Science.gov

Sample records for alaska marine highway

  1. 78 FR 7336 - Safety Zone; Alaska Marine Highway System Port Valdez Ferry Terminal, Port Valdez; Valdez, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Ferry Terminal, Port Valdez; Valdez, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Valdez within a 200-yard radius of the Alaska Marine Highway System (AMHS) Port Valdez Ferry Terminal... 200-yards of the AMHS Port Valdez Ferry Terminal whenever an AMHS ferry is underway within 200...

  2. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8619] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway...

  3. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  4. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  5. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... Marine Highway or in direct support of designated Marine Highway Corridors and Projects. (b)...

  6. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; integrate the marine highway into the transportation planning process; and research improvements in... capacity and efficiency, air quality, highway safety, and national security. DATES: This final rule is... need for more capacity in our freight corridors, and reducing the environmental impacts...

  7. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  8. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  9. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  10. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  11. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  12. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  13. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor...

  14. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  15. 76 FR 46889 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Avenue in the town of Hyder, Alaska and continues along the Hyder Causeway and trestle to Harbor Island....205, Highway Planning and Construction. The regulations implementing Executive Order 12372...

  16. 75 FR 70349 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highways in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Highway from Lucus Road to Big Lake Road, in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough, State of Alaska. Those actions... improvements between Lucus Road and Big Lake Road, a distance of approximately eight miles. The five-lane... depressed grass median from Church Road west to Big Lake Road. Existing frontage roads would be...

  17. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  18. Dataset for Alaska marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2017-01-01

    This collection of GIS layers was prepared for the report Alaska Arctic Marine Fish Ecology Catalog (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5038). The layers display geographic distribution and sampling locations for Arctic marine fish species in the region of United States sectors of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Certain diadromous species (for example, Pacific salmon, char, and whitefishes) are treated as marine fishes (McDowall, 1987) because much of their life cycle is in marine and brackish environments. This synthesis of information is meant to provide current information and understanding of this fauna and its relative vulnerability to changing Arctic conditions.There are 104 species in the collection - some species have both polygon and point data layers. The report (SIR 2016-5038) also describes for each species its names - species, common, and colloquial; ecological role; physical description/attributes; range (geographic); relative abundance; depth range; habitats and life history; behavior; populations or stocks, reproduction, food and feeding, biological interactions, resilience, traditional and cultural importance, commercial fisheries, potential effects of climate change, areas for future research, cited references, and bibliography.  The published report has one map for each species showing the polygon and point data as well as land and relevant administrative boundaries. Although some of the species also have an inland water presence, this report was concerned only with their marine conditions; therefore, the land component (from the original sources) has been clipped and removed. The distribution areas may be greater in extent than that shown in the report map bounding box limits. Distributions of marine fishes are shown in adjacent Arctic seas where reliable data are available. The report can be accessed at: https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165038This metadata document describes the collection of species data layers. Each

  19. 77 FR 44472 - Safety Zone; Port Valdez, Alaska Maritime Highway System Ferry Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Ferry Terminal AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Marine Highway System (AMHS) Terminal in Port Valdez when an AMHS Ferry is arriving or departing when... AMHS Ferry Terminal. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of passenger vessels...

  20. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013). During the workshops NMFS will present information regarding harbor seal habitat usage and...

  1. Hydrology and modeling of flow conditions at Bridge 339 and Mile 38-43, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The Copper River basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles in south-central Alaska. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. The Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, has been affected by channel planform reconfiguration. Currently (2012), two areas of the Copper River Highway are at risk: at Mile 38-43, the road grade is too low and the highway could be flooded by high flows of the Copper River, and at Mile 36, the main channel of the Copper River has migrated directly toward Bridge 339. Because Bridge 339 was not designed and built to convey the main flow of the Copper River, as much as 50 feet of scour occurred at the piers in 2011. The piers can no longer absorb the lateral or vertical loads, resulting in closure of the bridge and the Copper River Highway. The U.S. Geological Survey Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model was used to simulate the flow of the Copper River and produce simulations of depth, water-surface elevation, and velocity. At the Mile 38-43 area, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of raising the road grade 5 feet, and at Mile 36, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of constructing a channel to divert flow away from Bridge 339. Results from FaSTMECH indicate that if raising the road grade 5 feet in the Mile 38-43 area, a flood with an annual exceedance probability of 2 percent (400,000 cubic feet per second) would not overtop the highway. In the Bridge 339 area, results from FaSTMECH indicate that a design channel could divert flows as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second away from Bridge 339.

  2. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    The great earthquake that struck Alaska about 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, Friday, March 27, 1964 (03:36:1.3.0, Greenwich mean time, March 28, 1964), severely crippled the highway system in the south-central part of the State. All the major highways and most secondary roads were impaired. Damage totaled more than $46 million, well over $25 million to bridges and nearly $21 million to roadways. Of the 204 bridges in south-central Alaska, 141 were damaged; 92 were severely damaged or destroyed. The earthquake damaged 186 of the 830 miles of roadway in south-central Alaska, 83 miles so severely that replacement or relocation was required. Earthquake damage to the roadways and bridges was chiefly by (1) seismic shaking, (2) compaction of fills as well as the underlying sediments, (3) lateral displacement of the roadway and bridges, (4) fractures, (5) landslides, (6) avalanches, (7) inundation by seismic sea waves, (8) scouring by seismic sea waves, (9) regional tectonic subsidence, causing inundation and erosion by high tides in subsided areas. The intensity of damage was controlled primarily by the geologic environment (including the depth of the water table) upon which the highway structures rested, and secondarily by the engineering characteristics of the structures. Structures on bedrock were only slightly damaged if at all, whereas those on unconsolidated sediments were slightly to severely damaged, or were completely destroyed by seismic shaking. The low-lying areas underlain by saturated sediments, such as the Snow River Crossing and Turnagain Arm sections of the Seward-Anchorage Highway, were the most severely damaged stretches of the highway system in south-central Alaska. At Snow River and Turnagain Arm, the sediments underlying the roadway are fine grained and the water table is shallow. These factors were responsible for the intense damage along this stretch of the highway. All the bridges on the Copper River Highway except for one on bedrock were

  3. Seismic velocity models for the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Ratchkovski, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal-scale seismic-velocity models across the Denali fault zone along the Richardson Highway show a 50-km-thick crust, a near vertical fault trace, and a 5-km-wide damage zone associated with the fault near Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station 10, which provided the closest strong ground motion recordings of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. We compare models, derived from seismic reflection and refraction surveys acquired in 1986 and 1987, to laboratory measurements of seismic velocities for typical metamorphic rocks exposed along the profiles. Our model for the 1986 seismic reflection profile indicates a 5-km-wide low-velocity zone in the upper 1 km of the Denali fault zone, which we interpret as fault gouge. Deeper refractions from our 1987 line image a 40-km wide, 5-km-deep low-velocity zone along the Denali fault and nearby associated fault strands, which we attribute to a composite damage zone along several strands of the Denali fault zone and to the obliquity of the seismic line to the fault zone. Our velocity model and other geophysical data indicate a nearly vertical Denali fault zone to a depth of 30 km. After-shocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake and our velocity model provide evidence for a flower structure along the fault zone consisting of faults dipping toward and truncated by the Denali fault. Wide-angle reflections indicate that the crustal thickness beneath the Denali fault is transitional between the 60-km-thick crust beneath the Alaska Range to the south, and the extended, 30-km-thick crust of the Yukon-Tanana terrane to the north.

  4. Crustal structure of the alaska range orogen and denali fault along the richardson highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Pellerin, L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of geophysical data obtained along the Richardson Highway crosses the eastern Alaska Range and Denali fault and reveals the crustal structure of the orogen. Strong seismic reflections from within the orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal what is probably a shear zone that transects most of the crust and is part of a crustal-scale duplex structure that probably formed during the Late Cretaceous. These structures, however, appear to be relict because over the past 20 years, they have produced little or no seismicity despite the nearby Mw = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake that struck in 2002. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but we interpret modeled magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data to propose that the fault dips steeply to vertically. Modeling of MT data shows that aftershocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake occurred above a rock body that has low electrical resistivity (>10 ohm-m), which might signify the presence of fluids in the middle and lower crust. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  5. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., urban areas affected, and other geographic or jurisdictional issues that impact its overall operation... transport Federally owned or generated cargo using waterborne transportation along the Marine...

  6. Riches from the earth: A geologic tour along the Dalton highway, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, W.R.; Banet, A.

    1993-12-31

    ;Contents: Oil--Catalyst for Change; The Haul Road--Highway to the Arctic; Origins: The Geologic Setting; Glaciers Shape the Land; Glaciation and Wildlife Distribution; Permafrost and the Periglacial Environment; The Dalton Highway Road Log; Glossary; and Selected References.

  7. Marine debris in five national parks in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Polasek, L; Bering, J; Kim, H; Neitlich, P; Pister, B; Terwilliger, M; Nicolato, K; Turner, C; Jones, T

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is a management issue with ecological and recreational impacts for agencies, especially on remote beaches not accessible by road. This project was implemented to remove and document marine debris from five coastal National Park Service units in Alaska. Approximately 80km of coastline were cleaned with over 10,000kg of debris collected. Marine debris was found at all 28 beaches surveyed. Hard plastics were found on every beach and foam was found at every beach except one. Rope/netting was the next most commonly found category, present at 23 beaches. Overall, plastic contributed to 60% of the total weight of debris. Rope/netting (14.6%) was a greater proportion of the weight from all beaches than foam (13.3%). Non-ferrous metal contributed the smallest amount of debris by weight (1.7%). The work forms a reference condition dataset of debris surveyed in the Western Arctic and the Gulf of Alaska within one season.

  8. A multi-scale permafrost investigation along the Alaska Highway Corridor based on airborne electromagnetic and auxiliary geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Kass, M. A.; Bloss, B.; Pastick, N.; Panda, S. K.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Burns, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    More than 8000 square kilometers of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data were acquired along the Alaska Highway Corridor in 2005-2006 by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Because this large AEM dataset covers diverse geologic and permafrost settings, it is an excellent testbed for studying the electrical geophysical response from a wide range of subsurface conditions. These data have been used in several recent investigations of geology, permafrost, and infrastructure along the highway corridor. In this study, we build on existing interpretations of permafrost features by re-inverting the AEM data using traditional least squares inversion techniques as well as recently developed stochastic methods aimed at quantifying uncertainty in geophysical data. Ground-based geophysical measurements, including time-domain electromagnetic soundings, surface nuclear magnetic resonance soundings, and shallow frequency-domain electromagnetic profiles, have also been acquired to help validate and extend the AEM interpretations. Here, we focus on the integration of different types of data to yield an improved characterization of permafrost, including: methods to discriminate between geologic and thermal controls on resistivity; identifying relationships between shallow resistivity and active layer thickness by incorporating auxiliary remote sensing data and ground-based measurements; quantifying apparent slope-aspect-resistivity relationships, where south-facing slopes appear less resistive than north-facing slopes within similar geologic settings; and investigating an observed decrease in resistivity beneath several areas associated with recent fires.

  9. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2016-02-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  10. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2015-05-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC) by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect (derived from a 5 m × 5 m DEM), surficial geology, permafrost distribution, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g., 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  11. Pollen, vegetation, and climate relationships along the Dalton Highway, Alaska, USA: a basis for holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.K.; Andrews, J.T.; Webber, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dalton Highway extends from Fairbanks, in the interior of Alaska, to Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Over this 600-km transect, July temperatures vary from 17 to 5/sup 0/C. Studies of vegetation along the Dalton Highway identified nine major zones. During the vegetation survey moss polsters were collected within the survey quadrats. Two hundred and nineteen individual moss polsters document regional variations in the modern pollen spectra along this vegetation/climate transect. Treeline is distinguished by a change from dominance by spruce and shrub (especially alder) pollen to the south to herb and shrub (especially willow) pollen dominance to the north; a shift from high modern pollen concentration values to very low values is also noted. Discriminant analysis indicated that the vegetation zones are also defined by different pollen assemblages, suggesting that former changes in vegetation during the Holocene, as recorded in peat deposits, could be interpreted from pollen diagrams. Transfer functions were developed to examine the statistical association between the modern pollen rain and several climatic parameters. The correlation between pollen taxa and mean July temperature was r = 0.84. The most important taxa in the equation are Picea, Alnus, Pinus, Sphagnum, and Betula. 59 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Marine Geophysical Surveying Along the Hubbard Glacier Terminus, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Davis, M.; Gulick, S. P.; Lawson, D. E.; Willems, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Tidewater glaciers are a challenging environment for marine investigations, owing to the dangers associated with calving and restrictions on operations due to dense floating ice. We report here on recent efforts to conduct marine geophysical surveys proximal to the ice face of Hubbard Glacier, in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska. Hubbard is an advancing tidewater glacier that has twice recently (1986 and 2002) impinged on Gilbert Point, which separates Russell Fiord from Disenchantment Bay, thereby temporarily creating a glacially-dammed Russell Lake. Continued advance will likely form a more permanent dam, rerouting brackish outflow waters into the Situk River, near Yakutat, Alaska. Our primary interest is in studying the development and motion of the morainal bank which, for an advancing tidewater glacier, stabilizes it against rapid retreat. For survey work, we operated with a small, fast, aluminum-hulled vessel and a captain experienced in operating in ice-bound conditions, providing a high margin of safety and maneuverability. Differencing of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in different years can identify and quantify areas of deposition and erosion on the morainal bank front and in Disenchantment Bay proper, where accumulation rates are typically > 1 m/yr within 1 km of the glacier terminus. The advance or retreat rate of the morainal bank can be determined by changes in the bed elevation through time; we document advance rates that average > 30 m/yr in Disenchantment Bay, but which vary substantially over different time periods and at different positions along the ice face. Georeferencing of available satellite imagery allows us to directly compare the position of the glacial terminus with the position of the morainal bank. From 1978 to 1999, and then to 2006, the advances in terminus and morainal bank positions were closely synchronized along the length of the glacier face. In the shallower Russell Fiord side of the terminus, a sediment ridge was mapped both

  13. Ground-Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways: Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw Settlement over Ice-Rich Permafrost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw Settlement over Ice-Rich Permafrost Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En...innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of...August 2016 Ground-Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw

  14. Application of the Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road. Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  15. Permafrost Changes along the Alaska Highway Corridor, Southern Yukon, from Ground Temperature Measurements and DC Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, M. A.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Smith, S.

    2011-12-01

    A natural gas pipeline running across permafrost terrain from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, through Canada to US markets was first proposed more than 30 years ago. In the intervening period, mean annual air temperatures in the region have risen by 0.5-1.0°C and it is probable that the ground has also warmed. Renewed interest in the pipeline has meant that information on permafrost and geotechnical conditions within the Alaska Highway Corridor of the southern Yukon must be updated for engineering design and the assessment of environmental impacts. To accomplish this goal, results from 1977-1981 drilling and ground temperature monitoring programs within the proposed pipeline corridor were used in combination with air photo analysis to select sites potentially sensitive to climate change. The sites are distributed across the extensive and sporadic discontinuous permafrost zones over a distance of 475 km between Beaver Creek and Whitehorse. To date, 11 targeted boreholes with permafrost have been found and cased to permit renewed ground temperature monitoring. By the end of summer 2011, it is expected that another 7 will have been instrumented. Measurable temperature increases relative to the 1970s are expected, except where values were previously just below 0°C. In the latter case, if the sites are still in permafrost, latent heat effects may have substantially moderated the temperature increase. Electrical resistivity tomography surveys are also being conducted to characterize the local permafrost distribution and geotechnical conditions. These 2D resistivity profiles will be used with the ground temperatures to examine current conditions and response to climate change and vegetation disturbance.

  16. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  17. Marine geology of the Near Islands Shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scruton, Philip Challacombe

    1953-01-01

    During the summer of 1950 on the insular shelf surrounding the Near Islands, Alaska, 193 oceanographic stations were occupied from aboard the U. S. Geological Survey vessel EIDER. Bottom character and temperature observations were made at these stations. The composition and size distribution characteristics of the bottom samples have been determined. Components of terrigenous origin are angular to subangular sand and silt and angular to well rounded granules, pebbles, and cobbles, all composed of little-altered fragments of the fine grained insular rocks. Components of marine origin are the skeletons of Foraminifera, diatoms, and sponges and the broken shells of a few species of mollusks and of one echinoid species. A chart, based also on the study of approximately 600 USC&GS bottom notations, was prepared to show the distribution of these components of the sediments. Bed rock is exposed on most of the shelf; where sediment occurs terrigenous components are generally most important near shore, whereas marine components are more important seaward of the islands. Studies of the Foraminifera fauna and the diatom flora (identified by K. E. Lohman) and the few mollusks of quantitative importance show these organisms to be forms characteristic of cold or deep water or occurring in a wide range of temperature conditions. The Foraminifera exhibit depth zonation which seems to be controlled in part by temperature and in part by depth or some other variable which is a function of depth. Sphericity and roundness studies made on pebbles from the shelf, the beaches, and the fluvio-glacial deposits together with shelf topographic features and Foraminifera from sediment deposited before ice wastage was complete suggest the shelf was not subjected to prolonged surf action during the post-glacial rise of sea level. To aid in interpreting the sediments and their distribution several subaerial and marine environmental factors were investigated. Those factors found to be of most

  18. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum to approve the reduction loan repayment fees of $13... Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  19. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  20. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  1. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE...: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  2. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  3. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  4. 78 FR 15669 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... fjords that do not have specific rules regarding approaches to seals, and a recent study indicates that... regulations for vessel approaches to marine mammals, pursuant sections 112(a) of the MMPA and 11(f) of the ESA... the regulations. To date, NMFS has regulated close vessel approaches to marine mammals in...

  5. Seabird, fish, marine mammal, and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) in Sitka Sound, Alaska, July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Dragoo, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys for seabirds and marine mammals were conducted in and near Sitka Sound, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiĝlax̂ during 12-16 July 2000 (Table 1, Fig. 1). The objective was to characterize the marine environment in the vicinity of St. Lazaria Island, one of ten seabird colonies monitored annually by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (See Dragoo et al. 2003). In addition to censusing seabirds and mammals encountered on line transects, local oceanography was characterized by measuring water temperature and salinity continuously at the sea surface, and by taking profiles of the water column on a series of CTD transects. The relative abundance of zooplankton and fish biomass was measured using a dual -frequency echosounder. Significant acoustic targets were sampled with a m id-water trawl net. Long-lines were se t twice to catch and characterize diets of large demersal fish species.Rosenthal et al. (1981 and 1982) studied the bottomfish component of the nearshore habitats in southeastern Alaska including the Sitka Sound area during the summers of 1980 and 1981, allowing comparisons of our findings to those from the earlier works. There are no previous surveys for seabirds or marine mammals in this area with which we can compare our surveys.

  6. Modeled and Measured Underwater Sound Isopleths and Implications for Marine Mammal Mitigation in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Lisanne A M; Streever, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Before operating air guns in Alaska, industry is usually required to model underwater sound isopleths, some of which have implications for the mitigation and monitoring of potential marine mammal impacts. Field measurements are often required to confirm or revise model predictions. We compared modeled and measured air gun sound isopleths from 2006 to 2012 and found poor agreement. Natural variability in the marine environment, application of precautionary correction factors, and data interpretation in the generation of circular isopleths all contributed to the observed poor agreement. A broader understanding of the realities of modeled and measured underwater sound isopleths will contribute to improved mitigation practices.

  7. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, Milo D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  8. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  9. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  10. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  11. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, Martin D.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  12. Building a DNA barcode library of Alaska's non-marine arthropods.

    PubMed

    Sikes, Derek S; Bowser, Matthew; Morton, John M; Bickford, Casey; Meierotto, Sarah; Hildebrandt, Kyndall

    2017-03-01

    Climate change may result in ecological futures with novel species assemblages, trophic mismatch, and mass extinction. Alaska has a limited taxonomic workforce to address these changes. We are building a DNA barcode library to facilitate a metabarcoding approach to monitoring non-marine arthropods. Working with the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, we obtained DNA barcodes from recently collected and authoritatively identified specimens in the University of Alaska Museum (UAM) Insect Collection and the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge collection. We submitted tissues from 4776 specimens, of which 81% yielded DNA barcodes representing 1662 species and 1788 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), of primarily terrestrial, large-bodied arthropods. This represents 84% of the species available for DNA barcoding in the UAM Insect Collection. There are now 4020 Alaskan arthropod species represented by DNA barcodes, after including all records in Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) of species that occur in Alaska - i.e., 48.5% of the 8277 Alaskan, non-marine-arthropod, named species have associated DNA barcodes. An assessment of the identification power of the library in its current state yielded fewer species-level identifications than expected, but the results were not discouraging. We believe we are the first to deliberately begin development of a DNA barcode library of the entire arthropod fauna for a North American state or province. Although far from complete, this library will become increasingly valuable as more species are added and costs to obtain DNA sequences fall.

  13. Digital Dead Ends along Alaska's Information Highway: Broadband Access for Students and Teachers in Alaska's High School One-to-One Laptop Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Pamela Jo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the potential impact community broadband availability has on personal and classroom levels of technology adoption for high school students and teachers in Alaska. Community broadband availability was defined as, (a) terrestrial broadband availability; (b) satellite broadband availability; and (c) no broadband available.…

  14. Prey consumption and energy transfer by marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.L.; Drew, G.S.; Jahncke, J.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated prey consumption by marine birds and their contribution to cross-shelf fluxes in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We utilized data from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database for modeling energy demand and prey consumption. We found that prey consumption by marine birds was much greater over the continental shelf than it was over the basin. Over the shelf, subsurface-foraging marine birds dominated food consumption, whereas over the basin, surface-foraging birds took the most prey biomass. Daily consumption by marine birds during the non-breeding season ("winter") from September through April was greater than daily consumption during the breeding season, between May and August. Over the shelf, shearwaters, murres and, in winter, sea ducks, were the most important consumers. Over the basin, northern fulmars, gulls and kittiwakes predominated in winter and storm-petrels dominated in May to August. Our results suggest that marine birds contribute little to cross-shelf fluxes of energy or matter, but they do remove energy from the marine system through consumption, respiration and migration. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Burril, Sean E.; St. Peters, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Jennifer D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  16. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Marine regime shifts in ocean biogeochemical models: a case study in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, C.; Cole, H.; Henson, S.; Yool, A.; Anderson, T. R.; de Mora, L.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Butenschön, M.; Totterdell, I. J.; Allen, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Regime shifts have been reported in many marine ecosystems, and are often expressed as an abrupt change occurring in multiple physical and biological components of the system. In the Gulf of Alaska, a regime shift in the late 1970s was observed, indicated by an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature and major shifts in the catch of many fish species. This late 1970s regime shift in the Gulf of Alaska was followed by another shift in the late 1980s, not as pervasive as the 1977 shift, but which nevertheless did not return to the prior state. A thorough understanding of the extent and mechanisms leading to such regime shifts is challenged by data paucity in time and space. We investigate the ability of a suite of ocean biogeochemistry models of varying complexity to simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska by examining the presence of abrupt changes in time series of physical variables (sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth), nutrients and biological variables (chlorophyll, primary productivity and plankton biomass) using change-point analysis. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical models are capable of simulating the late 1970s shift, indicating an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature forcing followed by an abrupt decrease in nutrients and biological productivity. This predicted shift is consistent among all the models, although some of them exhibit an abrupt transition (i.e. a significant shift from one year to the next), whereas others simulate a smoother transition. Some models further suggest that the late 1980s shift was constrained by changes in mixed layer depth. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical can successfully simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska region, thereby providing better understanding of how changes in physical conditions are propagated from lower to upper trophic levels through bottom-up controls.

  18. Soluble chromophores in marine snow, seawater, sea ice and frost flowers near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beine, Harry; Anastasio, Cort; Domine, Florent; Douglas, Thomas; Barret, Manuel; France, James; King, Martin; Hall, Sam; Ullmann, Kirk

    2012-07-01

    We measured light absorption in 42 marine snow, sea ice, seawater, brine, and frost flower samples collected during the OASIS field campaign between February 27 and April 15, 2009. Samples represented multiple sites between landfast ice and open pack ice in coastal areas approximately 5 km west of Barrow, Alaska. The chromophores that are most commonly measured in snow, H2O2, NO3-, and NO2-, on average account for less than 1% of sunlight absorption in our samples. Instead, light absorption is dominated by unidentified "residual" species, likely organic compounds. Light absorption coefficients for the frost flowers on first-year sea ice are, on average, 40 times larger than values for terrestrial snow samples at Barrow, suggesting very large rates of photochemical reactions in frost flowers. For our marine samples the calculated rates of sunlight absorption and OH production from known chromophores are (0.1-1.4) × 1014 (photons cm-3 s-1) and (5-70) × 10-12 (mol L-1 s-1), respectively. Our residual spectra are similar to spectra of marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting that CDOM is the dominant chromophore in our samples. Based on our light absorption measurements we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Barrow seawater and frost flowers as approximately 130 and 360 μM C, respectively. We expect that CDOM is a major source of OH in our marine samples, and it is likely to have other significant photochemistry as well.

  19. Marine regime shifts in ocean biogeochemical models: a case study in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Claudie; Cole, Harriet; Henson, Stephanie; Yool, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; de Mora, Lee; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Butenschön, Momme; Totterdell, Ian J.; Icarus Allen, J.

    2016-08-01

    Regime shifts have been reported in many marine ecosystems, and are often expressed as an abrupt change occurring in multiple physical and biological components of the system. In the Gulf of Alaska, a regime shift in the late 1970s was observed, indicated by an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature and major shifts in the catch of many fish species. A thorough understanding of the extent and mechanisms leading to such regime shifts is challenged by data paucity in time and space. We investigate the ability of a suite of ocean biogeochemistry models of varying complexity to simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska by examining the presence of abrupt changes in time series of physical variables (sea surface temperature and mixed-layer depth), nutrients and biological variables (chlorophyll, primary productivity and plankton biomass) using change-point analysis. Our results show that some ocean biogeochemical models are capable of simulating the late 1970s shift, manifested as an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature followed by an abrupt decrease in nutrients and biological productivity. Models from low to intermediate complexity simulate an abrupt transition in the late 1970s (i.e. a significant shift from one year to the next) while the transition is smoother in higher complexity models. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical models can successfully simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska region. These models can therefore be considered useful tools to enhance our understanding of how changes in physical conditions are propagated from lower to upper trophic levels.

  20. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food-web perspective

    PubMed Central

    Estes, J.A.; Doak, D.F.; Springer, A.M.; Williams, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in turn affected the distribution, abundance and productivity of numerous other species. Ecological consequences of the pinniped declines are largely unknown. Increased predation by transient (marine mammal-eating) killer whales probably caused the sea otter declines and may have caused the pinniped declines as well. Springer et al. proposed that killer whales, which purportedly fed extensively on great whales, expanded their diets to include a higher percentage of sea otters and pinnipeds following a sharp reduction in great whale numbers from post World War II industrial whaling. Critics of this hypothesis claim that great whales are not now and probably never were an important nutritional resource for killer whales. We used demographic/energetic analyses to evaluate whether or not a predator–prey system involving killer whales and the smaller marine mammals would be sustainable without some nutritional contribution from the great whales. Our results indicate that while such a system is possible, it could only exist under a narrow range of extreme conditions and is therefore highly unlikely. PMID:19451116

  1. Marine tephrochronology of the Mt. Edgecumbe volcanic field, southeast Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addison, Jason A.; Beget, James E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    The Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF), located on Kruzof Island near Sitka Sound in southeast Alaska, experienced a large multiple-stage eruption during the last glacial maximum (LGM)-Holocene transition that generated a regionally extensive series of compositionally similar rhyolite tephra horizons and a single well-dated dacite (MEd) tephra. Marine sediment cores collected from adjacent basins to the MEVF contain both tephra-fall and pyroclastic flow deposits that consist primarily of rhyolitic tephra and a minor dacitic tephra unit. The recovered dacite tephra correlates with the MEd tephra, whereas many of the rhyolitic tephras correlate with published MEVF rhyolites. Correlations were based on age constraints and major oxide compositions of glass shards. In addition to LGM-Holocene macroscopic tephra units, four marine cryptotephras were also identified. Three of these units appear to be derived from mid-Holocene MEVF activity, while the youngest cryptotephra corresponds well with the White River Ash eruption at not, vert, similar 1147 cal yr BP. Furthermore, the sedimentology of the Sitka Sound marine core EW0408-40JC and high-resolution SWATH bathymetry both suggest that extensive pyroclastic flow deposits associated with the activity that generated the MEd tephra underlie Sitka Sound, and that any future MEVF activity may pose significant risk to local population centers.

  2. Early Tertiary marine fossils from northern Alaska: implications for Arctic Ocean paleogeography and faunal evolution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; Brouwers, E.M.; Carter, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Marine mollusks and ostracodes indicate a post-Danian Paleocene to early Eocene (Thanetian to Ypresian) age for a fauna from the Prince Creek Formation at Ocean Point, northern Alaska, that also contains genera characteristic of the Cretaceous and Neogene-Quaternary. The life-assocation of heterochronous taxa at Ocean Point resulted from an unusual paleogeographic setting, the nearly complete isolation of the Arctic Ocean from about the end of the Cretaceous until sometime in the Eocene, in which relict Cretaceous taxa survived into Tertiary time while endemic taxa evolved in situ; these later migrated to the northern mid- latitudes. Paleobiogeographic affinities of the Ocean Point assocation with mild temperate faunas of the London Basin (England), Denmark, and northern Germany indicate that a shallow, intermittent Paleocene seaway extended through the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the North Sea Basin. Early Tertiary Arctic Ocean paleogeography deduced from faunal evidence agrees with that inferred from plate-tectonic reconstructions.-Authors

  3. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15324

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... given that a permit has been issued to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Juneau, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents..., Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room...

  4. Marine benthic habitat mapping of the West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodson, Timothy O.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Powell, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, groundtruthed observations, and geological interpretations. The West Arm of Glacier Bay is a recently deglaciated fjord system under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the recently developed Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Due to the high flux of glacially sourced fines, mud is the dominant substrate within the West Arm. Water-column characteristics are addressed using a combination of CTD and circulation model results. We also present sediment accumulation data derived from differential bathymetry. These data show the West Arm is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS classification scheme and as a baseline for ongoing and future mapping efforts and correlations between seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glacimarine processes.

  5. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  6. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other elements in tissues banked by the Alaska marine mammal tissue archival project

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Mackey, E.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Demiralp, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1995-03-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration maintains two marine mammals tissue banks within NIST`s National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. The document is the second report in the NIST Interagency Report Series in which analytical data on samples collected and banked as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project are summarized. Results for inorganic constituents in liver tissues from 15 bulukha whales, 14 ringed seals, 3 bowhead whales, 3 beared seals, and 1 spotted seal, and for organic contaminants in blubber tissues from 12 belukha whales are presented and discussed.

  7. Diets and food-web relationships of seabirds in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Overall diets of 39 species of marine birds (four procellariiforms, three cormorants, six sea ducks, one phalarope, two jaegers, 17 gulls, two terns, and 13 alcids) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions are summarized with food-web diagrams, tables, and text. Diets of the Northern Fulmar, Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters, Pelagic Cormorant, Black-legged Kittiwake, Common and Thick-billed Murres, Marbled and Kittlitz's Murrelets, and Horned and Tufted Puffins are compared among seasons and geographic regions.

  8. Marine Mammals, Coastal and River Issues. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series VII. Alaska Sea Grant Report 84-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the last (Series VII) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The guide lends itself to the sixth-grade curriculum but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Eight units contain 43 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) the values…

  9. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  10. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  11. A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Jacob J.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Molly V.; Fergusson, Emily A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2009-12-01

    Coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital component in the southeast Alaska marine ecosystem and are an important regional fishery resource; consequently, understanding mechanisms affecting their year-class strength is necessary from both scientific and management perspectives. We examined correlations among juvenile coho salmon indices, associated biophysical variables, and adult coho salmon harvest data from southeast Alaska over the years 1997-2006. We found no relationship between summer indices of juvenile coho salmon growth, condition, or abundance with subsequent harvest of adult coho salmon in the region. However, using stepwise regression, we found that variation in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance (67%) and zooplankton abundance (24%). To determine if high juvenile pink salmon abundance indicates favorable "bottom-up" lower trophic level environmental conditions for juvenile coho salmon, we plotted abundance of juvenile pink salmon against growth and condition of juvenile coho salmon. No change in growth or condition of juvenile coho salmon was observed in relation to the abundance index for juvenile pink salmon. Therefore, we hypothesize that coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska is influenced by a "top-down" predator control mechanism that results from more abundant juvenile pink salmon, which serve as a predator buffer during early marine residency.

  12. GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska--satellite guidance and aircraft observations.

    PubMed

    Pichel, William G; Veenstra, Timothy S; Churnside, James H; Arabini, Elena; Friedman, Karen S; Foley, David G; Brainard, Russell E; Kiefer, Dale; Ogle, Simeon; Clemente-Colón, Pablo; Li, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris, particularly debris that is composed of lost or abandoned fishing gear, is recognized as a serious threat to marine life, vessels, and coral reefs. The goal of the GhostNet project is the detection of derelict nets at sea through the use of weather and ocean models, drifting buoys and satellite imagery to locate convergent areas where nets are likely to collect, followed by airborne surveys with trained observers and remote sensing instruments to spot individual derelict nets. These components of GhostNet were first tested together in the field during a 14-day marine debris survey of the Gulf of Alaska in July and August 2003. Model, buoy, and satellite data were used in flight planning. A manned aircraft survey with visible and IR cameras and a LIDAR instrument located debris in the targeted locations, including 102 individual pieces of debris of anthropogenic or terrestrial origin.

  13. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was

  14. Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary deltaic to marine sedimentation, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Along the lower Colville River near Ocean Point, Alaska, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments (Colville Group and the Sagavanirktok Formation) record depositional environments from delta plain to prograding delta to shallow marine shelf. The unit hosts the northernmost known dinosaur remains and is less than 100 m thick with numerous tephra deposits in its lower sections. Furthermore, it is characterized by cyclic, relatively fine-grained sediments indicating mostly depositional and few erosional events. The major depositional elements of the delta plain are 3.5 to 5.45-m thick tabular fining-upward cycles that are cut by sand-filled fluvial channels (up to 10 m thick). The cyclic sediments contain abundant roots and grade upward from small-scale cross-beds to laminated and then structureless silt and clay terminating in organic-rich layers. The channel-fill sequences fine upward and change vertically from large to small-scale cross-beds. Over-bank flooding as well as lateral migration of small meandering fluvial channels formed the cyclically interbedded deposits, meandering rivers deposited the thick cross-bedded sands, and soil development or marsh deposits formed the organic-rich horizons that cap each cycle. Plant debris, nonmarine invertebrates, and vertebrate fossils are locally concentrated in the delta plain sediments. Subsidence related to compaction of the deltaic sediments along with possible delta lobe switching resulted in repeated progradation of the delta front over the delta plain. Delta front sediments are 3 to 10-m thick tabular deposits of large and small-scale cross-bedded sands and silt bounded by organic-rich beds. Also, there are abundant roots, rare channels and invertebrate fossils that suggest a transitional environment from sand-flats to estuarine or bay.

  15. Shelf to shallow marine deposition of Ivishak Formation, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, N.T.; Crowder, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Ivishak Formation in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is composed of a progradational-aggradational-retrogradational depositional sequence. The Permian Echooka Formation underlies the Ivishak Formation. The Ivishak is overlain by the Middle and Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, except in the northern Sadlerochit Mountains where the Lower Cretaceous unconformity cuts down section into the Ledge Sandstone Member of the Ivishak Formation. In ascending order, the Ivishak Formation consists of the Kavik, the Ledge Sandstone, and the Fire Creek Siltstone Members. The Kavik Member is composed of thin-bedded, nodular siltstone and silty shale up to 70 m thick. Beds in the Kavik gradually thicken and coarsen into the overlying Ledge Sandstone Member. The Ledge is the chief hydrocarbon reservoir at Prudhoe Bay. In the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the Ledge forms a thick (40-90 m) succession of regularly bedded very fine to middle-grained sandstone with conglomeratic intervals. It becomes progressively thinner bedded and finer grained toward the east from the Sadlerochit Mountains to Leffingwell Ridge. The Ledge is gradationally overlain by interbedded sandstone, siltsone, and shale of the Fire Creek Siltstone Member. The Fire Creek consists predominantly of highly bioturbated sandstone, slump structures, and graded beds. The Kavik Member was deposited in open-marine waters beneath storm wave base. The transition into the overlying Ledge Sandstone Member represents a progradational sequence. The nearshore deposits of the Ledge Sandstone Member are aggradational. The Fire Creek Siltstone Member records deposition in an inner to middle shelf environment and represents a general retrogradational shift in depositional environments.

  16. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  17. Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, southcentral Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brendan J; Wipfli, Mark S; Lang, Dirk W; Lang, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    After rearing to adulthood at sea, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) return to freshwater to spawn once and then die on or near their spawning grounds. We tested the hypothesis that spawning coho salmon return marine N and C to beaver (Castor canadensis) ponds of the Copper River Delta (CRD), Cordova, southcentral Alaska, thereby enhancing productivity of the aquatic food webs that support juvenile coho salmon. We sampled three types of pond treatment: (1) natural enrichment by spawning salmon, (2) artificial enrichment via addition of salmon carcasses and eggs, and (3) ponds with no salmon enrichment. All ponds supported juvenile coho salmon. Seasonal samples of stable isotopes revealed that juvenile coho salmon, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), caddisfly larvae, leeches, and chironomid midge larvae were enriched with marine N and C. The aquatic vascular plants bur reed (Sparganium hyperboreum), pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus), and mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris) were enriched with marine N only. Riparian vegetation (Sitka alder Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata and willow Salix spp.) did not show enrichment. Artificial additions of adult carcasses and eggs of coho salmon increased the delta15N and delta13C values of juvenile coho salmon. In this dynamic and hydrologically complex coastal environment, spawning coho salmon contributed marine N and C comprising 10-50% of the dietary needs of juvenile coho salmon through direct consumption of eggs and carcass material. Invertebrates that have assimilated marine N and C yield a further indirect contribution. This perennial subsidy maintains the productivity of the ecosystem of the coho salmon on the CRD.

  18. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    Pore waters of marine sediments usually have salinities and chlorinities similar to the overlying sea water, ranging around 34-35 psu (Practical Salinity Units) and around 550 mM Cl-, respectively. This is because these parameters are conservative in the sense that they do not significantly participate in biogeochemical cycles. However, pore water studies carried out in the frame of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors have shown that salinities and chlorinities of marine pore waters can substantially deviate from the modern bottom water composition in a number of environmental settings, and various processes have been suggested to explain these phenomena. Also during the recent IODP Expedition 341 that drilled five sites in the Gulf of Alaska (Northeast Pacific Ocean) from the deep Surveyor Fan across the continental slope to the glaciomarine shelf deposits, several occurrences of pore waters with salinities and chlorinities significantly different from respective bottom waters were encountered during shipboard analyses. At the pelagic Sites U1417 and U1418 (~4,200 and ~3,700 m water depth, respectively), salinity and chlorinity maxima occur around 20-50 m sediment depth, but values gradually decrease with increasing drilling depths (down to 30 psu in ~600 m sediment depth). While the pore water freshening at depth is most likely an effect of clay mineral dehydration due to increasing burial depth, the shallow salinity and chlorinity maxima are interpreted as relicts of more saline bottom waters that existed in the North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (Adkins et al., 2002). In contrast, the glaciomarine slope and shelf deposits at Site U1419 to U1421 (~200 to 1,000 m water depth) are characterised by unexpectedly low salinitiy and chlorinity values (as low as 16 psu and 295 mM Cl-, respectively) already in very shallow sediment depths (~10 m), and their records do not show systematic trends with sediment depth. Freshening

  19. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway..., announced the availability of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for... Alaska Federal Lands draft Long Range Transportation Plans. The draft Plans are available on our...

  20. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine Safety Unit Valdez: Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-15 Section 3.85-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS,...

  1. Effects of currents and tides on fine-scale use of marine bird habitats in a Southeast Alaska hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Hill, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Areas with high species richness have become focal points in the establishment of marine protected areas, but an understanding of the factors that support this diversity is still incomplete. In coastal areas, tidal currents—modulated by bathymetry and manifested in variable speeds—are a dominant physical feature of the environment. However, difficulties resolving tidally affected currents and depths at fine spatial-temporal scales have limited our ability to understand their influence the distribution of marine birds. We used a hydrographic model of the water mass in Glacier Bay, Alaska to link depths and current velocities with the locations of 15 common marine bird species observed during fine-scale boat-based surveys of the bay conducted during June of four consecutive years (2000-2003). Marine birds that forage on the bottom tended to occupy shallow habitats with slow-moving currents; mid-water foragers used habitats with intermediate depths and current speeds; and surface-foraging species tended to use habitats with fast-moving, deep waters. Within foraging groups there was variability among species in their use of habitats. While species obligated to foraging near bottom were constrained to use similar types of habitat, species in the mid-water foraging group were associated with a wider range of marine habitat characteristics. Species also showed varying levels of site use depending on tide stage. The dramatic variability in bottom topography—especially the presence of numerous sills, islands, headlands and channels—and large tidal ranges in Glacier Bay create a wide range of current-affected fine-scale foraging habitats that may contribute to the high diversity of marine bird species found there.

  2. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews

    PubMed Central

    Quakenbush, Lori T.; Nelson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience. PMID:27555644

  3. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  4. 77 FR 22837 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial..., and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration--National Marine Fisheries Service....

  5. Applications of ERTS-1 imagery to terrestrial and marine environmental analyses in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Crowder, W. K.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. It also will aid local fishing industries by augmenting currently available hydrologic and navigation charts. The interpretation of geologic and vegetation features resulted in preparation of improved surficial geology, vegetation and permafrost terrain maps at a scale of 1:1 million utilizing ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. This information will be further utilized in a route and site selection study for the Nome to Kobuk Road in central Alaska. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska has been measured and shorefast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska is being mapped for the spring and early summer seasons. These data will be used for route and site selection, regional environmental analysis, identification and inventory of natural resources, land use planning, and in land use regulation and management.

  6. Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. T. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci; D. W. Efurd; M. E. Ennis; M. J. Hameedi; J. M. Inkret; T. H. T. Little; G. Miller

    2000-11-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.

  7. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  8. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  9. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  10. GIS application in mineral resource analysis—A case study of offshore marine placer gold at Nome, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Gang; Li, Hui; Luo, Huayang; Huang, Scott L.

    2007-06-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has been applied to analyze the offshore marine placer gold deposits at Nome, Alaska. Two geodatabases, namely Integrated Geodatabase (IG) and Regularized 2.5D Geodatabase (R2.5DG), were created to store and integrate digital data sets in heterogeneous formats. The IG served as a data warehouse and used to manage various geological data, such as borehole, bedrock geology, surficial geology, and geochemical data. The R2.5DG was generated based on the IG and could be used for gold resource estimate at any given spatial domain. Information on placer gold deposits can be updated, queried, visualized, and analyzed by making use of these geodatabases. Ore body boundaries, gold distribution, and the resource estimation at various cutoff grades can be calculated in a timely manner. Based on the enhanced GIS architecture, a web-based GIS ( http://uaf-db.uaf.edu/website/) was developed to facilitate remote users to access the offshore marine placer gold data. Users can integrate local data sources with remote data sources for query, visualization and analysis via a web browser. The GIS architecture developed in this project can be readily adapted to mineral resource management in other areas of the state.

  11. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  12. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  13. 33 CFR 3.85-15 - Sector Anchorage: Western Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones; Marine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Canadian boundary to the point of origin; and in addition, all the area described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The boundaries of MSU Valdez's Prince William Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port... 61°30′00″ N, longitude 148°26′00″ W; thence east to the United States-Canadian boundary at...

  14. ENSO events in the northern Gulf of Alaska, and effects on selected marine fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, K.M.; Macklin, S.A.; Reed, R.K.; Brodeur, R.D.; Ingraham, W.J.; Piatt, J.F.; Shima, M.; Francis, R.C.; Anderson, P.J.; Royer, T.C.; Hollowed, A.; Somerton, D.A.; Wooster, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    The 1991-93 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event first appeared in the northern Gulf of Alaska in autumn 1991 with warm sea-surface temperatures. In winter 1992, there were pulses of increased sea level and anomalous circulation. El Nino conditions persisted at least through summer 1993. The effects of this ENSO event on major groundfish species and Pacific herring in the northern Gulf of Alaska were examined and compared with the effects of previous ENSO events. There is little evidence that the 1991-93 or 1982-83 ENSO events affected landings of walleye pollock, Pacific cod, Pacific halibut, or arrowtooth flounder. Some changes in distribution of groundfish species were observed in 1993, but the effect was similar to changes observed in non-ENSO warm years. In general, warm ocean conditions have a positive effect on recruitment of northern stocks, but ENSO events appear to have an inconsistent effect on year-class strength within species and among different species. For example, strong year classes of halibut and arrowtooth flounder sometimes, but not always, coincide with ENSO events; ENSO events are associated with moderate to weak year classes of cod and pollock. However, post-ENSO warm years often are associated with strong recruitment of many groundfish species. Major changes have occurred in the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem since 1977. The influence of the 1976 ENSO event in precipitating these changes and the role of the frequency or strength of subsequent El Nino events is presently unknown. Herring and other stocks of small pelagic fishes may be more affected by ENSO events. In particular, decreased catches, recruitment, and weight-at-age of herring are sometimes associated with ENSO events. Furthermore, a variety of seabirds which feed mostly on pelagic forage fishes or the pelagic juvenile stages of groundfish suffered widespread mortalities and breeding failures in the Gulf of Alaska during the ENSO years of 1983 and 1993. These effects on seabirds

  15. Depositional environments and processes in Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marine sediments, Ocean Point dinosaur locality, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    A 178-m-thick stratigraphic section exposed along the lower Colville River in northern Alaska, near Ocean Point, represents the uppermost part of a 1500 m Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic section. Strata exposed at Ocean Point are assigned to the Prince Creek and Schrader Bluff formations. Three major depositional environments are identified consisting, in ascending order, of floodplain, interdistributary-bay, and shallow-marine shelf. Nonmarine strata, comprising the lower 140 m of this section, consist of fluvial distributaries, overbank sediments, tephra beds, organic-rich beds, and vertebrate remains. Tephras yield isotopic ages between 68 and 72.9 Ma, generally consistent with paleontologic ages of late Campanian-Maastrichtian determined from dinosaur remains, pollen, foraminifers, and ostracodes. Meandering low-energy rivers on a low-gradient, low-relief floodplain carried a suspended-sediment load. The rivers formed multistoried channel deposits (channels to 10 m deep) as well as solitary channel deposits (channels 2-5 m deep). Extensive overbank deposits resulting from episodic flooding formed fining-upward strata on the floodplain. The fining-upward strata are interbedded with tephra and beds of organic-rich sediment. Vertical-accretion deposits containing abundant roots indicate a sheet flood origin for many beds. Vertebrate and nonmarine invertebrate fossils along with plant debris were locally concentrated in the floodplain sediment. Deciduous conifers as well as abundant wetland plants, such as ferns, horsetails, and mosses, covered the coastal plain. Dinosaur skeletal remains have been found concentrated in floodplain sediments in organic-rich bone beds and as isolated bones in fluvial channel deposits in at least nine separate horizons within a 100-m-thick interval. Arenaceous foraminifers in some organic-rich beds and shallow fluvial distributaries indicate a lower coastal plain environment with marginal marine (bay) influence. Marginal marine strata

  16. Genomic characterization of novel marine vesiviruses from Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marine vesiviruses were isolated in cell culture from oral and rectal swabs and vesicular fluids from Alaskan Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus). Further characterization by RT-PCR, complete genomic sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most closely related ...

  17. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  18. Early results from a terrestrial-marine BGC coupling study in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatland, D. R.; Vermilyea, A.; Spencer, R. G.; Hood, E. W.; Stubbins, A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2010 we began a long-term comparative study of watershed contributions to coastal marine nutrients in the northeast Pacific from a modest deployment of sensors combined with sample analysis. The preliminary results presented here establish a baseline for defining and subsequently tracking physical system parameters relevant to marine productivity over two decades, in two contexts: First in the context of research by Hood and others: Comparing glacier-covered to un-glaciated watershed output in a Lagrangian sense of particle and parcel transport. Second, in a more Eulerian sense: How will impact on coastal marine ecosystems from changing terrestrial freshwater input compare over decades to that of changes in physical parameters like pH, upwelling nutrient supply along the continental shelf and temperature? In our initial efforts we trolled two estuary plumes pulling samples for laboratory analysis and operating in situ sensors in tandem with GPS while other in situ sensors collected data from within source rivers (Eagle River and Peterson Creek near Juneau, AK, in respectively glaciated and forested watersheds). The strategy is to produce comparable synoptic datasets across the freshwater-marine mixing regime of the plume using salinity as a mixing proxy. Initial datasets include CDOM, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-A, and (from samples) total organic carbon, total nitrogen, absorption spectra and excitation-emission matrices. Future work will expand this list to include mass spectrometer and NMR data. In working with this synoptic dataset we are faced with both curation and interpretation challenges; hence a primary objective of the project is to use the trans-disciplinary and data-intensive nature of the research problem set to motivate technology adoption. We have in mind here the notion of electronic publication (exemplified in this AGU poster) that permits collaborators and readers to reach back into source data and trace the origins and processes

  19. Glaciological and marine geological controls on terminus dynamics of Hubbard Glacier, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Leigh A.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; van der Veen, C. J.; Finnegan, D. C.; O'Neel, Shad; Scheick, J. B.; Lawson, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, is the world's largest non-polar tidewater glacier. It has been steadily advancing since it was first mapped in 1895; occasionally, the advance creates an ice or sediment dam that blocks a tributary fjord (Russell Fiord). The sustained advance raises the probability of long-term closure in the near-future, which will strongly impact the ecosystem of Russell Fiord and the nearby community of Yakutat. Here, we examine a 43-year record of flow speeds and terminus position to understand the large-scale dynamics of Hubbard Glacier. Our long-term record shows that the rate of terminus advance has increased slightly since 1895, with the exception of a slowed advance between approximately 1972 and 1984. The short-lived closure events in 1986 and 2002 were not initiated by perturbations in ice velocity or environmental forcings, but were likely due to fluctuations in sedimentation patterns at the terminus. This study points to the significance of a coupled system where short-term velocity fluctuations and morainal shoal development control tidewater glacier terminus position.

  20. A pilot marine monitoring program in Cook Inlet, Alaska 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Hyland, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Under the mandate of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA`90) the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council (CIRCAC) sponsored the initiation of a pilot monitoring program in Cook Inlet, Alaska, The objectives of the pilot monitoring program were to provide baseline data on petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments and biota of Cook Inlet, and to evaluate the effectiveness of selected monitoring techniques in detecting petroleum hydrocarbon inputs from industry based sources. A sampling program was initiated in 1993 that included petroleum industry, specific sites and reference sites. Sample measurements included polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments, caged mussels, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), sediment toxicity using the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and estimates of population size and physiological condition of indigenous bivalves. Results of the 1993 sampling program indicated that (1) background levels of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and diagenetic hydrocarbons were present in sediments and indigenous bivalves, and (2) that limited amphipod toxicity and variations in bivalve measurements did not correlate with the hydrocarbons in the sediments. Modifications to the 1993 program were instituted for the 1994 sampling and included, the selection of new industry specific sites, discontinued use of caged bivalves, and design changes to SPMDs to enhance sensitivity. The results of the 1994 sampling program, and comparisons with the 1993 data are presented.

  1. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway.... SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration, along with the Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife... Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public review and comment. The draft plans outline...

  2. Neogene marine sedimentary record of the Gulf of Alaska: from the glaciers to the distal submarine fan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. D.; Bahlburg, H.; Childress, L. B.; Cowan, E. A.; Forwick, M.; Moy, C. M.; Müller, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Gupta, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The marine sedimentary record of Miocene to Pleistocene tectonics and glaciation is well preserved along the southern Alaska convergent margin. This margin is well suited for linking proximal to distal sediment transport processes because sediment is being generated by glacial erosion in the highest coastal mountain range on earth and subsequently being transported to the Aleutian subduction zone. We will discuss the sedimentary record from two end members of this system: (1) the proximal marine record now exposed onshore in the high peaks of the coastal ranges, and (2) the offshore distal record preserved in the Surveyor submarine fan system that was cored during the 2013 IODP Expedition 341. Onshore the Miocene non-glacial strata are represented by the Poul Creek Fm. This unit is 2000 m thick and in its upper part consists of mudstone, thin sandstone beds (10-30 cm thick), and thick bedded (1-2 m) highly bioturbated green sandstone beds that contain hummocky stratification. We interpret this unit as being deposited mainly in marine shelf environments. A gradational contact between the Poul Creek and the overlying upper Miocene-Pleistocene Yakataga Formation is marked by a transition to mudstone, thick bedded sandstone and glacial diamictite. This transition to glacial dominated deposition is interpreted to have occurred around 5 Ma based on previous studies. The onshore glacimarine strata are 5 km thick and grade up section from submarine fan to marine shelf strata. In the distal submarine fan record at IODP Site U1417, the upper Miocene strata in the lower part of the Site consist of 340 m of highly bioturbated gray to green mud interbedded with coarse sand and sandy diamict. These coarse-grained units are lithic rich with mainly sedimentary, volcanic, and coal clasts. We interpret these units as being derived from coal-bearing sedimentary strata exposed in the onshore thrust belt. These facies are interbedded with diatom ooze; we interpret this combination of

  3. Evaluation of conditions along the grounding line of temperate marine glaciers: An example from Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seramur, K.C.; Powell, R.D.; Carlson, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    In the marine environment, stability of the glacier terminus and the location of subglacial streams are the dominant controls on the distribution of grounding-line deposits within morainal banks. A morainal bank complex in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, SE Alaska, is used to develop a model of terminus stability and location of subglacial streams along the grounding line of temperate marine glaciers. This model can be used to interpret former grounding-line conditions in other glacimarine settings from the facies architecture within morainal bank deposits. The Muir Inlet morainal bank complex was deposited between 1860 A.D. and 1899 A.D., and historical observations provide a record of terminus positions, glacial retreat rates and sedimentary sources. These data are used to reconstruct the depositional environment and to develop a correlation between sedimentary facies and conditions along the grounding line. Four seismic facies identified on the high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles are used to interpret sedimentary facies within the morainal bank complex. Terminus stability is interpreted from the distribution of sedimentary facies within three distinct submarine geomorphic features, a grounding-line fan; stratified ridges, and a field of push ridges. The grounding-line fan was deposited along a stable terminus and is represented on seismic-reflection profiles by two distinct seismic facies, a proximal and a distal fan facies. The proximal fan facies was deposited at the efflux of subglacial streams and indicates the location of former glacifluvial discharges into the sea. Stratified ridges formed as a result of the influence of a quasi-stable terminus on the distribution of sedimentary facies along the grounding line. A field of push ridges formed along the grounding line of an unstable terminus that completely reworked the grounding-line deposits through glacitectonic deformation. Between 1860 A.D. and 1899 A.D. (39 years), 8.96 x 108 m3 of sediment were

  4. Selective occurrence of Rhizobiales in frost flowers on the surface of young sea ice near Barrow, Alaska and distribution in the polar marine rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J S; Larose, C; Vogel, T M; Deming, J W

    2013-08-01

    Frost flowers are highly saline ice structures that grow on the surface of young sea ice, a spatially extensive environment of increasing importance in the Arctic Ocean. In a previous study, we reported organic components of frost flowers in the form of elevated levels of bacteria and exopolymers relative to underlying ice. Here, DNA was extracted from frost flowers and young sea ice, collected in springtime from a frozen lead offshore of Barrow, Alaska, to identify bacteria in these understudied environments. Evaluation of the distribution of 16S rRNA genes via four methods (microarray analysis, T-RFLP, clone library and shotgun metagenomic sequencing) indicated distinctive bacterial assemblages between the two environments, with frost flowers appearing to select for Rhizobiales. A phylogenetic placement approach, used to evaluate the distribution of similar Rhizobiales sequences in other polar marine studies, indicated that some of the observed strains represent widely distributed members of the marine rare biosphere in both the Arctic and Antarctic.

  5. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  6. Distribution of Ground-Nesting Marine Birds Along Shorelines in Glacier Bay, Southeastern Alaska: An Assessment Related to Potential Disturbance by Back-Country Users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of a few large colonies, the distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay National Park in southeastern Alaska is largely unknown. As visitor use increases in back-country areas of the park, there is growing concern over the potential impact of human activities on breeding birds. During the 2003i??05 breeding seasons, the shoreline of Glacier Bay was surveyed to locate ground-nesting marine birds and their nesting areas, including wildlife closures and historical sites for egg collection by Alaska Native peoples. The nesting distribution of four common ground-nesting marine bird species was determined: Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), Mew Gull (Larus canus), and Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens). Observations of less abundant species also were recorded, including Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata), Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia), Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), and Aleutian Tern (Sterna aleutica). Nesting distribution for Arctic Terns was largely restricted to the upper arms of the bay and a few treeless islets in the lower bay, whereas Black Oystercatchers were more widely distributed along shorelines in the park. Mew Gulls nested throughout the upper bay in Geikie Inlet and in Fingers and Berg Bays, and most Glaucous-winged Gull nests were found at wildlife closures in the central and lower bays. Several areas were identified where human disturbance could affect breeding birds. This study comprises the first bay-wide survey for the breeding distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay National Park, providing a minimum estimate of their numbers and distribution within the park. This information can be used to assess future human disturbance and track natural

  7. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  8. Trophic pathways supporting juvenile Chinook and Coho salmon in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska: patterns of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial resource use across a seasonally dynamic habitat mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, Kristin M.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Schoen, Erik R.; Nightengale, Timothy L.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream–downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river.

  9. Use of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) for Geological Studies in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, G. R.; Hodson, T. O.; Allee, R.; Cicchetti, G.; Finkbeiner, M.; Goodin, K.; Handley, L.; Madden, C.; Mayer, G.; Shumchenia, E.

    2012-12-01

    The U S Geological Survey (USGS) is one of four primary organizations (along with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the Evironmental Protection Agency, and NatureServe) responsible for the development of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) over the past decade. In June 2012 the Federal Geographic Data Committee approved CMECS as the first-ever comprehensive federal standard for classifying and describing coastal and marine ecosystems. The USGS has pioneered the application of CMECS in Glacier Bay, Alaska as part of its Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitat Studies Project. This presentation briefly describes the standard and its application as part of geological survey studies in the Western Arm of Glacier Bay. CMECS offers a simple, standard framework and common terminology for describing natural and human influenced ecosystems from the upper tidal reaches of estuaries to the deepest portions of the ocean. The framework is organized into two settings, biogeographic and aquatic, and four components, water column, geoform, substrate, and biotic. Each describes a separate aspect of the environment and biota. Settings and components can be used in combination or independently to describe ecosystem features. The hierarchical arrangement of units of the settings and components allows users to apply CMECS to the scale and specificity that best suits their needs. Modifiers allow users to customize the classification to meet specific needs. Biotopes can be described when there is a need for more detailed information on the biota and their environment. USGS efforts focused primarily on the substrate and geoform components. Previous research has demonstrated three classes of bottom type that can be derived from multibeam data that in part determine the distribution of benthic organisms: soft, flat bottom, mixed bottom including coarse sediment and low-relief rock with low to moderate rugosity, and rugose, hard bottom. The

  10. Provenance of Marine Sediment in the Gulf of Alaska, IODP Expedition 341: Links Between Sediment Derivation, Glacial Systems, and Exhumation of the Coastal Mountain Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, W. K.; Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Ridgway, K.; Colliver, L.

    2015-12-01

    Provenance analysis of Neogene sand and diamict beds from marine boreholes drilled by the IODP Expedition 341 provides a marine sedimentary record of the interactions between tectonics, climate and sediment deposition along a glaciated convergent margin. The 341 boreholes represent a cross-margin transect that sampled the continental shelf, slope, and deep sea Surveyor Fan of the Gulf of Alaska. Our dataset currently consists of ~ 650 detrital zircons selected for double dating method utilizing both detrital zircon fission track (FT) and U-Pb analysis from sand and diamict beds, as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology and apatite FT from igneous and gneissic clasts. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of sand records dominant peak ages of 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. Most of these ages can be correlated to primary igneous sources in the Coast Plutonic Complex, the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, the plutonic rocks of Wrangellia, and the Sanak-Baranoff plutonic belt. All samples analyzed to date, covering a 10 Myr range, share nearly identical detrital zircon populations suggesting similar primary sediment sources and reworking of sediment in thrust belts and accretionary prisms along this convergent margin. Plutonic and gneissic clasts collected from the boreholes on the shelf have already been double dated. These clasts have general U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 52-54 Ma and apatite fission track cooling ages of 10-12 Ma. These results, along with previous published studies, indicate that these clasts were derived from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex and were eroded and transported by the Bagley Ice Field and Bering Glacier. Future results using this approach should allow us to pinpoint which parts of the exhumed onshore ranges and which glacial systems provided sediment to marine environments in the Gulf of Alaska.

  11. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  12. Response of common murres to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska marine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Anderson, Paul; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of the 1989 TV Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds were dramatic and well documented. Seabird populations at sea in the spill zone were immediately depressed, and more than 30,000 dead, oiled seabirds were recovered from beaches within months of the spill. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds were killed by oil, of which 74% were murres. Based on comparisons of prespill (1970s) and postspill (1989-1994) data, long-term effects on murres attributed to oil pollution included population declines, reduced breeding success, and delayed breeding phenology. Populations remained depressed, but breeding success phenology gradually returned to normal levels by 1993. An alternative hypothesis to explain these long-term effects is that murres were responding to natural events in their marine environment. Flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) was at an all-time low in 1989, and this may have reduced and delayed biological productivity in the ACC. On a broader time scale, marked changes in marine fish communities have occurred during the past 20 years. Coincident with cyclical fluctuations in seawater temperatures, the abundance of small forage species (e.g., humpy shrimp, capelin, and Pacific sandfish) declined precipitously in the late 1970s while populations of large predatory fish (e.g., walleye pollock, Pacific cod, and flatfish) increased dramatically. Correspondingly, seabird diets shifted from mostly capelin in the 1970s to mostly Pacific sand land and juvenile pollock in the late 1980s. Furthermore, a variety of seabirds and marine mammals both inside and outside of the oil spill zone exhibited signs of food stress (population declines, reduced productivity, die-offs) throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. We conclude that available data are inadequate to distinguish between long-term effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murres and a natural response of murres to long-term changes in their marine environment.

  13. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93.68 Section 93.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska,...

  14. Diversity of Archaea in Marine Sediments from Skan Bay, Alaska, Including Cultivated Methanogens, and Description of Methanogenium boonei sp. nov.▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Melissa M.; Wardlaw, George D.; Tang, Chin F.; Bonin, Adam S.; Liu, Yitai; Valentine, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Methanogenesis in cold marine sediments is a globally important process leading to methane hydrate deposits, cold seeps, physical instability of sediment, and atmospheric methane emissions. We employed a multidisciplinary approach that combined culture-dependent and -independent analyses with geochemical measurements in the sediments of Skan Bay, Alaska (53°N, 167°W), to investigate methanogenesis there. Cultivation-independent analyses of the archaeal community revealed that uncultivated microbes of the kingdoms Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota are present at Skan Bay and that methanogens constituted a small proportion of the archaeal community. Methanogens were cultivated from depths of 0 to 60 cm in the sediments, and several strains related to the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were isolated. Isolates were psychrotolerant marine-adapted strains and included an aceticlastic methanogen, strain AK-6, as well as three strains of CO2-reducing methanogens: AK-3, AK7, and AK-8. The phylogenetic positions and physiological characteristics of these strains are described. We propose a new species, Methanogenium boonei, with strain AK-7 as the type strain. PMID:17122405

  15. Post-Breeding Season Migrations of a Top Predator, the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), from a Marine Protected Area in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Womble, Jamie N.; Gende, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, is one of the largest marine mammal protected areas in the world and has the only enforceable protection measures for reducing disturbance to harbor seals in the United States. Yet harbor seals have declined by up to 11.5%/year from 1992 to 2009. We used satellite-linked transmitters that were attached to 37 female harbor seals to quantify the post-breeding season migrations of seals and the amount of time that seals spent inside vs. outside of the MPA of Glacier Bay. Harbor seals traveled extensively beyond the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay during the post-breeding season, encompassing an area (25,325 km2) significantly larger than that used by seals during the breeding season (8,125 km2). These movements included the longest migration yet recorded for a harbor seal (3,411 km) and extended use (up to 23 days) of pelagic areas by some seals. Although the collective utilization distribution of harbor seals during the post-breeding season was quite expansive, there was a substantial degree of individual variability in the percentage of days that seals spent in the MPA. Nevertheless, harbor seals demonstrated a high degree of inter-annual site fidelity (93%) to Glacier Bay the following breeding season. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the threats that seals may interact with outside of the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay for understanding population dynamics of seals in Glacier Bay. PMID:23457468

  16. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  17. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, A.V.; Jensen, B.J.L.; Zazula, G.D.; Ager, T.A.; Kuzmina, S.; La, Farge C.; Froese, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 40??cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131??????11??ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evidence for marine origin and microbial-viral habitability of sub-zero hypersaline aqueous inclusions within permafrost near Barrow, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Colangelo-Lillis, J; Eicken, H; Carpenter, S D; Deming, J W

    2016-05-01

    Cryopegs are sub-surface hypersaline brines at sub-zero temperatures within permafrost; their global extent and distribution are unknown. The permafrost barrier to surface and groundwater advection maintains these brines as semi-isolated systems over geological time. A cryopeg 7 m below ground near Barrow, Alaska, was sampled for geochemical and microbiological analysis. Sub-surface brines (in situtemperature of -6 °C, salinity of 115 ppt), and an associated sediment-infused ice wedge (melt salinity of 0.04 ppt) were sampled using sterile technique. Major ionic concentrations in the brine corresponded more closely to other (Siberian) cryopegs than to Standard seawater or the ice wedge. Ionic ratios and stable isotope analysis of water conformed to a marine or brackish origin with subsequent Rayleigh fractionation. The brine contained ∼1000× more bacteria than surrounding ice, relatively high viral numbers suggestive of infection and reproduction, and an unusually high ratio of particulate to dissolved extracellular polysaccharide substances. A viral metagenome indicated a high frequency of temperate viruses and limited viral diversity compared to surface environments, with closest similarity to low water activity environments. Interpretations of the results underscore the isolation of these underexplored microbial ecosystems from past and present oceans.

  19. Persistence of triclopyr in Alaska subarctic environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field dissipation and vertical mobility of the butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr was assessed in two distinct geographic locations within the state of Alaska. Interior sites near Delta Junction included vegetated plots within highway rights-of-way (ROW) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields and...

  20. At-sea observations of marine birds and their habitats before and after the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, G.S.; Dragoo, Donald E.; Renner, M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi volcano, an island volcano in the Aleutian chain, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. The resulting ash and pyroclastic flows blanketed the island, covering terrestrial habitats. We surveyed the marine environment surrounding Kasatochi Island in June and July of 2009 to document changes in abundance or distribution of nutrients, fish, and marine birds near the island when compared to patterns observed on earlier surveys conducted in 1996 and 2003. Analysis of SeaWiFS satellite imagery indicated that a large chlorophyll-a anomaly may have been the result of ash fertilization during the eruption. We found no evidence of continuing marine fertilization from terrestrial runoff 10 months after the eruption. At-sea surveys in June 2009 established that the most common species of seabirds at Kasatochi prior to the eruption, namely crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) and least auklets (Aethia pusilla) had returned to Kasatochi in relatively high numbers. Densities from more extensive surveys in July 2009 were compared with pre-eruption densities around Kasatochi and neighboring Ulak and Koniuji islands, but we found no evidence of an eruption effect. Crested and least auklet populations were not significantly reduced by the initial explosion and they returned to attempt breeding in 2009, even though nesting habitat had been rendered unusable. Maps of pre- and post-eruption seabird distribution anomalies indicated considerable variation, but we found no evidence that observed distributions were affected by the 2008 eruption. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  1. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Part 217 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River... Incidental to Columbia River Crossing Project, Washington and Oregon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Transit Authority (FTA) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), on behalf of the Columbia...

  2. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  3. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  4. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  5. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  6. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  7. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  8. Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

    2011-07-01

    Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ∼300 ng g( -1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons.

  9. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  10. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  11. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to

  12. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  13. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lance, B K; Irons, D B; Kendall, S J; McDonald, L L

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwaka Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilize shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  14. 77 FR 24559 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council ACTION: National Advisory Council public meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration announces that the Marine Transportation... on the integration of marine highways into the national transportation system and the development...

  15. 77 FR 55266 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council ACTION: National Advisory Council public meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration announces that the Marine Transportation... financing mechanisms and provide adequate ship capacity for marine highway services. DATES: The meeting...

  16. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  17. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  18. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  19. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Fisheries in Alaska; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 141 / Friday, July 22, 2011... Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). If approved, this catch sharing plan...

  20. The Information Highway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  1. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  2. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  3. Marine bird and sea otter population abundance of Prince william sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989-93. Restoration project 93045. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to estimate marine bird and sea otter (Enhdra lutris) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March and July 1993, using methods developed for the 1989-91 surveys (Klosiewski and Laing 1994). During 1993, we recorded 65 birds and 13 mammal species. We estimated that 402,760 + or - 167,697 marine birds were in the Sound during March 1993, an increase of >200,000 birds over 1990 and 1991. To examine trends in our marine bird population estimates from 1989-93, we assumed that in the absence of oil spill effects, population estimates in the oiled zone would change at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we examined population trends from 1989-1993, using regression analyses. We also examined the relative abundance of the species groups seen in Prince William Sound from 1972 to 1993. Sea otter populations in 1993 were estimated at 6,813 + or - 1,861 for March and 8,216 + or - 2,435 for July. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1989-93 for either the March or July population estimates. There was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1989-93.

  4. Winter marine bird and sea otter abundance of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill from 1990-94. Restoration project 94159. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to determine population abundance of marine birds and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March 1994. We observed 45 bird and 8 mammal species in Prince William Sound, and we estimated that 320,470 + or - 63,640 marine birds were present. We estimated trends in the March population estimates from 1990-94 by determining whether estimates in the oiled zone changed at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we also examined the population trends from 1990-94 using regression analyses. We found significant positive trends for harlequin duck (Histrionicus), goldeneye, merganser, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and gull (Larus and Rissa spp.) populations. We also examined the relative abundance of marine bird species groups from 1972 to 1994. During March 1994, we estimated that the sea otter population was 7,746 + or - 2,073 otters. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1990-94, and there was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1990-94.

  5. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Off Alaska; Chinook ] Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  6. Marine accident report - grounding of the US Tankship EXXON Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Near Valdez, Alaska, March 24, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    The report explains the grounding of the U.S. Tankship EXXON VALDEZ near Valdez, Alaska on March 24, 1989. The safety issues discussed in the report are the vessel's navigation watch, the role of human factors, manning standards, the company's drug/alcohol testing and rehabilitation program, drug/alcohol testing, vessel traffic service, and oil spill response.

  7. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  8. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  9. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... industry fee system to repay a $23,476,500 loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery... Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon...

  10. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Waiver of Moratorium on Taking and Importation of Individual Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, the moratorium on the hunting and killing of...

  11. Highways for National Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    system needs reports (RCS MTMC -74). • 2–4, page 7 Section II ACCESS ROAD NEEDS, page 8 General. • 2–5, page 8 Impact on highway construction or improvement...9 Access road needs report (RCS MTMC -75). • 2–10, page 9 ii AR 55–80/OPNAVINST 11210.1B/AFR 75–88/MCO 11210.2C/DLAR 4500.19 • 15 December 1982...and funding. • 2–17, page 12 Chapter 3 MANEUVER-AREA ROADS, page 12 Maneuver-area road condition report (RCS MTMC -76). • 3–1, page 12 Who will prepare

  12. Highways of hope

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  13. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18.94 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and...

  14. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  15. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  16. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  17. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stephen Delmont, Jr.

    I investigated active deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. I documented the presence, spatial extent, and rates of DSGSD using field-geology methods and optical, SAR, and D-InSAR remote-sensing images. I also documented and mapped many of the morphological, geological, and structural characteristics of slopes undergoing DSGSD, and constructed conceptual numerical models to better understand potential deformation mechanisms. Results confirm that many large DSGSD slopes in the study area are actively deforming. Deformation rates range from less than a millimetre per month to more than ten centimetres per month, and are spatially and temporally varient within each slope. Deforming slopes are characterized by differential movement of kilometre-scale rock blocks. Recent climatic changes and strong seismic shaking, especially during the recent 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, have exacerbated ongoing deformation. Study-area DSGSDs should be considered capable of generating long-runout rock avalanches that could directly sever the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway, or that could dam up valleys and lead to the buildup and catastrophic failure of landslide-dammed lakes capable of impacting said infrastructure. Keywords: Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation; sackung; Trans-Alaska Pipeline; geomorphology; InSAR; Alaska Range.

  19. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  20. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  3. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Bulletin, 1920, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    On May 14-15, in Washington, a Conference on Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport was held. This was attended by about 75 highway engineers, deans and supervisors of engineering in colleges, universities, and technical schools, National, State, and County highway commissioners, and men interested in highway and automotive…

  4. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  5. 78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 96 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs,...

  6. 77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 72 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the B season allowance of the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA....

  7. 76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 120 hours. This action is necessary to fully use the C season allowance of the 2011 ] total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the...

  8. 76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the A season allowance of the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA....

  9. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin.... 10902 for Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District (SMART), a Class III rail carrier, to acquire an approximately 11.25-mile line of railroad in Marin County, Cal., from Golden Gate Bridge, Highway,...

  11. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  12. Assessment of marine-derived nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, using natural abundance of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kline, Thomas C.; Woody, Carol Ann; Bishop, Mary Anne; Powers, Sean P.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2007-01-01

    We performed nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) on maturing and juvenile anadromous sockeye and coho salmon, and periphyton in two Copper River delta watersheds of Alaska to trace salmonderived nutrients during 2003–2004. Maturing salmon were isotopically enriched relative to alternate freshwater N, S, and C sources as expected, with differences consistent with species trophic level differences, and minor system, sex, and year-to-year differences, enabling use of SIA to trace these salmon-derived nutrients. Periphyton naturally colonized, incubated, and collected using Wildco Periphtyon Samplers in and near spawning sites was 34S- and 15N-enriched, as expected, and at all freshwater sites was 13C-depleted. At nonspawning and coho-only sites, periphyton 34S and 15N was generally low. However, 34S was low enough at some sites to be suggestive of sulfate reduction, complicating the use of S isotopes. Juvenile salmon SIA ranged in values consistent with using production derived from re-mineralization as well as direct utilization, but only by a minority fraction of coho salmon. Dependency on salmon-derived nutrients ranged from relatively high to relatively low, suggesting a space-limited system. No one particular isotope was found to be superior for determining the relative importance of salmon-derived nutrients.

  13. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Debroy, C.; Flint, P.L.; Safine, D.E.; Schamber, J.L.; Riddle, A.E.; Trust, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n=122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n=21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n=48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. ?? 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  15. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  16. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  17. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wheelchairs, pursuant to section 228 of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (23 U.S.C. 402(b)(1)(F)). (3... wheelchair users, within a three-year period after the effective date of this part. Other rest...

  18. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska - Yukon border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.; Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Mecklenburg, T. Anthony; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a comprehensive inventory of the fish species recorded in marine and estuarine waters between the Alaska–Yukon Territory border in the Beaufort Sea and Cabo San Lucas at the southern end of Baja California and out about 300 miles from shore. Our westernmost range includes the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. In addition, we have also included our best impressions of the species that might reasonably be expected to be members of the West Coast ichthyofauna but have not yet been captured or reported within our study area. These species are marked with an asterisk (*) and have been reported (1) in the western Bering Sea; (2) off Canada’s Yukon Territory and adjacent portions of the Northwest Territories; (3) along the southern-eastern tip (non-Pacific side) of Baja California; and (4) in waters somewhat beyond 300 miles from shore. Although the term West Coast usually refers to the coast of the continuous western states, our usage herein means the entire study area. The West Coast inventory within this range encompasses fish fauna from 44 orders, 232 families, and a minimum of 1,450 species. Please note that introduced and invasive fish species are marked by double asterisks (**) and that their scientific names are highlighted in gray. We have compiled this document because the most geographically inclusive previous inventories (Jordan and Evermann 1896a, Jordan et al. 1930) are largely of historical interest and are out of date. More recent lists and compilations have either focused on relatively narrow taxonomic groups (e. g., Kramer et al. 1995, Love et al. 2002), are regional in scope (e. g., Hart 1973, Hubbs et al. 1979, Mecklenburg et al. 2002), or focus on commonly observed species (e. g., Miller and Lea 1972, Eschmeyer and Herald 1983). With the explosion of coastal research and environmental assessments, beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, renewed scientific interest in biodiversity (e.g., effects of global climate change), our own

  19. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.605 - Dressing engines already certified to other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other standards for nonroad or heavy-duty highway engines for marine use. 1042.605 Section 1042.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Compliance...

  3. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 12 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2010 Arctic open water...

  4. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to ION Geophysical (ION) to take, by harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, during the fall and winter of...

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  7. Biogeochemical Indicators in High- and Low-Arctic Marine and Terrestrial Avian Community Changes: Comparative Isotopic (13C, 15N, and 34S) Studies in Alaska and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causey, D.; Bargmann, N. A.; Burnham, K. K.; Burnham, J. L.; Padula, V. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Welker, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complex dynamics of environmental change in northern latitudes is of paramount importance today, given documented rapid shifts in sea ice, plant phenology, temperatures, deglaciation, and habitat fidelity. This knowledge is particularly critical for Arctic avian communities, which are integral components by which biological teleconnections are maintained between the mid and northern latitudes. Furthermore, Arctic birds are fundamental to Native subsistence lifestyles and a focus for conservation activities. Avian communities of marine and terrestrial Arctic environments represent a broad spectrum of trophic levels, from herbivores (eg., geese Chen spp.), planktivores (eg., auklets Aethia spp.), and insectivores (eg., passerines: Wheatears Oenanthe spp., Longspurs Calcarius spp.), to predators of marine invertebrates (eg., eiders Somateria spp.), nearshore and offshore fish (eg., cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, puffins Fratercula spp.), even other bird species (eg., gulls Larus spp., falcons Peregrinus spp.). This diversity of trophic interconnections is an integral factor in the dynamics of Arctic ecosystem ecology, and they are key indicators for the strength and trajectories of change. We are especially interested in their feeding ecology, using stable isotope-diet relations to examine historical diets and to predict future feeding ecology by this range of species. Since 2009, we have been studying the foodweb ecology using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of contemporaneous coastal and marine bird communities in High Arctic (Northwest Greenland) and Low Arctic (western Aleutian Islands, AK). We are quantifying the isotopic values of blood, organ tissues, and feathers, and have carried out comparisons between native and lipid-extracted samples. Although geographically distant, these communities comprise similar taxonomic and ecological congeners, including several species common to both (eg., Common Eider, Black-legged Kittiwake, Northern

  8. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, J. Chris

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  9. 77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National... Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before 5 p.m. EST April 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send... Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (see FOR FURTHER...

  10. Fact Sheet: Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet summarizes EPA's final rule modifying the diesel fuel regulations to apply an effective date of 6-1-2010 for 15 ppm sulfur requirements for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced/imported for, distributed

  11. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  12. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... quality impairments and impacts to sensitive marine habitats. In 2000, an Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative study sampled 21 cruise ships twice during the cruise season and found that 57 percent of the samples... Environmental Conservation, ``Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative, Part 2 Report'' (2001), available at...

  13. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  14. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  15. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  16. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  17. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off Alaska. The FMP establishes two management areas: the East Area is the EEZ... economic and social benefits to the Nation over time, (5) protect wild stocks and fully utilize...

  18. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... support economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate poverty and provide economic and social.... Royalties and income from CDQ harvesting activities are used to fund economic development projects in...

  19. 75 FR 1595 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Access System for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska. Potential eligible applicants are notified of... sport fishery for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory...

  20. Arctic Alaska’s Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian and Barremian) mudstone succession - Linking lithofacies, texture, and geochemistry to marine processes: Chapter B in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Margaret A.; Macquaker, Joe H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Our results document the variation in facies and textures of the Hauterivian and Barremian Lower Cretaceous mudstone succession of Arctic Alaska. Comparison of these characteristics to the products of modern processes on the North Slope of Alaska, in the Beaufort Sea, and elsewhere suggest that this succession formed primarily from depositional processes related to seasonal sea ice with intermittent fluvial-sourced sediment deposited by density currents and episodic erosion and reworking by storms and other currents.

  1. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  2. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  3. Groundwater and highways interaction: past and present experiences of highway construction in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brencic, Mihael

    2006-03-01

    During the planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance of highways, groundwater can be of important environmental and constructional constraint that can significantly influence the safety operation of traffic and of big influence on the operational costs of highways. To classify and conceptualize the relation between groundwater and highways, three important groups of problems can be determined: groundwater protection from highway influences, protection of highway from groundwater and economic use of groundwater for highway operation. In the present study, groundwater management strategies are represented during all life cycles of highways. Greater emphasis is given to groundwater protection and field hydrogeological investigations for proper groundwater management related to the highway. The approach adopted in Slovenia and the role of hydrogeology is given as an illustration.

  4. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  5. Heading South on 'Erebus Highway'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is currently traveling southward over a pavement of outcrop dubbed the 'Erebus Highway.' 'Erebus Crater,' the rover's next target, lies less than 100 meters (328 feet) south of its current position. This view is a mosaic produced from from frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 582nd martian day, or sol (Sept. 13, 2005). It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes. Mars Exploration Rover team scientists are investigating both the composition of the rocks and the processes by which the distinctive fracture pattern arose.

  6. Weight Control for Highway Trucking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LODEC, Inc. scales use load cell technology, a spinoff from aerospace technology, in manufacturing electronic axle scales for weighing trucks and trailers to insure that they are within legal highway limits. The scales trace their origin to the space program of the 1960's when ELDEC Corporation, then LODEC parent company, acquired advanced electronic technology as a subcontractor on such projects as Apollo and Saturn launch vehicles. LODEC scales come in both permanent and portable versions with accuracy of within one percent and frequently better.

  7. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  8. HIGHWAY 3. 1: An enhanced HIGHWAY routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S. ); Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M. . Transportation Center)

    1993-03-01

    The HIGHWAY program provides a flexible tool for predicting highway routes for transporting radioactive materials in the United States. The HIGHWAY data base is essentially a computerized road atlas that currently describes over 240,000 miles of highways. Complete descriptions of all Interstate System and most US highways (except those that parallel a nearby Interstate highway) are included in the data base. Many of the principal state highways and a number of local and county highways are also identified. The data base also includes locations of nuclear facilities and major airports. Several different types of routes may be calculated, depending on a set of user-supplied constraints. Routes are calculated by minimizing the total impedance between the origin and the destination. Basically, the impedance is defined as a function of distance and driving time along a particular highway segment. Several routing constraints can be imposed during the calculations. One of the special features of the HIGHWAY model is its ability to calculate routes that maximize use of Interstate System highways. This feature allows the user to predict routes for shipments of radioactive materials that conform to the US Department of Transportation routing regulations. Other features of the model include the ability to predict routes that bypass a specific state, city, town, or highway segment. Two special features have been incorporated in HIGHWAY, version 3.1. The first is the ability to automatically calculate alternative routes. Frequently, there are a number of routes between the source and destination that vary slightly in distance and estimated driving time. The HIGHWAY program offers a selection of different but nearly equal routes. The second special feature is the capability to calculate route-specific population density statistics. The population density distribution is calculated for each highway segment in the route and is reported on a state-by-state basis.

  9. 76 FR 16807 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Tangle Lakes, Alaska, Glennallen Field Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Alaska along the Denali Highway at milepost 21.5 and lies within the nationally designated Delta Wild and... 2011. The improvements will provide designated campsites with tables, tent or trailer space and fire... the public through meetings for the update of the Delta Wild and Scenic River management plan....

  10. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  11. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 470 RIN 2125-AF35 Highway Systems; Technical Correction.... SUMMARY: This rule makes a technical correction to the regulations that govern the designation of routes....gov/nara . Background This rulemaking makes technical corrections to the regulations that...

  12. Highway Collision Investigation Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, John W.

    The report was prepared for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation. The report briefly reviews the appropriate literature, then describes the one-year program which involved planning and organization of a Highway Collision Investigation Training Program, preparing a course syllabus, and…

  13. Civil Highway Curriculum Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prindiville, Gerald

    The purpose of the civil highway curriculum evaluation was to provide data for course review and revision. As civil engineering is a rapidly changing occupational field, it is important to determine what skills are currently essential for civil highway technicians. The associate degree programs in the four Wisconsin technical institutes offering…

  14. Highway Safety Occupational Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    As part of a national project conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, The Center for Vocational and Technical Education conducted a nationwide search for curriculum materials related to highway safety occupations. These materials were then screened and synthesized to provide training…

  15. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  16. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  18. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  19. 76 FR 68974 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  20. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  1. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to shallow hazards and geotechnical surveys in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2011 Arctic open-water...

  2. Marine Ice Atlas for Cook Inlet, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and 130 km wide, that is characterized by its extensive ground moraine , outwash plains, drumlin fields, eskers, kettles, and swampland. 2.2 Cook...knolls, and glacial moraine . Anchorage is consid- ered to have a Transition-type climate but is the most Continental of the four stations used in this

  3. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time...

  4. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of... Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole, Deep-Water Flatfish, and Shallow- Water Flatfish in the Gulf of Alaska Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for arrowtooth flounder, flathead sole, rex sole,...

  6. 75 FR 42336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Access Fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern...

  7. 77 FR 20317 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610... the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  8. 78 FR 62005 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ...; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for...

  9. 76 FR 58156 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610... the 2011 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  10. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630... the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  11. 77 FR 16481 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620... the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  12. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher...

  13. 77 FR 75966 - Control Date for Qualifying Landings History in the Central Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Landings History in the Central Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... permit history for an allocation-based management or catch share program in the Central Gulf of Alaska..., so that the full catch history for 2012 may be considered in any such future management actions....

  14. 78 FR 17340 - Control Date for Qualifying Landings History in the Western Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Landings History in the Western Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... history for an allocation-based management or catch share program in the Western Gulf of Alaska (GOA... awareness of possible rulemaking and provide notice to the public that any accumulation of landings...

  15. 78 FR 61990 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC919 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  16. HOV on the information highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Sick of rush-hour traffic jams? Tired of bottlenecks that keep you from getting where you want to go? Frustrated by sluggish drivers who tie you up on your way to work? The National Science Foundation (NSF) is hoping to put scientists back in the fast lane—of the Internet, that is.The recent boom in the popularity of the Internet has brought traffic on some parts of the information highway to a crawl. Since all packets of information sent across the Internet are treated equally, e-mail love letters and playful web browsing can interfere with scientific data transfers and high-performance on-line experiments and conferences.

  17. Mortality and reproduction of female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-13. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six female sea otters were instrumeted with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989-1990. Females in eastern Prince William Sound exhibited a lower survival rate than those in western Prince William Sound. No differences were observed between rates of pupping or between rates of survival of dependent pups for sea otters in the two areas.

  18. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  19. Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) social and economic studies program. Technical report Number 91. Effects of renewable resource harvest disruptions on socio-economic and socio-cultural systems: Wainwright, Alaska. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Luton, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Contents include: ethnographic baseline, Wainright, Alaska; social institutions; the cash economy; kinship; subsistence task groups; subsistence economy; sharing; land mammals; marine mammals - Part 1 and 2; birds; fish, invertebrates, plants, minerals; ethnographic summary and conclusions.

  20. Quaternary sedimentation in Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Shelikof Strait, a nearly parallel-sided marine channel between the Kodiak island group and the Alaska Penninsula, has experienced a succession of distinct sedimentary environments during Quaternary time. Pleistocene glaciers carved a deep basin into bedrock in the southwest part of the strait and a shallower platform surface with incised channels in the northeast. The basin and channels were filled with glacial and glacialmarine sediment before and during the time that ice retreated and oceanic conditions returned. Restricted marine conditions prevailed in early Holocene time and sediment prograded transversely into the strait from the adjacent landmasses, with some localized dispersal to the deep, central strait. Onset of modern open-marine conditions commenced when regional currents breached the sill across Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances to combine with sediment-laden outflow from Cook Inlet and deposit a blanket of well-stratified sediment throughout the strait. ?? 1985.

  1. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  2. Indicate severe toxicity of highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Dorchin, Achik; Shanas, Uri

    2013-09-01

    Road runoff is recognized as a substantial nonpoint source of contamination to the aquatic environment. Highway seasonal first flushes contain particularly high concentrations of pollutants. To fully account for the toxicity potential of the runoff, the cumulative effects of the pollutants should be assessed, ideally by biological analyses. Acute toxicity tests with were used to measure the toxicity of runoff from three major highway sections in Israel for 2 yr. Highway first flushes resulted in the mortality of all tested individuals within 24 to 48 h. A first flush collected from Highway 4 (traffic volume: 81,200 cars d) remained toxic even after dilution to <5% (48 h EC <5%). Synthetic solutions with metal concentrations corresponding to highways' first flushes revealed a synergistic adverse effect on survival and a potential additive effect of nonmetal pollutants in the runoff. Because daphnids and other invertebrates constitute the base of the aquatic food chain, detrimental effects of highway runoff may propagate to higher levels of biological organization. The observed high potential of environmental contamination warrants the control of highway runoff in proximity to natural watercourses.

  3. 76 FR 32142 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Saltwater Sportfishing Economic Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Saltwater Sportfishing Economic Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... economic analyses of marine sport fishing in Alaska. This survey is necessary to understand the factors that affect the economic value of marine recreational fishing trips and improve estimates of...

  4. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  5. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  6. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  7. UAFSmoke Modeling in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Grell, G.; Freitas, S.; Newby, G.

    2008-12-01

    Alaska wildfires have strong impact on air pollution on regional Arctic, Sub-Arctic and even hemispheric scales. In response to a high number of wildfires in Alaska, emphasis has been placed on developing a forecast system for wildfire smoke dispersion in Alaska. We have developed a University of Alaska Fairbanks WRF/Chem smoke (UAFSmoke) dispersion system, which has been adapted and initialized with source data suitable for Alaska. UAFSmoke system modules include detection of wildfire location and area using Alaska Fire Service information and satellite remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument. The fire emissions are derived from above ground biomass fuel load data in one-kilometer resolution. WRF/Chem Version 3 with online chemistry and online plume dynamics represents the core of the UAFSmoke system. Besides wildfire emissions and NOAA's Global Forecast System meteorology, WRF/Chem initial and boundary conditions are updated with anthropogenic and sea salt emission data from the Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model. System runs are performed at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center's Sun Opteron cluster "Midnight". During the 2008 fire season once daily UAFSmoke runs were presented at a dedicated webpage at http://smoke.arsc.edu. We present examples from these routine runs and from the extreme 2004 Alaska wildfire season.

  8. Description of the National Highway Planning Network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.E.

    1990-09-01

    The National Highway Planning Network is a data base of major highways in the continental United States. It is a foundation for analytic studies of highway performance, for vehicle routing and scheduling problems, and for mapping purposes. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized from the National Atlas by the US Geological Survey. It has been enhanced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by adding additional roads and attribute detail and correcting topological errors to produce a true analytic network. This documentation is intended primarily to assist users of this data base by describing its structure, data elements, and development.

  9. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  10. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... border crossing delays. (4) Improve surface transportation system resiliency and provide additional... operation. (F) System resiliency and redundancy. To the extent data is available describe, if...

  11. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... border crossing delays. (4) Improve surface transportation system resiliency and provide additional... operation. (F) System resiliency and redundancy. To the extent data is available describe, if...

  12. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offering routes that are more resilient to natural or human incidents that interrupt surface transportation... authorities, State, regional, local and Tribal government transportation planners, environmental interests or... applicant. The Department will also evaluate projects based on the results of an environmental...

  13. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... offering routes that are more resilient to natural or human incidents that interrupt surface transportation... authorities, State, regional, local and Tribal government transportation planners, environmental interests or... applicant. The Department will also evaluate projects based on the results of an environmental...

  14. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... offering routes that are more resilient to natural or human incidents that interrupt surface transportation... authorities, State, regional, local and Tribal government transportation planners, environmental interests or... applicant. The Department will also evaluate projects based on the results of an environmental...

  15. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  16. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  17. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  18. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  19. Alaska Resource Data File, Juneau quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, John C.; Miller, Lance D.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  1. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  2. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  4. Hawkweed Control in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several hawkweed species from Europe have escaped ornamental planting and have colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. These plants form near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted ...

  5. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  6. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  7. Displaced resources: Challenges to U. S. highway funding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-31

    Deterioration of highways in the United States has resulted from increasing highway travel and years of transfering highway funds to non-highway purposes. These include exemption of corn-derived ethanol, leaking underground storage tank funds, and more recently, the federal budget deficit. Inadequate funding suggests that detoured funds be redirected and/or fuel taxes and highway user fees increased if the U.S. is to continue its current mobility standard.

  8. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  9. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  10. Sea Ice Rubble Formations in the Bering Sea and Norton Sound, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Juneau, Alaskh, Vol. 1. 6. Hunter, R.E., D.R. Thor and M.L. Swisher (1980...Resources (D.w. Hood and J.A. Calder, Eds.). U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment...Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Juneau, Alaska, Vol. 1. 17. Sallenger, A.H., Jr., J.R

  11. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  12. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has applied in...

  13. 78 FR 14984 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17411

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC541 Marine Mammals; File No. 17411 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, Anchorage, AK, has applied in due form for a permit...

  14. Fuel used for off-highway recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

    1994-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

  15. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  16. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  17. Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

  18. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor, and the…

  19. Traffic Flow on a 3-LANE Highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Yao; Huang, Ding-Wei; Huang, Wei-Neng; Hwang, Wen-Liang

    The traffic flow on a 3-lane highway is investigated using a cellular automaton method. Two different kinds of vehicles, cars and trucks, with different driving behaviors are presented on the highway. It is found that in the high density region, a control scheme requiring passing from the inner lane will enhance the traffic flow; while restricting the trucks to the outer lane will enhance the flow in the low density region and also has the benefit of suppressing the unnecessary lane-changing rate.

  20. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  1. 78 FR 3408 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplement to the Gulf of Alaska Navy Training Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Scoping AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 102(2)(c) of the... of the Navy (DoN) announces its intent to prepare a supplement to the 2011 Gulf of Alaska Navy...). The SEIS/OEIS will support authorization of incidental takes of marine mammals under the Marine...

  2. 1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MEDIAN FROM GORDON HIGHWAY OVERPASS, LOOKING WEST SHOWING REVOLUTIONARY WAR MONUMENT 56/1 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  3. View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 and Overhang Rock. Location of junction with Old Coulterville Road behind rock. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  4. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  5. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  6. 51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Stress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Stress and camber diagrams for 162" truss - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  8. 52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESS DIAGRAMS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  9. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  10. 61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). HANDRAIL DESIGN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  11. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  12. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Regional Operations and Program...

  13. 75 FR 1114 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Doc No: 2010-110] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT..., 2007, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assigned, and the California Department...

  14. 75 FR 59787 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in New Hampshire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in New Hampshire AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on claims for judicial.... Sikora, Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 19 Chenell Drive, Suite...

  15. 76 FR 7580 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... record comments we receive after the close of the comment period (see DATES) or comments delivered to an... Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK;...

  16. Federal Highway Administration Cooperative Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The primary reason for the Federal Highway Administration Cooperative Education Program is to work with colleges and universities in developing preprofessional personnel by assigning work projects which complement academic study. Primary responsibility for the program rests with the Office of Personnel and Training, with on-the-job supervision…

  17. Detecting highways of horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Mukul S; Banay, Guy; Gogarten, J Peter; Shamir, Ron

    2011-09-01

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event, a gene is transferred between two species that do not have an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species and m input quartet trees, we give an efficient O(m + n(2))-time algorithm for detecting highways, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method.

  18. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  19. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out…

  20. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  1. Biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon flux along southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Jaeger, John M.; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Holocene fjords store ca. 11-12% of the total organic carbon (OC) buried in marine sediments with fjords along southeast (SE) Alaska possibly storing half of this OC (Smith et al., 2015). However, the respective burial of biospheric (OCbio) and petrogenic OC (OCpetro) remains poorly constrained, particularly across glaciated versus non-glaciated systems. Here, we use surface sediment samples to quantify the sources and burial of sedimentary OC along SE Alaska fjord-coastal systems, and conduct a latitudinal comparison across a suite of fjords and river-coastal systems with distinctive OC sources. Our results for SE Alaska show that surface sediments in northern fjords (north of Icy Strait) with headwater glaciers are dominated by OCpetro, in contrast to marine and terrestrially-derived fresh OC in non-glaciated southern fjords. Along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska, terrestrial OC is exported from rivers. Using end-member mixing models, we determine that glaciated fjords have significantly higher burial rates of OCpetro (∼ 1.1 ×103 gOC m-2yr-1) than non-glaciated fjords and other coastal systems, making SE Alaska potentially the largest sink of OCpetro in North America. In contrast, non-glaciated fjords in SE Alaska are effective in burying marine OC (OCbio-mari) (13-82 g OC m-2yr-1). Globally, OC in fjord sediments are comprised of a mixture of OCpetro and fresh OCbio, in contrast to the pre-aged OC from floodplain river-coastal systems. We find that there may be a general latitudinal trend in the role of fjords in processing OC, where high-latitude temperate glacial fjords (e.g., Yakutat Bay, SE Alaska) rebury OCpetro and non-glacial mid-latitude fjords (e.g., Doubtful Sound, Fiordland) sequester CO2 from phytoplankton and/or temperate forests. Overall, we propose that fjords are effective in sequestering OCbio and re-burying OCpetro. Based on our study, we hypothesize that climate change will have a semi-predictable impact on fjords' OC cycling in

  2. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  3. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  4. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  5. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  6. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  7. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  8. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  9. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  10. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  11. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.39 Measurement procedure; highway operations. (a) In accordance with the rules in this subpart, a...

  12. Context view from the east side of highway 219 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view from the east side of highway 219 showing the office and warehouse building (left), boiler house (center), and bulk fuel tanks (right). View to west-southwest - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Montana Secondary Highway 219, 1.6 miles southwest of Interstate Highway 15, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  13. 1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE TO RESORT WITH STATE HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE TO RESORT WITH STATE HIGHWAY 89 IN FOREGROUND; MAIN LODGE IS ON THE FAR LEFT (WEST); CORD CABIN IS BEHIND AND TO THE RIGHT OF PARKED VEHICLES. - Camp Richardson Resort, Cord Cabin, U.S. Highway 89, 3 miles west of State Highway 50 & 89, South Lake Tahoe, El Dorado County, CA

  14. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel economy test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel economy measurement for certain vehicles...

  15. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  16. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  17. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  18. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  19. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  20. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 322. (4) Section 409 of chapter 4, Highway Safety. (5) Chapter 5, Research, Technology, and.... 374). (5) The Highway Revenue Act of 1956, as amended (Pub. L. 84-627, 70 Stat. 374, 387, 23 U.S.C.A... Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-327, 96 Stat. 1611), except section 6 as it relates to...

  1. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section 322. (4) Section 409 of chapter 4, Highway Safety. (5) Chapter 5, Research, Technology, and.... 374). (5) The Highway Revenue Act of 1956, as amended (Pub. L. 84-627, 70 Stat. 374, 387, 23 U.S.C.A... Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-327, 96 Stat. 1611), except section 6 as it relates to...

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  6. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  7. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway...

  8. Tectonic framework of petroliferous rocks in Alaska: hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Kirschner, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    terranes on the north and east. Subsequent sedimentation was localized and nonmarine except in onshore and offshore coastal basins, where thick sections of mixed marine and nonmarine Tertiary sediments accumulated. The Aleutian arc and the associated Queen Charlotte transform-fault system have dominated structural and depositional patterns in southern Alaska, including many of the Tertiary coastal basins, since the early Cenozoic. The Tertiary coastal basins are areally extensive, and in some areas contain many large folds. They are known to be petroliferous in Bristol Bay and the Gulf of Alaska, and to contain major accumulations of oil and gas at Cook Inlet, but they are relatively little explored.

  9. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water... exploration drilling in the Chukchi Sea during the 2014 open- ] water season. NMFS published a Notice...

  10. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the Kodiak... vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space vehicle and...

  11. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...-range ballistic target missiles, and other smaller missile systems at the KLC. The AAC has complied with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the...

  12. HIGHWAY 3.1: An enhanced HIGHWAY routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The HIGHWAY program provides a flexible tool for predicting highway routes for transporting radioactive materials in the United States. The HIGHWAY data base is essentially a computerized road atlas that currently describes over 240,000 miles of highways. Complete descriptions of all Interstate System and most US highways (except those that parallel a nearby Interstate highway) are included in the data base. Many of the principal state highways and a number of local and county highways are also identified. The data base also includes locations of nuclear facilities and major airports. Several different types of routes may be calculated, depending on a set of user-supplied constraints. Routes are calculated by minimizing the total impedance between the origin and the destination. Basically, the impedance is defined as a function of distance and driving time along a particular highway segment. Several routing constraints can be imposed during the calculations. One of the special features of the HIGHWAY model is its ability to calculate routes that maximize use of Interstate System highways. This feature allows the user to predict routes for shipments of radioactive materials that conform to the US Department of Transportation routing regulations. Other features of the model include the ability to predict routes that bypass a specific state, city, town, or highway segment. Two special features have been incorporated in HIGHWAY, version 3.1. The first is the ability to automatically calculate alternative routes. Frequently, there are a number of routes between the source and destination that vary slightly in distance and estimated driving time. The HIGHWAY program offers a selection of different but nearly equal routes. The second special feature is the capability to calculate route-specific population density statistics. The population density distribution is calculated for each highway segment in the route and is reported on a state-by-state basis.

  13. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of late Cretaceous convergent margins of southern Alaska and California

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1988-02-01

    The most prominent and well-preserved remnants of the convergent margins are present in southern Alaska and California. The southern Alaska convergent margin appears to have developed in response to northward-directed subduction of the Kula plate and the California margin in response to eastward-directed subduction of the Farallon plate. The chief elements of the southern Alaska convergent margin, on the basis of paleomagnetic data, appear to have subsequently migrated northward and rotated in the post-Cretaceous. The chief elements of the California margin have been disrupted by Neogene strike-slip displacements on the San Andreas fault system and accretion of younger terranes to the west. In both southern Alaska and California, the forearc-basin deposits are well preserved and produce major amounts of gas. The principal reservoirs in Alaska are Tertiary nonmarine deposits and in California are Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deep marine and deltaic deposits. The accretionary wedge in southern Alaska forms a remarkably well-preserved assemblage of trench and trench-slope deposits that extend for about 2000 km along the Gulf of Alaska, flanked oceanward by younger accreted terranes. The accretionary wedge in California consists of a great variety of older and younger terranes, including some fragments of ocean crust that originated in southern latitudes. Comparative structural and stratigraphic analyses of the two Late Cretaceous margins reveals the complexity of tectonic, depositional, and stratigraphic patterns associated with subduction of very large oceanic plates at the margins of very large continental plates.

  14. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cooley, S. R.; Lucey, N.; Colt, S.; Ekstrom, J.; Hurst, T.; Hauri, C.; Evans, W.; Cross, J. N.; Feely, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The highly productive fisheries of Alaska are located in seas projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that are most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) contribute substantially to the state's commercial fisheries and traditional subsistence way of life. Prior studies of OA's potential impacts on human communities have focused only on possible direct economic losses from specific scenarios of human dependence on commercial harvests and damages to marine species. However, other economic and social impacts, such as changes in food security or livelihoods, are also likely to result from climate change. This study evaluates patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. Here, we used a risk assessment framework based on one developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze earth-system global ocean model hindcasts and projections of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The fisheries examined were: shellfish, salmon and other finfish. The final index incorporates all of these data to compare overall risk among Alaska's federally designated census areas. The analysis showed that regions in southeast and southwest Alaska that are highly reliant on fishery harvests and have relatively lower incomes and employment alternatives likely face the highest risk from OA. Although this study is an intermediate step toward our full understanding, the results presented here show that OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains.

  15. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  16. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  17. Spatial distribution of thermokarst landforms across Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Grosse, G.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Jones, B. M.; Arp, C. D.; McGuire, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic Alaska is characterized by widespread past and present thaw of ice rich permafrost and subsequent thermokarst development. Variations in ice content and distribution, and topography across Arctic Alaska result in thermokarst landform diversity. Thermokarst causes a number of biogeochemical and ecological shifts that include changes in soil carbon dynamics, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition, wildlife habitat, and fresh water availability. Ongoing climate change may lead to an increase in thermokarst landscape features. Thus, a better understanding of the current temporal and spatial dynamics of thermokarst is needed in order to project its future dynamics. Understanding how vulnerable Arctic Alaska is to future thermokarst development is critical for resource management, industry development, and subsistence hunting. We focused on the distribution of thermokarst landforms among ten study sites aligned with the NSF CALON (Towards a Circum-Arctic Lakes Observation Network) project in Arctic Alaska. Sites represent diverse substrates including eolian silt, eolian sand, marine sand, deltaic, and marine silt. We conducted thermokarst landform mapping and spatial and morphometric analyses using high-resolution aerial photography, an interferometric synthetic aperture radar derived digital elevation model (IfSAR DEM), and hydrographic layers from the National Land Cover Database derived from Landsat-7. Non-lake thermokarst landforms were visually mapped and hand digitized using aerial photographs and the IfSAR DEM. Initial results show thermokarst forms are most prevalent in marine silt areas with up to 99% of study areas affected by thermokarst activity. Eolian sand areas are the least thermokarst affected (mean of 57%). Drained thermokarst lake basins, thermokarst lakes, and areas affected by thermokarst pit formation were the dominant thermokarst landforms, covering up to 70%, 54%, and 8% of the landscape. The number of overlapping lake and basin

  18. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  19. Environmental recover in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B. ); Kingston, P.F. ); Baker, J.M.

    1991-03-01

    This report is based on work commissioned by Exxon as part of a program of analyzing the ecosystem recovery process in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the oil spill of March 1989. Written by three distinguished scientists, it supplements a comprehensive study they and a fourth researcher prepared on the subject of Natural Recovery of Cold Water Marine Environments after an Oil Spill. This scientific review was presented at the 13th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar sponsored by the Canadian Government in Edmonton, Alberta, on June 6, 1990. As a followup to this study, the scientists spent two weeks in April 1990 gathering insight into the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska environment as a whole and examining plant and animal life in the area. They compared their Alaska findings to their knowledge gained from studying the recovery process from other oil spills in cold waters of the world.

  20. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Mukul S.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Shamir, Ron

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event a gene is transferred between two species that do not share an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species, our method requires O(n 4) time, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method.

  1. Effective flow resistivity of highway pavements.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Judith L; Read, David R

    2013-12-01

    In the case of highway traffic noise, propagating sound is influenced by the ground over which it travels, whether it is the pavement itself or the ground between the highway and nearby communities. Properly accounting for ground type in modeling can increase accuracy in noise impact determinations and noise abatement design. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values are being investigated for inclusion in the Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model, which uses these values in the sound propagation algorithms and currently applies a single effective flow resistivity value to all pavement. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values were obtained by applying a modified version of the American National Standards Institute S1.18 standard. The data analysis process was tailored to allow for increased sensitivity and extraction of effective flow resistivity values for a broad range of pavements (sound absorptive to reflective). For porous pavements (sound absorptive), it was determined that examination of the measured data can reveal influence from an underlying structure. Use of such techniques can aid in the design of quieter pavements.

  2. Hard times for the highway trust fund may mean trouble for highway repair

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, R.L.

    1980-08-16

    For the first time in 15 years, the Federal highway trust fund will spend more this fiscal year than the fund will receive. The major source of trust fund income, the 4-cents-a-gallon Federal gasoline tax, has not been increased since 1959. In the past the fund grew gradually as gasoline consumption grew. Now, with fuel-efficient cars, higher gasoline costs, lower speed limits, and less driving, fuel use is declining. This lowered income for the fund coincides with increasing costs for road construction and repair at the beginning of serious deterioration of the nation's highways. Some states are taking the initiative to increase their gasoline tax but the Federal tax has remained the same. The debate over the gasoline tax has bypassed the question of why Congress should bail out the highway trust fund when much of its original mission is complete. Originally funded to assist state highway construction, the Federal role has been evolving over the past few years from construction to preservation and rehabilitation. Some major decisions about the highway trust fund will be made in the near future. The Federal aid program expires in 1982; the trust fund expires in 1984. (SAC)

  3. 75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW73 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop for Industry Review of Data Forms AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  4. 78 FR 38358 - Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Weather Service; and the Regional Coordinator for the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric... Oversight Group membership includes the Alaska Regional Directors of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Marine Fisheries Service; the...

  5. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathy A; Hammond, John A

    2009-06-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

  6. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations amending the limited access program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific... 13024). IPHC regulations affecting sport fishing for halibut and charter vessels in IPHC Areas 2C and...

  7. 76 FR 19708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: This interpretation clarifies regulations that apply to vessels operating in the guided sport... its limited access program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery, codified at 50 CFR...

  8. 75 FR 38758 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission... (75 FR 13024). IPHC regulations affecting sport fishing for halibut and charter vessels in IPHC...

  9. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  10. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  11. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  12. Alaska provides icy training ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-04-01

    Offshore oil drilling platforms and oil exploration off the coast of Alaska are discussed. Sohio is investigating the feasibility of platform supporters from shore such as icebreakers and air-cushion vehicles. At Prudhoe Bay Arco is embarking on the first tertiary oil recovery project to take place on Alaska's North Slope.

  13. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  14. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  15. Variability in the Geographic Distribution of Fires in Interior Alaska Considering Cause, Human Proximity, and Level of Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M. P.; Varvak, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Interior Alaska is characterized by frequent extensive wildfires that have been mapped for the past 70 years. Simple predictions based on this record indicate that area burned will increase as a response to climate warming in Alaska. However, two additional factors have affected the area burned in this time record: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) switched from cool and moist to warm and dry in the late 1970s and the Alaska Fire Service instituted a fire suppression policy in the late 1980s. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics, this presentation evaluates the variability in area burned and fire ignitions in Interior Alaska in space and time with particular emphasis on the human influence via ignition and suppression. Our analysis shows that while area burned has been increasing by 2.4% per year, the number of lightning ignitions has decreased by 1.9 ignitions per year. Human ignitions account for 50% of all fire ignitions in Interior Alaska and are clearly influenced by human proximity: human fires mostly occur close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones (which are in turn close to human settlements and roads); fires close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones burn much shorter than fires further away from this sphere of human influence; and 60% of all human fire ignitions in Interior Alaska are concentrated in the Fairbanks area and thereby strongly influence regional analyses. Fire suppression has effectively reduced area burned since it was implemented but the PDO change has also had some influence. Finally, we found that human fires start earlier in the year and burn for a shorter duration than lightning fires. This study provides insights into the importance of human behavior as well as regional climate patterns as large-scale controls on fires over time and across the Alaskan boreal forest.

  16. Using SAR Interferometry to Assess Infrastructure Hazards From Frozen Debris Lobes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Darrow, M. M.; Gong, W.; Daanen, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are slow-moving earth flows along permafrost-affected slopes. FDLs consist of soil, rock, debris, and potentially ice, although only preliminary surface investigations have been conducted on these features thus far. Within the corridor of the 667 km Dalton Highway in Alaska's Brooks Range, we have identified 43 FDLs, with 23 occurring less than one mile upslope of the Dalton Highway and the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline (TAP), which runs parallel to the Dalton Highway. Due to their proximity to the highway and pipeline, FDLs pose significant risks to these key infrastructure assets. The closest FDL to the highway, FDL-A, is less than 41.5 m from the embankment when measured in August 2014, and could encroach upon the Dalton Highway/TAP within one year. Upon reaching the highway, FDLs could significantly impede the flow of essential goods and services to the oil and gas fields on the North Slope, creating severe economic losses. This study addresses the following two research goals: In an initial step, we assessed the performance of InSAR for FDL analysis as a function of data resolution, season, and vegetation cover. We were able to conclude that moderate resolution SAR systems are sufficient for monitoring FDLs during winter, when top surfaces are frozen and slopes are moving more consistently. In summer, however, surface flows show stronger spatial variation, and higher resolution sensors are required to preserve coherence and examine details. Subsequently, we began a long-term analysis of FDL behavior using SAR acquisitions over the last 20 years, expanded to include more recent data from the high-resolution TerraSAR-X sensor. We calculated flow parameters from the InSAR data and combined them with geological information from field measurements to perform a geophysical analysis of FDLs and assess their hazard potential. Our preliminary results show that (1) FDLs have been progressively moving down slope since the 1990s; (2) the down slope

  17. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  18. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters.

  19. NASA's DESDynI in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J. M.; Hofton, M. A.; Bruhn, R. L.; Forster, R. R.; Burgess, E. W.; Cotton, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 the National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey, Earth Science Applications from Space, recommended an integrated L-band InSAR and multibeam Lidar mission called DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) and it is scheduled for launch in 2017. The NASA InSAR and Lidar mission is optimized for studying geohazards and global environmental change. The complex plate boundary in southern coastal Alaska provides an excellent setting for testing DESDynI capabilities to recover fundamental parameters of glacio-seismotectonic processes. Also, aircraft and satellites acquisitions of Lidar and L-band SAR have been made in this region in the last decade that can be used for DESDynI performance simulations. Since the Lidar observations would penetrate most vegetation, the accurate bald Earth elevation profiles will give new elevation information beyond the standard 30-m digital elevation models (DEM) and the Lidar-derived elevations will provide an accurate georeferenced surface for local and regional scale studies. In an earlier study we demonstrated how the Lidar observations could be used in combination with SAR to generate an improved InSAR derived DEM in the Barrow, Alaska region [Atwood et al., 2007]; here we discuss how Lidar could be fused with L-band SAR in more rugged, vegetated terrane. Based on simulations of multi-beam Lidar instrument performance over uplifted marine terraces, active faults and folds, uplift associated with the 1899 Yakataga seismic event (M=8), and elevation change on the glaciers in southern, coastal Alaska, we report on the significance of the DESDynI Lidar contiguous 25 m footprint elevation profiles for EarthScope related studies in Alaska. We are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-band SAR ice velocities to infer the large scale sub-ice structures that form the structural framework of the Seward-Bagley Basins. Using primarily winter acquisitions of L-band SAR data from ALOS

  20. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  1. Bedrock assemblages of the Bering Strait region: Implications for offshore metal sources in the marine environment: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    The Bering Strait region is important habitat for Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Elevated metal levels in tissues of some walrus have raised concerns about the sources of these metals. This study synthesizes and integrates onshore geology, regional gravity and magnetic data, and information about mineral deposits and the natural processes that weather, erode, and disperse metals in the Bering Strait region. In this region (Seward Peninsula, St. Lawrence Island, Chukotsk Peninsula, and intervening areas of the Bering Sea shelf), six bedrock assemblages can be defined and extended from onshore to offshore areas. These assemblages include (1) Paleozoic sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks, (2) upper Paleozoic to Triassic sedimentary and related mafic igneous rocks, (3) Mesozoic high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks, (4) Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks, (5) Cretaceous volcanic and related intrusive rocks, and (6) Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely scattered and locally intrude all of the pre-Tertiary bedrock assemblages. The distribution and thickness of Tertiary sedimentary rocks can be approximated in offshore areas using satellite gravity data. The resulting new map shows that about 40 percent of the offshore Bering Strait region may have bedrock at or near the sea floor. Some mineral deposits and rock units with high background metal contents are associated with specific bedrock assemblages whereas other mineral deposits are more regionally distributed. The mineral deposits of the region are mostly types that contain Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Sn, or Au (or certain combinations of these metals) and elevated concentrations of associated elements, such as As, Bi, Be, B, Sb, and F. The mineral deposits have been physically and chemically weathered and eroded by both subaerial and marine processes. Marine processes have been particularly important as the region has experienced

  2. Depositional relations of cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Rocks, Northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1983-07-01

    Analysis of depositional environments, new paleontologic data, and analogy with depositional patterns observed in areas to the west all indicate the need for revision of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary stratigraphy in northeastern Alaska. In the Sadlerochit Mountains area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the northernderived (Ellesmerian), late Neocomian Kemik Sandstone Member and organic-rich pebble shale member of the Kongakut Formation unconformably overlie Jurassic and Triassic rocks. The unconformity, which is of midNeocomian age, is present throughout northernmost Alaska and passes southward into a conformable shelf sequence. After pebble shale deposition, the depositional pattern is simply one of progradational basin filling from a southern (Brookian) provenance. This pattern is represented in vertical sequence initially by deep-marine basinal deposits succeeded by prodelta slope shales, and ultimately by deltaic deposits that prograded to the east or northeast in a predictable fashion over most of the area.

  3. Applications of ERTS data to resource surveys of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Miller, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS data affords a unique opportunity to perform urgently needed resource surveys and land use planning at a critical juncture in the history of Alaska's social and economic development. The available facilities for photographic, optical and digital processing of ERTS data are described, along with the interpretive techniques which have been developed. Examples of the applications of these facilities and techniques are given for three environmental disciplines: vegetation mapping for potential archeological sites; marine and sea ice surveys on the Alaskan continental shelf for the determination of surface circulation and sedimentation patterns and their effects on navigation, pollution assessment, fisheries, location of habors and construction of off-shore structures; snow surveys for inventories of water resources and flood potential in Alaska watersheds.

  4. 49 CFR 172.507 - Special placarding provisions: Highway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...) Each motor vehicle used to transport a package of highway route controlled quantity Class...

  5. 115. OFFICIAL MAP OF CONNECTICUT HIGHWAYS, 1949. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. OFFICIAL MAP OF CONNECTICUT HIGHWAYS, 1949. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 118. OFFICIAL MAP OF CONNECTICUT HIGHWAYS, 1949. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. OFFICIAL MAP OF CONNECTICUT HIGHWAYS, 1949. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. Highway fuel economy study. Final report Sep 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.L.; Zub, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    In 1979, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), convened a Task Force to develop a base of information on the effects of the 55 MPH speed limit. This report addresses the fuel consumption changes attributable to speed reduction and compliance with the 55 MPH speed limit. It also discusses the effects of vehicle size and type, and driver-controllable functions on vehicle fuel economy at highway speeds. Most of the analytical work in this report is related to passenger cars and light trucks. However, medium and heavy trucks, primarily commercial in application, have been included in the highway fuel economy analyses.

  8. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  9. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  10. 76 FR 410 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... and Low Income Populations; E.O. 11593 Protection and Enhancement of Cultural Resources; E.O. 13007... which such actions were taken, including but not limited to: 1. General: National Environmental Policy... Resources: Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended [16 U.S.C. 470(f)...

  11. Grady Highway Extension (Ship Creek Crossing) Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    otherwise determined to be unfeasible. The EA evaluated the Proposed Action (or “Downstream Route”), an Alternative Action (or “ Footbridge Route”) and the...THE ALTERNATIVE ACTION: The environmental impacts of the Alternative Action ( Footbridge Route, east of the Proposed Action) would be similar to the...construction. The Army and the Air Force considered and evaluated an Alternative Action ( Footbridge Route east of the Proposed Action) which would also

  12. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  13. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  14. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  15. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-19. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Costa, D.P.

    1995-05-01

    Boat-based surveys were used to monitor the Prince William Sound sea otter population before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Population and loss estimates could be obtained from these surveys by direct expansion from the counts in the surveyed transects under the assumption that all otters in those transects were observed. The authors conducted a pilot study using ground-based observers in conjunction with the August 1990 survey of marine mammals and birds to investigate the validity of this assumption. The proportion of otters detected by boat crews was estimated by comparing boat and ground-based observations on 22 segments of shoreline transects. Overall, the authors estimated that only 70% of the otters in surveyed shoreline transects were detected by the boat crews. These results suggest that unadjusted expansions of boat survey transect counts will underestimate sea otter population size and that loss estimates based on comparisons of unadjusted population estimates will be biased.

  16. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  17. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in east-central Alaska, 1949

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; White, M.G.

    1954-01-01

    In the summer of 1949, several mines and prospects in the Fairbanks and Livengood quadrangles, east-central Alaska, were examined for the possible presence of radioactive materials. Also tested were metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic age crossed by the Elliott Highway, which extends from Fox, near Fairbanks, northwestward about 70 miles to the town of Livengood. Nuggets consisting chiefly of native bismuth and containing as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium had been found previously in a placer on Fish Creek several miles downstream from the reported bismuth-bearing lode on Melba Creek, but none of the lodes tested in 1949 exhibited radioactivity in excess of 0. 003 percent equivalent uranium. The greatest radioactivity found in the rocks along the Elliott Highway was in an iron-stained pre-Cambrian schist and in a carbonaceous(?) shale of Middle Devonian or Carboniferous age. Respective samples of these rocks contain 0. 003 and 0.004 percent equivalent uranium. A possible local bedrock source for the euxenite-polycrase mineral found in a placer concentrate containing about 0.04 percent equivalent uranium was sought in the watershed of Goodluck Creek, near Livengood. The bedrock source of this mineral could not be located and it is believed that the source could be outside of the Goodluck watershed because drainage changes during Quaternary time may well have introduced gravels from nearby areas.

  18. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be [open quote]its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.[close quotes] Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989.

  19. Llama-supported geologic fieldwork in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Faiks, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    For the first time since their camelid ancestors migrated from Asia, across the Bering Sea land bridge, into the Brooks Range, and eventually south to the Andes during the Late Pleistocene, domestic llamas trekked through Arctic Alaska mountains. During August 1981, six llamas carrying 520 lb of gear supported a field party of eight people that traveled 80 mi over 11 days. The route followed left the Dietrich Trans-Alaska Pipe line camp on the Dalton Highway and went eastward over the 5000 ft mountains separating the Dietrich and Matthews Rivers, then north to the headwaters of the Matthews River, and finally west to the Dietrich River drainage north of Snowsden Mountain. Although none had packing experience, all of the llamas were friendly and easy to handle. They carried 60-2100 lbs each, depending on their age. Only blocky talus and very steep slopes were obstacles. The llamas easily traversed fine loose rock, making ascents and descents as steep as 1000 ft/mi (190 m/km), bashed through alder scrub, slogged over muskeg, and forded rivers. Since they are avid foragers, minimal food was packed for the llamas. Bears were sighted during the trip, but none approached the group. Dall sheep and llamas puzzled at each other from a distance.

  20. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  1. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  2. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  3. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  4. 50 CFR Figure 18 to Part 679 - Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve 18 Figure 18 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 18 Figure 18 to Part 679—Sitka Pinnacles Marine Reserve ER09NO00.011 b....

  5. Safe Highways and Infrastructure Preservation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2009-04-01

    04/28/2010 Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Surface Transportation and Merchant Marine. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Coherent moving states in highway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    1998-12-01

    Advances in multiagent simulation techniques have made possible the study of realistic highway traffic patterns and have allowed theories based on driver behaviour to be tested. Such simulations display various empirical features of traffic flows, and are used to design traffic controls that maximize the throughput of vehicles on busy highways. In addition to its intrinsic economic value, vehicular traffic is of interest because it may be relevant to social phenomena in which diverse individuals compete with each other under certain constraints,. Here we report simulations of heterogeneous traffic which demonstrate that cooperative, coherent states can arise from competitive interactions between vehicles. As the density of vehicles increases, their interactions cause a transition into a highly correlated state in which all vehicles move with approximately the same speed, analogous to the motion of a solid block. This state is safer because it has a reduced lane-changing rate, and the traffic flow is high and stable. The coherent state disappears when the vehicle density exceeds a critical value. We observe the effect also in real Dutch traffic data.

  7. Field-trip guide to volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits of the lower Jurassic Talkeetna formation, Sheep Mountain, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    This guide provides information for a one-day field trip in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain, just north of the Glenn Highway in south-central Alaska. The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, consisting of extrusive volcanic and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Talkeetna arc complex, is exposed on and near Sheep Mountain. Field-trip stops within short walking distance of the Glenn Highway (approximately two hours’ drive from Anchorage) are described, which will be visited during the Geological Society of America Penrose meeting entitled Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Focus on Arc Lower Crust and Shallow Mantle, held in Valdez, Alaska, in July 2006. Several additional exposures of the Talkeetna Formation on other parts of Sheep Mountain that would need to be accessed with longer and more strenuous walking or by helicopter are also mentioned.

  8. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  9. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Report of the Regional Conference Held at University of Pittsburgh, Friday, November 26, 1920. Bulletin, 1921, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pyke; John, Walton C.

    1921-01-01

    This bulletin provides information on the proceedings of the regional conference on education for highway engineering and highway transport that was held at the University of Pittsburgh on November 26, 1920, under the direction of the highway and highway transport education committee. The purpose of this report is: (1) To stimulate greater…

  10. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  12. 1. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA AT INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 149 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA AT INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 149 IN FOREGROUND AND CALIFORNIA ROAD J20 IN CENTER. LOOKING NE. GIS: N-37 42 38.7 / W-120 11 50.1 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. 58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). ARCH DETAIL, U3 - U5. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. 48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). PLAN AND PROFILE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  15. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  16. 50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of construction drawing, Arizona Highway Department, May 1927, microfiche of original drawing located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). STRESSES AND SECTIONS. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  17. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... includes a portion of, a traveled lane of a public highway. A microphone target point shall be established on the centerline of the traveled lane of the highway, and a microphone location point shall be... microphone target point and on a line that is perpendicular to the centerline of the traveled lane of...

  18. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... includes a portion of, a traveled lane of a public highway. A microphone target point shall be established on the centerline of the traveled lane of the highway, and a microphone location point shall be... microphone target point and on a line that is perpendicular to the centerline of the traveled lane of...

  19. 40 CFR 202.20 - Standards for highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of 35 MPH or less; or 90 dB(A) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of more than 35...

  20. 40 CFR 202.20 - Standards for highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of 35 MPH or less; or 90 dB(A) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of more than 35...

  1. 40 CFR 202.20 - Standards for highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of 35 MPH or less; or 90 dB(A) measured on an open site with fast meter response at 50 feet from the centerline of lane of travel on highways with speed limits of more than 35...

  2. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI... responsibilities. (a) State assurances in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (1) Title 49... effectiveness of program area activities at all levels. (b) State actions. (1) Establish a civil rights unit...

  3. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI... responsibilities. (a) State assurances in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (1) Title 49... effectiveness of program area activities at all levels. (b) State actions. (1) Establish a civil rights unit...

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 6: Codes and Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 6 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred safety practices) concentrates on codes and laws. The purpose and specific objectives of the Codes and Laws Program, Federal authority in the area of highway safety, and policies regarding traffic regulation are described.…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  8. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  9. View of the highway, from near the middle of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from near the middle of the Beartooth Ravine. The proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) and will be built using retaining walls - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  10. View of the highway, from the east end of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, from the east end of the Beartooth Ravine, looking west, showing the east end of the proposed realignment that will shift the road to the south (left) and will be built using retaining walls - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... vehicles. (a) In general. Section 46(c)(6) provides that the applicable percentage to determine qualified investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A...

  13. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commuter highway vehicles. 1.46-11 Section 1.46... vehicles. (a) In general. Section 46(c)(6) provides that the applicable percentage to determine qualified investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A...

  14. An Alaska Soil Carbon Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.

  15. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  16. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are.../educational photography had been submitted by the above- named applicant. The requested permit has been...

  17. 77 FR 54567 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15142

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... the wild up to two bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Northwest Arctic Borough of Alaska for a long-term behavioral study at Long Marine Laboratory in Santa Cruz, CA. Up to four bearded seals may be.... Captured seals deemed unsuitable for the long-term study will be released at the capture site....

  18. Energy, manpower, and the highway trust fund.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R; Hannon, B

    1974-08-23

    If energy conservation were a goal of a federal budget policy maker, such conservation could be achieved by reinvesting the highway trust fund in any of several other alternative federal programs (except criminal justice), especially in railroad and mass transit construction and national health insurance (see Table 1). Total employment would increase in each alternative program examined. For example, if construction monies were shifted from highways to railroads, the energy required for construction would be reduced by about 62 percent and employment would increase by 3.2 percent. By comparing the dollar, energy, and employment requirements of a highway transportation system with such requirements for a railroad transportation system, we obtained detailed information from which we concluded the following: 1) Passenger transport by railroad was much less dollar and energy demanding and required more labor than car transport in 1963. If the dollar savings had been respent in an average way by consumers, the net impact would have been to reduce the energy savings and further increase employment. A similar conclusion was reached in a study of bus substitution for automobiles in urban areas (20). If the marginal substitution effects would have held over the whole range of change, and the dollar savings had been spent on the construction of railways, then about 3.0 billion gallons of gasoline could have been saved annually and 1.2 million new jobs created. 2) Freight transport by railroad was less expensive, in terms of dollar, energy, and labor requirements, than was truck transportation in 1963. If, under a national shift to rail freight, the dollar savings had been absorbed as personal consumption expenditures, a net increase of labor and energy would have ensued. If the dollar savings had been absorbed as a tax and respent on railroad and mass transit construction, about 0.3 billion more gallons of gasoline (energy equivalent) would have been consumed annually and 1

  19. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports…

  1. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2013... Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the... and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in...

  2. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  3. Avoiding potholes on the information highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Ralph V.

    1996-03-01

    This paper addresses the underlying legal issues that must be considered prior to engaging in the development of multimedia and Internet applications. The often overlooked topics presented in this paper will show the audience, both developers and end users alike, what is required to help pave the information highway. Topics that are covered are: who owns the software, the developer or the party that commissioned the work; whether the current intellectual property laws create a gap in protection of multimedia software; what are the rights and obligations of the software developer and the commissioner; what is one's exposure to liability and how it can be minimized; and, whether one can be held legally responsible for merely selling multimedia software. Multimedia law is a burgeoning area, and in many ways, our laws have not kept pace with technology. Therefore, those involved with developing multimedia applications must be extremely careful to protect their rights, and to avoid liability.

  4. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  5. Autoimmunity and the highway to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Price, P

    1997-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an immunopathological condition involving loss of beta cell function, but views of how this arises are confusing and contradictory. For example, studies with non-obese diabetic mice implicate abnormal cytokine production in disease pathogenesis, but give little insight into how this arises. Many genetic and environmental risk factors have been described, but no single factor predicts the development of disease. Moreover, the prevalence of auto-antibodies suggests an autoimmune aetiology, but no antigen is recognized by all individuals. As an aid to understanding how IDDM develops, this review considers the risk factors as distinct starting points on a journey, and reviews current literature in search of the point where the roads from each origin merge into a highway to diabetes.

  6. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  7. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs.

  8. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    The Copper River, located in southcentral Alaska, drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. About 30 miles above its mouth, this large river enters Miles Lake, a proglacial lake formed by the retreat of Miles Glacier. Downstream from the outlet of Miles Lake, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier before it enters a large, broad, alluvial flood plain. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain and in 1995, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. These bridges cross parts of the Copper River and in recent years, some of these bridges have sustained serious damage due to the changing course of the Copper River. Although the annual mean discharge of the lower Copper River is 57,400 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs during the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Approximately every six years, an outburst flood from Van Cleve Lake, a glacier-dammed lake formed by Miles Glacier, releases approximately 1 million acre-feet of water into the Copper River. When the outflow rate from Van Cleve Lake reaches it peak, the flow of the Copper River will increase between 150,000 to 190,000 cubic feet per second. Data collected by bedload sampling and continuous seismic reflection indicated that Miles Lake traps virtually all the bedload being transported by the Copper River as it enters the lake from the north. The reservoir-like effect of Miles Lake results in the armoring of the channel of the Copper River downstream from Miles Lake, past Childs Glacier, until it reaches the alluvial flood plain. At this point, bedload transport begins again. The lower Copper River transports 69 million tons per year of suspended sediment, approximately the same quantity as the Yukon River, which drains an area of more than 300,000 square miles. By correlating concurrent flows from a long-term streamflow-gaging station on the Copper River with a short-term streamflow-gaging station at the outlet of Miles Lake

  9. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Copper River, located in southcentral Alaska, drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. About 30 miles above its mouth, this large river enters Miles Lake, a proglacial lake formed by the retreat of Miles Glacier. Downstream from the outlet of Miles Lake, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier before it enters a large, broad, alluvial flood plain. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain and in 1996, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. These bridges cross parts or all of the Copper River and in recent years, some of these bridges have sustained serious damage due to the changing course of the Copper River. Although the annual mean discharge of the lower Copper River is 57,400 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs during the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Approximately every six years, an outburst flood from Van Cleve Lake, a glacier-dammed lake formed by Miles Glacier, releases approximately 1 million acre-feet of water into the Copper River. At the peak outflow rate from Van Cleve Lake, the flow of the Copper River will increase an additional 140,000 and 190,000 cubic feet per second. Bedload sampling and continuous seismic reflection were used to show that Miles Lake traps virtually all the bedload being transported by the Copper River as it enters the lake from the north. The reservoir-like effect of Miles Lake results in the armoring of the channel of the Copper River downstream from Miles Lakes, past Childs Glacier, until it reaches the alluvial flood plain. At this point, bedload transport begins again. The lower Copper River transports 69 million tons per year of suspended sediment, approximately the same quantity as the Yukon River, which drains an area of more than 300,000 square miles. By correlating concurrent flows from a long-term streamflow- gaging station on the Copper River with a short-term streamflow-gaging station at the outlet of Miles Lake, long

  10. 75 FR 3277 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment F-2) in Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment F-2) in... actions relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment F-2, from State... the following highway project in the State of Texas: Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment F-2...

  11. Field guide to the geology of the Denali National Park Road and the Parks Highway from Cantwell to Healy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hults, Chad P.; Capps, Danny L.; Brease, Phil F.

    2013-01-01

    The Denali National Park & Preserve area provides one of the few opportunities in Alaska for road-side access to good rock outcrops. The rocks and surficial deposits exposed in the Denali area span from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary. It is a structurally complex area that contains a history of rifting, accretion, and orogeny. There is evidence of multiple metamorphic events in the Mesozoic, mountain building in the Tertiary, and faulting in the present day. The region is the site of active faulting along one of the largest intra-continental fault systems, the Denali Fault system, which was the locus of a 7.9 M earthquake in 2002. This guidebook describes the key outcrops viewable along the Denali Park Road from the entrance to the Eielson Visitor Center, and along the Parks Highway from Healy to Cantwell.

  12. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  13. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    beluga whales at the Barren Islands, Alaska, the Bering Sea Acoustic Report, Marine Mammal Monitoring for NW Fisheries, and Monitoring killer whale ...distribution, physical oceanographic process, and sound levels to marine mammal habitat use on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Integrated data such...individual parameters. 3) A mixed-model analysis will be performed to identify relationships between marine mammal presence and environmental sound

  14. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  15. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village who is primarily... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and towns in Alaska. (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or...

  16. Alaska Women's Commission Regional Conferences 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Christine

    This booklet describes the work of the Alaska Women's Commission, a state agency dedicated to the achievement of equal legal, economic, social, and political status for women in Alaska. Since its inception, the Alaska Women's Commission has provided funding for regional women's conferences in rural parts of the state. The document describes four…

  17. 75 FR 45649 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross, Alaska, and... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR...

  18. Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcome Report 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Performance Scholarship was established in state law in 2011 and first offered to Alaska high school graduates beginning with the class of 2011. Described as "an invitation to excellence" to Alaska's high school students, its goal was to inspire students to push themselves academically in areas that correlate to success in…

  19. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  20. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by... 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  1. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  2. 76 FR 13331 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...'' fishery. The parallel fishery occurs off the coast of Alaska, within 3 nautical miles of shore and is... Aleutian Islands Subarea (AI). Federal groundfish fisheries in the EEZ from 3 to 200 nm off the coast of... Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  3. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... to the public interest as it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA543 Fisheries of the Exclusive... Trawl Fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...

  4. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands are managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the... ecological conditions warrant doing so. Amendment 39 modifies the existing snow crab rebuilding plan...

  5. 77 FR 3956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    .../ Processors Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels operating as catcher/ processors using pot gear in the Western... as catcher/processors using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  6. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  7. 77 FR 67579 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES:...

  8. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery; Amendment 93 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council has submitted Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf...

  9. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been...

  10. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using jig or...

  11. 78 FR 17884 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... vessels (CVs) greater than or equal to 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using...

  12. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine... action is necessary to allow vessels using trawl gear to participate in directed fishing for groundfish... vessels using trawl gear from August 1 to a date no later than September 20 under regulations at Sec....

  13. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA) 542 and/or 543 of the... using trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register with...

  14. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA) 542 and/or 543 of the... using trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register with...

  15. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  16. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... June 28, 2013 Part III Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR... / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts... Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  17. 78 FR 49200 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC803 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  18. Hydraulic Survey and Scour Assessment of Bridge 524, Tanana River at Big Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinrichs, Thomas A.; Langley, Dustin E.; Burrows, Robert L.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Bathymetric and hydraulic data were collected August 26-28, 1996, on the Tanana River at Big Delta, Alaska, at the Richardson Highway bridge and Trans-Alaska Pipeline crossing. Erosion along the right (north) bank of the river between the bridge and the pipeline crossing prompted the data collection. A water-surface profile hydraulic model for the 100- and 500-year recurrence-interval floods was developed using surveyed information. The Delta River enters the Tanana immediately downstream of the highway bridge, causing backwater that extends upstream of the bridge. Four scenarios were considered to simulate the influence of the backwater on flow through the bridge. Contraction and pier scour were computed from model results. Computed values of pier scour were large, but the scour during a flood may actually be less because of mitigating factors. No bank erosion was observed at the time of the survey, a low-flow period. Erosion is likely to occur during intermediate or high flows, but the actual erosion processes are unknown at this time.

  19. Foraminiferal biofacies analysis of the Yakataga Formation, Icy Bay, Alaska: Insights into Pliocene glaciomarine paleoenvironments of the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Zellers, S.D. )

    1990-06-01

    The Upper Miocene to Pleistocene Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska provides a 5 km thick record of episodic glacially-influenced marine sedimentation. The Pliocene Yakataga Fm. is exposed along western Icy Bay and records the return of glaciomarine deposition in the Gulf of Alaska, after the initiation of glaciation in the Late Miocene, and the onset of major northern hemisphere glaciation by the Late Pliocene. Analysis of foraminifera found in the Yakataga Fm. provides the basis for the interpretation of paleobathymetry and depositional environments from these rocks. Quantitative analysis is used to define eight paleoenvironmentally significant biofacies: (1) Elphidium excavatum clavatum biofacies (inner neritic), (2) Haplophragmoides spp. biofacies (outer neritic--mudline), (3) Cassidulina cf. C. teretis biofacies (outer neritic), (4) Uvigerina juncea biofacies (uppermost bathyal), (5) Elphidiella hannai biofacies (innermost neritic), (6) Epistominella pacifica biofacies (upper bathyal), (7) Cassidulina cf. C. limbata biofacies (outer neritic), (8) Nonionella miocenica biofacies (outer neritic). Paleobathymetric zones defined by these biofacies, which are constrained by modern Gulf of Alaska faunal relationships, indicate bathymetric fluctuations on the order of 100 m in the Icy Bay section. Mixing of biofacies due to downslope transport is common. Analyses of paleobathymetry, benthic formaminiferal biofacies, and sedimentology are used to interpret depositional environments ranging from innermost neritic to upper bathyal for these rocks.

  20. Photovoltaic highway applications: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Scudder, L. R.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the near-term market for photovoltaic highway applications is presented. Among the potential users, two market sectors are considered: government and commercial. Within these sectors, two possible application areas, signs and motorist aids, are discussed. Based on judgemental information, obtained by a brief survey of representatives of the two user sectors, the government sector appears more amenable to the introduction of photovoltaic power sources for highway applications in the near-term. However, considerable interest and potential opportunities were also found to exist in the commercial sector. Further studies to quantify the market for highway applications appear warranted.

  1. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  2. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  3. 23 CFR 810.208 - Action by the Federal Highway Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects § 810.208 Action by the Federal Highway Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator may authorize the State to make available to the publicly-owned mass transit authority the land...

  4. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects...-owned mass transit authority the land needed for the proposed facility. A request shall be...

  5. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects...-owned mass transit authority the land needed for the proposed facility. A request shall be...

  6. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects...-owned mass transit authority the land needed for the proposed facility. A request shall be...

  7. 23 CFR 810.206 - Review by the State Highway Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....206 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Making Highway Rights-of-Way Available for Mass Transit Projects...-owned mass transit authority the land needed for the proposed facility. A request shall be...

  8. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid...

  9. 77 FR 26601 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Connecticut

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Connecticut AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial... actions on the highway project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before October 24, 2012....

  10. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  11. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  12. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. The Administrator shall cooperate with the States, through their respective State highway departments, in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in...

  13. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  14. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. The Administrator shall cooperate with the States, through their respective State highway departments, in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in...

  15. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  16. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. The Administrator shall cooperate with the States, through their respective State highway departments, in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in...

  17. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. The Administrator shall cooperate with the States, through their respective State highway departments, in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in...

  18. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  19. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. The Administrator shall cooperate with the States, through their respective State highway departments, in the construction of Federal-aid highways. Each State highway department, maintained in...

  20. 76 FR 53996 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on claims for judicial... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Effective July 1, 2007, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assigned, and...

  1. 77 FR 52108 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Utah AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial Review of..., Design Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  2. 77 FR 5617 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in Utah AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitations on Claims for Judicial Review of..., Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, Utah 84129; telephone...

  3. 78 FR 5161 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 234 RIN 2130-AC26 National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory... information to the U.S. DOT National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory (Crossing Inventory) about highway-rail... Inventory about the highway-rail and pathway crossings over which they operate. While this issue is...

  4. The Alaska SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, R. E.; Charny, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR processor was designed to process over 200 100 km x 100 km (Seasat like) frames per day from the raw SAR data, at a ground resolution of 30 m x 30 m from ERS-1, J-ERS-1, and Radarsat. The near real time processor is a set of custom hardware modules operating in a pipelined architecture, controlled by a general purpose computer. Input to the processor is provided from a high density digital cassette recording of the raw data stream as received by the ground station. A two pass processing is performed. During the first pass clutter-lock and auto-focus measurements are made. The second pass uses the results to accomplish final image formation which is recorded on a high density digital cassette. The processing algorithm uses fast correlation techniques for range and azimuth compression. Radiometric compensation, interpolation and deskewing is also performed by the processor. The standard product of the ASP is a high resolution four-look image, with a low resolution (100 to 200 m) many look image provided simultaneously.

  5. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  6. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, D.

    2009-12-01

    Alaska. Public infrastructure at risk for damage includes roads, runways, and water and sewer systems. It is estimated that thawing permafrost would add between 3.6 billion and 6.1 billion (10 to 20 percent) to future costs for publicly owned infrastructure by 2030 and between 5.6 billion and 7.6 billion (10 to 12 percent) by 2080. High-wind events have become more frequent along the western and northern coasts. Shifts in marine species are affecting fisheries. Alaska leads the United States in the value of its commercial fishing catch. Most of the nation’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska. Over the course of this century, changes already observed on the shallow shelf of the northern Bering Sea are likely to affect a much broader portion of the Pacific-influenced sector of the Arctic Ocean. As such changes occur, the most productive commercial fisheries are likely to become more distant from existing fishing ports and processing infrastructure, requiring either relocation or greater investment in transportation time and fuel costs.

  8. Adipose tissue triglyceride fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Alaska Natives and non-Natives.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joe; Middaugh, John; Boudreau, Donald; Malcom, Gray; Parry, Steve; Tracy, Richard; Newman, William

    2005-08-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family are believed to protect against cardiovascular disease. A rich source of omega-3 PUFA is found in fish and marine mammals (seal, walrus, whale), which are a large part of the traditional diet of Alaska Natives (Eskimo, American Indians, Aleuts), a group that has been reported to have a lower mortality rate from cardiovascular disease than non-Natives. An autopsy study using standardized methods to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, and analyses of stored triglyceride fatty acids was conducted in a sample of Alaska Native subjects and non-Native subjects living in Alaska. Findings indicate that Alaska Natives had less advanced atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, along with higher proportions of omega-3 and lower proportions of omega-6 PUFA in adipose tissue, than did non-Natives. We conclude that high dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA may account for the lower extent of coronary artery atherosclerosis, contributing to the reported lower heart disease mortality among Alaska Natives.

  9. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of late Cretaceous convergent margins of southern Alaska and California

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Large portions of the Late Cretaceous continental margin of western North America were dominated by a convergent tectonic framework characterized by the development of trenches, accretionary wedges, forearc basins, magmatic arcs, and back arc basins. The most prominent and well-preserved remnants of the convergent margins are present in southern Alaska and California. The southern Alaska convergent margin appears to have developed in response to northward-directed subduction of the Kula plate and the California margin in response to eastward-directed subduction of the Farallon plate. The chief elements of the southern Alaska convergent margin, on the basis of paleomagnetic data, appear to have subsequently migrated northward and rotated in the post-Cretaceous. The chief elements of the California margin have been disrupted by Neogene strike-slip displacements on the San Andreas fault system and accretion of younger terranes to the west. In both southern Alaska and California, the forearc-basin deposits are well preserved and produce major amounts of gas. The principle reservoirs in Alaska are Tertiary nonmarine deposits and in California are Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deep marine and deltaic deposits.

  10. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  11. 78 FR 71715 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Highway & Auto Safety (Advocates), the American Automobile Association (AAA), American Traffic Safety... NHTSA received comments in response to the notice from several organizations or associations: AAA... as from one individual. General AAA offered general support for the guidelines and provided...

  12. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  13. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH IN THE FOREGROUND, RIGHT OF CENTER. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  14. 36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON. LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  17. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  18. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concrete barriers (see § 325.5(c)(4)). (4) One or more curbs having a vertical height of 1 foot (.3 m) or... of the highway within the test site must be dry, paved with relatively smooth concrete or...

  19. View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 120 at Priest Grade. Old Priest Grade seen at left distance. New Priest Grade at center and right distance. Looking west - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. 9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EEL RIVER SOUTH FORK BRIDGE, OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING W. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA