which are significant departures from existing design provisions. An extensive commentary documenting the basis for the guidelines and an example demonstrating their use are included. A draft of the guidelines was used to seismically redesign twenty-one bridges. A summary of the redesigns is included.

  15. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  16. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  17. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  18. View of the highway, from the top of the switchbacks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the top of the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northwest, showing the upper switchback curve and retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  19. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northeast, showing the retained alignment across the Beartooth Plateau - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  20. View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, at the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking northwest. The proposed realignment would be just to the southeast (right) of the existing alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  1. View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from above the switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking south, showing the setting and retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  2. View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, lower west summit switchbacks between Frozen Lake and Bar Drift, looking northwest, showing retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  3. View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the switchbacks above Frozen Lake (in midground), looking southwest, showing the general setting and retained switchback alignments - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  4. View of the highway, from just north of the frozen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from just north of the frozen Lake switchback, looking northwest, showing the retained alignment - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  5. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department...

  6. 30. ZIONMOUNT CARMEL HIGHWAY, PROPOSED TUNNEL ALIGNMENT. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. ZION-MOUNT CARMEL HIGHWAY, PROPOSED TUNNEL ALIGNMENT. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM NEAR CANYON OVERLOOK TRAIL. CLIFF BRAY, PHOTOGRAPHER, 1928. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Tunnel, Two miles east of Zion Canyon Scenic Drive, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  7. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  8. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING SOUTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  9. 1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST SHOWING REVOLUTIONARY WAR MONUMENT 56/1 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  10. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  11. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE WITH APPROACHES, OVERLOOKING HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE WITH APPROACHES, OVERLOOKING HIGHWAY 96 (IN FOREGROUND); FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  12. 14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Stress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Stress and camber diagrams for 162" truss - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  13. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  14. View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction with Old Coulterville Road behind rock. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  16. 51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FLOOR SYSTEM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ERECTION DIAGRAM. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). GENERAL LAYOUT. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). HANDRAIL DESIGN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). APPROACH SPANS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). FOUNDATIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). TITLE PAGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  6. Ecological compensation in Dutch highway planning.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, R; Bakermans, M M; De Haes, H A; Canters, K J

    2001-01-01

    The ecological compensation principle was introduced by the Dutch government in 1993. This principle is designed to enhance the input of nature conservation interests in decision-making on large-scale development projects and to counterbalance the ecological impacts of such developments when implemented. This article evaluates the application of the Dutch compensation principle in highway planning. Six current highway projects reveal consistent implementation of this principle, although provincial policies on compensation and a national method for identifying compensation measures are still under development. As the planning process has not yet been completed for all the projects, no general conclusions can be drawn on the impact of the compensation principle on highway decision-making. Nevertheless, several examples show that the principle stimulates project initiators to develop alternative routes or route sections in order to avoid or reduce ecological impacts and the need for coherent compensation measures. If the compensation principle is to be properly implemented in the context of highway planning, particular attention should be paid to the following aspects: (1) sequential assessment of overall project legitimacy and the necessity of intersecting protected areas and compensation measures. (2) the initiator's attempts to avoid and mitigate ecological impacts in developing alternative routes prior to compensation for impacts, and (3) the role of uncertain ecological impacts in identifying compensation measures, especially those concerning habitat isolation. PMID:11083910

  7. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  8. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out highway…

  9. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  10. Evolution of aerosol downwind of a major highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Makar, P.; Mihele, C.; Evans, G. J.; Jeong, C.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Primary aerosol from traffic emissions can have a considerable impact local and regional scale air quality. In order to assess the effect of these emissions and of future emissions scenarios, air quality models are required which utilize emissions representative of real world conditions. Often, the emissions processing systems which provide emissions input for the air quality models rely on laboratory testing of individual vehicles under non-ambient conditions. However, on the sub-grid scale particle evolution may lead to changes in the primary emitted size distribution and gas-particle partitioning that are not properly considered when the emissions are ‘instantly mixed’ within the grid volume. The affect of this modeling convention on model results is not well understood. In particular, changes in organic gas/particle partitioning may result in particle evaporation or condensation onto pre-existing aerosol. The result is a change in the particle distribution and/or an increase in the organic mass available for subsequent gas-phase oxidation. These effects may be missing from air-quality models, and a careful analysis of field data is necessary to quantify their impact. A study of the sub-grid evolution of aerosols (FEVER; Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways) was conducted in the Toronto area in the summer of 2010. The study included mobile measurements of particle size distributions with a Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS), aerosol composition with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), black carbon (SP2, PA, LII), VOCs (PTR-MS) and other trace gases. The mobile laboratory was used to measure the concentration gradient of the emissions at perpendicular distances from the highway as well as the physical and chemical evolution of the aerosol. Stationary sites at perpendicular distances and upwind from the highway also monitored the particle size distribution. In addition, sonic anemometers mounted on the mobile lab provided measurements of

  11. Feebates, Footprints and Highway Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a market-based policy aimed at encouraging manufacturers to develop more fuel efficient vehicles without affecting the car buyer s choice of vehicle size. A vehicle s size is measured by its footprint , the product of track width and wheelbase. Traditional market-based policies to promote higher fuel economy, such as higher gasoline taxes or gas guzzler taxes, also induce motorists to purchase smaller vehicles. Whether or not such policies affect overall road safety remains controversial, however. Feebates, a continuous schedule of new vehicle taxes and rebates as a function of vehicle fuel consumption, can also be made a function of vehicle size, thus removing the incentive to buy a smaller vehicle. A feebate system based on a vehicle s footprint creates the same incentive to adopt technology to improve fuel economy as simple feebate systems while removing any incentive for manufacturers or consumers to downsize vehicles.

  12. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  13. 49 CFR 397.69 - Highway routing designations; preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 397.69 Highway routing designations; preemption. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that establishes or modifies a highway routing designation over which NRHM may or may not be transported on or after November... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Highway routing designations; preemption....

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  15. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Highway. 172.507..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.507 Special placarding provisions: Highway. (a) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  16. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Highway. 172.507..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.507 Special placarding provisions: Highway. (a) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  17. 49 CFR 397.69 - Highway routing designations; preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 397.69 Highway routing designations; preemption. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that establishes or modifies a highway routing designation over which NRHM may or may not be transported on or after November... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Highway routing designations; preemption....

  18. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Highway. 172.507..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.507 Special placarding provisions: Highway. (a) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  19. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and in 40 CFR part 600. See § 1066.801 for further information on... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel...

  20. 49 CFR 397.69 - Highway routing designations; preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 397.69 Highway routing designations; preemption. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that establishes or modifies a highway routing designation over which NRHM may or may not be transported on or after November... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway routing designations; preemption....

  1. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Highway. 172.507..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.507 Special placarding provisions: Highway. (a) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  2. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  3. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Highway. 172.507..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.507 Special placarding provisions: Highway. (a) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  4. 49 CFR 397.69 - Highway routing designations; preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 397.69 Highway routing designations; preemption. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that establishes or modifies a highway routing designation over which NRHM may or may not be transported on or after November... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Highway routing designations; preemption....

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  6. 49 CFR 397.69 - Highway routing designations; preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 397.69 Highway routing designations; preemption. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that establishes or modifies a highway routing designation over which NRHM may or may not be transported on or after November... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Highway routing designations; preemption....

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume O: Planning and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    As the introductory volume to the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices), the document concentrates on aspects of planning and administration of a statewide highway safety program. Topics discussed are: the purpose of planning and administration,…

  8. 49 CFR 1.84 - The Federal Highway Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... grants), roads on the Federal-aid primary, secondary, and interstate highway systems and urban extensions... on the U.S. economy by encouraging domestic manufacturing on highway projects through the enforcement... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Federal Highway Administration. 1.84 Section...

  9. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  10. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... The primary objectives of selected research Projects are to: (1) Identify and quantify environmental... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The primary objectives of selected research Projects are to: (1) Identify and quantify environmental... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section 393.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary. The Department will work in consultation...

  13. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section 393.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  15. 1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE TO RESORT WITH STATE HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE TO RESORT WITH STATE HIGHWAY 89 IN FOREGROUND; MAIN LODGE IS ON THE FAR LEFT (WEST); CORD CABIN IS BEHIND AND TO THE RIGHT OF PARKED VEHICLES. - Camp Richardson Resort, Cord Cabin, U.S. Highway 89, 3 miles west of State Highway 50 & 89, South Lake Tahoe, El Dorado County, CA

  16. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine Highway Corridors. 393.3 Section 393.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.3 Marine Highway Corridors. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to designate specific routes as Marine...

  17. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  18. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  19. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  20. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine Highway Corridors. 393.3 Section 393.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.3 Marine Highway Corridors. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to...

  1. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine Highway Corridors. 393.3 Section 393.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.3 Marine Highway Corridors. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to...

  2. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine Highway Corridors. 393.3 Section 393.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.3 Marine Highway Corridors. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to...

  3. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the Seward Highway segment shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet MSL unless...

  4. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the Seward Highway segment shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet MSL unless...

  5. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the Seward Highway segment shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet MSL unless...

  6. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the Seward Highway segment shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet MSL unless...

  7. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the Seward Highway segment shall operate that airplane at an altitude of at least 1,000 feet MSL unless...

  8. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  9. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  10. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  11. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  12. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  13. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  14. Long-path measurements of pollutants and micrometeorology over Highway 401 in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, R. M.; You, Y.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Moussa, S.; Liggio, J.; Su, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Highway traffic emissions are an important source of air pollution, especially in urban areas. Traffic-related pollution has been linked to a number of adverse health effects, such as respiratory problems, cancer, heart failure, and a general increase in mortality. Determining the pollutants involved and quantifying their emission rates is paramount in developing high resolution air quality models to predict future developments with some confidence. Highway 401, as it passes through Toronto, is the world's busiest highway with a typical traffic volume of over 450,000 vehicles per day. In July 2015, three weeks of measurements were conducted over the 401 with an open-path FTIR (Fourier Transform infra-red) spectrometer in parallel with a scintillometer, integrating a variety of gas concentrations as well as turbulence parameters over a 310m path length. Relationships between traffic volume, micrometeorological conditions and the build-up and venting of pollutants on the highway are analyzed and quantified, demonstrating the role of stratification and turbulence in the accumulation and dispersal of traffic emissions. The feasibility of deriving emission rates by combining the micrometeorological data from the scintillometer with the gas concentrations from the FTIR using an inverse dispersion approach is investigated. The suitability of this novel approach for long-term monitoring of emissions is discussed. The findings will be compared with output from a high-resolution air quality model (GEM-MACH) to aid future improvements in the sub-grid parameterization of pollutant dispersion.

  15. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  16. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway Safety Plan shall expire on the last day of the fiscal year. (b) Except as provided in paragraph... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  17. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway Safety Plan shall expire on the last day of the fiscal year. (b) Except as provided in paragraph... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  18. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review by the State Highway Agency. 810.206 Section 810.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit...

  19. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review by the State Highway Agency. 810.206 Section 810.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit...

  20. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review by the State Highway Agency. 810.206 Section 810.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit...

  1. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review by the State Highway Agency. 810.206 Section 810.206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit...

  2. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in conformity... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  4. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  5. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  6. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  7. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  8. HIGHWAY 3.1: An enhanced HIGHWAY routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The HIGHWAY program provides a flexible tool for predicting highway routes for transporting radioactive materials in the United States. The HIGHWAY data base is essentially a computerized road atlas that currently describes over 240,000 miles of highways. Complete descriptions of all Interstate System and most US highways (except those that parallel a nearby Interstate highway) are included in the data base. Many of the principal state highways and a number of local and county highways are also identified. The data base also includes locations of nuclear facilities and major airports. Several different types of routes may be calculated, depending on a set of user-supplied constraints. Routes are calculated by minimizing the total impedance between the origin and the destination. Basically, the impedance is defined as a function of distance and driving time along a particular highway segment. Several routing constraints can be imposed during the calculations. One of the special features of the HIGHWAY model is its ability to calculate routes that maximize use of Interstate System highways. This feature allows the user to predict routes for shipments of radioactive materials that conform to the US Department of Transportation routing regulations. Other features of the model include the ability to predict routes that bypass a specific state, city, town, or highway segment. Two special features have been incorporated in HIGHWAY, version 3.1. The first is the ability to automatically calculate alternative routes. Frequently, there are a number of routes between the source and destination that vary slightly in distance and estimated driving time. The HIGHWAY program offers a selection of different but nearly equal routes. The second special feature is the capability to calculate route-specific population density statistics. The population density distribution is calculated for each highway segment in the route and is reported on a state-by-state basis.

  9. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  10. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  11. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  12. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  13. Toxicity of herbicides in highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinjiang; Fong, Stephanie; Deanovic, Linda; Young, Thomas M

    2005-09-01

    Previous field monitoring at two highway sites found highway-applied herbicides in storm water runoff at maximum concentrations ranging from 10 microg/L for glyphosate and diuron to as high as 200 microg/L for oryzalin. To determine whether these herbicides at these concentrations can cause any toxicity to aquatic organisms, a standard toxicity study was conducted. Storm water was collected along Highway 37, Sonoma County, California, USA, and the herbicides isoxaben, oryzalin, diuron, clopyralid, and glyphosate were spiked into the storm water at the highest concentrations observed during the five previous field-monitoring campaigns. Three different toxicity studies were conducted and the results showed the following: No significant reduction in reproduction or increase in mortality relative to the control for an 8-d Ceriodaphnia (water flea) toxicity test; no significant increase in mortality or decrease in biomass compared to the control during a 7-d Pimephales (fish) toxicity test; and, in a 96-h Selenastrum (algae) toxicity test, both the 10-microg/L diuron treatment and the combined 50-microg/L isoxaben plus 200-microg/L oryzalin treatment produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in algal growth compared to the controls, although the 30-microg/L clopyralid or 10-microg/L glyphosate treatments did not exhibit any toxic effects. PMID:16193763

  14. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K. ); Santiago, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.; Santiago, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  17. Design of a potential long-term test of gas production from a hydrate deposit at the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska: Geomechanical system response and seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaramonte, L.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Rutqvist, J.; Moridis, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    In an effort to optimize the design of a potential long-term production test at the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska, we have developed a coupled modeling framework that includes the simulation of (1) large-scale production at the test site, (2) the corresponding geomechanical changes in the system caused by production, and (3) time-lapse geophysical (seismic) surveys. The long-term test is to be conducted within the deposit of the C-layer, which extends from a depth of 2226 to 2374 ft, and is characterized by two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30 ft shale interlayer. In this study we examine the expected geomechanical response of the permafrost-associated hydrate deposit (C-Layer) at the PBU L106 site during depressurization-induced production, and assess the potential for monitoring the system response with seismic measurements. Gas hydrates increase the strength of the sediments (often unconsolidated) they impregnate. Thus hydrate disassociation in the course of gas production could potentially affect the geomechanical stability of such deposits, leading to sediment failure and potentially affecting wellbore stability and integrity at the production site and/or at neighboring conventional production facilities. For the geomechanical analysis we use a coupled hydraulic, thermodynamic and geomechanical model (TOUGH+HYDRATE+FLAC3D, T+H+F for short) simulating production from a single vertical well at the center of an infinite-acting hydrate deposit. We investigate the geomechanical stability of the C-Layer, well stability and possible interference (due to production) with pre-existing wells in the vicinity, as well as the system sensitivity to important parameters (saturation, permeability, porosity and heterogeneity). The time-lapse seismic surveys are simulated using a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model that is linked to the T+H+F code. The seismic properties, such as the elastic and shear moduli, are a function of the simulated time- and

  18. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  19. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  20. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  1. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  2. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  3. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  4. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  5. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  6. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  7. Unprecedented Spring Breakup on the Sagavanirktok River - Alaska North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniolo, H. A.; Irving, K.; Keech, J.; Youcha, E.; Tschetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Alaska's economy is strongly tied to oil production, with most of the petroleum coming from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields. Deadhorse, the furthest north oil town on the Alaska North Slope, provides support to the oil industry. The Dalton Highway is the only road that connects Deadhorse with other cities in interior Alaska. The road is vastly used to move supplies to and from the oil fields. Early this year, the Dalton near Deadhorse was affected by ice and winter flooding from the Sagavanirktok (Sag) River. As a consequence of this, the road was closed for nearly a week. In mid May, the Dalton was flooded by the Sag River in several reaches from approximately mile post (MP) 394 to Deadhorse (MP 414). The magnitude of this event, the first recorded since the road was built in 1976, was such that the road was closed for nearly three weeks. During that time, a water station was installed to track water level changes on the river, discharge measurements were performed and water samples were collected to estimate suspended sediment concentration. A summary of this information will be presented in the meeting.

  8. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  9. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. PMID:21845155

  10. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-01-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. PMID:21845155

  11. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  12. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  13. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  14. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  15. Tectonic framework of petroliferous rocks in Alaska: hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Kirschner, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Alaska, which contains about 28% of the land and continental shelf of the United States, is estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey to contain about one third of the nation's undiscovered oil and about one sixth of its undiscovered natural gas. The Survey estimates that fields discovered in Alaska through 1972 ultimately may produce about 26 billion bbl of oil and 68 Tcf of natural gas. In northern Alaska, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf and slope carbonate and clastic rocks of the Brooks Range orogen were thrust relatively northward over the depressed south margin of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Arctic platform. A foredeep, the Colville geosyncline, developed across the depressed margin of the platform in earliest Cretaceous time. Detritus from the Brooks Range filled the foredeep and prograded northward to fill the Cretaceous and Tertiary North Chukchi and Umiat-Camden basins and form the progradational Beaufort shelf. The largest petroleum reserves (Prudhoe Bay and associated fields) and the best prospects for additional large discoveries in Alaska lie in the areally extensive upper Paleozoic to Tertiary carbonate and clastic rocks of northern Alaska. In southern Alaska, a series of arc-trench systems developed on oceanic rocks during Jurassic and Cretaceous time. Between these arcs and the metamorphic (continental) terranes of east-central and northern Alaska, large back-arc and arc-trench gap basins received thick volcanic and detrital deposits. These deposits were extensively, and commonly intensely, deformed and disrupted by mid-Jurassic to Tertiary plutonism, Laramide oroclinal bending, wrench faulting, and arc-related compression. This deformation, coupled with low porosity (in part produced by diagenetic mobilization of labile constituents), has left these rocks with only modest, local prospects for petroleum. Laramide events compressed and consolidated ("continentalized") the late Mesozoic back-arc basin deposits and welded them to the older continental

  16. Life cycle optimisation for highway best management practices.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Heaney, J P; Rapp, D N; Pack, C A

    2006-01-01

    Highway runoff can cause a number of water quantity and quality problems. Stormwater management systems for highways have been developed based on a fast drainage for large storm situations. Non-point source pollution from highway runoff is a growing water quality concern. Stormwater quality control needs to be integrated into highway drainage design and operation to reduce the stormwater impacts on the receiving water. A continuous simulation/optimisation model for analysing integrated highway best management practices (BMPs) is presented. This model can evaluate the life cycle performance of infiltration and/or storage oriented highway BMPs. It can be directly integrated with spreadsheet optimisation tools to find the least cost options for implementing BMPs throughout a specified life cycle. PMID:17120683

  17. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  19. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on air and water transport, communications, and utilities systems in south-central Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1967-01-01

    The earthquake of March 27, 1964, wrecked or severely hampered all forms of transportation, all utilities, and all communications systems over a very large part of south-central Alaska. Effects on air transportation were minor as compared to those on the water, highway, and railroad transport systems. A few planes were damaged or wrecked by seismic vibration or by flooding. Numerous airport facilities were damaged by vibration or by secondary effects of the earthquake, notably seismic sea and landslide-generated waves, tectonic subsidence, and compaction. Nearly all air facilities were partly or wholly operational within a few hours after the earthquake. The earthquake inflicted enormous damage on the shipping industry, which is indispensable to a State that imports fully 90 percent of its requirements—mostly by water—and whose largest single industry is fishing. Except for those of Anchorage, all port facilities in the earthquake-affected area were destroyed or made inoperable by submarine slides, waves, tectonic uplift, and fire. No large vessels were lost, but more than 200 smaller ones (mostly crab or salmon boats) were lost or severely damaged. Navigation aids were destroyed, and hitherto well-known waterways were greatly altered by uplift or subsidence. All these effects wrought far-reaching changes in the shipping economy of Alaska, many of them to its betterment. Virtually all utilities and communications in south-central Alaska were damaged or wrecked by the earthquake, but temporary repairs were effected in remarkably short times. Communications systems were silenced almost everywhere by loss of power or by downed lines; their place was quickly taken by a patchwork of self-powered radio transmitters. A complex power-generating system that served much of the stricken area from steam, diesel, and hydrogenerating plants was disrupted in many places by vibration damage to equipment and by broken transmission lines. Landslides in Anchorage broke gas

  20. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  1. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  2. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  3. 76 FR 410 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: The KAC Project (Northern Access-Erickson Alternative with the Southern Alignment). The project is... using the Erickson Street alternative with a cut and cover tunnel and connections to A and C...

  4. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  5. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  10. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  11. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  12. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  13. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  14. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  15. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  16. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall deem... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5 Section 1.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT...

  17. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will...

  18. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  19. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  20. Geologic Map of the Point Lay Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pessel, G.H.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This map is a product of the USGS Digital Geologic Maps of Northern Alaska project, which captures in digital format quadrangles across the entire width of northern Alaska. Sources include geologic maps previously published in hardcopy format and recent updates and revisions based on field mapping by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Individual quadrangles are digitized at either 1:125,000 or 1:250,000 depending on the resolution of source maps. The project objective is to produce a set of digital geologic maps with uniform stratigraphic nomenclature and structural annotation, and publish those maps electronically. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  1. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  2. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  3. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  4. Rapid Arctic Transitions in Relation to Infrastructure and Climate Change: Comparison of the Permafrost and Geoecological Conditions in the Bovanenkovo Gas Field, Russia and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kumpula, T.; Shur, Y.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Kofinas, G.; Leibman, M. O.; Matyshak, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Buchhorn, M.; Wirth, L.; Forbes, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the Arctic are undergoing rapid permafrost and ecosystem transitions resulting from a combination of industrial development and climate change as summer sea ice retreats and abundant Arctic natural resources become more accessible for extraction. The Bovanenkovo Gas Field (BGF) in Russia and the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield (PBO) in Alaska are among the oldest and most extensive industrial complexes in the Arctic, situated in areas with extensive ice-rich permafrost. Ongoing studies of cumulative effects in both regions are part of the Northern Eurasia Earth-Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and NASA's Land-Cover Land-Use Change (LCLUC) research. Comparative analysis is focused on changes occurring due to different climate, permafrost, land-use, and disturbance regimes in the BGF and PBO and along bioclimate transects that contain both fields. Documentation of the changes in relationship to the different geoecological and social-economic conditions will help inform management approaches to minimize the effects of future activities. We compare the area of disturbance in the two fields and some of the key differences in the permafrost conditions. Detailed remote sensing and geoecological mapping in both areas reveal major differences in permafrost conditions that have implications for total ecological function. At BGF, highly erodible sands and the presence of massive tabular ground ice near the surface contributes to landslides and thermo-denudation of slopes. At PBO, ice-wedge degradation is the most noticeable change, where thermokarst is expanding rapidly along ice-wedges adjacent to roads and in areas away from roads. Between 1990 and 2001, coincident with strong atmospheric warming during the 1990s, natural thermokarst resulted in conversion of low-centered ice-wedge polygons to high-centered polygons, more active lakeshore erosion and increased landscape and habitat heterogeneity. These geoecololgical changes have local and regional consequences to

  5. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to

  6. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  7. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  8. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska; 1981 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M., (Edited By); Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1981-01-01

    This Circular describes the 1981 programs and projects of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each office and division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The largest program at present is related to oil and gas exploration, but programs also include mineral appraisal, water-resource studies, volcanic and seismic programs, topographic mapping, glaciological and geohazard studies, and many other activities. Alaska is the largest and the least populated, least explored, and least developed of the Nation 's States. The land area contains 375 million acres and comprises 16 percent of the onshore land and more than half of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Nation. After Native and State of Alaska land selections of 44 million acres have been made, approximately 60 percent, 225 million acres, of Alaska land will remain under Federal jurisdiction. Federal lands in Alaska then will comprise approximately 30 percent of all onshore land in the Nation 's public domain. (USGS)

  9. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Report of the Regional Conference Held at University of Pittsburgh, Friday, November 26, 1920. Bulletin, 1921, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pyke; John, Walton C.

    1921-01-01

    This bulletin provides information on the proceedings of the regional conference on education for highway engineering and highway transport that was held at the University of Pittsburgh on November 26, 1920, under the direction of the highway and highway transport education committee. The purpose of this report is: (1) To stimulate greater…

  10. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  11. 2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  12. 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  13. 50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ABANDONED PORTION OF HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTED 1935 ACROSS RIVER CONNECTING WITH NEW SMITH PT. BR., 1-HUM-1A #203. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD SWITCHBACKS FACING EAST. UTAH HIGHWAY 191 VISIBLE AT RIGHT, PARK MAINTENANCE FACILITY IN FOREGROUND - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  15. 77 FR 37093 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...Section 402 of title 23 of the United States Code requires the Secretary of Transportation to promulgate uniform guidelines for State highway safety programs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is seeking comments on proposed amendments to five (5) guidelines and one (1) new guideline that reflect program methodologies and approaches that have proven to be successful......

  16. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  18. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  19. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  1. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  2. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 17: Pupil Transportation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 17 of the 10-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on pupil transportation safety. The purpose and objectives of a pupil transportation safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pupil transportation and policies…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 4: Driver Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 4 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on driver education. The purpose and specific objectives of the driver education program and general policies regarding driver education derived from the Federal standard are described.…

  5. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... qualifying commuter highway vehicle on the return for the taxable year in which the vehicle is placed in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter...

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 5: Driver Licensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 5 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on driver licensing. The purpose and specific objectives of the driver licensing program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of driver licensing and general policies of a licensing…

  7. View of the highway, from the east end of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the east end of the Beartooth Ravine, looking west, showing the east end of the proposed realignment that will shift the road to the south (left) and will be built using retaining walls - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  8. View of the highway, from near the middle of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from near the middle of the Beartooth Ravine. The proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) and will be built using retaining walls - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  9. 17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). 37'7' U ABUTMENT FOR 4 GIRDER DECK OF THE HASSAYAMPA BRIDGE. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). LAYOUT MAP; PROFILE & PIER DETAILS. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 18. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, 1928 (microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). DETAILS OF 45'8' - 4 GIRDER DECK, 24 FT. ROADWAY OF THE HASSAYAMPA BRIDGE. - Hassayampa Bridge, Spanning Hassayampa River at old U.S. Highway 80, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 1. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA AT INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 149 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA AT INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 149 IN FOREGROUND AND CALIFORNIA ROAD J20 IN CENTER. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 42 38.7 / W-120 11 50.1 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  15. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Secretary to establish, operate, and manage the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System... National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-59, 109 Stat. 568). (23) Sections 1101(a... relates to apportioning certain funds for construction of the Interstate Highway System in Fiscal...

  16. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Secretary to establish, operate, and manage the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System... National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-59, 109 Stat. 568). (23) Sections 1101(a... relates to apportioning certain funds for construction of the Interstate Highway System in Fiscal...

  17. 43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-1 #12, NEW HIGHWAY DISPLACING OLD COUNTY ROAD, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. 60. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). U9 - U11. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 57. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ARCH DETAIL, U0 - U2. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  20. 58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ARCH DETAIL, U3 - U5. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESSES AND SECTIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). PLAN AND PROFILE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 59. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). U6 - U8. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  4. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  5. Variability in the Geographic Distribution of Fires in Interior Alaska Considering Cause, Human Proximity, and Level of Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M. P.; Varvak, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Interior Alaska is characterized by frequent extensive wildfires that have been mapped for the past 70 years. Simple predictions based on this record indicate that area burned will increase as a response to climate warming in Alaska. However, two additional factors have affected the area burned in this time record: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) switched from cool and moist to warm and dry in the late 1970s and the Alaska Fire Service instituted a fire suppression policy in the late 1980s. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics, this presentation evaluates the variability in area burned and fire ignitions in Interior Alaska in space and time with particular emphasis on the human influence via ignition and suppression. Our analysis shows that while area burned has been increasing by 2.4% per year, the number of lightning ignitions has decreased by 1.9 ignitions per year. Human ignitions account for 50% of all fire ignitions in Interior Alaska and are clearly influenced by human proximity: human fires mostly occur close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones (which are in turn close to human settlements and roads); fires close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones burn much shorter than fires further away from this sphere of human influence; and 60% of all human fire ignitions in Interior Alaska are concentrated in the Fairbanks area and thereby strongly influence regional analyses. Fire suppression has effectively reduced area burned since it was implemented but the PDO change has also had some influence. Finally, we found that human fires start earlier in the year and burn for a shorter duration than lightning fires. This study provides insights into the importance of human behavior as well as regional climate patterns as large-scale controls on fires over time and across the Alaskan boreal forest.

  6. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs. PMID:18362049

  7. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  8. Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Ron

    This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

  9. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 1051.640 - What special provisions apply for custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... display exemption provisions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c). Motorcycles exempt under this provision are subject to the restrictions of 40 CFR 86.407-78(c) and are considered to be motor vehicles for the purposes... custom off-highway motorcycles that are similar to highway motorcycles? 1051.640 Section...

  14. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  15. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  16. Guidelines for pipelines crossing highways. Topical report, June 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraffea, A.R.; O'Rourke, T.D.; Stewart, H.E.

    1991-12-01

    The guidelines in the report were developed from a comprehensive analytical methodology to assess the three-dimensional stress state imposed in pipelines at railroad and highway crossings, as well as the validation of the analytical models by full-scale field experiments. The result is a design procedure so that uncased pipelines can be installed safely and reliably with respect to the stress environment at transportation crossings. The guidelines apply to steel pipelines for natural gas transmission and distribution systems, normally installed with auger boring and pipe jacking construction methods. The report represents a summary of the design procedure for uncased highway crossings. All of the necessary design curves are given, along with example calculations. A similar document has been prepared for the design of uncased railroad crossings (Report No. GRI-91/0283, Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing Railroads). A complete technical summary of the research used to develop the design procedures is given in Report No. GRI-91/0285, Technical Summary and Database for Guidelines for Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways.

  17. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Naim; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Demir, Goksel; Nemlioglu, Semih; Bayat, Cuma

    2004-01-01

    Components and quantity of street dust are environmental pollution indicators especially in big cities. Street dust is generally composed of car exhaust gas originated particles and wind-transported particles. Heavy metals, which are found in street dust, such as Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni are significant for environmental pollution. According to the kind of vehicle in traffic, quantity and type of heavy metals vary in street dust. The use of leaded gasoline gives a boost to the importance of lead level especially in street dust even at the start of 21st century. These metals possess bioaccumulation property, and the possibility of the amount of these metals reaching a critical value and threatening human health increases the importance of this issue. In this study, street dusts have been collected from E-5 Highway from Topkapi to Avcilar regions that spans about 18 km in Istanbul, Turkey, and Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations have been detected in street dust. Twenty-two street dust samples were taken from a total of 22 different points at previously decided 14 main areas. Analyses were conducted using Leeds Public Analyst method. According to the results of this study, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations in E-5 Highway between Topkapi and Avcilar region in Istanbul were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil. This situation indicates that there is heavy metal pollution in the inspected area in E-5 Highway in Istanbul. PMID:14592575

  18. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt... for Modifications to the National Highway System Section 103(b), of title 23, U.S.C., allows...

  19. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt. 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D...

  20. Photovoltaic highway applications: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Scudder, L. R.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the near-term market for photovoltaic highway applications is presented. Among the potential users, two market sectors are considered: government and commercial. Within these sectors, two possible application areas, signs and motorist aids, are discussed. Based on judgemental information, obtained by a brief survey of representatives of the two user sectors, the government sector appears more amenable to the introduction of photovoltaic power sources for highway applications in the near-term. However, considerable interest and potential opportunities were also found to exist in the commercial sector. Further studies to quantify the market for highway applications appear warranted.

  1. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be [open quote]its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.[close quotes] Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989.

  2. Field-trip guide to volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits of the lower Jurassic Talkeetna formation, Sheep Mountain, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides information for a one-day field trip in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain, just north of the Glenn Highway in south-central Alaska. The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, consisting of extrusive volcanic and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Talkeetna arc complex, is exposed on and near Sheep Mountain. Field-trip stops within short walking distance of the Glenn Highway (approximately two hours’ drive from Anchorage) are described, which will be visited during the Geological Society of America Penrose meeting entitled Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Focus on Arc Lower Crust and Shallow Mantle, held in Valdez, Alaska, in July 2006. Several additional exposures of the Talkeetna Formation on other parts of Sheep Mountain that would need to be accessed with longer and more strenuous walking or by helicopter are also mentioned.

  3. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  4. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  5. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  6. Risk-Based Data Management System design specifications and implementation plan for the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission; the Mississippi State Oil and Gas Board; the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation; and the Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present design specifications and an implementation schedule for the development and implementation of Risk Based Data Management Systems (RBDMS`s) in the states of Alaska, Mississippi, Montana, and Nebraska. The document presents detailed design information including a description of the system database structure, data dictionary, data entry and inquiry screen layouts, specifications for standard reports that will be produced by the system, functions and capabilities (including environmental risk analyses), And table relationships for each database table within the system. This design information provides a comprehensive blueprint of the system to be developed and presents the necessary detailed information for system development and implementation. A proposed schedule for development and implementation also is presented. The schedule presents timeframes for the development of system modules, training, implementation, and providing assistance to the states with data conversion from existing systems. However, the schedule will vary depending upon the timing of funding allocations from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the development and implementation phase of the project. For planning purposes, the schedule assumes that initiation of the development and implementation phase will commence November 1, 1993, somewhat later than originally anticipated.

  7. ER – the key to the highway

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Giovanni; Hawes, Chris; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle at the start of the secretory pathway and the list of its functions is continually growing. The ER organization as a tubular/cisternal network at the cortex of plant cells has recently been shown to be governed by the membrane tubulation proteins of the reticulon family working alongside plant atlastin homologues, members of the RHD3 group of proteins. Such a network has intimate connections with other organelles such as peroxisomes via peroxules, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and at the cell cortex to the plasma membrane with cytoskeleton at so called “anchor/contact sites”. The ER network is by no means static displaying a range of different movements and acting as a sub-cellular highway supports the motility of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies plus the transport of macromolecules such as viral movement proteins, nucleocapsid proteins and RNA. Here we highlight recent and exciting discoveries on the maintenance of the ER structure and its role on movement and biology of other organelles. PMID:25259957

  8. Hydraulic design of pervious concrete highway shoulders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahl, Nathan Andrew

    Stormwater drainage has been a factor in roadway design for years. Now stormwater quantity and quality are also becoming regulated for roadways. As regulations of stormwater management continue to increase so does the need for more viable and effect management practices. The research presented and discussed in this thesis presents the option of using pervious concrete in highway shoulders as a best management practice for stormwater management. Research focused on the hydraulic response of pervious concrete pavements exposed to sheet flowing water. Pervious concrete samples were placed in a hydraulic flume to determine capture discharges, infiltration rates, and by-pass flowrates for a broad range of void contents, across a broad range of pavement cross slopes. The results demonstrate that the capture discharge and infiltration rates are inversely related to the cross slope of the pavement. Results also showed the infiltration rate of the permeable pavement exposed to sheet flowing water, in the model, is significantly lower than the measured infiltration rate. Pervious concrete samples were also tested to determine hydraulic response when exposed to clogging associated with sand used in roadway de-icing. The results of the clogging of the permeable pavements followed similar trends as the unclogged samples, with the only difference being a more significant reduction in infiltration rates at higher applications of sand. Preliminary discussion of a design methodology is included with a design example.

  9. Information highway and numerical heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, T.M.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1996-11-22

    It is proposed that researchers in the numerical heat transfer community need to realize the trend of the information highway and agree to use a protocol or a module that constitutes the core of a computer program solving heat transfer problems. This will avoid duplicate programming and accelerate the technology advancement of numerical heat transfer. The module for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flows is presented and explained. It is further demonstrated that, using this module as the foundation, the user can straightforwardly build up an entire personal computer code by inputting the data, specifying boundary conditions, and outputting the result. Other modules for slightly more complicated problems, such as transient flows with variable viscosity in irregular geometries, are also presented. Other than zoning matches for problems with multizones, the programming task for a user becomes minimal and simple: input, prescribe the boundary conditions, and output. The availability of Navier-Stokes modules is particularly helpful for less experienced numerical researchers, newcomers, and graduate students who have just entered the area of heat transfer and fluid flows.

  10. 29. COAST LANDSCAPE VIEW FROM HIGHWAY 101, 10 MILES SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. COAST LANDSCAPE VIEW FROM HIGHWAY 101, 10 MILES SOUTH OF CRESCENT CITY. DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING S. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  11. 36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. 71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON. LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  14. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  15. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  16. 14. VIEW OF HIGHWAY 190 TO FURNACE CREEK, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF HIGHWAY 190 TO FURNACE CREEK, SOUTH OF BEATTY CUTOFF AT SEA LEVEL MARKER. SAME CAMERA LOCATION AS CA300-15. LOOKING SE. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  18. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  19. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  20. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  1. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH IN THE FOREGROUND, RIGHT OF CENTER. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  3. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consideration will be given to Marine Highway Projects that represent the most cost-effective option among other... the most cost-effective option among other modal improvements. Include consideration of...

  4. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consecutive hours. (b) Fusees (highway and railway) must be packaged in steel drums (1A2), steel jerricans...), plywood (1D) or fiber (1G) drums. If the fusees are equipped with spikes packagings must have...

  5. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consecutive hours. (b) Fusees (highway and railway) must be packaged in steel drums (1A2), steel jerricans...), plywood (1D) or fiber (1G) drums. If the fusees are equipped with spikes packagings must have...

  6. 8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  7. 9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  8. DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS NEAR HIGHWAYS. DATA ANALYSIS AND MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validity of various assumptions underlying mathematical modeling of pollutant dispersion near at-grade highways was examined and the simulation capability of various dispersion models determined. The data base generated during the Long Island Dispersion Experiment is used to ...

  9. The Highway Map as a Social Studies Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehemann, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Presents a sample exercise for a seventh-grade geography class using Pennsylvania highway maps. Part one is designed to provide practice in map reading skills. Part two focuses on unusual place names. (Author/SJL)

  10. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GROTON BRIDGE (FOREGROUND) AND HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GROTON BRIDGE (FOREGROUND) AND HIGHWAY BRIDGE (BACKGROUND) - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

  11. 48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-I #9, MOVING CAMP. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. Interim program for land cover mapping in Alaska utilizing Landsat digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark; Carneggie, David; Gaydos, Leonard; Fitzpatrick-Lins, Katherine; Lauer, Donald; Ambrosia, Vincent; Benjamin, Susan

    1985-01-01

    The enactment of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) in 1980 imposed mandates on all major land management agencies in Alaska to prepare comprehensive resource and management plans to assess wildlife habitat, oil and gas exploration and development, wild and scenic river, land disposals, timber production, and archaeological and cultural resources, To meet these objective, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has embarked on a plan to classify land cover for the entire State of Alaska using Landsat digital data. the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, has completely Landsat-derived land use and land cover classification of 115 million acres for the State of Alaska. With this work as a substantial foundation, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of Alaska. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim land use and land cover classification system for Alaska and provide for the dissemination of map products, statistics, and acreage summaries for all areas of Alaska at 1:250,000 scale. It also allows for the dissemination of Landsat digital data for those areas.

  15. 76 FR 31677 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial... agency actions on the highway project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before November...

  16. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Summary required to be submitted under 23 CFR 1200.11(e). For subsequent submissions, the amounts in this... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217) B Appendix B to Part 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Summary required to be submitted under 23 CFR 1200.11(e). For subsequent submissions, the amounts in this... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217) B APPENDIX B TO PART 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  18. 77 FR 66910 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial... of the Federal agency actions on the highway project will be barred unless the claim is filed on...

  19. 23 CFR 810.208 - Action by the Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 810.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass... carried on in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 134 as described under 23 CFR part 450, subpart A....

  20. 23 CFR 810.208 - Action by the Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 810.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass... carried on in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 134 as described under 23 CFR part 450, subpart A....