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Sample records for alaska maritime national

  1. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  2. 75 FR 29395 - National Maritime Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8526 of May 20, 2010 National Maritime Day, 2010 By the President of the... times of peace and war alike. On National Maritime Day, we recognize the men and women of the...

  3. 77 FR 31479 - National Maritime Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13005 Filed 5-24-12; 11:15 am... May 25, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8828--National Maritime Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012 National Maritime...

  4. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  5. 76 FR 29989 - National Maritime Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011 National Maritime Day... Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America's economic strength and security. On...

  6. 78 FR 31809 - National Maritime Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... depended on the success of a revolution, mariners took on the world's most powerful navy and helped secure... world. On National Maritime Day, we honor the generations of mariners who have served and sacrificed to make our country what it is today. To keep America moving forward in the 21st century, we need...

  7. 75 FR 82039 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...) Port Security Grants. (2) Global Supply Chain Security Policy Efforts. (3) Update to the Maritime... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will...

  8. 77 FR 26024 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of May 1, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security Advisory... progress regarding multiple maritime security initiatives. If you have been adversely affected by the...

  9. 77 FR 1710 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of January 9, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security... regarding multiple maritime security initiatives. If you have been adversely affected by the delay...

  10. 78 FR 27032 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996, issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  11. 76 FR 22033 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  12. 75 FR 24400 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... in the April 17, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (70 FR 23938). A regulated area is established on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8,...

  13. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316) Docket: Any... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  14. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  15. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the...

  16. 75 FR 22151 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ....homeport.uscg.mil under Missions>Maritime Security>National Maritime Security Advisory Committee>Member... serve an additional term of office but must re-apply in accordance with this notice. Applicants with... the mission of the Coast Guard. If you are selected as a non-representative member, or as a member...

  17. 3 CFR 8384 - Proclamation 8384 of May 20, 2009. National Maritime Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... workers who have supported the maritime industry have made significant contributions to our leadership in... importance of the maritime industry and chronicles our history as a maritime nation. The Congress, by a...

  18. Maritime Washington National Heritage Area Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2014-07-09

    07/23/2014 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Senate Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-493. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA. 100.1306 Section 100.1306 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA....

  20. 75 FR 38536 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...) Sub-Committee. (3) DHS Global Supply Chain Security Strategy initiative. (4) Maritime Transportation Security Act update. (5) Update from CDC Strategy Working Group. (6) Update on the Small Vessel Security Strategy. Procedural This meeting is open to the public for the morning session and will also be...

  1. Alaska High School Students Integrate Forest Ecology, Glacial Landscape Dynamics, and Human Maritime History in a Field Mapping Course at Cape Decision Lighthouse, Kuiu Island, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Carstensen, R.; Domke, L.; Donohoe, S.; Clark, A.; Cordero, D.; Otsea, C.; Hakala, M.; Parks, R.; Lanwermeyer, S.; Discover Design Research (Ddr)

    2010-12-01

    Alaskan 10th and 11th graders earned college credit at Cape Decision Lighthouse as part of a 12-day, summer field research experience. Students and faculty flew to the southern tip of Kuiu Island located 388 km south of Juneau. Kuiu is the largest uninhabited island in southeastern Alaska. This field-based, introduction-to-research course was designed to engage students in the sciences and give them skills in technology, engineering, and mathematics. Two faculty, a forest naturalist and a geologist, introduced the students to the use of hand held GPS receivers, GIS map making, field note-taking and documentary photography, increment borer use, and soil studies techniques. Daily surveys across the region, provided onsite opportunities for the faculty to introduce the high schoolers to the many dimensions of forest ecology and plant succession. Students collected tree cores using increment borers to determine “release dates” providing clues to past wind disturbance. They discovered the influence of landscape change on the forest by digging soil pits and through guided interpretation of bedrock outcrops. The students learned about glacially influenced hydrology in forested wetlands during peat bog hikes. They developed an eye for geomorphic features along coastal traverses, which helped them to understand the influences of uplift through faulting and isostatic rebound in this tectonically active and once glaciated area. They surveyed forest patches to distinguish between regions of declining yellow-cedar from wind-disturbed spruce forests. The students encountered large volumes of primarily plastic marine debris, now stratified by density and wave energy, throughout the southern Kuiu intertidal zone. They traced pre-European Alaska Native subsistence use of the area, 19th and 20th century Alaska Territorial Maritime history, and learned about the 21st century radio tracking of over 10,000 commercial vessels by the Marine Exchange of Alaska from its many stations

  2. Maritime adaptations and dietary variation in prehistoric Western Alaska: stable isotope analysis of permafrost-preserved human hair.

    PubMed

    Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Nehlich, Olaf; Hillerdal, Charlotta; Davis, Richard S; Richards, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The reconstruction of diet and subsistence strategies is integral in understanding early human colonizations and cultural adaptations, especially in the Arctic-one of the last areas of North America to be permanently inhabited. However, evidence for early subsistence practices in Western Alaska varies, particularly with regards to the emergence, importance, and intensity of sea mammal hunting. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from permafrost-preserved human hair from two new prehistoric sites in Western Alaska, providing a direct measure of diet. The isotope evidence indicates a heavy reliance on sea mammal protein among the earlier Norton-period group (1,750 ± 40 cal BP), confirming that the complex hunting technologies required to intensively exploit these animals were most likely already in place in this region by at least the beginning of 1st millennium AD. In contrast, analysis of the more recent Thule-period hair samples (650 ± 40 cal BP; 570 ± 30 cal BP) reveals a more mixed diet, including terrestrial animal protein. Sequential isotope analysis of two longer human hair locks indicates seasonal differences in diet in a single Norton-period individual but demonstrates little dietary variation in a Thule-period individual. These analyses provide direct evidence for dietary differences among Alaska's early Eskimo groups and confirm the antiquity of specialized sea mammal hunting and procurement technologies. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of human adaptation to maritime and high-latitude environments, and the geographical and temporal complexity in early Arctic subsistence.

  3. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  4. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  5. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  6. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  7. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  8. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National... Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: By operation of Alaska...

  9. Plea is made for meeting national objectives for safe maritime transport of hazardous chemicals through a productive partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A plea is made for meeting national objectives for safe maritime transport of hazardous chemicals through a productive partnership between the chemical industry and the US Government and its agencies, particularly the US Coast Guard.

  10. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's... public meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC... under Title VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law...

  11. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  12. 75 FR 8396 - Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ..., and from the State of Alaska on June 19, 2009. Our notice of August 6, 2009 (74 FR 39336), initiated... of the Aleutian arc chain of volcanoes. Landforms include mountains, active volcanoes, U-shaped... level to the 9,372-foot Shishaldin Volcano. Shishaldin Volcano is a designated National Natural...

  13. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation: preliminary results of revegetation experiments of maritime tundra with Elymus mollis on Adak Island, Alaska. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Amundsen, C C; McCord, R A

    1982-08-01

    The vegetation of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska is maritime tundra (Amundsen, 1977). While maritime tundra is not characterized by the presence of permafrost, the soil temperatures remain low (5 to 7/sup 0/C) year-round (Williams, 1980). The low soil temperature, a high level of soil moisture, and a low level of incident solar radiation are thought to delay the development of the vegetation. Natural revegetation of natural or man made open areas is relatively slow. Disturbed areas from World War II military activity are not completely revegetated after almost 40 years. Because of the windy and wet climate of the region, exposed soil is unstable and subject to extensive freeze-thaw action and erosion. Insults to the vegetation, both marine and aeolian, are common. Successful reproduction by seed is uncommon among species of this flora. The primary means of reproduction appears to be by vegetative propagules which are usually fragments of the shoot and rhizome. While the transport of the fragments by wind and water aids in the dispersal of the propagules, the same action often removes these fragments from open areas. This later activity further delays the revegetation of open and disturbed areas. Elymus mollis Trin. is the most successful major native species found to date as it fragments due to wind and water action and transplants easily. Transplanting experiments with sprigs of Elymus mollis Trin. have been conducted on Adak Island, Alaska since 1977. Preliminary results indicate that Elymus mollis may be transplanted for revegetation with a survival rate of at least 90 percent. Experiments were set up in 1979 to determine appropriate planting density, sprig rhizome length, and best time of year for transplanting. Preliminary results for these experiments are reported here.

  14. National priorities list sites: Alaska, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  15. Astrolabes at Greenwich - A Catalogue of the Astrolabes in the National Maritime Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cleempoel, Koenraad

    2006-06-01

    The astrolabe is one of the most intriguing of all early scientific instruments. Invented by the greeks, the design and construction of the astrolabe remained largely unchanged for hundreds of years as it passed through the Arabic, Indian, Persian and Medieval European cultures. The astrolabe was the starting-point for the design of many other types of calculating and observing instruments in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. With 53 astrolabes, the National maritime Museum at Greenwich houses one of the largest collections in the world. This number presents a fair balance between the Eastern (30) and the Western (23) instruments, with some exceptionally fine highlights in each group. This new textbook provides comprehensive coverage of the key issues multinational corporations (MNCs) in their management of human resources across diverse national boundaries. A student-focused text with strong learning features, the book adopts an integrated approach, covering the theories and practices of international human resource management and setting them in context with numerous reference to news stories and case studies developed from the author's own extensive research.

  16. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  17. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  18. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  19. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  20. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  1. Record of decision of the Alaska State Director on the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Alaska State Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has adopted the preferred alternative from the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for oil and gas leasing in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) as modified by this record of decision (ROD). This decision consists of: (1) Land allocation - deletion from leasing of 1,416,000 acres in the Utukok caribou calving area and the highest density black brant molting area; special management leasing of approximately 4,350,000 acres in four zones; and special and standard stipulations for leasing in the remaining approximately 17,787,000 acres of the reserve. (2) Leasing schedule - a 5-year leasing program for these areas not deleted or deferred that will offer approximately 2,000,000 acres annually. (3) Stipulations - the stipulations identified in the FEIS are generally adequate for all future leases and will be assigned to individual tracts as deemed necessary. This ROD specifically identifies stipulations that will be assigned to tracts and those which would be permit stipulations. (4) Studies and monitoring - the BLM will cooperate closely with the state and borough, monitoring activity on the reserve, gathering priority resource data and identifying specific study and research needs. (5) Subsistence - the lease schedule, lease stipulations, sale rate, development likelihood and future site-specific coordination with the north slope borough adequately mitigate subsistence impacts. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  2. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  3. Reservoir quality and potential, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Seidlitz, A.; Gibson, C.; Bascle, R.; Dygas, J. )

    1991-03-01

    As part of the reservoir management, resource assessment, and planning programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska, the oil and gas resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) is undergoing review in light of new technical information, as well as changing national and international socioeconomic conditions. Emphasis is on integration of geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and engineering information to provide a refined, more technically substantive knowledge base for resource assessment and management. Brookian clastic rocks - in particular the Nanushuk Group and underlying Torok/Topagoruk intervals - have been the principal horizons of concern. Petrologic-mineralogic characteristics have been reinvestigated, related to petrophysical parameters and wireline log responses, and integrated with available engineering data, for key wells within and peripheral to the NPRA. Particular attention has been directed to diagenetic relationships, effects on reservoir quality, and implications for untested portions of this sizable basin. Similar efforts have been directed to pre-Brookian strata as well. Only some 127 exploratory wells (all but one under government aegis) have been drilled within or adjacent to NPRA (a geographic area on the order of 37,000 mi{sup 2} - about the size of the state of Indiana), many only to shallow depths. In almost every well drilled to any appreciable depth in the area, there have been manifestations of the presence of hydrocarbons. The results to date are actually rather promising from a qualitative geologic-geochemical perspective, in terms of potential for significant resources to be present.

  4. The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) data archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The area currently known as the National Petroleum ReserveAlaska was originally designated in 1923 as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 (NPR4). It was one of four U.S. regions thought to contain significant amounts of oil that were to be reserved for national crises. Geographic and geologic knowledge of the NPR4 was only superficial in 1923. Earlier exploration, however, had shown that the region contained the ingredients necessary for oil accumulations to exist: source rocks, reservoir rocks, and geologic structures that could trap petroleum. Oil seeps on the coast and the size of the area (some 37,000 square miles, about the size of Indiana) reinforced the notion that significant quantities of petroleum were present.

  5. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and... Petroleum Reserve- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National...

  6. Alaska Science Center: Providing Timely, Relevant, and Impartial Study of the Landscape, Natural Resources, and Natural Hazards for Alaska and Our Nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS Alaska Science Center

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, has studied the natural features of Alaska since its earliest geologic expeditions in the 1800s. The USGS Alaska Science Center (ASC), with headquarters in Anchorage, Alaska, studies the complex natural science phenomena of Alaska to provide scientific products and results to a wide variety of partners. The complexity of Alaska's unique landscapes and ecosystems requires USGS expertise from many science disciplines to conduct thorough, integrated research.

  7. Gaps in Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives in the National Healthcare Disparities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Ernest; Smith, Colleen Ryan; Johansson, Patrik; Andrews, Roxanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify gaps in health care data for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Findings indicate that only 42% of measures of health care quality and access tracked in the National Healthcare Disparities Report could be used to assess disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Patient safety data…

  8. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold a National...

  9. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale...

  10. 76 FR 21404 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... National Park Service National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service... Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS) subsistence...

  11. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  12. Milti-scaled studies of watershed characteristics within the Tongass National Forest, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Norberg, E. C.; Biles, F. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Tongass National Forest (Tongass), in Southeast Alaska, is the largest temperate maritime, rainforest in North America. It covers an area of 68,798 km2, stretches over 6 degrees of latitude, encompasses over 5,000 anadramous salmon reaches, and includes over 70 ecoregions, associated with several major geologic terranes. Wetlands dominate this wet region, comprising about 30% of terrestrial area. The region is currently experiencing climate change with potentially profound impacts on wetland soil processes, forest structure, stream productivity and the large and valuable salmon fishery. Because of the size and remoteness of the forest, there are little data on stream chemistry, biological productivity, or discharge. To better predict the impacts of climate change, forest practices, or land use change on stream productivity, we require much better baseline data on naturally occurring variability in watershed and stream characteristics and the major biophysical drivers that control stream biogeochemistry. Our efforts to develop a systematic understanding of watershed types and responses include studies at three spatial, temporal and organizational scales. One study is aimed at developing a process-based understanding of how major wetland and vegetation types influence stream chemistry, particularly dissolved organic carbon, through hydrologic coupling and carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transport. This study is restricted to paired or longitudinal watershed studies with intense sampling frequency and a broad array of detailed measurements. Costs are high and the generality of the results are implied but not confirmed. A second study, of intermediate temporal and spatial scale seeks to identify broader patterns in stream chemistry among three common Tongass stream types within the vicinity of Juneau, Alaska: glacial, brownwater and clearwater. This study has confirmed that these broad stream classes respond differently on a seasonal basis but provides no

  13. Basement geology of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Phillips, J.D.; Kulander, C.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Potter, C.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity, aeromagnetic, seismic, and borehole information enable mapping of crustal basement characteristics within the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA). In general, the pre-Mississippian basement of the southern portion of the NPRA is different from that in the north in that it is deeper and thinner, is made up of dense magnetic rocks, is cut by more normal faults, and underlies thicker accumulations of Mississippian to Triassic Ellesmerian sequence sedimentary rocks. Mafic igneous rocks within the basement and locally within the deeper Ellesmerian sequence sedimentary section could explain the observed density and magnetic variations. Because these variations spatially overlap thicker Ellesmerian sequence sediment accumulations, they may have developed, at least in part, during Mississippian to Triassic extension and basin formation. If this period of extension, and postulated mafic magmatism, was accompanied by higher heat flow, then early Ellesmerian sequence clastic sediments may have become mature for hydrocarbon generation (Magoon and Bird, 1988). This could have produced an early petroleum system in the Colville basin.

  14. 77 FR 58868 - Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Park Service Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meetings. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Wrangell-St. Elias...

  15. Proposed oil and gas exploration within the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The draft environmental impact statement describes the procedures and probable effects of aerial and geological surveying for oil and gas in the coastal area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures provide for the protection of caribou caving areas and the avoidance of duplication in the survey activities. Temporary disturbances from seismic surveys would interfere with wildlife breeding and migration due to changes in the habitat. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 provides the legal mandate for environmental assessment.

  16. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  17. Late quaternary environments, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Waythomas, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Late Quaternary pollen, plant macrofossils, and insect fossils were studied from sites along three rivers in the foothills north of the Alaska Range in Denali National Park and Preserve. The aim was to carry out a reconaissance of late Quaternary organic sediments in the region, emphasizing the mid-Wisconsin, or Boutellier interstadial interval. Samples of probable early- to mid-Boutellier age (ca. 60 000 to 40 000 B.P.) from Unit 2 at the Toklat High Bluffs site indicate open boreal woodland with dense alder shrub vegetation. Organic Unit 1 at the Foraker River Slump site indicates open taiga with shrubs of probable Boutellier age. Fossil evidence from the youngest horizon in this unit indicates graminoid tundra environments, marking the transition from interstadial to late Wisconsin glacial environments. Early Holocene samples from the Foraker exposures suggest birch shrub tundra; coniferous forest apparently became established only alter 6500 B.P. Local variations in forest composition at the Foraker and Sushana sites were probably the result of disturbances, such as fire.

  18. Hydrologic data from Nation, Kandik, and Yukon rivers, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Flow data were collected from two adjacent rivers in Yukon?Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska?the Nation River (during 1991?2000) and the Kandik River (1994?2000)?and from the Yukon River (1950?2000) at Eagle, Alaska, upstream from the boundary of the preserve. These flow records indicate that most of the runoff from these rivers occurs from May through September and that the average monthly discharge during this period ranges from 1,172 to 2,210 cubic feet per second for the Nation River, from 1,203 to 2,633 cubic feet per second for the Kandik River, and from 112,000 to 224,000 cubic feet per second for the Yukon River. Water-quality data were collected for the Nation River and several of its tributaries from 1991 to 1992 and for the Yukon River at Eagle from 1950 to 1994. Three tributaries to the Nation River (Waterfall Creek, Cathedral Creek, and Hard Luck Creek) have relatively high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. These three watersheds are underlain predominantly by Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. The Yukon River transports 33,000,000 tons of suspended sediment past Eagle each year. Reflecting the inputs from its major tributaries, the water of the Yukon River at Eagle is dominated by calcium?magnesium bicarbonate.

  19. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  20. Bedrock geologic map of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, C.F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Kirschner, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction with background information to accompany the bedrock geologic map (pl. 8.1) and cross sections (pl. 8.2) of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Unconsolidated Tertiary( ) and Quaternary sediments, principally those of the Pliocene( ) and Pleistocene Gubik Formation and the Holocene deposits, are omitted from the map in the northern part of the area in order to show the approximate subcrop contacts between consolidated rock units that are Tertiary and older in age. These contacts are approximated from information on the first consolidated rock unit drilled in oil exploration wells and from maps of shallow seismic results in the northern and eastern parts of the NPRA. Modifications to earlier geologic maps have been made where warranted by more recent geologic investigations. Previous geologic compilations of the southern part of the NPRA have been partly remapped to conform to the tectonostratigraphic units named by Ellersieck and others and Mayfield and others. In the northwestern part of the reserve, rocks previously mapped as part of the Colville Group are here reassigned to the Nanushuk Group. Reports of plant fossils on the Kuk and Kaolak Rivers and micropaleontologic study of near-surface strata at the Tunalik No. 1 well indicate that the rocks west of the Meade River are probably all pre-Turonian in age and therefore older than any known rocks in the Colville Group. This revision is consistent with the sedimentology, because both the Nanushuk and Colville Groups consist of deltaic sediments that were prograded across the North Slope from south-west to northeast. Through Colville deposition began with a significant marine transgression, it seems unlikely that this deposition reached as far west as the area in question.

  1. Treeline biogeochemistry and dynamics, Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stottlemyer, R.; Binkley, D.; Steltzer, H.; Wilson, F.H.; Galloway, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The extensive boreal biome is little studies relative to its global importance. Its high soil moisture and low temperatures result in large below-ground reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Presently, such high-latitude ecosystems are undergoing the largest temperature increases in global warming. Change in soil temperature or moisture in the large pools of soil organic matter could fundamentally change ecosystem C and N budgets. Since 1990, we have conducted treeline studies in a small (800 ha) watershed in Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. Our objectives were to (1) gain an understanding of treeline dynamics, structure, and function; and (2) examine the effects of global climate change, particularly soil temperature, moisture, and N availability, on ecosystem processes. Our intensive site studies show that the treeline has advanced into turdra during the past 150 years. Inplace and laboratory incubations indicate that soil organic-layer mineralization rates increase with a temperature change >5 degrees C. N availability was greatest in soils beneath alder and lowest beneath willow or cottongrass tussocks. Watershed output of inorganic N as NO3 was 70 percent greater than input. The high inorganic-N output likely reflects soil freeze-thaw cycles, shallow flowpaths to the stream, and low seasonal biological retention. Concentrations and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streamwater increased during spring melt and in autumn, indicating a seasonal accumulation of soil and forest-floor DOC and a shallower flowpath for meltwater to the stream. In sum, our research suggests that treeling transitionzone processes are quite sensitive to climate change, especially those functions regulating the C and N cycles.

  2. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... opening for select tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the...

  3. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt....

  4. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt....

  5. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Alaska. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  6. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  7. Brookian structural plays in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA), two structural plays were assessed in thrust-faulted and folded Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Brookian megasequence. These are the Brookian Topset Structural Play and the Torok Structural Play, located in the Brooks Range foothills and the southern part of the coastal plain, within the Tertiary-age frontal part of the Jurassic to Tertiary Brooks Range orogenic belt. A new regional structural interpretation, developed through regional seismic analyses, reconnaissance field investigations, and new thermal constraints, guided the geologic evaluation and risking of these plays. Volumetric parameters were derived from seismic reflection data, well data and oil and gas field analogs. The fundamental elements of the Brookian Topset Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped Umiat oil field, include: (1) reservoirs in Nanushuk Group and uppermost Torok Formation shallow-marine to nonmarine sandstones draped over anticlines caused by structural thickening in underlying Torok mudstones; (2) seals provided by overlying shale drapes in the Nanushuk, and locally by thrust faults; (3) Torok, gamma-ray-zone (GRZ) or pebble shale source rocks; (4) remigration of hydrocarbons from early formed (Late Cretaceous) stratigraphic traps disrupted by 60 Ma thrusting, into newly formed structural traps. The 60 Ma thrusting was probably accompanied by new generation and migration of natural gas resulting from late structural thickening and tectonic loading. Subsurface data from the Umiat field and other seismic reflection data within the play area indicate that the structural traps are commonly compartmentalized by thrust faults. The fundamental elements of the Torok Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped East Kurupa gas accumulation just south of NPRA, include: (1) reservoirs in lower Torok Formation basin-floor sandstones, and perhaps in

  8. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  9. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  10. 77 FR 76515 - Notice of Availability of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final Integrated Activity Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final... National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) Final Integrated Activity Plan/Environmental Impact...

  11. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  12. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  13. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  14. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  15. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  16. Beaufortian stratigraphic plays in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The Beaufortian megasequence in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes Jurassic through lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) strata of the Kingak Shale and the overlying pebble shale unit. These strata are part of a composite total petroleum system involving hydrocarbons expelled from source rocks in three stratigraphic intervals, the Lower Jurassic part of the Kingak Shale, the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the Lower Cretaceous gamma-ray zone (GRZ) and associated strata. The potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Beaufortian megasequence in NPRA was assessed by defining eight plays (assessment units), two in lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) topset seismic facies, four in Upper Jurassic topset seismic facies, one in Lower Jurassic topset seismic facies, and one in Jurassic through lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) clinoform seismic facies. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 239 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 103 million barrels. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 1,162 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 405 billion cubic feet. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset South Play is estimated to contain between 635 (95-percent probability) and 4,004 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 2,130 billion cubic feet. No technically recoverable oil is assessed in the Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset South Play, as it lies at depths that are entirely in the gas window. The Beaufortian Upper Jurassic Topset Northeast Play is estimated to contain between 2,744 (95-percent probability) and 8,086 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil

  17. Brookian stratigraphic plays in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The Brookian megasequence in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes bottomset and clinoform seismic facies of the Torok Formation (mostly Albian age) and generally coeval, topset seismic facies of the uppermost Torok Formation and the Nanushuk Group. These strata are part of a composite total petroleum system involving hydrocarbons expelled from three stratigraphic intervals of source rocks, the Lower Cretaceous gamma-ray zone (GRZ), the Lower Jurassic Kingak Shale, and the Triassic Shublik Formation. The potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Brookian megasequence in NPRA was assessed by defining five plays (assessment units), one in the topset seismic facies and four in the bottomset-clinoform seismic facies. The Brookian Topset Play is estimated to contain between 60 (95-percent probability) and 465 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 239 million barrels. The Brookian Topset Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 679 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 192 billion cubic feet. The Brookian Clinoform North Play, which extends across northern NPRA, is estimated to contain between 538 (95-percent probability) and 2,257 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 1,306 million barrels. The Brookian Clinoform North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 1,969 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 674 billion cubic feet. The Brookian Clinoform Central Play, which extends across central NPRA, is estimated to contain between 299 (95-percent probability) and 1,849 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 973

  18. 77 FR 16519 - Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... environmental impact Statement was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14727) on March 13, 2012 concerning... Forest Service Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare...

  19. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National...; thence to 47°36′21″ N, 122°20′31″ W; thence returning to the origin. This regulated area resembles...

  20. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National...; thence to 47°36′21″ N, 122°20′31″ W; thence returning to the origin. This regulated area resembles...

  1. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National...; thence to 47°36′21″ N, 122°20′31″ W; thence returning to the origin. This regulated area resembles...

  2. 33 CFR 100.1306 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1306 National...; thence to 47°36′21″ N, 122°20′31″ W; thence returning to the origin. This regulated area resembles...

  3. 3 CFR 8828 - Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012. National Maritime Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Atlantic coast. During World War II, they executed perilous transits to support our troops in combat. And... waterways and around the world. From privateers who bravely fought for American independence to mariners who... forward an enduring legacy of service to our Nation. In the War of 1812, mariners put their lives on...

  4. 78 FR 79071 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19476, 04/11/2011) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Authority: 5 U.S.C. 610; E.O., 13563, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR51735, Oct. 4, 1993. * * * Dated: December 23, 2013... improving the Nation's cargo opportunities and sealift capacity while ensuring future sustainability....

  5. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  6. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  7. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai National Park and Preserve (Chapter 12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffen, Bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y.L.

    2007-01-01

    Much recent research points to the shrinkage of the Earth's small glaciers, however, few studies have been performed to quantify the amount of change over time. We measured glacier-extent changes in two national parks in southeastern Alaska. There are hundreds of glaciers in Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ) and Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM) covering over 2373 sq km of parkland. There are two primary areas of glaciation in KEFJ - the Harding Icefield and the Grewingk-Yalik Glacier Complex, and three primary areas of glaciation in KATM - the Mt. Douglas area, the Kukak Volcano to Mt. Katmai area and the Mt. Martin area. We performed glacier mapping using satellite imagery, from the 1970s, 1980s, and from 2000. Results of the analysis show that there has been a reduction in the amount of glacier ice cover in the two parks over the study period, of approximately 22 sq km of ice, approximately - 1.6% from 1986 to 2000 (for KEFJ), and of approximately 76 sq km of glacier ice, or about -7.7% from 1986187 to 2000 (for KATM). In the future, measurements of surface elevation changes of these ice masses should be acquired; together with our extent-change measurements, the volume change of the ice masses can then be determined to estimate their contribution to sea-level rise. The work is a continuation of work done in KEFJ, but in KATM, our measurements represent the first comprehensive study of the glaciers in this remote, little-studied area.

  8. The underrecording of suicides in state and national records, Alaska, 1983-1984.

    PubMed

    Hlady, W G; Middaugh, J P

    1988-01-01

    Information on Alaskan suicides has come primarily from studies based upon records obtained from the Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). To evaluate the accuracy of these statistics, state and national (NCHS) vital statistics records were searched for suicide deaths in Alaska in 1983-1984. Of 195 deaths meeting our case definition of suicide, only 141 (72%) appeared in state records and 112 (57%) appeared in NCHS records. Native suicides were more likely to be underrecorded than non-Native suicides, even after differences in recording district personnel were adjusted for. Errors resulted primarily from delayed determinations of the cause of death and failure to update the records.

  9. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  10. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  11. Selected data from eleven wildcat wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zihlman, F.N.; Oliver, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 27 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. This publication presents the following data from eleven of those 27 wells: general information, well core images, depths to specific stratigraphic units, well core gamma ray logs in LAS format, well log information in LAS format, geological and drilling history reports in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, and permeability and porosity data.

  12. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  13. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald R.; Preller, Cindi C.; Labay, Keith A.; Shrew, Nora B.

    2006-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest national park within the U.S. National Park Service system, extends from the northern Pacific Ocean to beyond the eastern Alaska Range into interior Alaska. It features impressively spectacular scenery such as high and craggy mountains, active and ancient volcanoes, expansive ice fields, immense tidewater glaciers, and a myriad of alpine glaciers. The park also includes the famous Kennecott Mine, a world-class copper deposit that was mined from 1911 to 1938, and remnant ghost town, which is now a National Historic Landmark. Geologic investigations encompassing Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve began in 1796, with Dmitriv Tarkhanov, a Russian mining engineer, who unsuccessfully ventured up the Copper River in search of rumored copper. Lieutenant H.T. Allen (1897) of the U.S. Army made a successful epic summer journey with a limited military crew up the Copper River in 1885, across the Alaska Range, and down the Tanana and Yukon Rivers. Allen?s crew was supported by a prospector named John Bremner and local Eyak and Ahtna native guides whose tribes controlled access into the Copper River basin. Allen witnessed the Ahtnas? many uses of the native copper. His stories about the copper prompted prospectors to return to this area in search of the rich copper ore in the years following his journey. The region boasts a rich mining and exploration history prior to becoming a park in 1980. Several U.S. Geological Survey geologists have conducted reconnaissance surveys in the area since Allen?s explorations. This map is the result of their work and is enhanced by more detailed investigations, which began in the late 1950s and are still continuing. For a better understanding of the processes that have shaped the geology of the park and a history of the geologic investigations in the area, we recommend U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1616, ?A Geologic Guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park

  14. Vascular flora of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Schofield, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The vascular flora of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), where few previous collections had been reported, was collected and recorded at sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation. A total of 349 species (339 native and 10 introduced) was identified. To provide a comparative phytogeographic framework, we analyzed data from published reports that categorized vascular plant distribution patterns from a circumpolar, North American, and Alaskan perspective. The native flora of the Izembek NWR primarily includes species of circumpolar (38%), eastern Asian (23%), Eurasian (18%), and North American (13%) distribution. The most important longitudinal distributional classes in North America consist of transcontinental (62%) and extreme western species (31%). The annotated list of species in Izembek NWR expands the range of many species, filling a distributional gap in Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Forty notable range extensions are reported. The flora of Izembek NWR is primarily made up of boreal species and lacks many of the species considered to be Arctic. Comparison with the Raunkiaer life-form spectrum similarly points to the boreal.

  15. Digital recovery, modification, and analysis of Tetra Tech seismic horizon mapping, National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Kulander, Christopher S.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We have digitized, modified, and analyzed seismic interpretation maps of 12 subsurface stratigraphic horizons spanning portions of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). These original maps were prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc., based on about 15,000 miles of seismic data collected from 1974 to 1981. We have also digitized interpreted faults and seismic velocities from Tetra Tech maps. The seismic surfaces were digitized as two-way travel time horizons and converted to depth using Tetra Tech seismic velocities. The depth surfaces were then modified by long-wavelength corrections based on recent USGS seismic re-interpretation along regional seismic lines. We have developed and executed an algorithm to identify and calculate statistics on the area, volume, height, and depth of closed structures based on these seismic horizons. These closure statistics are tabulated and have been used as input to oil and gas assessment calculations for the region. Directories accompanying this report contain basic digitized data, processed data, maps, tabulations of closure statistics, and software relating to this project.

  16. Baseline water-quality characteristics of the Alaska Army National Guard Stewart River Training Area near Nome, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, Josh D.

    2005-01-01

    The Alaska Army National Guard Stewart River Training Area is approximately 23 miles north of Nome on the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska. The Stewart River Training Area encompasses much of the Stewart River Basin and a small part of the Snake River Basin. Hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat data were collected at seven surface-water sites within the Stewart River Training Area during the summer runoff months (late-May to early-September) in 2004. Two of the sampling sites selected for this study were on the main stem Stewart River, one at the upstream boundary and one at the downstream boundary of the training area. Continuous hydrologic, precipitation, and water temperature data were collected at these two sites throughout the summer of 2004. Three pond sites, along the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Stewart River within the training area, were each sampled twice during the summer of 2004 for analysis of water-quality constituents. Two tributaries to the Snake River Basin, Goldbottom Creek and North Fork Snake River, within the Stewart River Training Area boundary, also were sampled twice during the summer of 2004. Water-quality data collected from the Stewart River at the upstream and downstream study sites indicate similar constituent concentrations. Concentrations of most water-quality constituents collected during the summer of 2004 did not exceed standards for drinking water or recreational contact. Analysis of trace-element concentrations in bed sediment samples indicate the threshold effect concentration (below which no adverse effects on organisms is expected) was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, and nickel concentrations at all sample sites within the Stewart River Training Area and cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were found to exceed the threshold effect concentration in varying degrees at the sample sites. The probable effect concentration (above which toxic effects on organisms is likely) was exceeded by

  17. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  18. Maritime Cultural Landscapes, Maritimity and Quasi Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2010-10-01

    Does the concept of maritime cultural landscapes bridge a division between land and sea, or does it maintain a gap that perhaps doesn’t even exist? This paper discusses maritime and maritime cultural landscapes as phenomena in the light of Actor Network Theory, where maritimity is given attention as a derivation of the modern metaphysics as described by Bruno Latour. The paper makes use of a case study from Norwegian Cultural Heritage Management (CHM), where land and sea archaeologists meet each other in a joint venture project at the island of Smøla, Møre & Romsdal County.

  19. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  20. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  1. Surficial geologic map of the Noatak National Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The surficial geologic map of the Noatak National Preserve (NNP) is a compilation that incorporates portions of four published USGS maps (Hamilton, 1980, 1981, 1984a,b), a USGS Open-File Report (Hamilton, 2003), and unpublished field mapping. It covers an area of about 28,700 km2, and includes parts of eight 1:250,000-scale quadrangles. The mapped area generally terminates at NNP boundaries, which generally follow the sharp divides that separate the Noatak drainage system from north-flowing drainages of the Alaskan North Slope and south-flowing tributaries to the Kobuk River. The mapping extends short distances beyond those boundaries where passes across divides were traversed by glaciers issuing from the Noatak drainage or by overflow waters from glacial lakes. Along the western edge of the map, where the NNP boundary is unrelated to topographic features, I have extended the mapping to the nearest natural boundary, the active channel of the Noatak River, and have mapped beyond that limit only in places where surficial deposits are essential for understanding regional geology.

  2. A geodetic network in the Novarupta area, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinman, J.W.; Iwatsubo, E.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A small geodetic network was established in 1989 and 1990 to monitor ground deformation in the Novarupta area, Katmai National Park, Alaska. Slope distances and zenith angles for three lines were repeated in 1990. A comparison of the two surveys indicates changes that are within the error of the measurements. Mean mark-to-mark slope distance changes are 1.17 ?? 1.46 ppm. Two benchmarks were added to the network in 1990 to configure a five-endpoint braced quadrilateral centered about the Novarupta dome. -Authors

  3. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  4. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and...

  5. 78 FR 13379 - Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of... of operations to conduct a mining operation on lands embracing the Shamrock (AA026813) and Tony...

  6. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska. PMID:23937114

  7. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska.

  8. Source Apportionment of sub-Arctic Pollutants at Denali National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The "bromine (Br) explosion" in the springtime Arctic region, associated with rapid ozone depletion events, is now a well-documented phenomenon. The source of Br appears to be sea salt but its cycling between the aerosol and gas phase is not well understood. In this study, we observed the occurrence of elevated aerosol-phase Br concentrations in springtime IMPROVE network PM2.5 measurements in the sub-Arctic Denali National Park (DNP; site elevation, 658 MASL). Episodic elevated aerosol Br levels were observed from February to May in all years in the data record, 1988 to 2013. Anti-correlation (R=-0.54) between O3 and Br for high-concentration Br samples (Br>2 ng/m3, 130 out of 730 springtime samples) implied its possible link to ozone depletion events in the Arctic region. To further identify the sources influencing aerosol observed at DNP, source apportionment using the EPA Positive Matrix Factorization 5.0 model was applied to the entire PM2.5 speciated data from the DNP site. Six sources were derived, including secondary sulfate, a factor containing both Br and NO3-, dust, sea salt, smelting, and a mixture of wildfire and other combustion sources. Concentration weighted trajectory analysis, which was employed to identify the possible source origins, suggested that the Br/NO3- factor originated from northern Alaska in the springtime, and the secondary sulfate was largely associated with Asian sources that included Russian Norilsk Nickel. Sea salt, also originating from northern and northwestern coastal Alaska, was highest in the wintertime when high surface winds and low surface temperatures are expected. Dust, generally enhanced in April, May and June, was traced back to Eurasian sources. The smelting factor had a decreasing trend from 1988 to 2013, consistent with other studies of aerosol metal concentrations in the Arctic. The combustion factor was usually highest in the summertime, originated from near the surface in central Alaska, and was linked to

  9. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, comprehensive conservation plan and wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a comprehensive conservation plan is proposed for the 4.3-million-acre Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, located in southwestern Alaska. The preferred alternative would recommend 1.9 million acres for wilderness designation, including approximately 70% of the Ugashik unit, 40% of the Chignik unit, and 30% of the Pavlof unit. The enhanced public-use management area around Cold Bay would not be proposed for wilderness designation because of existing developments and uses. Minimal management areas by the Ugashik Lakes, in the Port Heiden/Kujulik Bay and Port Moller/Pavlof Bay areas also would not be proposed for wilderness designation, to allow future consideration of transportation corridors or oil and gas activities. The plan would emphasize protection of existing fish and wildlife populations and habitats. Fishing, hunting, and trapping would be allowed throughout most of the refuge and managed to maintain fish and wildlife populations at their present levels. Habitat enhancement generally would not occur. The enhanced public-use area would be monitored closely to minimize impacts to fish and wildlife. Access to refuge lands by traditional means would be permitted for subsistence purposes. Recreational use of snowmobiles, float and wheeled airplanes, off-road vehicles, and power boats would be permitted in designated areas.

  10. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  11. Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  12. Trends in the Spring Breakup Dates Within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) is a vast area of approximately 23 million acres and it extends from the north side of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) installed seven gauging stations, starting in 2003, to establish baseline conditions for weather and hydrological variables. These stations are equipped with sensors capable of tracking water level and temperature changes in the streams, air temperature, wind speed and direction, and rain fall. This work covers the entire record of water level changes at each station during spring breakup and focuses on first flow dates, which could reflect changing weather conditions in the area. Observed trends indicate a general tendency to early breakup dates in the region. Some of the available data point out a change of nearly two weeks in the breakup date. Additionally, the tendency to early breakup seems to be accentuated in recent years.

  13. Influence of pre-Mississippian paleogeology on Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Arctic National Wildlife refuge, northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.F.; Carlson, R.; Imm, T.; Gruzlovic, P.; Hanks, C.

    1988-02-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group of northern Alaska formed an extensive carbonate platform, which was later deformed as part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In the northeast, the Lisburne Group is parautochthonous and analogous to that at Prudhoe Bay. The Lisburne's paleogeography and facies relationships pertain to assessment of the petroleum potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The Franklinian paleogeology, unconformably underlying the Ellesmerian sequence, has influenced sedimentation patterns in the Lisburne Group. The transgressive Endicott Group (Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak, Shale) and Lisburne Group thin northward over Franklinian basement highs. In the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Katakturuk Dolomite formed a paleotopographic high over which the Endicott Group inched out and the Lisburne Group thinned. Shallow-marine oolitic grainstone developed in the cyclic Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone.

  14. Patterns of prey selection by wolves in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Meier, T.J.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Carbyn, L.N.; Fritts, S.H.; Seip, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The patterns of selection by wolves (Canis lupus) preying on moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and Dall sheep (Ovis dalli) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska were studied from 1986 through early 1992. Wolves and their prey are legally protected or relatively unharvested in most of the area, and wolf numbers doubled during the study. Based on remains of 294 moose, 225 caribou, and 63 sheep, wolves killed calves and old adults disproportionately, and individuals with low marrow fat, jaw necrosis, or arthritis. Seasonal trends in proportions of various species, ages, and sex of kills were found. During the winters following winters of deep snowfalls, wolves greatly increased the proportion of caribou cows and calves taken. We conclude that in a natural system, wolves can survive on vulnerable prey even during moderate weather, and when snowfall exceeds average, they can respond by switching to newly vulnerable prey and greatly increasing their numbers.

  15. Coal occurrence, quality and resource assessment, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Field studies of the Cretaceous Torok, Kukpowruk, and Corwin Formations in the western portion of the NPRA (National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska) and Cretaceos Torok, Tuktu, Grandstand, and Chandler Formations in the eastern portion of NPRA indicate that two major delta systems are responsible for most of the coal accumulation in this area. The Corwin delta in the western portion was an early Albian to Cenomanian, north and east prograding system, whereas the slightly younger mid-Albian to Cenomanian Umiat delta system prograded north and northeast in the eastern portion. Investigations of the lightologies, fossils, and primary depositional structures of these formations indicate that the Corwin system was deposited as a large, high-constructional, shaped delta on which thick and numerous coals developed on splay and interdistributary bay platforms away from the influence of the Cretaceous epicontinental sea. The Umiat delta started out as a high-constructional system but in time became wave dominated, and its shape changed to lobate.

  16. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  17. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  18. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  19. 47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The carrier frequencies listed in (b) of this section are assignable for...

  20. A watershed approach to ecosystem monitoring in Denali National Park and preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, L.K.; Taylor, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The National Park Service and the National Biological Service initiated research in Denali National Park and Preserve, a 2.4 million-hectare park in southcentral Alaska, to develop ecological monitoring protocols for national parks in the Arctic/Subarctic biogeographic area. We are focusing pilot studies on design questions, on scaling issues and regionalization, ecosystem structure and function, indicator selection and evaluation, and monitoring technologies. Rock Creek, a headwater stream near Denali headquarters, is the ecological scale for initial testing of a watershed ecosystem approach. Our conceptual model embraces principles of the hydrological cycle, hypotheses of global climate change, and biological interactions of organisms occupying intermediate, but poorly studied, positions in Alaskan food webs. The field approach includes hydrological and depositional considerations and a suite of integrated measures linking key aquatic and terrestrial biota, environmental variables, or defined ecological processes, in order to establish ecological conditions and detect, track, and understand mechanisms of environmental change. Our sampling activities include corresponding measures of physical, chemical, and biological attributes in four Rock Creek habitats believed characteristic of the greater system diversity of Denali. This paper gives examples of data sets, program integration and scaling, and research needs.

  1. Importance of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska for aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M.; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A.; Larned, William

    2013-01-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992–2010) of >100,000 km2 and ground surveys (1998–2004) of >150 km2 to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds—waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers—were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas.

  2. A Framework for Conducting a National Study of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088

  3. 75 FR 61415 - Admiralty National Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion of Tailings Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Disposal Facility, Greens Creek Mine Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Creek Mine on northern Admiralty Island on the Admiralty Island National Monument, Tongass National... tailings placement and an addition of approximately 140 acres for supporting infrastructure. DATES:...

  4. 47 CFR 80.705 - Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.705 Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations. Each Alaska-public fixed station whose hours of service are...

  5. 47 CFR 80.705 - Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.705 Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations. Each Alaska-public fixed station whose hours of service are...

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of Alaska National Hydrography Data for Mapping and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arundel, S. T.; Yamamoto, K. H.; Mantey, K.; Vinyard-Houx, J.; Miller-Corbett, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In July, 2011, the National Geospatial Program embarked on a large-scale Alaska Topographic Mapping Initiative. Maps will be published through the USGS US Topo program. Mapping of the state requires an understanding of the spatial quality of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), which is the hydrographic source for the US Topo. The NHD in Alaska was originally produced from topographic maps at 1:63,360 scale. It is critical to determine whether the NHD is accurate enough to be represented at the targeted map scale of the US Topo (1:25,000). Concerns are the spatial accuracy of data and the density of the stream network. Unsuitably low accuracy can be a result of the lower positional accuracy standards required for the original 1:63,360 scale mapping, temporal changes in water features, or any combination of these factors. Insufficient positional accuracy results in poor vertical integration with data layers of higher positional accuracy. Poor integration is readily apparent on the US Topo, particularly relative to current imagery and elevation data. In Alaska, current IFSAR-derived digital terrain models meet positional accuracy requirements for 1:24,000-scale mapping. Initial visual assessments indicate a wide range in the quality of fit between features in NHD and the IFSAR. However, no statistical analysis had been performed to quantify NHD feature accuracy. Determining the absolute accuracy is cost prohibitive, because of the need to collect independent, well-defined test points for such analysis; however, quantitative analysis of relative positional error is a feasible alternative. The purpose of this study is to determine the baseline accuracy of Alaska NHD pertinent to US Topo production, and to recommend reasonable guidelines and costs for NHD improvement and updates. A second goal is to detect error trends that might help identify areas or features where data improvements are most needed. There are four primary objectives of the study: 1. Choose study

  7. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  8. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  9. Mercury in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in

  10. Climate change scenario planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decisionmaking process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  11. Climate Change Scenario Planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder Involvement in the Decision-Making Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decision-making process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  12. Marine benthic habitat mapping of the West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodson, Timothy O.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Powell, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, groundtruthed observations, and geological interpretations. The West Arm of Glacier Bay is a recently deglaciated fjord system under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the recently developed Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Due to the high flux of glacially sourced fines, mud is the dominant substrate within the West Arm. Water-column characteristics are addressed using a combination of CTD and circulation model results. We also present sediment accumulation data derived from differential bathymetry. These data show the West Arm is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS classification scheme and as a baseline for ongoing and future mapping efforts and correlations between seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glacimarine processes.

  13. Adaptive maritime video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kalyan Moy; Aha, David W.; Hartley, Ralph; Moore, Philip G.

    2009-05-01

    Maritime assets such as ports, harbors, and vessels are vulnerable to a variety of near-shore threats such as small-boat attacks. Currently, such vulnerabilities are addressed predominantly by watchstanders and manual video surveillance, which is manpower intensive. Automatic maritime video surveillance techniques are being introduced to reduce manpower costs, but they have limited functionality and performance. For example, they only detect simple events such as perimeter breaches and cannot predict emerging threats. They also generate too many false alerts and cannot explain their reasoning. To overcome these limitations, we are developing the Maritime Activity Analysis Workbench (MAAW), which will be a mixed-initiative real-time maritime video surveillance tool that uses an integrated supervised machine learning approach to label independent and coordinated maritime activities. It uses the same information to predict anomalous behavior and explain its reasoning; this is an important capability for watchstander training and for collecting performance feedback. In this paper, we describe MAAW's functional architecture, which includes the following pipeline of components: (1) a video acquisition and preprocessing component that detects and tracks vessels in video images, (2) a vessel categorization and activity labeling component that uses standard and relational supervised machine learning methods to label maritime activities, and (3) an ontology-guided vessel and maritime activity annotator to enable subject matter experts (e.g., watchstanders) to provide feedback and supervision to the system. We report our findings from a preliminary system evaluation on river traffic video.

  14. Glacier Change and Biologic Succession: a new Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) Science Camp Module for Grades 8-12 in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Drake, J.; Good, C.; Fatland, R.; Hakala, M.; Woodford, R.; Donohoe, R.; Brenner, R.; Moriarty, T.

    2008-12-01

    During the summer of 2008, university faculty and instructors from southeast Alaska joined the University Alaska Fairbanks(UAF)Alaska Summer Research Academy(ASRA)to initiate a 12-day module on glacier change and biologic succession in Glacier Bay National Park. Nine students from Alaska, Colorado, Massachusetts, and Texas, made field observations and collected data while learning about tidewater glacier dynamics, plant succession, post-glacial uplift, and habitat use of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates in this dynamic landscape that was covered by 6,000 km2 of ice just 250 years ago. ASRA students located their study sites using GPS and created maps in GIS and GOOGLE Earth. They deployed salinometers and temperature sensors to collect vertical profiles of seawater characteristics up-bay near active tidewater glacier termini and down-bay in completely deglaciated coves. ASRA student data was then compared with data collected during the same time period by Juneau undergraduates working on the SEAMONSTER project in Mendenhall Lake. ASRA students traversed actively forming, up-bay recessional moraines devoid of vegetation, and the fully reforested Little Ice Age terminal moraine near Park Headquarters in the lower bay region. Students surveyed marine organisms living between supratidal and subtidal zones near glaciers and far from glaciers, and compared up-bay and down-bay communities. Students made observations and logged sightings of bird populations and terrestrial mammals in a linear traverse from the bay's northwestern most fjord near Mt. Fairweather for 120 km to the bay's entrance, south of Park Headquarters at Bartlett Cove. One student constructed an ROV and was able to deploy a video camera and capture changing silt concentrations in the water column as well as marine life on the fjord bottom. Students also observed exhumed Neoglacial spruce forests and visited outcrops of Silurian reef faunas, now fossilized in Alexander terrane

  15. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  16. Radar imaging of winter seismic survey activity in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Rykhus, Russ; Lu, Zhiming; Arp, C.D.; Selkowitz, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    During the spring of 2006, Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was acquired on a continual basis for the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), in the northeast portion of the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPR-A) in order to monitor lake ice melting processes. During data processing, it was discovered that the Radarsat-1 imagery detected features associated with winter seismic survey activity. Focused analysis of the image time series revealed various aspects of the exploration process such as the grid profile associated with the seismic line surveys as well as trails and campsites associated with the mobile survey crews. Due to the high temporal resolution of the dataset it was possible to track the progress of activities over a one month period. Spaceborne SAR imagery can provide information on the location of winter seismic activity and could be used as a monitoring tool for land and resource managers as increased petroleum-based activity occurs in the TLSA and NPR-A. ?? 2008 Cambridge University Press.

  17. Influence of pre-Mississippian paleogeology on Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.F.; Carlson, R.; Imm, T.; Gruzlovic, P.; Hanks, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group of northern Alaska formed an extensive carbonate platform, which was later deformed as part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In the northeast, the Lisburne Group is parautochthonous and analogous to that at Prudhoe Bay. The Lisburne's paleogeography and facies relationships pertain to assessment of the petroleum potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The Franklinian paleogeology, unconformably underlying the Ellesmerial sequence, has influenced sedimentation patterns in the Lisburne Group. The transgressive Endicott Group (Kekiktuk conglomerate and Kayak Shale) and Lisburne Group thin northward over Franklinian basement highs. In the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Katakturuk Dolomite formed a paleotopographic high over which the Endicott Group pinched out and the Lisburne Group thinned. Shallow-marine oolitic grainstone developed in the cyclic Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone. To the south in the Shublik Mountains, a repeated sequence of Katakturuk Dolomite and the Nanook Limestone were lower, so the Endicott Group lapped over the area and was later overlain by comparable Lisburne Group rocks. In the Fourth Range, the Lisburne Group is thicker and limestones also occur in the upper Endicott Group. Oolitic grainstone in the Wahoo Limestone is rare, and broad ooid shoals apparently pinched out into deeper water carbonates on a southward sloping carbonate ramp.

  18. Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Geist, E.L.; Motyka, R.J.; Jakob, M.

    2007-01-01

    An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Landsat-faciliated vegetation classification of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Shasby, M.B.; Bailey, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-based vegetation map was prepared for Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent lands, 2 million and 2.5 million acres respectively. The refuge lies within the middle boreal sub zone of south central Alaska. Seven major classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed); deciduous scrub (lowland and montane, subalpine); dwarf scrub (dwarf shrub tundra, lichen tundra, dwarf shrub and lichen tundra, dwarf shrub peatland, string bog/wetlands); herbaceous (graminoid meadows and marshes); scarcely vegetated areas ; water (clear, moderately turbid, highly turbid); and glaciers. The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved: preprocessing (geometric connection), spectral class labeling of sample areas, derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, preliminary classification of the entree study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification through ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The vegetation map (scale 1:250,000) was a pioneering effort since there were no intermediate-sclae maps of the area. Representative of distinctive regional patterns, the map was suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning and wildlife management.

  20. Intermediate-scale vegetation mapping of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for lnnoko National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the northern boreal subzone of northwestern central Alaska. Six major vegetation classes and 21 subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, upland burn regeneration, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, erect dwarf shrub heath, dwarf shrub-graminoid peatland, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland, dwarf shrub raised bog with scattered trees, dwarf shrub-graminoid marsh); herbaceous (graminoid bog, graminoid marsh, graminoid tussock-dwarf shrub peatland); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); and water (clear, sedimented). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo-interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  1. Vegetation mapping of Nowitna National Wildlife Reguge, Alaska using Landsat MSS digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Markon, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    A Landsat-derived vegetation map was prepared for Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge lies within the middle boreal subzone of north central Alaska. Seven major vegetation classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, open needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed, and broadleaf); broadleaf scrub (lowland, alluvial, subalpine); dwarf scrub (prostrate dwarf shrub tundra, dwarf shrub-graminoid tussock peatland); herbaceous (graminoid bog, marsh and meadow); scarcely vegetated areas (scarcely vegetated scree and floodplain); water (clear, turbid); and other areas (mountain shadow). The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photointerpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved preprocessing (geometric correction), derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, spectral class labeling of sample areas, preliminary classification of the entire study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification utilizing ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The final product is a 1:250,000-scale vegetation map representative of distinctive regional patterns and suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning.

  2. Preliminary assessment of landslide-induced wave hazards, Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Jakob, Matthias; Motyka, Roman J.; Zirnheld, Sandra L.; Craw, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    A large potential rock avalanche above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, was investigated to determine hazards and risks of landslide-induced waves to cruise ships and other park visitors. Field and photographic examination revealed that the 5 to 10 million cubic meter landslide moved between AD 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet by AD 1890. The timing of landslide movement and the glacial history suggest that glacial debuttressing caused weakening of the slope and that the landslide could have been triggered by large earthquakes of 1899-1900 in Yakutat Bay. Evidence of recent movement includes fresh scarps, back-rotated blocks, and smaller secondary landslide movements. However, until there is evidence of current movement, the mass is classified as a dormant rock slump. An earthquake on the nearby active Fairweather fault system could reactivate the landslide and trigger a massive rock slump and debris avalanche into Tidal Inlet. Preliminary analyses show that waves induced by such a landslide could travel at speeds of 45 to 50 m/s and reach heights up to 76 m with wave runups of 200 m on the opposite shore of Tidal Inlet. Such waves would not only threaten vessels in Tidal Inlet, but would also travel into the western arm of Glacier Bay endangering large cruise ships and their passengers.

  3. 2011, 2010 petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: GIS play maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides digital geographic information systems (GIS) files of maps for each of the 24 plays considered in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2010 updated petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) (Houseknecht and others, 2010). These are the sample plays evaluated in a previous USGS assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a), maps of which were released in pdf format (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The 2010 updated assessment of the NPRA evaluated each of the previously used 24 plays based on new geologic data available from exploration activities and scientific research. Quantitative assessments were revised for 11 plays, and no revisions were made for 9 plays. Estimates of the volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil, and nonassociated gas resources in these 20 plays are reported elsewhere (Houseknecht and others, 2010). Four plays quantitatively assessed in 2002 were eliminated from quantitative assessment for reasons explained by Houseknecht and others (2010). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists.

  4. Air Temperature Evolution for the Last 10 Years in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Kemnitz, R.; Bailey, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), an area of approximately 23 million acres, extends from the north side of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), as a part of studies focused on establishing baseline conditions for weather and hydrological parameters, installed six weather and gauging stations along the NPR-A. This work concentrates on weather conditions, specifically air temperature. Data collected in each of these sites include air temperature (in all the stations), while summer precipitation and wind parameters were collected only at three stations. We present an initial summary of air temperature evolution in the stations, from the installation of each site to September 30, 2013. Available information indicates that the entire region followed a pronounced warming trend, finishing with the 2010/2011 winter, which was the warmest winter recorded in each station. A nearly 20 percent increase in annual cumulative freezing degree days (ACFDD) occurred between the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 winters. A preliminary analysis of air temperature on a monthly basis shows that, in general, the months of January and March of 2012 contributed the most to the increase in the ACFDD. In particular, the mean monthly temperature in March was in the vicinity of -35 °C in all the stations, which certainly marked 2012 as the coldest March on record.

  5. Expansion of forest stands into tundra in the Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, F.; Binkley, D.; Kaye, M.W.; Stottlemyer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures across the northern regions of North America have been increasing for 150 years, and forests have responded to this increase. In the Noatak National Preserve in Alaska, white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) forests reach their northern limit, occurring primarily on well-drained sites and as gallery forests along streams. Rolling plateaus of tundra separate the white spruce forests into disjunct stands. We examined patterns of tree age, tree growth, and tree encroachment into tundra ecosystems in six stands along the Agashashok River. Warming over the past 150 years appears to have increased tree growth and resulted in forest expansion into adjacent tundra ecosystems. The forest/tundra ecotone shifted by about 80 to 100 m into the tundra in the past 200 years, as evidenced by declining maximum tree age with distance towards the tundra. The decadal-scale pattern of tree establishment at the farthest extent of trees into the tundra (the tundra-forest ecotone) correlated with the detrended growth index for trees within the forests; climate conditions that led to higher tree growth appeared to foster tree establishment in the tundra. This recent forest expansion has occurred across topographic boundaries, from well-drained soils on slopes onto poorly drained, flatter areas of tundra. Further expansion of the forests may be limited by more severe wind exposure and poor drainage that make the majority of tundra less suitable for trees.

  6. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, C.L.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  7. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare( Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  8. Use of wetland habitats by birds in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Derksen, D.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Eldridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of wetland habitats by migratory birds were studied at two interior and three outer Arctic Coastal Plain sites in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) in 1977 and 1978. Comparative data were collected in the same years from a Beaufort Sea coastal site near Prudhoe Bay. Species composition of breeding birds varied between sites, especially between coastal areas and sites near foothills of the Brooks Range. Seasonal fluctuation in population densities were common with numbers greatest in June during breeding and August during migration. Population densities also differed between sites, perhaps due to variation in wetland composition and ratios of water cover to upland tundra. Use of wetlands by loons, waterfowl, and shorebirds was quantified to assess relative values of seven classes of freshwater habitats. Wetlands with emergent Arctophila fulva were used most by these water birds. Breeding birds were especially dependent upon wetlands with emergent hydrophytes, although they used various types of wetlands during different activities and life stages. Most broods were found in wetlands with A. fulva, which afforded protective cover and substrate for aquatic invertebrates used as food by water birds. Wetlands and lakes without emergents were generally less attractive to breeding birds, but were especially important to molting geese. Based on water bird distribution and densities and their dependence on Arctic Coastal Plain wetlands in NPR-A, petroleum exploration and production activities onshore and in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas may have significant adverse effects if not closely regulated and prohibited in some areas.

  9. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  10. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esslinger, George; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  11. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  13. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai National Park and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffens, Bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    There are hundreds of glaciers in Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ) and Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM) covering over 2,276 sq km of park land (ca. 2000). There are two primary glacierized areas in KEFJ (the Harding Icefield and the Grewingk-Yalik Glacier Complex) and three primary glacierized areas in KATM (the Mt. Douglas area, the Kukak Volcano to Mt. Katmai area, and the Mt. Martin area). Most glaciers in these parks terminate on land, though a few terminate in lakes. Only KEFJ has tidewater glaciers, which terminate in the ocean. Glacier mapping and analysis of the change in glacier extent has been accomplished on a decadal scale using satellite imagery, primarily Landsat data from the 1970s, 1980s, and from2000. Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS),Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM) imagery was used to map glacier extent on a park-wide basis. Classification of glacier ice using image-processing software, along with extensive manual editing, was employed to create Geographic Information System (GIS)outlines of the glacier extent for each park. Many glaciers that originate in KEFJ but terminate outside the park boundaries were also mapped. Results of the analysis show that there has been a reduction in the amount of glacier ice cover in the two parks over the study period. Our measurements show a reduction of approximately 21 sq km, or 1.5(from 1986 to 2000), and 76 sq km, or 7.7 (from19861987 to 2000), in KEFJ and KATM, respectively. This work represents the first comprehensive study of glaciers of KATM. Issues that complicate the mapping of glacier extent include debris cover(moraine and volcanic ash), shadows, clouds, fresh snow, lingering snow from the previous season, and differences in spatial resolution between the MSS,TM, or ETM sensors. Similar glacier mapping efforts in western Canada estimate mapping errors of 34. Measurements were also collected from a suite of glaciers in KEFJ and KATM detailing terminus positions

  14. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffen, bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    There are hundreds of glaciers in Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ) and Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM) covering over 2276 sq km of park land (circa 2000). There are two primary glacierized areas in KEFJ -- the Harding Icefield and the Grewingk-Yalik Glacier Complex, and three primary glacierized areas in KATM - the Mt. Douglas area, the Kukak Volcano to Mt. Katmai area and the Mt. Martin area. Most glaciers in these parks terminate on land, though a few terminate in lakes. Only KEFJ has tidewater glaciers, which terminate in the ocean. Glacier mapping and analysis of the change in glacier extent has been accomplished on a decadal scale using satellite imagery, primarily Landsat data from the 1970s, 1980s, and from 2000. Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery was used to map glacier extent on a park-wide basis. Classification of glacier ice using image processing software, along with extensive manual editing, was employed to create Geographic Information System (GIS) outlines of the glacier extent for each park. Many glaciers that originate in KEFJ but terminate outside the park boundaries were also mapped. Results of the analysis show that there has been a reduction in the amount of glacier ice cover in the two parks over the study period. Our measurements show a reduction of approximately 21 sq km, or -1.5% (from 1986 to 2000), and 76 sq km, or -7.7% (from 1986/87 to 2000), in KEFJ and KATM, respectively. This work represents the first comprehensive study of glaciers of KATM. Issues that complicate the mapping of glacier extent include: debris-cover (moraine and volcanic ash), shadows, clouds, fresh snow, lingering snow from the previous season, and differences in spatial resolution between the MSS and TM or ETM+ sensors. Similar glacier mapping efforts in western Canada estimate mapping errors of 3-4%. Measurements were also collected from a suite of glaciers in KEFJ and KATM detailing

  15. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162.270 Section 162.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. (a) The... National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation: (1)...

  16. Heavy metals in seaducks and mussels from misty fjords national monument in Southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C; Koehl, P S; Derksen, D V; Rothe, T C; Bunck, C M; Moore, J F

    1995-06-01

    Quartz Hill, in Misty Fjords National Monument near Ketchikan, Alaska, is the site of a proposed molybdenum-producing mine. To provide baseline data for use in post-development comparisons, we analyzed tissues of Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica), common mergansers (Mergus merganser), and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) for seven heavy metals that could potentially be released into the environment as a result of mining operations. Specimens were collected in 1980, 1981, and 1982 from two fjords likely to be used for discharge of tailings from the proposed mine and from two control fjords. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, lead, and zinc were measured in soft tissues of mussels and in kidney, liver, and muscle of birds. The highest mean concentrations of metals found in bird tissues were 55.7 ppm dry weight cadmium in kidneys and 154 ppm dry weight zinc in livers of Barrow's goldeneyes. Concentrations of several metals in blue mussels differed among seasons and locations, but the most significant finding in mussels was a maximum mean cadmium concentration of 9.6 ppm dry weight, a level higher than normally found in undisturbed areas. With the exception of 104 ppm dry weight cadmium in the kidney of one common merganser and 12.7 ppm dry weight lead in the kidney of another, concentrations of other metals in seaduck and mussel tissues were low, consistent with what would be expected for a pre-development environment. Molybdenum was found in low concentrations (<10 ppm dry weight) in all avian kidney samples and most liver samples, but was not detected in blue mussels.

  17. Heavy metals in seaducks and mussels from Misty Fjords National Monument in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Koehl, P.S.; Derksen, D.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Bunck, C.M.; Moore, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Quartz Hill, in Misty Fjords National Monument near Ketchikan, Alaska, is the site of a proposed molybdenum-producing mine. To provide baseline data for use in post-development comparisons, we analyzed tissues of Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica), common mergansers (Mergus merganser), and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) for seven heavy metals that could potentially be released into the environment as a result of mining operations. Specimens were collected in 1980, 1981, and 1982 from two fjords likely to be used for discharge of tailings from the proposed mine and from two control fjords. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, lead, and zinc were measured in soft tissues of mussels and in kidney, liver, and muscle of birds. The highest mean concentrations of metals found in bird tissues were 55.7 ppm dry weight cadmium in kidneys and 154 ppm dry weight zinc in livers of Barrow's goldeneyes. Concentrations of several metals in blue mussels differed among seasons and locations, but the most significant finding in mussels was a maximum mean cadmium concentration of 9.6 ppm dry weight, a level higher than normally found in undisturbed areas. With the exception of 104 ppm dry weight cadmium in the kidney of one common merganser and 12.7 ppm dry weight lead in the kidney of another, concentrations of other metals in seaduck and mussel tissues were low, consistent with what would be expected for a pre-development environment. Molybdenum was found in low concentrations ( 10 ppm dry weight) in all avian kidney samples and most liver samples, but was not detected in blue mussels.

  18. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  19. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time.

  20. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of ledge sandstone in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cloft, H.S.

    1983-03-01

    Data collected from four measured sections of the Ledge Sandstone member of the Ivishak Formation are presented. These sections are located in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Ledge Sandstone is the time equivalent of the Ivishak sandstones that form the reservoir in the Prudhoe Bay field, east of the study area. The ANWR region is of interest for oil and gas exploration owing to the numerous oil seeps on the coastal plain and surficial expression of possible subsurface antiforms. The Ledge Sandstone in ANWR consists primarily of a massive, thickly bedded, very fine to fine-grained, well-sorted quartz sandstone. The thick sandstones are separated by thin siltstone intervals ranging from less than an inch to several feet in thickness. Although the thicker siltstones appear laterally continuous, the thinner beds generally are lenticular over short distances (10 to 20 ft; 3 to 6 m). Cementation of the siltstone appears sporadic, varying laterally and vertically within the unit. Burrowing is extensive in the siltstone intervals. Typically, burrowing cannot be detected in the sandstones because of the obliteration by lithification and diagenetic processes. Fossils are sparse throughout the unit, even in the poorly lithified silts. These data are consistent with a shallow marine environment, within wave base. This contrasts with the nonmarine conglomerates and sandstones of Prudhoe Bay. Time-equivalent units to the south and west consist primarily of cherts and shales of probable deep marine origin, with some arkosic sandstones dolomites occuring in NPRA. Thus a paloshoreline is probably located somewha north of the measured sections.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the Kingak Shale (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous), National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Beaufortian strata (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) are a focus of exploration since the 1994 discovery of the nearby Alpine oil field (>400 MMBO). These strata include the Kingak Shale, a succession of depositional sequences influenced by rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. Interpretation of sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies from a regional two-dimensional seismic grid and well data allows the definition of four sequence sets that each displays unique stratal geometries and thickness trends across NPRA. A Lower to Middle Jurassic sequence set includes numerous transgressive-regressive sequences that collectively built a clastic shelf in north-central NPRA. Along the south-facing, lobate shelf margin, condensed shales in transgressive systems tracts downlap and coalesce into a basinal condensed section that is likely an important hydrocarbon source rock. An Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sequence set, deposited during pulses of uplift on the Barrow arch, includes multiple transgressive-regressive sequences that locally contain well-winnowed, shoreface sandstones at the base of transgressive systems tracts. These shoreface sandstones and overlying shales, deposited during maximum flooding, form stratigraphic traps that are the main objective of exploration in the Alpine play in NPRA. A Valanginian sequence set includes at least two transgressive-regressive sequences that display relatively distal characteristics, suggesting high relative sea level. An important exception is the presence of a basal transgressive systems tract that locally contains shoreface sandstones of reservoir quality. A Hauterivian sequence set includes two transgressive-regressive sequences that constitute a shelf-margin wedge developed as the result of tectonic uplift along the Barrow arch during rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. This sequence set displays stratal geometries suggesting incision and synsedimentary collapse of the shelf

  2. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. PMID:27431046

  3. Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature and related records from 28 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) although somewhat constrained from accuracy by data gathering methods, extrapolate to undisturbed formation temperatures at specific depths below permafrost, and lead to calculated geothermal gradients between these depths. Tabulation of the results show that extrapolated undisturbed temperatures range from a minimum of 98?F (37?C) at 4,000 feet (1,220 m) to a maximum of 420?F (216?C) at 20,260 feet (6,177 m) and that geothermal gradients range from 0.34?F/100' (6?C/km) between 4,470 feet to 7,975 feet (Lisburne (1) and 3.15?F/100? (57?C/km) between 6,830 feet to 7,940 feet (Drew Point #1). Essential information needed for extrapolations consists of: time-sequential 'bottom-hole' temperatures during wire-line logging of intermediate and deep intervals of the bore hole; the times that circulating drilling fluids had disturbed the formations; and the subsequent times that non-circulating drilling fluids had been in contact with the formation. In several wells presumed near direct measures of rock temperatures recorded from formation fluids recovered by drill stem tests (DST) across thin (approx. 10-20 foot) intervals are made available. We believe that the results approach actual values close enough to serve as approximations of the thermal regimes in appropriate future investigations. Continuous temperature logs obtained at the start and end of final logging operations, conductivity measurements, and relatively long-term measurements of the recovery from disturbance at shallow depths in many of the wells will permit refinements of our values and provide determination of temperatures at other depths.

  4. Sedimentology and tectonics of Devonian Nation River Formation, Alaska, part of yet another allochthonous terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D.G.; Murray, R.W.; Wiley, T.J.; Boundy-Sanders, S.; Kauffman-Linam, L.; Jones, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Sandwiched between terra incognito of the Yukon Flats, Alaska, and the disrupted cratonal sequences of Yukon Territory, Canada, is a complex array of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rock units composing a poorly defined group of tectonostratigraphic terranes. The Nation River formation (NRF) is a conspicuous siliciclastic submarine fan complex interbedded in a Paleozoic sequence characterized by deep-water cherts, siliceous shales, and platform to basin-plain carbonates. The NRF ranges from 500 to 2000 m thick. Where the basal part is exposed, NRF overlies the Devonian McCann Hill Chert, a deep-water radiolarian chert sequence. Above the NRF is either another radiolarian chert sequence, the Mississippian Ford Lake Shale, or Permian shallow-water Tahkandit Limestone or Step Conglomerate. NRF lithologies include fine-grained to pebbly turbidites assembled in both thinning- and fining-upward and thickening- and coarsening-upward cycles typical of middle to outer fan settings. Compositionally the grains are principally chert (green, gray, white, black, and rarely red) with minor amounts of vein quartz and quartz sandstone. Most of the chert seems to be replacement chert from a carbonate terrane, though some pebbles yield an Ordovician radiolarian assemblage. Paleocurrent flow directions based on thousands of bottom features (flutes, prods, and grooves) indicate, in present-day coordinates, flow toward the east. Individual azimuth directions are throughout the two easterly quadrants, by 60% of these data indicate flow between 045 and 150/sup 0/. This spread of data is consistent from outcrop to outcrop, indicating that there are no localized block rotations. Easterly flow has also been determined for the overlying Cretaceous units of the Kandik basin (Biederman Argillite and Kathul Graywacke).

  5. Inorganic chemical analyses of black shale from wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Brosge, W.P.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    Core samples of Mississippian through Upper Cretaceous black shale, siltstone, and limy mudstone from 24 test wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) have been analyzed for trace elements in order to provide data on regional background concentrations for inorganic geochemical exploration. This study was made because the authors had noticed that several of the rock units cored in the subsurface were associated with surface geochemical anomalies or small mineral deposits in the areas where they crop out. In the southwestern part of the NPRA, the heavy-mineral concentrates from sediments of streams that flow over shale and graywacke of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations are unusually rich in lead, arsenic, and silver. Southeast of the NPRA, in the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, stream sediments in areas of Permian to Lower Cretaceous shale locally contain anomalously large amounts of zinc and thorium. In addition, the high organic-carbon content of the Shublick Formation, Jurassic (part) Kingak Shale, and lowest Cretaceous pebble shale unit in the subsurface in the Prudhoe Bay area indicate that they may be rich in trace metals. Outcrops of the Shublik in the Brooks Range locally contain much copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and rare-earth elements, and the high gamma-radiation characteristic of the pebble shale unit in the subsurface shows that it is rich in uranium and thorium. The shale section with the most important known metallic deposits is the Mississippian shale and chert now assigned to the Kuna Formation. The distribution of vanadium and nickel may also be of interest in oil exploration. Hughes and others found higher V/Ni ratios in the Prudhoe-Barrow types of oil than in the Umiat-Simpson types and attributed these higher ratios to sources in the Shublik Formation and Jurassic (part) Kingak Shale.

  6. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1985-04-01

    Knowledge of depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska is necessary for predicting the occurrence of potential sandstone reservoirs. These rocks range in thickness from 7000+ m along the Colville basin axis to about 1200 m on the Barrow arch. Lower Neocomian strata on the north flank of the basin consist of southward-prograding marine shelf and slope deposits of shale and minor sandstone units. Uplife, erosion,and subsequent transgression on the northernmost flank of the basin resulted in deposition of the pebble shale unit in late Neocomian time and termination of the northern provenance. Following this, the basin was downwarped, and little deposition occurred on the north flank until distal, deep-water deposits of the Torok Formation onlapped and downlapped the south-dipping flank of the basin resulted in deposition of the pebble shale unit in late Neocomian time and termination of the northern provenance. Following this, the basin was downwarped, and little deposition occurred on the north flank until distal, deep-water deposits of the Torok Formation onlapped and downlapped the south-dipping flank of the basin in middle or late Albian time. On the south flank of the basin, southern-source turbidities of the Okpikruak Formation (early Neocomian) accumulated in a subsiding foredeep and were suybsequently thrust northward in late Neocomian or Aptian time. The fortress Mountain Formation (early Albian), which consists of as much as 3000 m of mainly deep-water deposits, unconformably overlies the Okpikruak and older rocks on the southernmost flank of the basin. Filling of the Colville basin occurred in middle to late Albian time as thick prodeltaic and deltaic deposits of the Torok Formation and Nanushuk Group, respectively, prograded across the basin from the south side of the basin, but prograded princially from the west-southwest of most of the basin.

  7. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  8. Geochemistry of the Johnson River, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Riehle, James R.

    2003-01-01

    The Johnson River Basin, located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, drains an area of 96 square miles. A private inholding in the upper part of the basin contains a gold deposit that may be developed in the future. To establish a natural baseline to compare potential effects on water quality if development were to occur, the upper part of the Johnson River Basin was studied from 1999 to 2001 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Two basic rock types occur within the drainage basin of the study: the Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, and the slightly younger plutonic rocks of the Aleutian-Alaska Ranges batholith. The Johnson River gold prospect reflects widespread, secondary mineralization and alteration of the Talkeetna Formation. Metals found at the prospect proper are: arsenic, cadmium, copper, gold, iron, lead, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, silver, and zinc. The Johnson River prospect is located in the East Fork Ore Creek Basin, a 0.5 square mile watershed that is a tributary to the Johnson River. Water quality data from this stream reflect the mineralization of the basin and the highest concentrations of several trace elements and major ions of the water column were found in this stream. Presently, pH in this stream is normal, indicating that there is sufficient buffering capacity. At the Johnson River streamgage, which drains approximately 25 mi2 including the East Fork Ore Creek, concentrations of these constituents are significantly lower, reflecting the runoff from Johnson Glacier and Double Glacier, which account for approximately 75 percent of the total discharge. Streambed concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc from East Fork Ore Creek and its receiving stream, Ore Creek, typically exceed concentrations where sediment dwelling organisms would be affected. Similar to the water column chemistry, concentrations of these elements are lower at the Johnson River streamgage

  9. Paleoecology and Paleoenvironmental Interpretations of the Late Cretaceous Lower Cantwell Formation, Denali National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsich, C. S.; Salazar Jaramillo, S.; Jacobus, R. T.; McCarthy, P. J.; Fowell, S. J.; Fiorillo, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The level of diversity of an ancient high-latitude fauna or flora is of interest not just for the study of species evolution and paleogeographic migration patterns, but also for the imminent response to an amplified climate change rate. Climate modelers thus focus increasingly on proxies of Polar Regions. A rich floral and faunal record indicative of a warm high-latitude paleoclimate is presently emerging from the late Campanian-Maastrichtian lower Cantwell Formation in Denali National Park, south-central Alaska. This thick (up to 4000m) alluvial fan succession was deposited during the latest accretionary phase of the Wrangellia terrane to the former southern margin of Alaska. Facies descriptions from outcrops near Sable Mountain and Polychrome Mountain record heterogeneous and laterally discontinuous lithologies characteristic of alluvial and marginal alluvial fan environments: braided channel, sandy channel, crevasse splay, sheetflood, floodplain, and lacustrine. Trace and plant fossils occur predominantly at lithological boundaries. The vertebrate fossil record encompasses tracks that can be attributed to fishes, pterosaurs, large and small non-avian theropods, birds, hadrosaurs, and ceratopsians. Hadrosaur footprints are abundant and record populations with multiple generations present. The pterosaur tracks constitute the northernmost fossil occurrence for these flying reptiles. Bird traces range from small, shore-wading bird tracks to those of a large crane-like bird. Diverse invertebrate tracks include freshwater bivalve, ostracode and gastropod trails, crayfish burrows, beetle and mole cricket tracks, wood borings and feeding traces on angiosperm leaves. Plant impression fossils represent dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves referable to nymphaealean, menispermoid, platanoid, trochodendroid and higher hamamelid groups; magnoliid seeds; diverse broad-leaved and blade-like monocot leaf fragments; the leafy shoots, leaves, cones, seeds and wood of cupressaceous and

  10. Soil data for a collapse-scar bog chronosequence in Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2012-01-01

    Peatlands in the northern permafrost region store large amounts of organic carbon, most of which is currently stored in frozen peat deposits. Recent warming at high-latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw in peatlands, which will likely result in the loss of soil organic carbon from previously frozen peat deposits to the atmosphere. Here, we report soil organic carbon inventories, soil physical data, and field descriptions from a collapse-scar bog chronosequence located in a peatland ecosystem at Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

  11. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  12. The National Eye Health Education Program: increasing awareness of diabetic eye disease among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Silver, Karen; Williams, Meredith; Macario, Everly

    2006-01-01

    With the highest prevalence of diabetes in the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives are at greatest risk for diabetic eye disease (DED), a leading cause of blindness. The National Eye institute (NEI) conducted formative research to understand DED-related knowledge, identify approaches to managing this disease, and design a communication plan to increase awareness and reduce DED among these populations. The NEI conducted qualitative research at five locations in indian country with representatives from national organizations, tribal members, and healthcare providers. While diabetes ranked high on their list of primary community health issues in need of attention, study participants had only a basic level of diabetes-related knowledge, acknowledged the need for DED education, and underscored the importance of the use of interpersonal and culturally appropriate communication strategies. This is the first exploratory qualitative research study to examine the status of diabetic eye disease among American indians and Alaska Natives whose primary purpose was to inform the design of a national DED communication campaign.

  13. Maritime Lien Reform Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2011-03-17

    03/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Marine and maritime uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities related to: (1) understanding, controlling, and using the ocean's biological and physical processes for food and energy production and ship design purposes, and (2) providing navigation, communication, and data transmission technological aids which improve efficiency and enhance safety in maritime operations are disclosed.

  15. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. Kaguyak to Katmai: Post-Glacial Tephras in Katmai National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.

    2004-12-01

    At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between Kaguyak volcano and Mt Martin and from Shelikof Strait to Bristol Bay ( ˜8500 km2). Five tephra layers are distinctive and widespread enough to be used as marker horizons in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes area, and 140 radiocarbon dates on enclosing "soils" have established a time framework for entire soil-tephra sections to 10 ka; the white rhyolitic ash from the 1912 plinian eruption of Novarupta caps almost all sections. Stratigraphy, distribution and tephra characteristics (grainsize, thickness, color and mineralogy) have been combined with microprobe analyses of glass and Fe-Ti oxide minerals to correlate ash layers with their source vents including Mounts Martin, Mageik and Katmai, as well as Snowy Mountain and Kaguyak volcano. Microprobe analyses (25-70 analyses per glass or oxide sample) show oxide compositions to be more definitive than glass in distinguishing one tephra from another; oxides from the Kaguyak caldera-forming event are so compositionally coherent and distinctively low in TiO2 relative to the rest of the Katmai group that they have been used as internal standards throughout this study. Other than the Novarupta and Trident eruptions of the last century, the youngest locally derived tephra yet recognized is associated with emplacement of the Snowy Mtn summit dome (<250 C14 years). East Mageik erupted at least twice (2 and 4 ka), Mt Martin's blocky lava coulees were emplaced ˜6 ka, and Mt Katmai has three times produced very large explosive events (Novarupta 1912; plinian to sub-plinian "Lethe Assemblage" 12-16 ka; and a plinian rhyodacite 23 ka). Kaguyak's caldera-forming event (5.8 ka) generated a distinctive bright orange fine ash that is

  17. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  18. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  19. Maritime in transit care.

    PubMed

    Bott, G; Barnard, J; Prior, K

    2015-01-01

    Operation GRITROCK saw the first operational deployment of the Maritime In Transit Care team from the Role 2 (Enhanced) (R2(E)) Medical Treatment Facility, which is able to provide Damage Control Surgery and the limited holding of patients, situated on board RFA ARGUS. Whilst the Medical Emergency Response Team demonstrated the capability of advanced military Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) on Op HERRICK, the need to provide a similar high level of care on contingency operations was recognised. Op GRITROCK allowed for the continued exploration of a maritime capability from an established R2(E) platform whilst providing medical evacuation capability for a significant population at risk distributed over a large Joint Operation Area. Although the patient load during the operation was low, key lessons were learnt and opportunities identified to further develop the newly recognised sub-speciality of PHEC, both medically and logistically, and these will be discussed in this article. PMID:26867404

  20. Hydrologic data and a proposed water-quality monitoring network for Kobuk River basin, gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Located in northwestern Alaska, the Kobuk River drains a watershed of approximately 12,300 square miles. Two national parks are located in the basin: the entire Kobuk Valley National Park and and a portion of Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. Reconnaissance-type water-quality data collected on the Kobuk River and some of its tributaries indicate that the water is of a calcium to calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type. To design a representative water-quality monitoring network, a geographical information system (GIS) of the Kobuk River Basin was created. The GIS was used with a statistical technique, cluster analysis, to stratify the Kobuk River Basin into different regions. Potential water-quality monitoring sites were then selected from these regions.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When

  2. Conceptual ecological models to support detection of ecological change on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Beever, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 31 million hectares of land are protected and managed in 16 refuges by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in Alaska. The vastness and isolation of Alaskan refuges give rise to relatively intact and complete ecosystems. The potential for these lands to provide habitat for trust species is likely to be altered, however, due to global climate change, which is having dramatic effects at high latitudes. The ability of USFWS to effectively manage these lands in the future will be enhanced by a regional inventory and monitoring program that integrates and supplements monitoring currently being implemented by individual refuges. Conceptual models inform monitoring programs in a number of ways, including summarizing important ecosystem components and processes as well as facilitating communication, discussion and debate about the nature of the system and important management issues. This process can lead to hypotheses regarding future changes, likely results of alternative management actions, identification of monitoring indicators, and ultimately, interpretation of monitoring results. As a first step towards developing a monitoring program, the 16 refuges in Alaska each created a conceptual model of their refuge and the landscape context. Models include prominent ecosystem components, drivers, and processes by which components are linked or altered. The Alaska refuge system also recognizes that designing and implementing monitoring at regional and ecoregional extents has numerous scientific, fiscal, logistical, and political advantages over monitoring conducted exclusively at refuge-specific scales. Broad-scale monitoring is particularly advantageous for examining phenomena such as climate change because effects are best interpreted at broader spatial extents. To enable an ecoregional perspective, a rationale was developed for deriving ecoregional boundaries for four ecoregions (Polar, Interior Alaska, Bering Coast, and North Pacific Coast) from the

  3. Diagenetic relationships and hydrocarbon resource implications, Nanushuk group and Torok/Topagoruk formation, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    Petrographic, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope investigations of Nanushuk Group and Torok/Topagoruk formation (Brookian) sandstones and siltstones from 9 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska resulted in recognition of features of interest regarding the diagenetic development of these rocks. Several kinds of labile materials are present, and secondary dissolution porosity has been developed to various degrees. Mineralogic, geochemical, and textural characteristics indicate the potential for development of appreciable porosity of this type in equivalent horizons and/or similar materials within the northern Alaska Cretaceous basin. Known regional geologic, geochemical, and geophysical relationships are consistent with this view. Considerations of hydrocarbon resource potential should include concern for these relationships as integral to appreciation of the overall diagenetic evolution of the region. Heretofore, the potential for the occurrence of significant reservoir rocks in these horizons has been considered to be rather low, based on primary petrologic characteristics. However, this should be reappraised in light of increased knowledge and understanding of the principles and realities regarding diagenetic events, inorganic and organic, including secondary porosity development, clay mineral relationships, and maturation of organic material.

  4. Forecast of Permafrost Distribution, Temperature and Active Layer Thickness for Arctic National Parks of Alaska through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S. S.; Swanson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Though permafrost distribution, temperature and active layer thickness at high spatial resolution are needed to better model the ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemical processes including emission of greenhouse gases at regional and local scale, no such high-resolution permafrost map products existed for Arctic national parks of Alaska until recently. This was due to the lack of information about ecosystem properties such as soil and vegetation characteristics at high spatial resolution. In recent years, the National Park Service (NPS) has carried out several projects mapping ecotype and soil in the Arctic parks from Landsat satellite data at 28.5 m spatial resolution. We used these detailed ecotype and soil maps along with downscaled climate forcing from the IPCC and Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia (UK) to model near-surface permafrost distribution, temperature and active layer thickness at decadal time scale from the present through 2100 at 28.5 m resolution for the five Arctic national parks in Alaska: Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Noatak National Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, and Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. Our results suggest the near-surface permafrost distribution, i.e. permafrost immediately below the active layer, will likely decrease from the current 99% of the total park area (five parks combined) to 89% by 2050 and 36% by 2100. The near-surface permafrost will likely continue to exist in the northern half of the Gates of the Arctic and Kobuk Valley parks, and in majority of the Noatak preserves by 2100, though its temperature will be up to 5 °C warmer than the present at certain places. Taliks will likely occupy the ground below the active layer in rest of the park areas. These products fill an essential knowledge and data gap and complement research of other Arctic disciplines such as ecosystem modeling, hydrology and soil biogeochemistry. Also, these products

  5. Expanding Informal Education in Maritime Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchell, Julie

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the work of the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology (HWTMA) in developing informal education approaches and initiatives. It introduces the aims and ethos of the HWTMA which focuses on embedding education and learning into all aspects of its work, before exploring ways in which its fieldwork and research programme are utilised to help deliver a range of educational opportunities to a diverse range of groups and individuals. There is a review of the possibilities for skill development through practical involvement which is illustrated with case study examples, followed by discussion of broader approaches, including publications, talks and exhibits. This review underpins discussion of a recent project ‘Maritime Archaeology Access and Learning Workshops’ which aimed to ‘educate the educators’, and has demonstrated the potential for this approach to make a significant contribution to increasing the profile of maritime archaeology within informal learning frameworks. The paper concludes by reviewing the experience of these regionally-based initiatives in relation to the expansion of maritime archaeology within the UK and suggests ways that lessons learned could be drawn upon in the development of emerging national approaches.

  6. A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

  7. National Indian Education Study 2011: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-466

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES was administered in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 as part of the National…

  8. New structural limits on magma chamber locations at the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallmann, P.C.; Pollard, D.D. ); Hildreth, W. ); Eichelberger, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    New structural data from the Novarupta basin, Katmai National Park, Alaska, site of the largest volcanic eruption of this century (1912), provide limits for the location of magma chambers associated with this eruption. To investigate the subsurface structure of the 1912 vents, and to support an interdisciplinary study of this young volcanic system, a project of geologic mapping of surficial and bedrock structures in the vent region of the 1912 eruption has been undertaken. Landslide scarps, arcuate grabens, a monoclinal fold, and truncated ridges circumscribe the Novarupta basin, marking the inferred outer rim of the vent. A set of radial fissures crosses the southern margin of the basin, striking {approximately}140{degree}, subparallel to the dominant bedrock joint set. These fissures and joints, along with the local plate-motion vector and the inferred regional stress orientation, are consistent with a feeder dike propagating from a reservoir beneath Trident volcano to the eruptive vent.

  9. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The transects, along with other seismic-reflection examples, illustrate four play concepts being used in the deformed area for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). The Brookian topset structural play includes broad west-northwest-trending anticlines in the Cretaceous Nanushuk Group, developed above structurally thickened Torok mudstones in the incipiently-deformed, most northerly part of the thrust system. The Torok structural play includes prominent anticlines affecting deep-basin sandstones, many of which are detached from folds exposed at the surface. The Ellesmerian structural play includes closures developed in the clastic part of the Ellesmerian sequence, mainly above a detachment in the Shublik Formation. The thrust belt play includes antiformal stacks of allochthonous Endicott Group clastic rocks and Lisburne Group carbonates; these stacks were assembled at about 120 Ma, and were transported to their present positions in the foothills at about 60 Ma.

  10. Spatial pattern analysis of cruise ship-humpback whale interactions in and near Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harris, Karin; Gende, Scott M; Logsdon, Miles G; Klinger, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interactions between large ships and large whales is important to estimate risks posed to whales by ships. The coastal waters of Alaska are a summer feeding area for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) as well as a prominent destination for large cruise ships. Lethal collisions between cruise ships and humpback whales have occurred throughout Alaska, including in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP). Although the National Park Service (NPS) establishes quotas and operating requirements for cruise ships within GBNP in part to minimize ship-whale collisions, no study has quantified ship-whale interactions in the park or in state waters where ship traffic is unregulated. In 2008 and 2009, an observer was placed on ships during 49 different cruises that included entry into GBNP to record distance and bearing of whales that surfaced within 1 km of the ship's bow. A relative coordinate system was developed in ArcGIS to model the frequency of whale surface events using kernel density. A total of 514 whale surface events were recorded. Although ship-whale interactions were common within GBNP, whales frequently surfaced in front of the bow in waters immediately adjacent to the park (west Icy Strait) where cruise ship traffic is not regulated by the NPS. When ships transited at speeds >13 knots, whales frequently surfaced closer to the ship's midline and ship's bow in contrast to speeds slower than 13 knots. Our findings confirm that ship speed is an effective mitigation measure for protecting whales and should be applied to other areas where ship-whale interactions are common.

  11. Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dangeli, Reginald H.

    Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

  12. Geologic Map of the Katmai Volcanic Cluster, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2002-01-01

    This digital publication contains all the geologic map information used to publish U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map Series I-2778 (Hildreth and Fierstein, 2003). This is a geologic map of the Katmai volcanic cluster on the Alaska Peninsula (including Mount Katmai, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Mount Griggs, Snowy Mountain, Alagogshak volcano, and Novarupta volcano), and shows the distribution of ejecta from the great eruption of June, 1912 at Novarupta. Widely scattered erosional remnants of volcanic rocks, unrelated to but in the vicinity of the Katmai cluster, are also mapped. Distribution of glacial deposits, large landslides, debris avalanches, and surficial deposits are a snapshot of an ever-changing landscape.

  13. Oxygen isotopes and hydroclimatic change in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, northeast Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Finney, B. P.; Guldager, N.; Rover, J. A.; Shapley, M.; van Sistine, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Yukon Flats is the region surrounding the confluence of the Porcupine, Sheenjek, Christian, Chandalar, and Yukon Rivers including approximately 20,000 lakes. It is a diverse boreal mosaic landscape (~23,000 km2) that provides spring and summer habitat for over 150 bird species. The climate of the area is continental with severe winter temperatures and warm summers. High effective moisture deficits relative to most boreal environments lead to the unique occurrence of evaporite mineral deposits as well as the highest incidence of naturally occurring wildfires in Alaska. Lake levels are dynamic, and frequently localized, because of subdued topography, varying lake ages and surficial geologic substrates, permafrost extent, and corresponding surface and groundwater flow paths. To better understand the relationships between climate and hydro-environmental change, we are sampling oxygen isotope ratios spatially and temporally. Here we present preliminary GIS-spatial analyses from 108 water bodies and a late Holocene sediment oxygen isotope record from Twelve Mile Lake. We find that the first-order wetland water chemistry relation is with geographic location and hydrologic linkages. A 1.45-m sediment core from 8.8-m water depth was retrieved from Twelve Mile Lake because lake-water δ18O values indicate that evaporation dominates the lake’s hydrologic balance and because it is sufficiently alkaline to generate bioinduced endogenic carbonate sedimentation. The sediment δ18O trends during the last millennia have decade-to-century scale temporal resolution and similarities with paleoclimatic trends documented by other lakes in interior regions of Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Results from these preliminary studies reinforce that 1) wetland and lake sensitivity to climate-induced changes in hydrology varies spatially in the Yukon Flats because of dynamic hydrogeographic factors, and 2) recent hydro-environmental changes are better evaluated within a long-term context

  14. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  15. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  16. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  17. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  18. Evolution of geometric and hydraulic parameters as function of discharge in two streams in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Bailey, J.; Kemnitz, R.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) is a vast 22.8 million acre area that extends from the foot hills of the Brooks Range to the Beaufort Sea. The United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in association with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) is conducting hydrological research to establish baseline conditions to aid future infrastructure development related to oil and gas in the NPR-A region. Field measurements (discharge, cross-sectional area, top width, water slope) were carried out in Spring 2011, 2012 and 2013, during receding water levels in the streams when the flows were ice-free. The river gauges are located approximately 15 miles south of the rivers mouth on Beaufort Sea and 13 miles from each other. The contributing watershed areas upstream of the gauging stations are 620 and 128 square miles for Judy Creek and Ublutuoch River respectively. The streams have very different channel characteristics and sediment loads. The Judy Creek channel is somewhat unstable; bed sediment contains sand and fine gravel with a heavy sediment load during spring. Bed sediment on Ublutuoch River mainly comprise of coarse gravel, with heavily brush-vegetated steep banks and very limited sediment load during spring. We present a preliminary set of hydraulic geometric relationships describing the variation of channel width, depth, and velocity as function of discharge at the gauging sites on the rivers. Empirical equations indicate that exponents for channel width have similar values in both rivers (approximately 0.38), while exponents for velocity display different values and signs. Exponents for channel depth range from 0.55 to 0.71. Differences in prevailing sediment transport conditions seem to be, at least partially, responsible for the variation in the exponents. Additionally, roughness coefficients are reported.

  19. Metamorphism in the Tlikakila Complex, Lake Clark National Park, Alaska: Does it Record the Collision of the Peninsular Terrane With Alaska?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Bogar, M. J.; Calvert, A. T.

    2001-12-01

    The Tlikakila complex is a ~80 km x ~5 km belt of variably metamorphosed and deformed rocks thought to be part of the Peninsular terrane of southern Alaska. This project uses detailed mapping, structural analysis, and thermochronology to address the tectonic evolution of rocks thought to be part of the Peninsular terrane in southern Alaska. Both meta-igneous and metasedimentary rocks of Triassic (?) age are exposed. Meta-igneous protoliths include mafic (gabbro, basalt) and ultramafic rocks. Metasedimentary protoliths include limestone, chert, and other siliceous sediments. Metapelites are rare. Metamorphic rocks in the study area include two distinct occurrences. Smaller outcrops, appear to be roof pendants in Tertiary plutons. At Kasna Creek, near Kontrashibuna Lake, limestone beds were contact metamorphosed with copper sulfide mineralization within a mafic pluton. Larger outcrops in the Tlikakila complex are more continuous, more pervasively deformed, and more recrystallized. A new 40Ar/39Ar analysis of white mica from a metasedimentary rock in the Tlikakila complex located just southwest of Saddle Lake yielded a monotonically increasing age spectrum, with the oldest high-temperature step giving a date of around 160 Ma, and the low-temperature step giving a date of 60.5 Ma. The oldest date could represent the timing of greenschist facies metamorphism of the Tlikakila complex. It is interesting that this 160 Ma date is similar to the youngest of the Middle to Late Jurassic plutons (174-158 Ma) in the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith, considered to be part of the Peninsular terrane. Metamorphism in the Tlikakila complex could be related to the onset of the collision of the Peninsular terrane with Alaska, which also resulted in the cessation of arc magmatism. The youngest date from this sample overlaps with existing 59-63 Ma K-Ar dates from Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks in the area and records new mica growth associated with Tertiary magmatism.

  20. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  1. Radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Otuk Formation in and near the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Blome, C.D.; Reed, K.M.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bedded chert is a common rock type in the Brooks Range orogen of northern Alaska and is locally abundant in all parts of the orogen except the northeast Brooks Range. Pennsylvanian to Jurassic radiolarian chert is especially widespread in the west, in and adjacent to the De Long Mountains. The Cretaceous Brookian orogeny superposed and disordered the bedded chert sequences. Initial foreshortening and subsequent Laramide-style deformation created a complex of Carboniferous to Jurassic sedimentary deposits that has been rearranged into a stack of thrust sheets, each distinguished by its own physical, paleontologic, and tectonic characteristics. Biostratigraphic control in this study was inadequate to refine many of the earlier paleontologic syntheses. Verification of the ages for radiolarian cherts was particularly difficult because the only age-diagnostic megafossils were found in the younger horizons. The older parts of the Otuk Formation have yielded few useful megafossils. This study includes radiolarian faunas from lithostratigraphic sections through the Otuk Formation that include shale, chert, and limestone of Triassic through Early Jurassic age. This biostratigraphic scheme for the Otuk Formation is based on radiolarian and molluscan faunal assemblages from measured sections, as well as correlation with radiolarian faunas described in recent reports (through 1987) concerning Triassic faunas from Baja California, Oregon, British Columbia, and Japan.

  2. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  3. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment: Report and recommendation to the Congress of the United States and final legislative environmental impact statement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, in the northeastern corner of Alaska, was first established as the Arctic National Wildlife Range by Public Land Order 2214 in 1960, for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness, and recreational values. The original 8.9-millionacre Range was withdrawn from all forms of appropriation under the public land laws, including mining laws but not including mineral leasing laws. This order culminated extensive efforts begun more than a decade earlier to preserve this unique part of Alaska. The following report analyzes the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from opening for lease of the entire area for oil and gas development, to wilderness designation. A legislative environmental impact statement has been integrated into the report.

  4. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    them in real-time to the users in applying the latest advances in instrument-building, information and communication technologies. In the Bulgarian sector of the Black Sea have been developed and putted in operation several systems for the collection and presentation of marine data for the needs of different users. The systems are located both along the coast and in the open sea and the information they provide is used by both the maritime industry and the widest range of users. Combining them into a national operational marine observational system is a task that has to be solved, and that will allow to get a more complete and comprehensive picture of the state of the marine environment in the Bulgarian sector of the Black Sea. Such a system will help to support the activities of the offshore industry.

  5. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.; Phalen, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Bradfield Canal NTS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Martell, C.J.; Maassen, L.W.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Bradfield Canal NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviaed data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory (see, for example, Planner and others, 1981), and will not be included in this report.

  7. Water-quality data for the Talkeetna River and four streams in National Parks, Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Five streams in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, were sampled in 1998 to provide the National Park Service with baseline information on water quality. Four of these streams drain National Park Service land: Costello and Colorado Creeks in Denali National Park and Preserve, Johnson River in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, and Kamishak River in Katmai National Park and Preserve. The fifth site was on the Talkeetna River, outside of national park boundaries. Samples of stream water, streambed sediments, and fish tissues were collected for chemical analyses. Biological and geomorphic information was also collected at each site. Nutrient concentrations in stream water were low and commonly were less than analytical detection limits. Analyses of fish tissues for 28 organochlorine compounds at Talkeetna River and Costello Creek produced just one detection. Hexachlorobenzene was detected at a concentration of 5.70 micrograms per kilogram in slimy sculpin from the Talkeetna River. Streambed sediment samples from the Talkeetna River had three organochlorine compounds at detectable levels; hexachlorobenzene was measured at 13 micrograms per kilogram and two other compounds were below the minimum reporting levels. At Colorado Creek, Johnson River, and Kamishak River, where fish samples were not collected, no organochlorine compounds were detected in streambed sediment samples. Several semivolatile organic compounds were detected at Colorado Creek and Costello Creek. Only one compound, dibenzothiophene, detected at Costello Creek at a concentration of 85 micrograms per kilogram was above the minimum reporting limit. No semivolatile organic compounds were detected at the Talkeetna, Kamishak, or Johnson Rivers. Trace elements were detected in both fish tissues and streambed sediments. Macroinvertebrate and fish samples contained few taxa at all sites. Total numbers of macroinvertebrate taxa ranged from 19 at the Johnson River to 38 at the Talkeetna River. Diptera were the

  8. A Three-Year Comparison of Hydrological Measurements in Seven Streams During Breakup in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Kemnitz, R.; Lamb, E.

    2012-12-01

    National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) is an extensive 22.8 million acre oil, gas, and coal rich area that extends from the north foothills of the Brooks range all the way to the Arctic Ocean. Due to increasing demand for oil and natural gas the United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is holding annual oil and gas lease sales in the NPR-A region. BLM is also supporting research to aid responsible oil exploration in the NPR-A region. We conducted a set of hydraulic measurements, which includes discharge measurements using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), water slope, and suspended sediment sampling during breakup, the most important hydrologic event of the year, from 2010 to 2012 on Otuk Creek, Seabee Creek, Prince Creek, Ikpikpuk River, Judy Creek, Fish Creek, and Ublutuoch River in the NPR - A region. The hydraulic data we collected helped us understand how rivers change yearly which is useful for the development of new infrastructure such as pipe lines, bridges, and roads in the NPR-A region. The goal of this work is to present the results of our 2010 to 2012 spring breakup measurements.

  9. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  11. The study of the undiscovered mineral resources of the Tongass National Forest and adjacent lands, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Drew, L.J.; Ludington, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative probabilistic assessment of the undiscovered mineral resources of the 17.1-million-acre Tongass National Forest (the largest in the United States) and its adjacent lands is a nonaggregated, mineral-resource-tract-oriented assessment designed for land-planning purposes. As such, it includes the renewed use of gross-in-place values (GIPV's) in dollars of the estimated amounts of metal contained in the undiscovered resources as a measure for land-use planning. Southeastern Alaska is geologically complex and contains a wide variety of known mineral deposits, some of which have produced important amounts of metals during the past 100 years. Regional geological, economic geological, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral exploration history information for the region was integrated to define 124 tracts likely to contain undiscovered mineral resources. Some tracts were judged to contain more than one type of mineral deposit. Each type of deposit may contain one or more metallic elements of economic interest. For tracts where information was sufficient, the minimum number of as-yet-undiscovered deposits of each type was estimated at probability levels of 0.95, 0.90, 0.50, 0.10, and 0.05. The undiscovered mineral resources of the individual tracts were estimated using the U.S. Geological Survey's MARK3 mineral-resource endowment simulator; those estimates were used to calculate GIPV's for the individual tracts. Those GIPV's were aggregated to estimate the value of the undiscovered mineral resources of southeastern Alaska. The aggregated GIPV of the estimates is $40.9 billion. Analysis of this study indicates that (1) there is only a crude positive correlation between the size of individual tracts and their mean GIPV's: and (2) the number of mineral-deposit types in a tract does not dominate the GIPV's of the tracts, but the inferred presence of synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel-copper, porphyry copper skarn-related, iron skarn, and porphyry copper

  12. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  13. Monuments in the Desert: A Maritime Landscape in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn; Jones, Jennifer; Schnitzer, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Bohlen II, wrecked in 1909 on the coast of Namibia in Africa, has an illustrious history, which is part of a larger maritime cultural landscape linked to the diamond mining industry. The ship, like many artifacts and sites, served many different purposes over time and the historical and archaeological record incorporates different levels of meaning, some of which may be nationally divisive or reconciliatory. The role of historical archaeologists is not only to document, interpret, preserve and manage grandiose elements of heritage that evoke stakeholder nationalism, but also to explore the mundane, unsavory aspects of the historical narrative. In 2010, a team from the Program in Maritime Studies of East Carolina University supported by the Maritime Archaeology Division of the Windhoek Underwater Club investigated a surf boat, diamond mining settlement and some of the remaining structure of Eduard Bohlen II, while posing mitigation and management questions about legacy of historical memory within Skeleton Coast Park.

  14. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  15. Using GIS in a first national mapping of functional disability among older American Indians and Alaska natives from the 2000 census

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Margaret P; Schell, Matthew C; Goins, R Turner

    2006-01-01

    Background Geographical information systems (GIS) have been used mainly in understanding infectious diseases and environmental threats in health research. Here, GIS was used to examine patterns of functional disability as one impact of chronic disease in American Indians and Alaska Natives. The study purpose was to create the first national mapping of functional disability for AIANs using the 2000 U.S. Census. Results American Indians and Alaska Natives over age 65 reported disability at a rate of 57.6% versus 41.9% for all people over 65 (P ≤ 0.0001). Regional differences in levels and type of disability were evident. Conclusion Maps help visualize those who might otherwise be 'lost' from the data. The significance of this study is that gerontologic programs and policies are data-driven, yet there is a lack of reliable national level data from US health systems on functional disability among American Indians and Alaska Natives. One study limitation was that Census questions regarding disability differed from traditional measures of activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. An immediate policy recommendation would be to incorporate standard activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living language into future Census for a comprehensive, linked database for the future. PMID:16948854

  16. 75 FR 13139 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... 5 p.m. at the National Park Service Northwest Arctic Heritage Center, Kotzebue, AK. The meeting may..., April 28, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. at the Inupiat Heritage Center in Barrow, AK, (907) 852-0422....

  17. 76 FR 30303 - Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Bell Island Geothermal Leases Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National Forest will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) to a 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) titled Geothermal Leasing in the Western United States. This analysis is needed for consent determination to allow the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to issue three pending leases to a private......

  18. The Nation's Report Card Science 2011 State Snapshot Report. Alaska. Grade 8, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A representative sample of 122,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment, which is designed to measure students' knowledge and abilities in the areas of physical science, life science, and Earth and space sciences. This report covers the overall results, achievement level…

  19. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  20. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA.

  1. The Border Ranges shear zone, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska: An example of an ancient brittle-ductile transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, K.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Border Ranges fault system in southern Alaska forms the tectonic boundary between the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia (PAW) composite terrane and the Chugach terrane. In Glacier Bay National Park, the Border Ranges fault system is a north-northwest trending, 10 kilometer wide zone of ductile shear zones and brittle faults hereafter referred to as the Border Ranges shear zone. Three-dimensional strain analyses of plagioclase lathes in the foliated calc-alkaline plutons reveals a strong flattening fabric with the plane of maximum flattening (XY-plane) oriented northwest-southeast and dipping steeply to the southwest. The distribution and shapes of sub-elliptical mafic enclaves in the calc-alkaline plutons show a similarly oriented flattening fabric. Coeval brittle and ductile deformational processes are indicated by: (1) ductile shear zones narrowing to brittle faults at the outcrop scale; and (2) undulose quartz with subgrain development, kinked biotite, twinned and undulose feldspar, and fractured and twinned hornblende often within a single thin-section. Amphibole geobarometry indicates that two of the calc-alkaline plutons deformed by the shear zone crystallized at pressures of approximately 3 kilobars equivalent to 10 to 12 kilometers depth. Metamorphic mineral assemblages within the mylonites indicate deformation under lower greenschist facies conditions (300--400 C). The shear zone may represent a snapshot of the brittle-ductile transition of an ancient convergent-transform plate boundary. As such, this unique exposure may be an ancient analogue for the brittle-ductile transition of the present day San Andreas fault system.

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  3. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  4. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Morman, S.A.; May, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  5. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Morman, Suzette A.; May, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals.

  6. Dynamic multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses relevant to conservation of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; MacCluskie, Maggie C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of multistate site occupancy models offers great opportunities to frame and solve decision problems for conservation that can be viewed in terms of site occupancy. These models have several characteristics (e.g., they account for detectability) that make them particularly well suited for addressing management and conservation problems. We applied multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses related to the conservation and management of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park, Alaska, and provided estimates of transition probabilities among three occupancy states for nesting areas (occupied with successful reproduction, occupied with unsuccessful reproduction, and unoccupied). Our estimation models included the effect of potential recreational activities (hikers) and environmental covariates such as a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) index on transition probabilities among the three occupancy states. Based on the most parsimonious model, support for the hypothesis of an effect of potential human disturbance on site occupancy dynamics was equivocal. There was some evidence that potential human disturbance negatively affected local colonization of territories, but there was no evidence of an effect on reproductive performance parameters. In addition, models that assume a positive relationship between the hare index and successful reproduction were well supported by the data. The statistical approach that we used is particularly useful to parameterize management models that can then be used to make optimal decisions related to the management of Golden Eagles in Denali. Although in our case we were particularly interested in managing recreational activities, we believe that such models should be useful to for a broad class of management and conservation problems.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0-17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6-29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  8. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. PMID:19101761

  9. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at

  10. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, William G; Morman, Suzette A; May, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals.

  12. Preliminary geologic map of the Chugach National Forest Special Study Area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Philips, Patti J.; Huber, Carol

    1999-01-01

    In 1990, both the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines were contacted by the Chugach National Forest (CNF) for the purpose of providing mineral resource information for the CNF Master Plan during the planning period fiscal years 1991-1994. This information is to address the terms and requirements of the 1986 Settlement Agreement and to provide mineral and geologic information useful to the CNF for making land-use decisions. In early 1992 an Interagency Agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the Chugach National Forest was signed. In this agreement the U.S. Geological Survey is to provide a report which estimates the undiscovered mineral endowments of the 'special' study area and to identify the potential for mineral discovery and development. The U.S. Bureau of Mines was to prepare a report updating the discovered mineral endowment of the Special Study Area. These reports are now published (Roe and Balen, 1994; Nelson and others, 1994). This geologic map is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey contribution to the overall project.

  13. 49 CFR 1.66 - Delegations to Maritime Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feasibility study of an oil pollution prevention program. (See 49 CFR 1.46 and 1.53). (z) Carry out the... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.66, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the... provisions of sections 10 through 13 of Public Law 103-451, the National Maritime Heritage Act of 1994,...

  14. Preliminary hydrodynamic analysis of landslide-generated waves in Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Jakob, Matthias; Wieczoreck, Gerald F.; Dartnell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A landslide block perched on the northern wall of Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park (Figure 1), has the potential to generate large waves in Tidal Inlet and the western arm of Glacier Bay if it were to fail catastrophically. Landslide-generated waves are a particular concern for cruise ships transiting through Glacier Bay on a daily basis during the summer months. The objective of this study is to estimate the range of wave amplitudes and periods in the western arm of Glacier Bay from a catastrophic landslide in Tidal Inlet. This study draws upon preliminary findings of a field survey by Wieczorek et al. (2003), and evaluates the effects of variations in landslide source parameters on the wave characteristics.

  15. Assessment of mineral resource tracts in the Chugach National Forest, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.

    2000-01-01

    Locatable minerals have been produced from the Chugach National Forest (CNF) for nearly 100 years. Past gold production has come from the Kenai Peninsula and the Girdwood, Port Wells, and Valdez areas. Copper and by-product gold and silver have been produced from mines at Ellamar, on Latouche Island, and near Valdez. Many of the past-producing properties were not mined out and contain significant inferred reserves of gold, copper, lead, zinc, and silver. This report outlines mineral resource areas (tracts) that contain both identified and undiscovered mineral resources. These tracts were drawn on the basis of one or more of the following criteria: (1) geochemical anomalies, (2) favorable geologic units, (3) presence of mines, prospects or mineral occurrences, and (4) geophysical anomalies. Bliss (1989) used six mineral deposit models to describe the types of deposits known from the CNF. Of these deposit types, only four are sufficiently known and defined in the CNF to be suitable for consideration in outlining and ranking of mineral resource tracts; these deposit types are: (1) Cyprus-type massive sulfide, (2) Chugach-type low-sulfide goldquartz veins, (3) placer gold, and (4) polymetallic vein. The U.S. Bureau of Mines indicated that most of the inferred mineral reserves in the CNF would not be economic to produce under current prices. Small-scale placer gold operations are a possible exception. Other known resources that have recorded past production (oil, coal, rock, sand, and gravel) are not addressed in this report.

  16. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  17. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  18. Eruption of Trident Volcano, Katmai National Monument, Alaska, February-June 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.

    1954-01-01

    Trident Volcano, one of several 'extinct' volcanoes in Katmai National Monument, erupted on February 15, 1953. Observers in a U. S. Navy plane, 50 miles away, and in King Salmon, 75 miles away, reported an initial column of smoke that rose to an estimated 30, 000 feet. Thick smoke and fog on the succeeding 2 days prevented observers from identifying the erupting volcano or assessing the severity of the eruption. It is almost certain, however, that during the latter part of this foggy period, either Mount Martin or Mount Mageik, or both, were also erupting sizable ash clouds nearby. The first close aerial observations were made in clear weather on February 18. At this time a thick, blocky lava flow was seen issuing slowly from a new vent at an altitude of 3,600 feet on the southwest flank of Trident Volcano. Other volcanic orifices in the area were only steaming mildly on this and succeeding days. Observations made in the following weeks from Naval aircraft patrolling the area indicated that both gas and ash evolution and lava extrusion from the Trident vent were continuing without major interruption. By March 11 an estimated 80-160 million cubic yards of rock material had been extruded. Air photographs taken in April and June show that the extrusion of lava had continued intermittently and, by June 17, the volume of the pile was perhaps 300-400 million cubic yards of rock material. Ash eruptions also apparently occurred sporadically during this period, the last significant surge taking place June 30. No civilian or military installations have been endangered by this eruption at the date of writing.

  19. 76 FR 33653 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., which is used to monitor and track maritime traffic for purposes of both navigational safety and... AIS use in international waters. In the Report and Order, published at 71 FR 60067, October 12, 2006... NPRM), published at 71 FR 60102, October 12, 2006, on whether to extend the AIS designation to...

  20. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in the..., 2010 (75 FR 5241) to ensure that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote... (75 FR 5241). In rule FR Doc. 2010-2095 published on February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), make the...

  1. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  2. Best Practices for Effective Clinical Partnerships with Indigenous Populations of North America (American Indian, Alaska Native, First Nations, Métis, and Inuit).

    PubMed

    Haozous, Emily A; Neher, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a review of the literature to identify best practices for clinical partnerships with indigenous populations of North America, specifically American Indian/Alaska Native, First Nations, Métis, and Inuit of Canada. The authors have identified best practices and lessons learned from collaborating with indigenous populations, presented in 2 categories: conceptual guidelines and health care delivery guidelines. Major themes include the importance of trust and communication, the delivery of culturally congruent health care, and the necessity of working in partnership with tribal entities for successful delivery of health care. Best practices in health care delivery with indigenous populations are presented.

  3. A comparison of gas geochemistry of fumaroles in the 1912 ash-flow sheet and on active stratovolcanoes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheppard, D.S.; Janik, C.J.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fumarolic gas samples collected in 1978 and 1979 from the stratovolcanoes Mount Griggs, Mount Mageik, and the 1953-68 SW Trident cone in Katmai National Park, Alaska, have been analysed and the results presented here. Comparison with recalculated analyses of samples collected from the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) in 1917 and 1919 demonstrates differences between gases from the short-lived VTTS fumaroles, which were not directly magma related, and the fumaroles on the volcanic peaks. Fumarolic gases of Mount Griggs have an elevated total He content, suggesting a more direct deep crustal or mantle source for these gases than those from the other volcanoes. ?? 1992.

  4. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  5. The US Geological Survey-Bureau of Land Management cultural resources program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.S. Jr.; Gal, R.

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of northern Alaska's riches long predates the recent oil exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Though the earliest known archaeological site in the reserve dates back only 7600 yr, most archaeologists believe human groups first occupied the area at least 4000 yr earlier. The as-yet-undiscovered physical remains left behind by these first inhabitants of the area, as well as the known and unknown traces of the peoples who succeeded them through time, constitute the cultural resources of the NPRA. First among the laws protecting cultural resources is the Antiquities Act of 1906, which provides for the establishment of national monuments by Presidential proclamation, sets up a permit system for the scientific investigation of cultural resources on Federal land, and details penalities for unauthorized disturbance of archaeological remains. The Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974, which extended the earlier Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, authorizes funds for the preservation of historical and archaeological data that otherwise might be lost through any Federal construction project or federally licensed or assisted activity or program. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 established the National Register of Historic Places and a National Advisory Council to assist all Federal agencies in evaluating the effects of their actions on properties included, or eligible for inclusion, in the National Register. Finally, Executive Order 11593 of May 13, 1971, requires all Federal agencies to inventory cultural resources on lands they manage or affect in order to determine eligibility for the National Register, and to use due caution in regard to those resources until the inventory, evaluation, and nomination processes are completed. The oil exploration program in the NPRA is subject to this body of law for cultural resource protection.

  6. National Indian Education Study--Part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2009 Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2010-462

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, W.; Moran, R.; Kuang, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which was expanded to allow more in-depth reporting on the achievement and experiences of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. It fulfills a mandate of Executive Order 13336 issued in 2004 calling for closer…

  7. National Indian Education Study, 2007. Part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2007 Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2008-457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, R.; Rampey, B. D.; Dion, G.; Donahue, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results for Part I of the study focusing on the performance of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) fourth- and eighth-graders on the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading and mathematics. A national sample of approximately 10,100 AI/AN students at grades 4 and 8 participated in the 2007 reading…

  8. National Indian Education Study Part I: The Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students on NAEP 2005 Reading and Mathematics Assessments Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-463

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, B.D.; Lutkus, Anthony D.; Weiner, Arlene W.; Rahman, Taslima

    2006-01-01

    The National Indian Education Study is a two-part study designed to describe the condition of education for American Indian/Alaska Native students in the United States. The study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics for the U.S. Department of Education, with the support of the Office of Indian Education. This report, Part…

  9. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  10. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    of a typical tsunami. The ability to model and then validate these currentsdissect them has only recently become available through the evaluation of dozens of eyewitness accounts and hundreds of videos.developed. In this presentation, we will present ongoing work related to the application of such models to quantify the maritime tsunami hazard in select ports and harbors in California. The development of current-based tsunami hazard maps and safe-offshore-depth delineations will be discussed. We will also present an overview of the challenges in modeling tsunami currents, including capture of turbulent dynamics, coupling with tides, and issues with long-duration simulations. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  11. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  12. 78 FR 13080 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... BLM-Alaska Web site at www.blm.gov/ak . Hard copies of the ROD are available upon request from Serena... analysis upon which the decision is based, is also available at the above Web site address, the Anchorage... onshore infrastructure in support of offshore development, while protecting surface values, most...

  13. The Longview/Lakeview Barite Deposits, Southern National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA) - Potential-Field Models and Preliminary Size Estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Morin, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Longview and Lakeview are two of the larger stratiform barite deposits hosted in Mississippian Akmalik Chert in the Cutaway Basin area (Howard Pass C-3 quadrangle) of the southern National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Geologic studies for the South NPRA Integrated Activity Plan and Environmental Impact Statement process included an attempt to evaluate the possible size of barite resources at Longview and Lakeview by using potential-field geophysical methods (gravity and magnetics). Gravity data from 227 new stations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey, sparse regional gravity data, and new, high-resolution aeromagnetic data were forward modeled simultaneously along seven profiles perpendicular to strike and two profiles along strike of the Longview and Lakeview deposits. These models indicate details of the size and shape of the barite deposits and suggest thicknesses of 15 to 24 m, and 9 to 24 m for the Longview and Lakeview deposits, respectively. Two groups of outcrops span 1.8 km of strike length and are likely connected below the surface by barite as much as 10 m thick. Barite of significant thickness (>-5 m) is unlikely to occur north of the presently known exposures of the Longview deposit. The barite bodies have irregular (nonplanar) bases suggestive of folding; northwest-trending structures of small apparent offset cross strike at several locations. Dip of the barite is 10 to 25 degrees to the southeast. True width of the bodies (the least certain dimension) is estimated to be 160 to 200 m for Longview and 220 to 260 m for Lakeview. The two bodies contain a minimum of 4.5 million metric tons of barite and more than 38 million metric tons are possible. Grades of the barite are relatively high, with high specific gravities and low impurities. The potential for the Cutaway Basin to host economically minable quantities of barite is uncertain. Heavy-mineral concentrate samples from streams in the area, trace-element analyses, and physicalproperty

  14. Hydrologic conditions and hazards in the Kennicott River basin, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.; Rosenkrans, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    McCarthy, Alaska, is on the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Most visitors to McCarthy and the park cross the West Fork Kennicott River using a hand-pulled tram and cross the East Fork Kennicott River on a temporary footbridge. Outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes result in channel erosion, aggradation, and migration of the Kennicott River, which disrupt transportation links, destroy property, and threaten life. Hidden Creek Lake, the largest of six glacier-dammed lakes in the Kennicott River Basin, has annual outbursts that cause the largest floods on the Kennicott River. Outbursts from Hidden Creek Lake occur from early fall to mid-summer, and lake levels at the onset of the outbursts have declined between 1909 and 1995. Criteria for impending outbursts for Hidden Creek Lake include lake stage near or above 3,000 to 3,020 feet, stationary or declining lake stage, evidence of recent calving of large ice blocks from the ice margin, slush ice and small icebergs stranded on the lakeshore, and fresh fractures in the ice-margin region. The lower Kennicott Glacier has thinned and retreated since about 1860. The East and West Fork Kennicott River channels migrated in response to changes in the lower Kennicott Glacier. The largest channel changes occur during outburst floods from Hidden Creek Lake, whereas channel changes from the other glacier-dammed lake outbursts are small. Each year, the West Fork Kennicott River conveys a larger percentage of the Kennicott Glacier drainage than it did the previous year. Outburst floods on the Kennicott River cause the river stage to rise over a period of several hours. Smaller spike peaks have a very rapid stage rise. Potential flood magnitude was estimated by combining known maximum discharges from Hidden Creek Lake and Lake Erie outburst floods with a theoretical large regional flood. Flood hazard areas at the transportation corridor were

  15. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Permafrost in National Parks of Alaska: Will Permafrost Survive the Climate Warming of 21st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost underlies ~70% of all National Park Service administered land in Alaska and it provides a stable foundation to parks' ecosystems and wildlife habitats. However, the strength of this foundation is waning as its temperature is rising in response to recent climate warming. Consequently, thermokarst activities are on the rise and they are altering the parks' landscape, ecosystems, and wildlife habitats. In order to effectively respond to these changes park managers need up-to-date knowledge of the current permafrost temperature and distribution, and how they might evolve with changing climate in the future. To help decision makers understand and respond to the changing permafrost condition, we are modeling near-surface permafrost dynamics—permafrost temperature, distribution, and active layer thickness—in eight national parks of Alaska at a decadal time scale. We are using GIPL 1.0 model (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska), the best available climate inputs, and high-resolution (28 m) ecotype, soil landscape, and snow inputs. Here we present results for two national parks—Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA) and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST). Areas underlain by glaciers and permanent ice-fields were excluded. In DENA, the model suggested near-surface permafrost in 51% of the park area for the 2000 decade, predicted its decline to 6% by 2050s, and 1% by 2090s. In WRST, the model suggested near-surface permafrost in 72% of the park area for the 2000 decade, predicted its decline to 42% by 2050s, and 15% by 2090s. In summary, the near-surface permafrost will likely be degrading in most parts of DENA and WRST towards the end of the current century except at higher elevations where climate models continue to project colder temperature. The modeled maps of DENA and WRST showed 86% and 95% agreement with the field observations of permafrost presence/ absence at 1375 and 430 sites, respectively. In

  16. User satisfaction with maritime telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Dehours, Emilie; Vallé, Baptiste; Bounes, Vincent; Girardi, Claire; Tabarly, Julien; Concina, François; Pujos, Michel; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the satisfaction of onboard caregivers with the maritime telehealth service provided by the Centre de Consultations Médicales Maritimes (CCMM). We conducted a survey of captains and caregivers by email. Of the 385 surveys sent out, 165 (43%) were completed. Eighty four percent of responders (n = 110) thought that waiting time was satisfactory or very satisfactory, and 97% (n = 128) were satisfied or very satisfied with their relationship with the remote physician. Thirty eight per cent of participants (n = 50) considered that the physician understood the medical problem very well; understanding was good in 58% of cases (n = 76) and bad in only 4% of cases (n = 5). Sixty two per cent of participants (n = 83) sent pictures before consultation. The respondents were also satisfied with the telephone advice overall, the competence of the physicians providing the advice, the length of time spent waiting, the verbal prescription and the medical advice given. Onboard caregivers were generally well satisfied with the maritime teleconsultations and the advice provided by the CCMM physicians.

  17. Maritime strategy and coalition defense: a synthesis for NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) success

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Maritime strategy is an essential element underpinning the credibility of the NATO alliance. Far from hampering continental defense, the strategy enhances the deterrent posture and, should deterrence fail, increases the prospects for both preserving NATO allies and for ending hostilities on favorable terms. Execution of the global-war portion of the maritime strategy would almost certainly occur as part of a NATO defensive effort against Warsaw Pact aggression. Also, discussions about the feasibility of executing the maritime strategy have attempted to compare the us national force structure and capabilities to that of the Soviets.

  18. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1998-01-01

    Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) of the Western Canadian Arctic Population feed intensively for 2-4 weeks on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska at the beginning of their autumn migration. Petroleum leasing proposed for the Alaskan portion of the staging area on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) could affect staging habitats and their use by geese. Therefore we studied availability, distribution, and use by snow geese of tall and russett cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium and E. russeolum, respectively) feeding habitats on the ANWR. We studied selection of feeding habitats at 3 spatial scales (feeding sites [0.06 m2], feeding patches [ca. 100 m2], and feeding areas [>1 ha]) during 1990-93. We used logistic regression analysis to discriminate differences in soil moisture and vegetation between 1,548 feeding sites where snow geese exploited individual cotton-grass plants and 1,143 unexploited sites at 61 feeding patches in 1990. Feeding likelihood increased with greater soil moisture and decreased where nonforage species were present. We tested the logistic regression model in 1991 by releasing human-imprinted snow geese into 4 10 ?? 20-m enclosed plots where plant communities had been mapped, habitats sampled, and feeding probabilities calculated. Geese selected more feeding sites per square meter in areas of predicted high quality feeding habitat (feeding probability ??? 0.6) than in medium (feeding probability = 0.3-0.59) or poor (feeding probability < 0.3) quality habitat (P < 0.0001). Geese increasingly used medium quality areas and spent more time feeding as trials progressed and forage was presumably reduced in high quality habitats. We examined relationships between underground biomass of plants, feeding probability, and surface microrelief at 474 0.06-m2 sites in 20 thermokarst pits in 1992. Feeding probability was correlated with the percentage of underground biomass composed of cotton-grass (r = 0

  19. A study of reservoir characteristics of the Nanushuk and Colville groups, Umiat test well 11, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, J.E.; Lambert, P.W.; Pitman, J.K.; Wu, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Cretaceous sandstones in the Umiat Anticline contain the largest volume of oil discovered to date in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Umiat test well 11, although dry and abandoned, penetrated the most complete sequence of Cretaceous rocks in the Umiat area. Cretaceous formations cored (oldest to youngest) were the Grandstand, Chandler, and Ninuluk Formations of the Nanushuk Group and the Seabee and Prince Creek Formations of the Colville Group. Cores from sandstone beds in each of the formations penetrated were studied to identify the factors influencing porosity and permeability. Based on lithologic, textural, sedimentary-structural, faunal and floral, and regional paleogeographic evidence, the Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence in the Umiat area can be described as complexly interbedded delta-front and delta-plain facies (named the Umiat delta). The Grandstand Formation and Killik Tongue of the Chandler Formation represent one thick progradational sequence of delta-front and delta-plain facies, respectively. This sequence was followed by deposition of transgressive marine facies of the Ninuluk and Seabee Formations, which were in turn overlain by another progradational delta-plain facies, the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation. The delta-front sandstone of the Grandstand Formation is well-sorted, fine-grained to very fine grained, angular to subangular chert arenite and phyllarenite. Authigenic cements include dolomite, calcite, siderite, quartz overgrowth, kaolinite, chert, pyrite, and possibly some small flakes of chlorite. The source terrane was southwest of Umiat and, on the basis of the aforementioned petrographic evidence, consisted of low-grade metamorphic rocks and possibly sandstone and cherty limestone. The weighted average porosity, based on well-log analyses, for the lower part of the Grandstand Formation is 15.1 percent and for the upper part is 15.6 percent; the weighted average permeability is 58.6 md for the lower part and 167

  20. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  1. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.300 Section 103.300 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS)...

  2. Tephrochronology of the Brooks River Archaeological District, Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska: What can and cannot be done with tephra deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Dumond, D.E.; Meyer, C.E.; Schaaf, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Brooks River Archaeological District (BRAD) in Katmai National Park and Preserve is a classical site for the study of early humans in Alaska. Because of proximity to the active Aleutian volcanic arc, there are numerous tephra deposits in the BRAD, which are potentially useful for correlating among sites of archaeological investigations. Microprobe analyses of glass separates show, however, that most of these tephra deposits are heterogeneous mixtures of multiple glass populations. Some glasses are highly similar to pyroclasts of Aniakchak Crater (160 km to the south), others are similar to pyroclasts in the nearby Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and some are similar to no other tephra samples from the Alaska Peninsula. Moreover, tephra deposits in any one archaeological study site are not always similar to those from nearby sites, indicating inconsistent preservation of these mainly thin, fine-grained deposits. At least 15, late Holocene tephra deposits are inferred at the BRAD. Their heterogeneity is the result of either eruptions of mixed or heterogeneous magmas, like the 1912 Katmai eruption, or secondary mixing of closely succeeding tephra deposits. Because most cannot be reliably distinguished from one another on the basis of megascopic properties, their utility for correlations is limited. At least one deposit can be reliably identified because of its thickness (10 cm) and colour stratification. Early humans seem not to have been significantly affected by these tephra falls, which is not surprising in view of the resilience exhibited by both plants and animals following the 1912 Katmai eruption.

  3. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

    2005-04-26

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

  4. Mercury and water-quality data from Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, November 2009-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, Sonia A.; Neal, Edward G.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP), Alaska, like many pristine high latitude areas, is exposed to atmospherically deposited contaminants such as mercury (Hg). Although the harmful effects of Hg are well established, information on this contaminant in southeast Alaska is scarce. Here, we assess the level of this contaminant in several aquatic components (water, sediments, and biological tissue) in three adjacent, small streams in GBNPP that drain contrasting landscapes but receive similar atmospheric inputs: Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River. Twenty water samples were collected from 2009 to 2011 and processed and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury (filtered and particulate), and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality. Ancillary stream water parameters (discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature) were measured at the time of sampling. Major cations, anions, and nutrients were measured four times. In addition, total mercury was analyzed in streambed sediment in 2010 and in juvenile coho salmon and several taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates in the early summer of 2010 and 2011.

  5. National Indian Education Study--Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-463

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, N.; Grigg, W.; Moran, R.; Kuang, M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. This report, the second in a two-part series based on the 2009 NIES survey,…

  6. National Indian Education Study, 2007. Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-458

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, R.; Rampey, B.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents information about the educational, home, and community experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) fourth- and eighth-grade students that was collected during the National Indian Education Study (NIES) of 2007. AI/AN students represent about 1 percent of the student population in the United States. Approximately…

  7. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF LAND COVER AND TERRAIN DATA BASES FOR THE INNOKO NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA, USING LANDSAT AND DIGITAL TERRAIN DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Talbot, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Landsat-derived land cover maps and associated elevation, slope, and aspect class maps were produced for the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge (3,850,000 acres; 1,555,095 hectares) in northwestern Alaska. These maps and associated digital data products are being used by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for wildlife management, research, and comprehensive conservation planning. Portions of two Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) scenes and digital terrain data were used to produce 1:250,000 scale land cover and terrain maps. Prints of summer and winter Landsat MSS scenes were used to manually interpret broad physiographic strata. These strata were transferred to U. S. Geological Survey 1:250,000-scale topographic maps and digitized. Seven major land cover classes and 23 subclasses were identified. The major land cover classes include: forest, scrub, dwarf scrub and related types, herbaceous, scarcely vegetated areas, water, and shadow.

  9. Aeromagnetic and Aeroradiometric Data for the Conterminous United States and Alaska from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Patricia L.; Kucks, Robert P.; Ravat, Dhananjay

    2009-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was initiated in 1973 with a primary goal of identifying uranium resources in the United States. The airborne program's main purpose was to collect radiometric data of the conterminous United States and Alaska. Magnetic data were also collected. After the program ended, most of the data were given to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All areas were flown at about 400 feet above ground, the optimum height for collecting radiometric data, and the line spacing varied from 3 to 6 mile intervals. A few selected quadrangles or parts of quadrangles were flown at 1- or 2-mile line spacing. About forty smaller areas were targeted and flown at 0.25-mile to 1 mile line spacing.

  10. High-resolution Near-surface Permafrost Modeling for the 21st Century, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost within most part of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is discontinuous and warm i.e. within a few degrees of thawing. It is the physical foundation on which the ecosystems in the park rest. Thawing of permafrost alters this foundation, and can alter ecosystems and landscapes. Nonetheless, the data on permafrost condition and extent within WRST is limited. The current and future permafrost distribution and thickness of active layer can be modeled, given sufficient data about ground properties, vegetation, topography, and climate. We used GIPL 1.0 (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska) model; and downscaled climate forcing from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCM) that work best for Alaska and high-resolution soil landscape and ecotype maps from National Park Service (NPS) as model inputs to develop high-resolution permafrost maps for the recent past (2001-10) and the future decades (2050s and 2090s). The soil landscape and ecotype maps were derived from Landsat TM scenes (Jorgenson et al. 2008). The modeling effort resulted in recent and future permafrost maps of WRST at a spatial resolution of 28.5 m, the best resolution permafrost maps available for any part of Alaska. The model mapped 80% of WRST as underlain by near-surface permafrost during the decade of 2001-10 (Fig. 1) and predicted 50% decrease in the near-surface permafrost extent by 2050s owing to a 2 °C increase in the mean decadal air temperature and slightly higher precipitation. According to the 5 GCM projections, the decadal air temperature will increase by another 2 °C between 2050s and 2090s which will likely cause further increase in the ground temperature and decrease in the permafrost extent. The model predicts a meager 15% of WRST would still remain underlain by near-surface permafrost toward the end of the 21st century. Comparison of the modeled permafrost distribution with in situ observation of permafrost presence/absence at 430 sites

  11. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  12. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  13. 77 FR 38013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1. The authority citation for part 679 continues to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BC23 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88; Correction AGENCY:...

  14. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  15. National Geochemical Database, U.S. Geological Survey RASS (Rock Analysis Storage System) geochemical data for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.A.; Smith, D.B.; Abston, C.C.; Granitto, Matthew; Burleigh, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    This dataset contains geochemical data for Alaska produced by the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These data represent analyses of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate (derived from stream sediment), soil, and organic material samples. Most of the data comes from mineral resource investigations conducted in the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). However, some of the data were produced in support of other USGS programs. The data were originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database. The RASS database, which contains over 580,000 data records, was used by the Geologic Division from the early 1970's through the late 1980's to archive geochemical data. Much of the data have been previously published in paper copy USGS Open-File Reports by the submitter or the analyst but some of the data have never been published. Over the years, USGS scientists recognized several problems with the database. The two primary issues were location coordinates (either incorrect or lacking) and sample media (not precisely identified). This dataset represents a re-processing of the original RASS data to make the data accessible in digital format and more user friendly. This re-processing consisted of checking the information on sample media and location against the original sample submittal forms, the original analytical reports, and published reports. As necessary, fields were added to the original data to more fully describe the sample preparation methods used and sample medium analyzed. The actual analytical data were not checked in great detail, but obvious errors were corrected.

  16. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  17. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  18. Stable isotope (C and N) and sedimentary facies analyses of the Cantwell Formation, Denali National Park, Alaska as indicators of Maastrichtian paleoenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Jaramillo, S.; Fowell, S. J.; Wooller, M. J.; Mccarthy, P. J.; Benowitz, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sedimentary facies and stable isotope analyses of Lower Cantwell Formation outcrops on the East Fork of the Toklat River in Denali National Park, Alaska, reveal a correlation between positive δ13C excursions and carbonaceous facies. 238U/206Pb zircon dating of a bentonite layer from our measured sections yields a crystallization age of 69.5 ± 0.69 Ma, indicating that dinosaur tracks identified in this part of the Cantwell Formation are of early Maastrichtian age. This date establishes the coeval nature of dinosaur bones from the Prince Creek Formation on Alaska's North Slope, allows reconstruction of Late Cretaceous climate gradients, and brackets the age of the Lower Cantwell-Upper Cantwell unconformity (~69 Ma to ~60 Ma) linked to the final docking of the Wrangell Composite Terrane. The Late Cretaceous Cantwell Formation is composed of nonmarine sandstone, siltstone, shale, carbonaceous mudstone and, locally, weakly developed paleosols. Facies associations are interpreted as levees, crevasse channels, crevasse splays, and floodplains, which were part of an anastomosed river system. δ13C, δ15N, C/N and TOC values of bulk organic matter were measured in order to reconstruct the local paleoenvironment and facilitate chemostratigraphic correlation with dinosaur-bearing strata on Alaska's North Slope. C/N ratios fall between 5 and 33, indicating that the organic matter is likely comprised of terrestrial plants and lacustrine algae. Throughout the 123 m section, δ13C values of bulk organic matter from sandstone, siltstone, and shale range between -27.1 and -24.9‰. Wood fragments and bulk organic samples from carbonaceous mudstone have higher TOC values and more positive δ13C values, ranging from -24.1 to -22.4‰. Positive δ13C excursions could reflect one or a combination of: 1) changes in composition of the vegetation (e.g., conifers vs. more mixed organic matter); 2) changes in sources of organic material (lacustrine vs. terrestrial); 3) changes in past

  19. System for maritime surveillance aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio; Kiriya, Nobuo

    1997-02-01

    A system to aid maritime surveillance is being studied to search for small floating objects like a life raft or to detect oil spill more reliably and efficiently. The system consists of sensors, an image processor and a display so as to reject unnecessary noise in the sea surface images, and then to detect and identify the objects to be searched. This paper describes the optical sensor system with an infrared camera and a TV camera. The infrared camera detects 3-5 micrometers waveband by 512 by 512 solid state sensing elements. The systems was used to gather images on different sea areas in summer and winter by aircraft and on the ground. Typical images are presented to demonstrate the validity of the sensor system to search for small flowing objects. The influences of air and water temperature, weather and observation altitude upon the images are discussed. Image processing techniques like filtering or image superposition are also described to suppress noise.

  20. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  1. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  2. Strengthening breast and cervical cancer control through partnerships: American Indian and Alaska Native Women and the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    PubMed

    Espey, David; Castro, Georgina; Flagg, T'Ronda; Landis, Kate; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Benard, Vicki B; Royalty, Janet E

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has played a critical role in providing cancer screening services to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/ANs) women and strengthening tribal screening capacity. Since 1991, the NBCCEDP has funded states, tribal nations, and tribal organizations to develop and implement organized screening programs. The ultimate goal is to deliver breast and cervical cancer screening to women who do not have health insurance and cannot afford to pay for these services. The delivery of clinical services is supported through complementary program efforts such as professional development, public education and outreach, and patient navigation. This article seeks to describe the growth of NBCCEDP's tribal commitment and the unique history and aspects of serving the AI/AN population. The article describes: 1) how this program has demonstrated success in improving screening of AI/AN women; 2) innovative partnerships with the Indian Health Service, state programs, and other organizations that have improved tribal public health infrastructure; and 3) the evolution of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work with tribal communities. PMID:25099898

  3. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay. PMID:22102671

  4. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay.

  5. Strengthening breast and cervical cancer control through partnerships: American Indian and Alaska Native Women and the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    PubMed

    Espey, David; Castro, Georgina; Flagg, T'Ronda; Landis, Kate; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Benard, Vicki B; Royalty, Janet E

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has played a critical role in providing cancer screening services to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/ANs) women and strengthening tribal screening capacity. Since 1991, the NBCCEDP has funded states, tribal nations, and tribal organizations to develop and implement organized screening programs. The ultimate goal is to deliver breast and cervical cancer screening to women who do not have health insurance and cannot afford to pay for these services. The delivery of clinical services is supported through complementary program efforts such as professional development, public education and outreach, and patient navigation. This article seeks to describe the growth of NBCCEDP's tribal commitment and the unique history and aspects of serving the AI/AN population. The article describes: 1) how this program has demonstrated success in improving screening of AI/AN women; 2) innovative partnerships with the Indian Health Service, state programs, and other organizations that have improved tribal public health infrastructure; and 3) the evolution of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work with tribal communities.

  6. Experimental low-altitude aeromagnetic reconnaissance for petroleum in Arctic-National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, using horizontal gradients: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.; Hendricks, J.D.; Roberts, A.A.; Eliason, P.T.

    1983-03-01

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field arising from areally restricted increased amounts of shallow-buried magnetite over hydrocarbon deposits have been mapped in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and elsewhere is northern Alaska. The anomalies have been delineated with a low-flying (90 m; 295 ft) magnetic horizontal gradiometer mounted on a fixed-wing airplane. Limited data from stable carbon isotope and remanent magnetism measurements of rock cores from the Cape Simpson region strongly suggest that the magnetic anomalies result from the chemical reduction of iron oxides in the presence of seeping hydrocarbons. Magnetometers extended from each wingtip and in a tail stinger permit calculation of the resultant horizontal gradient vector relative to the flight path. This calculation provides data for the unmeasured area between adjacent flight lines spaced at 1.5 km (.9 mi), thereby allowing generation of accurate computer-enhanced images or maps. Problems related to diurnal variations and solar storms at high magnetic latitude are largely overcome because changes in the total magnetic field do not significantly affect the magnetic gradient. Analysis of an experimental survey, covering 4418 line km (2745 line mi), suggests that the Marsh Creek anticline in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is prospective for oil and/or gas. Additional magnetic anomalies were also identified. Although the effect of permafrost on epigenetic processes has not been investigated, the data suggest that special purpose aeromagnetic surveying may be a useful and relatively inexpensive way to explore for oil and gas in this hostile environment.

  7. 33 CFR 105.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 105.145 Section 105.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.145 Maritime Security...

  8. 33 CFR 104.145 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 104.145 Section 104.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.145 Maritime Security...

  9. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  10. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  11. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  12. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  13. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  14. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  15. Geochronology of plutonic rocks and their tectonic terranes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska: Chapter E in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Tellier, Kathleen E.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Nielsen, Diane C.; Smith, James G.; Sonnevil, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified six major belts and two nonbelt occurrences of plutonic rocks in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and characterized them on the basis of geologic mapping, igneous petrology, geochemistry, and isotopic dating. The six plutonic belts and two other occurrences are, from oldest to youngest: (1) Jurassic (201.6–145.5 Ma) diorite and gabbro of the Lituya belt; (2) Late Jurassic (161.0–145.5 Ma) leucotonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet; (3) Early Cretaceous (145.5–99.6 Ma) granodiorite and tonalite of the Muir-Chichagof belt; (4) Paleocene tonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet (65.5–55.8 Ma); (5) Eocene granodiorite of the Sanak-Baranof belt; (6) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) granodiorite, quartz diorite, and granite of the Muir-Fairweather felsic-intermediate belt; (7) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) layered gabbros of the Crillon-La Perouse mafic belt; and (8) Oligocene (33.9–23.0 Ma) quartz monzonite and quartz syenite of the Tkope belt. The rocks are further classified into 17 different combination age-compositional units; some younger belts are superimposed on older ones. Almost all these plutonic rocks are related to Cretaceous and Tertiary subduction events. The six major plutonic belts intrude the three southeast Alaska geographic subregions in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, from west to east: (1) the Coastal Islands, (2) the Tarr Inlet Suture Zone (which contains the Border Ranges Fault Zone), and (3) the Central Alexander Archipelago. Each subregion includes rocks assigned to one or more tectonic terranes. The various plutonic belts intrude different terranes in different subregions. In general, the Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes in the Central Alexander Archipelago subregion, and the Paleogene plutons intrude rocks of the Chugach, Alexander, and Wrangellia terranes in the Coastal Islands, Tarr Inlet Suture Zone, and Central Alexander Archipelago subregions.

  16. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  17. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  18. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  19. Remote Viewer for Maritime Robotics Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Wolf, Michael; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software is a viewer program for maritime robotics software that provides a 3D visualization of the boat pose, its position history, ENC (Electrical Nautical Chart) information, camera images, map overlay, and detected tracks.

  20. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A D; Trombino, D; Dunlop, W; Bordetsky, A

    2010-01-26

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors & biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better

  1. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve... call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2012 National...

  2. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve... call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2011 National...

  3. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. Alaska. Grade 4, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Results from the 2013 NAEP assessments show fourth- and eighth-graders making progress in mathematics and reading. Nationally representative samples of more than 376,000 fourth-graders and 341,000 eighth-graders were assessed in either mathematics or reading in 2013. Results are reported for public and private school students in the nation, and…

  4. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. Alaska. Grade 8, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Results from the 2013 NAEP assessments show fourth-and eighth-graders making progress in mathematics and reading. Nationally representative samples of more than 376,000 fourth-graders and 341,000 eighth-graders were assessed in either mathematics or reading in 2013. Results are reported for public and private school students in the nation, and for…

  5. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  6. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  7. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  8. The Border Ranges fault system in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska: Evidence for major early Cenozoic dextral strike-slip motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smart, K.J.; Pavlis, T.L.; Sisson, V.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Snee, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Border Ranges fault system of southern Alaska, the fundamental break between the arc basement and the forearc accretionary complex, is the boundary between the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia terrane and the Chugach terrane. The fault system separates crystalline rocks of the Alexander terrane from metamorphic rocks of the Chugach terrane in Glacier Bay National Park. Mylonitic rocks in the zone record abundant evidence for dextral strike-slip motion along north-northwest-striking subvertical surfaces. Geochronologic data together with regional correlations of Chugach terrane rocks involved in the deformation constrain this movement between latest Cretaceous and Early Eocene (???50 Ma). These findings are in agreement with studies to the northwest and southeast along the Border Ranges fault system which show dextral strike-slip motion occurring between 58 and 50 Ma. Correlations between Glacier Bay plutons and rocks of similar ages elsewhere along the Border Ranges fault system suggest that as much as 700 km of dextral motion may have been accommodated by this structure. These observations are consistent with oblique convergence of the Kula plate during early Cenozoic and forearc slivering above an ancient subduction zone following late Mesozoic accretion of the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia terrane to North America.

  9. Influence of ship emissions on air quality and input of contaminants in southern Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas during the 2006 tourist season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölders, Nicole; Porter, Stacy E.; Cahill, Catherine F.; Grell, Georg A.

    2010-04-01

    The impact of ship emissions on air quality in Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem). The visibility and deposition of atmospheric contaminants was analyzed for the length of the 2006 tourist season. WRF/Chem reproduced the meteorological situation well. It seems to have captured the temporal behavior of aerosol concentrations when compared with the few data available. Air quality follows certain predetermined patterns associated with local meteorological conditions and ship emissions. Ship emissions have maximum impacts in Prince William Sound where topography and decaying lows trap pollutants. Along sea-lanes and adjacent coastal areas, NO x, SO 2, O 3, PAN, HNO 3, and PM 2.5 increase up to 650 pptv, 325 pptv, 900 pptv, 18 pptv, 10 pptv, and 100 ng m -3. Some of these increases are significant (95% confidence). Enhanced particulate matter concentrations from ship emissions reduce visibility up to 30% in Prince William Sound and 5-25% along sea-lanes.

  10. Representative Bulk Composition of Oil Types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey Resource Assessment of National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk oil composition is an important economic consideration of a petroleum resource assessment. Geological and geochemical interpretations from previous North Slope studies combined with recently acquired geochemical data are used to predict representative oil gravity (?API) and sulfur content (wt.% S) of the oil types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPRA). The oil types are named after their respective source rock units and include Kuna-Lisburne, Shublik-Otuk, Kingak-Blankenship, and Pebble-GRZ-Torok. The composition of the oil (24?API, 1.6 wt.% S) in the South Barrow 12 well was selected as representative of Kuna-Lisburne oil. The average gravity and sulfur values (23?API and 1.6 wt.% S, respectively) of the Kuparuk field were selected to be representative of Shublik-Otuk oil type. The composition of the oil (39?API, 0.3 wt.% S) from the Alpine field discovery well (ARCO Bergschrund 1) was selected to be representative of Kingak-Blankenship oil. The oil composition (37?API, 0.1 wt.% S) of Tarn field was considered representative of the Pebble-GRZ-Torok oil type in NPRA.

  11. Correlates of overweight and obesity among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White children and adolescents: National Survey of Children's Health, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, behavioral (child's sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting television viewing, and television in the child's bedroom), neighborhood (neighborhood support, perceived community and school safety, and presence of parks, sidewalks, and recreation centers in the neighborhood), and sociodemographic (child's age and sex, household structure, and poverty status) correlates of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥85th percentile for age and sex) were assessed among 10-17 year-old non-Hispanic white (NHW) and AI/AN children residing in Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota (n = 5,372). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0 % among NHW children and 48.3 % among AI/AN children in this sample. Viewing more than 2 h of television per day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.8), a lack of neighborhood support (aOR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.5), and demographic characteristics were significantly associated with overweight/obesity in the pooled sample. Lack of sport team participation was significantly associated with overweight/obesity only among AI/AN children (aOR = 2.7; 95 % CI = 1.3-5.2). Culturally sensitive interventions targeting individual predictors, such as sports team participation and television viewing, in conjunction with neighborhood-level factors, may be effective in addressing childhood overweight/obesity among AI/AN children. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Kittlitz's and Marbled Murrelets in Kenai Fjords National Park, South-Central Alaska: At-Sea Distribution, Abundance, and Foraging Habitat, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.; Madison, E.N.; Conaway, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Kittlitz's murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris) and marbled murrelets (B. marmoratus) are small diving seabirds and are of management concern because of population declines in coastal Alaska. In 2006-08, we conducted a study in Kenai Fjords National Park, south-central Alaska, to estimate the recent population size of Brachyramphus murrelets, to evaluate productivity based on juvenile to adult ratios during the fledgling season, and to describe and compare their use of marine habitat. We also attempted a telemetry study to examine Kittlitz's murrelet nesting habitat requirements and at-sea movements. We estimated that the Kittlitz's murrelet population was 671 ? 144 birds, and the marbled murrelet population was 5,855 ? 1,163 birds. Kittlitz's murrelets were limited to the heads of three fjords with tidewater glaciers, whereas marbled murrelets were more widely distributed. Population estimates for both species were lower in 2007 than in 2006 and 2008, possibly because of anomalous oceanographic conditions that may have delayed breeding phenology. During late season surveys, we observed few hatch-year marbled murrelets and only a single hatch-year Kittlitz's murrelet over the course of the study. Using radio telemetry, we found a likely Kittlitz's murrelet breeding site on a mountainside bordering one of the fjords. We never observed radio-tagged Kittlitz's murrelets greater than 10 kilometer from their capture sites, suggesting that their foraging range during breeding is narrow. We observed differences in oceanography between fjords, reflecting differences in sill characteristics and orientation relative to oceanic influence. Acoustic biomass, a proxy for zooplankton and small schooling fish, generally decreased with distance from glaciers in Northwestern Lagoon, but was more variable in Aialik Bay where dense forage fish schools moved into glacial areas late in the summer. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Pacific sand lance

  13. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-03-04

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction data collected on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior's climate monitoring array, part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost. In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans 68.5°N to 70.5°N and 142.5°W to 161°W, an area of roughly 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with provisional quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes several additional climate variables to be released in subsequent reports, including ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  20. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mean high tide of the Beaufort Lagoon, located in section 28, T. 6 N., R. 40 E., Umiat Meridian; Thence... Meridian at the line of extreme low tide; Thence northwesterly, along the northerly boundary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge at the line of extreme low tide on the seaward side of all offshore bars,...

  1. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mean high tide of the Beaufort Lagoon, located in section 28, T. 6 N., R. 40 E., Umiat Meridian; Thence... Meridian at the line of extreme low tide; Thence northwesterly, along the northerly boundary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge at the line of extreme low tide on the seaward side of all offshore bars,...

  2. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mean high tide of the Beaufort Lagoon, located in section 28, T. 6 N., R. 40 E., Umiat Meridian; Thence... Meridian at the line of extreme low tide; Thence northwesterly, along the northerly boundary of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge at the line of extreme low tide on the seaward side of all offshore bars,...

  3. 77 FR 27013 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes Timber Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Timber Sale Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to... timber in the Saddle Lakes ] area of Revillagigedo Island, Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District, Tongass National Forest. The proposed action would harvest almost 33 million board feet (MMBF) of...

  4. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  5. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  6. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Kanaga Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Kanaga Volcano is a steep-sided, symmetrical, cone-shaped, 1307 meter high, andesitic stratovolcano on the north end of Kanaga Island (51°55’ N latitude, 177°10’ W longitude) in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Kanaga Island is an elongated, low-relief (except for the volcano) island, located about 35 kilometers west of the community of Adak on Adak Island and is part of the Andreanof Islands Group of islands. Kanaga Volcano is one of the 41 historically active volcanoes in Alaska and has erupted numerous times in the past 11,000 years, including at least 10 eruptions in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption occurred in 1993-95 and caused minor ash fall on Adak Island and produced blocky aa lava flows that reached the sea on the northwest and west sides of the volcano (Neal and others, 1995). The summit of the volcano is characterized by a small, circular crater about 200 meters in diameter and 50-70 meters deep. Several active fumaroles are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the volcano are steep (20-30 degrees) and consist mainly of blocky, linear to spoonshaped lava flows that formed during eruptions of late Holocene age (about the past 3,000 years). The modern cone sits within a circular caldera structure that formed by large-scale collapse of a preexisting volcano. Evidence for eruptions of this preexisting volcano mainly consists of lava flows exposed along Kanaton Ridge, indicating that this former volcanic center was predominantly effusive in character. In winter (October-April), Kanaga Volcano may be covered by substantial amounts of snow that would be a source of water for lahars (volcanic mudflows). In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy distribution of snow on the volcano. Glacier ice is not present on the volcano or on other parts of Kanaga Island. Kanaga Island is uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by

  7. Maynard Participation in Alaska Forum on the Environment Panel Discussion on Increasing Input to the US National Climate Assessment (NCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Processes from Alaska, with Emphasis on Indigenous Peoples Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Nancy Maynard was invited by the Alaska Forum on the Environment to participate in a Panel Discussion to discuss (1) background about what the US NCA and International IPCC assessments are, (2) the impact the assessments have on policy-making, (3) the process for participation in both assessments, (4) how we can increase participation by Indigenous Peoples such as Native Americans and Alaska Natives, (5) How we can increase historical and current impacts input from Native communities through stories, oral history, "grey" literature, etc. The session will be chaired by Dr. Bull Bennett, a cochair of the US NCA's chapter on "Native and Tribal Lands and Resources" and Dr. Maynard is the other co-chair of that chapter and they will discuss the latest activities under the NCA process relevant to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Dr. Maynard is also a Lead Author of the "Polar Regions" chapter of the IPCC WG2 (5th Assessment) and she will describes some of the latest approaches by the IPCC to entrain more Indigenous peoples into the IPCC process.

  8. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  9. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  10. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  11. The significance of shifts in precipitation patterns: modelling the impacts of climate change and glacier retreat on extreme flood events in Denali National Park, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N; Whitehead, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24 m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21(st) century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21(st) century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff.

  12. The Significance of Shifts in Precipitation Patterns: Modelling the Impacts of Climate Change and Glacier Retreat on Extreme Flood Events in Denali National Park, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N.; Whitehead, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21st century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21st century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff. PMID

  13. Analyzing the impacts of off-road vehicle (ORV) trails on watershed processes in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Arp, Christopher D; Simmons, Trey

    2012-03-01

    Trails created by off-road vehicles (ORV) in boreal lowlands are known to cause local impacts, such as denuded vegetation, soil erosion, and permafrost thaw, but impacts on stream and watershed processes are less certain. In Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, ORV trails have caused local resource damage in intermountain lowlands with permafrost soils and abundant wetlands and there is a need to know whether these impacts are more extensive. Comparison of aerial photography from 1957, 1981, and 2004 coupled with ground surveys in 2009 reveal an increase in trail length and number and show an upslope expansion of a trail system around points of stream channel initiation. We hypothesized that these impacts could also cause premature initiation and headward expansion of channels because of lowered soil resistance and greater runoff accumulation as trails migrate upslope. Soil monitoring showed earlier and deeper thaw of the active layer in and adjacent to trails compared to reference sites. Several rainfall-runoff events during the summer of 2009 showed increased and sustained flow accumulation below trail crossings and channel shear forces sufficient to cause headward erosion of silt and peat soils. These observations of trail evolution relative to stream and wetland crossings together with process studies suggest that ORV trails are altering watershed processes. These changes in watershed processes appear to result in increasing drainage density and may also alter downstream flow regimes, water quality, and aquatic habitat. Addressing local land-use disturbances in boreal and arctic parklands with permafrost soils, such as WRST, where responses to climate change may be causing concurrent shifts in watershed processes, represents an important challenge facing resource managers.

  14. Constraining the age and magnitude of uplift in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)-apatite fission-track analysis of samples from three wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; O'Sullivan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A broad, post-mid-Cretaceous uplift is defined in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) by regional truncation of Cretaceous strata, thermal maturity patterns, and amounts of exhumation estimated from sonic logs. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of samples from three wells (South Meade No. 1, Topagoruk No. 1, and Ikpikpuk No. 1) across the eastern flank of the uplift indicates Tertiary cooling followed by Quaternary heating. Results from all three wells indicate that cooling, presumably caused by uplift and erosion, started about 75-65 Ma (latest Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary) and continued through the Tertiary Period. Data from South Meade indicate more rapid cooling after about 35-15 Ma (latest Eocene-middle Miocene) followed by a significant increase in subsurface temperature during the Quaternary, probably the result of increased heat flow. Data from Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk include subtle evidence of accelerated cooling starting in the latest Eocene-middle Miocene and possible evidence of increased temperature during the Quaternary. Subsurface temperature perturbations related to the insulating effect of permafrost may have been responsible for the Quaternary temperature increase at Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk and may have been a contributing factor at South Meade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence suggest that the magnitude of exhumation resulting from uplift and erosion is 5,000-6,500 ft at South Meade, 4,000-5,500 ft at Topagoruk, and 2,500-4,000 ft at Ikpikpuk. The results from these wells help to define the broad geometry of the uplift, which increases in magnitude from less than 1,000 ft at the Colville River delta to perhaps more than 7,000 ft along the northwestern coast of NPRA, between Point Barrow and Peard Bay. Neither the origin nor the offshore extent of the uplift, west and north of the NPRA coast, have been determined.

  15. The significance of shifts in precipitation patterns: modelling the impacts of climate change and glacier retreat on extreme flood events in Denali National Park, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Jill; Futter, Martyn N; Whitehead, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    In glacier-fed systems climate change may have various effects over a range of time scales, including increasing river discharge, flood frequency and magnitude. This study uses a combination of empirical monitoring and modelling to project the impacts of climate change on the glacial-fed Middle Fork Toklat River, Denali National Park, Alaska. We use a regional calibration of the model HBV to account for a paucity of long term observed flow data, validating a local application using glacial mass balance data and summer flow records. Two Global Climate Models (HADCM3 and CGCM2) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) are used to ascertain potential changes in meteorological conditions, river discharge, flood frequency and flood magnitude. Using remote sensing methods this study refines existing estimates of glacial recession rates, finding that since 2000, rates have increased from 24 m per year to 68.5m per year, with associated increases in ablation zone ice loss. GCM projections indicate that over the 21(st) century these rates will increase still further, most extensively under the CGCM2 model, and A2 scenarios. Due to greater winter precipitation and ice and snow accumulation, glaciers release increasing meltwater quantities throughout the 21(st) century. Despite increases in glacial melt, results indicate that it is predominantly precipitation that affects river discharge. Three of the four IPCC scenarios project increases in flood frequency and magnitude, events which were primarily associated with changing precipitation patterns, rather than extreme temperature increases or meltwater release. Results suggest that although increasing temperatures will significantly increase glacial melt and winter baseflow, meltwater alone does not pose a significant flood hazard to the Toklat River catchment. Projected changes in precipitation are the primary concern, both through changing snow volumes available for melt, and more directly through increasing catchment runoff. PMID

  16. Influence of the Kingak Shale ultimate shelf margin on frontal structures of the Brooks Range in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, Natalie E.; Connors, Christopher D.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes several southward-offlapping depositional sequences that culminate in an ultimate shelf margin, which preserves the depositional profile in southern NPRA. The Kingak Shale thins abruptly southward across the ultimate shelf margin and grades into condensed shale, which is intercalated with underlying condensed shale and chert of the Upper Triassic Shublik Formation and overlying condensed shale of the Lower Cretaceous pebble shale unit and the gamma-ray zone (GRZ) of the Hue Shale. This composite of condensed shale forms a thin (≈300-meter) and mechanically weak section between much thicker and mechanically stronger units, including the Sadlerochit and Lisburne Groups below and the sandstone-prone foredeep wedge of the Torok Formation above. Seismic interpretation indicates that the composite condensed section acted as the major detachment during an Early Tertiary phase of deformation in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range and that thrust faults step up northward to the top of the Kingak, or to other surfaces within the Kingak or the overlying Torok. The main structural style is imbricate fault-bend folding, although fault-propagation folding is evident locally, and large-displacement thrust faults incorporate backthrusting to form structural wedges. The Kingak ultimate shelf margin served as a ramp to localize several thrust faults, and the spatial relationship between the ultimate shelf margin and thrust vergence is inferred to have controlled many structures in southern NPRA. For example, the obliqueness of the Carbon Creek anticline relative to other structures in the foothills is the result of northward-verging thrust faults impinging obliquely on the Kingak ultimate shelf margin in southwestern NPRA.

  17. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime Organization. (2) Sea area A2... in which continuous DSC alerting is available as defined by the International Maritime...

  18. Surficial geologic map of parts of the Misheguk Mountain and Baird Mountains quadrangles, Noatak National Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    The map area, which comprises part of the Noatak National Preserve, includes approximately the southern two-thirds of the Misheguk Mountain quadrangle and the northern one-third of the Baird Mountains quadrangle. It is centered on a belt of west-trending lowlands along the Noatak River which separates the De Long Mountains to the north from the Baird Mountains to the south (Burch, 1990, p. 196-201). The map area extends between the drainage divides which bound the Noatak drainage system to the north and south, separating that network from streams that flow north into the Arctic Ocean and south into the Kobuk River. An additional small segment in the southwest corner of the map area covers the upper drainage basin of Eli River, which flows west and then south to intersect the Noatak River about 50 km upvalley from Kotzebue Sound.

  19. Glacial history and runoff components of the Tlikakila River Basin, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; March, Rod S.; Trabant, Dennis C.

    2004-01-01

    The Tlikakila River is located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and drains an area of 1,610 square kilometers (622 square miles). Runoff from the Tlikakila River Basin accounts for about one half of the total inflow to Lake Clark. Glaciers occupy about one third of the basin and affect the runoff characteristics of the Tlikakila River. As part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service, glacier changes and runoff characteristics in the Tlikakila River Basin were studied in water years 2001 and 2002. Based on analyses of remote sensing data and on airborne laser profiling, most glaciers in the Tlikakila River Basin have retreated and thinned from 1957 to the present. Volume loss from 1957-2001 from the Tanaina Glacier, the largest glacier in the Tlikakila River Basin, was estimated to be 6.1 x 109 cubic meters or 1.4 x 108 cubic meters per year. For the 2001 water year, mass balance measurements made on the three largest glaciers in the Tlikakila River BasinTanaina, Glacier Fork, and North Forkall indicate a negative mass balance. Runoff measured near the mouth of the Tlikakila River for water year 2001 was 1.70 meters. Of this total, 0.18 meters (11 percent) was from glacier ice melt, 1.27 meters (75 percent) was from snowmelt, 0.24 meters (14 percent) was from rainfall runoff, and 0.01 meters (1 percent) was from ground water. Although ground water is a small component of runoff, it provides a critical source of warm water for fish survival in the lower reaches of the Tlikakila River.

  20. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  1. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  2. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  3. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  4. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.310 Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a)...

  5. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  6. 78 FR 42101 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their applications for membership, to the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions about submitting an application or about the Boston Area Maritime...

  7. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the... Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating to establish Area Maritime...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80.1135 Section 80.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System...

  13. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership, to the...-223-3008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  14. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  15. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  17. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  19. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  20. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  1. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  2. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  3. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  4. Water quality of the Crescent River basin, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a water-quality investigation of the Crescent River Basin in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve from May 2003 through September 2004. The Crescent River Basin was studied because it has a productive sockeye salmon run that is important to the Cook Inlet commercial fishing industry. Water-quality, biology, and limnology characteristics were assessed. Glacier-fed streams that flow into Crescent Lake transport suspended sediment that is trapped by the lake. Suspended sediment concentrations from the Lake Fork Crescent River (the outlet stream of Crescent Lake) were less than 10 milligrams per liter, indicating a high trapping efficiency of Crescent Lake. The North Fork Crescent River transports suspended sediment throughout its course and provides most of the suspended sediment to the main stem of the Crescent River downstream from the confluence of the Lake Fork Crescent River. Three locations on Crescent Lake were profiled during the summer of 2004. Turbidity profiles indicate sediment plumes within the water column at various times during the summer. Turbidity values are higher in June, reflecting the glacier-fed runoff into the lake. Lower values of turbidity in August and September indicate a decrease of suspended sediment entering Crescent Lake. The water type throughout the Crescent River Basin is calcium bicarbonate. Concentrations of nutrients, major ions, and dissolved organic carbon are low. Alkalinity concentrations are generally less than 20 milligrams per liter, indicating a low buffering capacity of these waters. Streambed sediments collected from three surface sites analyzed for trace elements indicated that copper concentrations at all sites were above proposed guidelines. However, copper concentrations are due to the local geology, not anthropogenic factors. Zooplankton samples from Crescent Lake indicated the main taxa are Cyclops sp., a Copepod, and within that taxa were a

  5. Development of a Monitoring Protocol to Detect Ecological Change in the Intertidal Zone of Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Madison, Erica N.

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study to develop and test a probability-based intertidal monitoring protocol for Sitka National Historical Park was conducted from 1999 to 2003. In 1999, the basic design, with a focus on sampling the whole of the designated intertidal was created, and sampling was conducted for sessile species and large mobile invertebrates by point-intercept sampling of vertical transects and band surveys along transects, respectively. In 2002 and 2003, the same types of sampling were conducted, but quadrat sampling for small mobile invertebrates was added and then modified. This project has produced basic data on the presence, abundance, and spatial distribution of substrates and intertidal biota. Additionally, statistical power analyses conducted on the biological data have allowed assessment of the ability of the sampling to detect trends in the abundance of the predominant species. Current sampling has an 80 percent probability to detect +10 percent annual changes in abundance of all targeted species with an a = 0.05; the ability to detect -10 percent trends is not as uniformly high. Various options are discussed for decreasing the spatial variance of the data. The information presented provides a basis for discussion of the major questions being asked, how the sampling design might be reconfigured to be consistent in approach, and how the intertidal monitoring should interface with other potential intertidal monitoring.

  6. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  7. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  8. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  9. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  10. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  11. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  12. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  13. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  14. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  15. EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Miner, J.; Bierma, R. M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. As the array doubles in Alaska, IRIS continues to collaborate closely with other network operators, universities and research consortia in Alaska and Canada including the Alaska Earthquake Center (AEC), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), Canadian Hazard Information Service (CHIS), the Yukon Geologic Survey (YGS), the Pacific Geoscience Center of the Geologic Survey, Yukon College and others. During FY14 and FY15 the TA has completed upgrade work at 20 Alaska Earthquake Center stations and 2 AVO stations, TA has co-located borehole seismometers at 5 existing PBO GPS stations to augment the EarthScope observatory. We present an overview of deployment plan and the status through 2015. The performance of new Alaska TA stations including improvements to existing stations is described.

  16. National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Karen A. Ohman,; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change. Existing shoreline data measurements and rate calculation methods vary from study to study and prevent combining results into state-wide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment project was to develop a standardized method of measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the results in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in section, "Geospatial Data."

  17. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  18. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  19. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  20. Using message brokering and data mediation on earth science data to enhance global maritime situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Greidanus, H.

    2016-04-01

    Maritime Situational Awareness is the understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has developed an in-house data collection, data analysis and data visualiztion facility, known as the Blue Hub. The Blue Hub operates as a research and development platform for integrated maritime surveillance and maritime situational awareness. It has global coverage and has been applied, for example, to support counter-piracy around Africa, to investigate fishing activity and to monitor the growing ship traffic in the Arctic. In order to improve maritime awareness and support risk assessment, the JRC has started to integrate data from the marine and atmosheric science community. In particular the JRC is interested in using forecasts from operational ocean models and weather models. For the Blue Hub a new type of data server, called ERDDAP, that performs message brokering and data mediation has become an essential tool for the accessing of ocean forecast data as quickly as possible in easy to use formats. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the USA) is making global oceanography and weather data available through the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP) data broker. ERDDAP provides RESTful machine to machine communication, data brokering and data mediation by converting data to a number of standard and developer friendly formats, including some Open Geospatial Consortium formats. In this paper, we demonstrate how data brokering and mediation is making complex scientific data accessible. We show how such data is being integrated into the Blue Hub system to enhance maritime situational awareness.

  1. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ..., Rehfeld, Mertz, LLC, Professional Plaza Building B, 9309 Glacier Highway, Suite B-200, Juneau, Alaska... Building B, 9309 Glacier Highway, Suite B-200, Juneau, Alaska 99801. The initial determination that an... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  2. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  3. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  4. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  11. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  12. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... an industry fee system to repay a $23.5 million loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon... Mail: Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine...

  13. Water quality of streams draining abandoned and reclaimed mined lands in the Kantishna Hills area, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2008–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The Kantishna Hills are an area of low elevation mountains in the northwest part of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Streams draining the Kantishna Hills are clearwater streams that support several species of fish and are derived from rain, snowmelt, and subsurface aquifers. However, the water quality of many of these streams has been degraded by mining. Past mining practices generated acid mine drainage and excessive sediment loads that affected water quality and aquatic habitat. Because recovery through natural processes is limited owing to a short growing season, several reclamation projects have been implemented on several streams in the Kantishna Hills region. To assess the current water quality of streams in the Kantishna Hills area and to determine if reclamation efforts have improved water quality, a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service was undertaken during 2008-11. High levels of turbidity, an indicator of high concentrations of suspended sediment, were documented in water-quality data collected in the mid-1980s when mining was active. Mining ceased in 1985 and water-quality data collected during this study indicate that levels of turbidity have declined significantly. Turbidity levels generally were less than 2 Formazin Nephelometric Units and suspended sediment concentrations generally were less than 1 milligram per liter during the current study. Daily turbidity data at Rock Creek, an unmined stream, and at Caribou Creek, a mined stream, documented nearly identical patterns of turbidity in 2009, indicating that reclamation as well as natural revegetation in mined streams has improved water quality. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions were highest from streams that had been mined. Most of these streams flow into Moose Creek, which functions as an integrator stream, and dilutes the specific conductance and ion concentrations. Calcium and magnesium are the

  14. Alaska School-to-Work Opportunities Development Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    In 1994, Alaska began the process of using its grant funds from the National School-to-Work Opportunities Act to design a school-to-work system to meet the following objectives: obtain commitment and involvement from Alaska's governor and officials involved in human resource development; develop an implementation plan for a statewide system to…

  15. Maritime drug trafficking: an underrated problem.

    PubMed

    Aune, B R

    1990-01-01

    Seizure data indicate that a substantial proportion of the total quantity of drugs seized is confiscated from maritime modes of conveyance or has been transported by sea. The trafficking of narcotic drugs by sea has virtually become an industry comprised of many individual enterprises of varying size and organization. The maritime medium is one of the main ways by which drugs may enter some countries. In response to the problem, various sophisticated anti-trafficking offensives and strategies have been established or contemplated in certain geographical areas. The shipment of drugs to the primary consuming countries has not been curbed, however, and there is every indication that the overall movement of drugs is still unimpeded.

  16. 75 FR 38452 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... private contractual arrangements. Second, Amendment 86 would exempt vessels using jig gear from the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program; Amendment 86 AGENCY: National...: Notification of availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  17. OCULUS SeaTM: integrated maritime surveillance platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Sotirios A.; Katsoulis, Stavros; Motos, Dionysis; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Margonis, Chris; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    OCULUS Sea™ is a C2 platform for Integrated Maritime Surveillance. The platform consists of "loosely coupled" National/ Regional and Local C2 Centers which are "centrally governed". "Loosely coupled" as C2 Centers are located separately, share their Situational Pictures via a Message Oriented Middleware but preserve their administrational and operational autonomy. "Centrally governed" as there exists a central governance mechanism at the NCC that registers, authenticates and authorizes Regional and Local C2 centers into the OCULUS Sea network. From operational point of view, OCULUS Sea has been tested under realistic conditions during the PERSEUS [3] Eastern Campaign and has been positively evaluated by Coast Guard officers from Spain and Greece. From Research and Development point of view, OCULUS Sea can act as a test bed for validating any technology development is this domain in the near future.

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, Part 2, July 22, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This hearing consisted primarily of the testimonies of two witnesses: Roger Herrera, Manager, Exploration and Lands, Standard Oil Production Co.; and Tim Mahoney, Alaska Coaliton, Washington, DC, representing the Sierra Club. The statements of these two, plus questions from the Committee, were to address six issues primarily in the gas and oil production versus environmental debate: (1) availability of water; (2) availability of gravel; (3) disposal of waste and toxic materials; (4) the concentrated caribou calving areas; (5) the environmental record at Prudhoe Bay; and (6) air-quality issues. Sen. Fran H. Murkowski of Alaska, in noting the conflicting statements of the two witnesses noted that many of the environmental questions raised were also raised for Prudhoe Bay; further, the problems are probably not as difficult. Mr. Mahoney foresees, but the solution not as easy as Mr. Herrera, representing the oil interests, foresees.

  19. Geologic Map of Central (Interior) Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Dover, James H.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Weber, Florence R.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction: This map and associated digital databases are the result of a compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and limited 1:125,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 416,000 sq km (134,000 sq mi) and encompasses 25 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in central Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Surveys and Analysis project, whose goal is nationwide assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This map is an early product of an effort that will eventually encompass all of Alaska, and is the result of an agreement with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil And Gas, to provide data on interior basins in Alaska. A paper version of the three map sheets has been published as USGS Open-File Report 98-133. Two geophysical maps that cover the identical area have been published earlier: 'Bouguer gravity map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and others, 1996); and 'Merged aeromagnetic map of Interior Alaska' (Meyer and Saltus, 1995). These two publications are supplied in the 'geophys' directory of this report.

  20. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  1. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Great Sitkin Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    distribution of snow on the volcano. Glacier ice is no longer present on the volcano or on other parts of Great Sitkin Island as previously reported by Simons and Mathewson (1955). Great Sitkin Island is presently uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. SAR-based sea traffic monitoring: a reliable approach for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renga, Alfredo; Graziano, Maria D.; D'Errico, M.; Moccia, A.; Cecchini, A.

    2011-11-01

    Maritime surveillance problems are drawing the attention of multiple institutional actors. National and international security agencies are interested in matters like maritime traffic security, maritime pollution control, monitoring migration flows and detection of illegal fishing activities. Satellite imaging is a good way to identify ships but, characterized by large swaths, it is likely that the imaged scenes contain a large number of ships, with the vast majority, hopefully, performing legal activities. Therefore, the imaging system needs a supporting system which identifies legal ships and limits the number of potential alarms to be further monitored by patrol boats or aircrafts. In this framework, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, terrestrial AIS and the ongoing satellite AIS systems can represent a great potential synergy for maritime security. Starting from this idea the paper develops different designs for an AIS constellation able to reduce the time lag between SAR image and AIS data acquisition. An analysis of SAR-based ship detection algorithms is also reported and candidate algorithms identified.

  3. 33 CFR 103.510 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan review and approval. 103.510 Section 103.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security...

  4. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 1979 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.; Williams, John R.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa] RESUMEN En este artículo, evaluamos la hipótesis de que los pueblos Swahili de la costa oriental africana fueron una sociedad marítima a partir del primer milenio E.C. Basados en información histórica y arqueológica, proponemos que la asociación de la sociedad Swahili con el mar incrementó considerablemente con el tiempo y se manifestó de una forma significativa particularmente desde principios del segundo milenio E.C. Utilizando teorías recientes sobre maritimidad en otras áreas del mundo, así como investigaciones sobre los Swahili, discutimos tres temas que marcan las diferencias del nivel de orientación marítima de

  8. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  10. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  11. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene.

  12. Creating a culturally appropriate web-based behavioral intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native women in Southern California: the healthy women healthy Native nation study.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Clapp, John D; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process resulted in several important program modifications and was essential for fostering partnerships between researchers and the community, engaging community members in research, and identifying community priorities.

  13. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  14. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  15. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  16. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  17. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  18. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  19. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  20. The Alaska Journal of Art, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Cole H., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The inaugural issue of this annual journal explores issues affecting art education practices in Alaska and seeks to contribute to a national dialogue on art education policy. "Art as General Education" (Harry S. Broudy) addresses the essential value and nature of the arts in general education. It argues for visual arts education as a key to…

  1. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  2. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality and…

  3. 75 FR 63892 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... perspective to the Secretary of Transportation via the Maritime Administrator. DATES: Completed application... national freight policy from a marine transportation Perspective, and; such other matters, related to...

  4. Remote Sensing Capabilities to Detect Maritime Vessels in Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Rudolph K.; Green, John M.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Rais, Houra

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility for conducting research and development for search and rescue as charged under the National Search and Rescue Plan. For over two decades this task has been undertaken by the Search and Rescue Mission Office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The technology used by the highly successful beacon locating satellite system, Cospas-Sarsat, was conceived and developed at GSFC and is managed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Using beacon-less remote sensing to find people and vessels in distress complements the demonstrated life saving capabilities of this satellite system. The Search and Rescue Mission Office has been investigating the use of fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar to locate crashed aircraft. An overview of this effort and potential maritime applications of Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will be presented. The Mission Office has also developed a Laser search and rescue system called L-SAR. The prototype instrument was designed and built by SenSyTech Inc. It specifically targets the location of novel retro-reflective material easily applied to rescue equipment and vessels in distress. An overview of this effort will also be presented.

  5. National assessment of shoreline change: historical change along the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, documents and describes the results of the analysis, and explains historical trends and rates of shoreline change. This Alaska shoreline change assessment differs from previously published shoreline change assessments in that: (1) only two historical shorelines (from the 1940s and 2000s eras) were available for the Alaska study area whereas four or more shorelines (from 1850 to 2002) were available for the other assessments and, thus, only end-point rates for one long-term analysis period are reported here, compared to a combination of long-term and short-term rates as reported in other studies; (2) modern (2000s era) shorelines in this study represent a visually derived land-water interface position versus an elevation based, tidally referenced shoreline position; and (3) both exposed open-ocean and sheltered mainland-lagoon shorelines and rates of change are included in this study compared to other locations where only exposed open-ocean sandy shorelines or bluff edges were evaluated. No distinction was made between sand or gravel beaches, and the base of the unconsolidated coastal bluff was considered the shoreline where no fronting beach existed.

  6. 75 FR 60133 - Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership to the Captain of the Port Sector Detroit. DATES: Requests for membership should reach the U.S. Coast...

  7. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  12. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  13. 33 CFR 101.405 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section shall be marked as sensitive security information (SSI) in accordance with 49 CFR part... of and access to sensitive security information, and that under 49 CFR 1520.5(b), they have a need to... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Control Measures for Security § 101.405...

  14. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  15. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  16. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  17. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  18. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  19. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  20. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  1. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  2. 76 FR 59997 - Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Actions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Anchorage, Alaska. Chugach National Forest Decisions of the Forest Supervisor and the Glacier and Seward... Forest Service Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed... Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal notice of all decisions subject to...

  3. 78 FR 27863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch of...

  4. 77 FR 75399 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary because the 2012 total allowable catch of...

  5. 75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610... catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  6. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  8. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  9. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  10. 75 FR 1595 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Access System for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska. Potential eligible applicants are notified of... sport fishery for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory...

  11. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND....201 Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National...

  12. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  13. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  14. Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kidd, Kenneth K; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-06-24

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.

  15. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene. PMID:9743490

  16. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  17. A maritime roadmap in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, George

    2013-04-01

    Web mapping has morphed from sharing maps and geospatial information to a geospatial content management system that supports collaboration. The new iteration allows for the publication and sharing with others, as well as the access to rich global base data through cloud services. The European EMODnet initiative provides an excellent showcase to the world what can be achieved today. This presentation will highlight the latest developments on portal and geospatial cloud services as the basis for sharing in a Marine SDI, and how the maritime community can benefit from this right away. Various examples of maritime cloud services (Emodnet, Eye on Earth) will be discussed to illustrate the capabilities provided by these developments. New technologies and especially those dealing with the latest web-trends are easily consumed and applied. This introduces a risk of a series of new services and start-ups all competing for our attention causing the reverse effect of what we try achieve: easier access to collaborative information and better tools to analyze and understand it. Instead we end up looking for a road map. Esri long supports data interoperability and sharing, and understands these challenges. In this presentation we will give an insider's view on Esri's vision for a road map that allows data managers and data users to collaborate effectively using a platform approach, optimizing cloud computing and GIS to allow access from many devices and for many applications. The presentation will conclude by highlighting how this platform can be implemented and utilized, supported by the ocean content initiative, to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general in oceanography and ocean sciences.

  18. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  19. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  20. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. 105.230 Section 105.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security...

  1. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  2. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  3. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  4. 76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA747 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public Workshops AGENCY: National Marine...

  5. 77 FR 4997 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Individual Fishing Quota Cost Recovery Program Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections,...

  6. 77 FR 25721 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    .... Accordingly, this portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. (2) Global Supply Chain Security... Supply Chain Security Initiative. The Committee will receive an update and provide further guidance.... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  7. 76 FR 66313 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... Committee (NMSAC) will meet via teleconference on November 15, 2011 to discuss the results of a working... working group was created to review the following five goals of the strategy. The committee will...

  8. 76 FR 25702 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket... (NMSAC) will meet by teleconference to discuss the results of the Seafarer Access to Shore Leave Working Group. This meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The teleconference meeting will take place...

  9. 77 FR 23120 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... spectators from the inherent dangers associated with these types of races which includes large wakes....

  10. 77 FR 1076 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316.... 109-347) NMSAC continues to be consulted in regards to the Global Supply Chain Security...

  11. 78 FR 55089 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... speaker. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ryan Owens, ADFO of NMSAC, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr..., 2013. ADDRESSES: This meeting will be held at the new Coast Guard Headquarters, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20593, Room 6i10-01-b-17. Due to security at the new...

  12. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project.

  13. Maritime transport in the Gulf of Bothnia 2030.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Annukka; Repka, Sari

    2014-10-01

    Scenarios for shipping traffic in the Gulf of Bothnia (GoB) by 2030 are described in order to identify the main factors that should be taken into account when preparing a Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP) for the area. The application of future research methodology to planning of marine areas was also assessed. The methods include applying existing large scale quantitative scenarios for maritime traffic in the GoB and using real-time Delphi in which an expert group discussed different factors contributing to future maritime traffic in the GoB to find out the probability and significance of the factors having an impact on maritime traffic. MSP was tested on transnational scale in the Bothnian sea area as a pilot project. PMID:24477617

  14. The Ocean Construct: A Model for Maritime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allin, Lawrence C.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an organizational construct to help teachers integrate the oceanographic and maritime disciplines within a comprehensible framework. The construct considers three areas: aquasphere, human adaptation to the ocean, and integrative prospects. (Author/AV)

  15. The eastern maritime boundary between the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    1984-04-01

    The easternmost part of the United States is separated from Canada by an imaginary line in the ocean. The oceanic boundary is evidence of the extensive marine heritage of the state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The International Court of Justice at The Hague (the "World Court") recently handed down a decision which extended the boundary line across the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank. The action was intended to resolve a long-standing controversy our fishing rights on Georges Bank (Eos, 65, (45), p. 801, 1984). The extension of the line adds a modern chapter to a maritime boundary dispute which is older than the government of either nation. The controversy is rooted in imprecise language used in the Treaty of Paris, which officially separated the nascent United States from Great Britain in 1783. Faced with sorting out the implications of the recent boundary decision, it is well to recall and perhaps benefit from the long history of related events, most of which had serious economic and personal consequences for residents on each side of the border.

  16. Military airborne and maritime application for cooperative behaviors.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Robinett, Rush D. III

    2004-09-01

    As part of DARPA's Software for Distributed Robotics Program within the Information Processing Technologies Office (IPTO), Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with identifying military airborne and maritime missions that require cooperative behaviors as well as identifying generic collective behaviors and performance metrics for these missions. This report documents this study. A prioritized list of general military missions applicable to land, air, and sea has been identified. From the top eight missions, nine generic reusable cooperative behaviors have been defined. A common mathematical framework for cooperative controls has been developed and applied to several of the behaviors. The framework is based on optimization principles and has provably convergent properties. A three-step optimization process is used to develop the decentralized control law that minimizes the behavior's performance index. A connective stability analysis is then performed to determine constraints on the communication sample period and the local control gains. Finally, the communication sample period for four different network protocols is evaluated based on the network graph, which changes throughout the task. Using this mathematical framework, two metrics for evaluating these behaviors are defined. The first metric is the residual error in the global performance index that is used to create the behavior. The second metric is communication sample period between robots, which affects the overall time required for the behavior to reach its goal state.

  17. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  18. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-08-01

    is highly limited; and that, as a result, memories current among the older generation have limited prospect of survival. These memories, recorded and interpreted here, identify the Farasan Islands as a former centre of the pearling industry in the Red Sea, and identify them and Jizan as open to far-reaching maritime-mediated cultural influences in an era before the imposition of the attributes of the modern nation-state.

  19. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852. PMID:26281238

  20. 77 FR 44472 - Safety Zone; Port Valdez, Alaska Maritime Highway System Ferry Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Ferry Terminal AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Marine Highway System (AMHS) Terminal in Port Valdez when an AMHS Ferry is arriving or departing when... AMHS Ferry Terminal. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of passenger vessels...

  1. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  2. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  3. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  4. The GANDER constellation for maritime dissaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Curiel, R. A.; Jolly, G.; Zheng, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The development of sea state monitoring from polar-orbiting satellites has recently moved away from the concept of single, multi-sensor platform such as ERS-2, Topex/Poseidon or ENVISAT towards the design of a system that would allow frequent updates from a constellation of small satellites equipped with special-purpose radar altimeters. This new system, called GANDER for Global Altimeter Network Designed to Evaluate Risk, has attracted significant support from a number of important customer segments including the military. This paper details the design of an altimeter for a Surrey small satellite, and illustrates the major system trade-offs that need to be made. Critical to the viability of the mission will be the development of a radar altimeter capable of operating successfully on a small satellite bus, within a limited volume and power budget. The mission design presents a number of key technological challenges, in order to permit a physically small antenna to be employed, and to minimise the pulse power. This can be achieved by advanced techniques, such as the delay Doppler altimeter concept, which emphasises the needs for high-speed on-board signal processing, phase linearity and pulse-to-pulse phase coherency. The system design for the GANDER constellation is also described, illustrating how it not only offers a means for maritime disaster mitigation, but also can reduce shipping cost and time.

  5. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework.

    PubMed

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-02-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer's role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this "poor compliance" trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue.

  6. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Pensa, Claudio; Speranza, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Documentation of maritime heritage is essential for its protection, and for reference in restoration and renovation processes. These functions become problematic in the case of historical ships and boats that lack lines drawings. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for creation of lines drawings based on the shape analysis of surviving historical boats or their small-scale models with the help of reverse engineering (RE) techniques. The paper describes how digital photogrammetry and the iterative method were used to analyze the shape of three historical boats: Tomahawk, Refola and Nada. The application of the proposed procedure produced the lines drawings of the boats as its result. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model obtained with the photogrammetric technique was verified by comparing it against a more accurate 3D model produced with the help of a RE laser scanner. The examination of the resulting lines drawings proves that the digital photogrammetry process and the proposed iterative method are adequate tools for developing lines plans of boat models. The research offers the methodological basis for the creation of an archive of lines drawings of historical boats. Such an archive would provide reference for philologically correct restorations, and permit definition and classification of distinctive elements of various types of historical boats, particularly those produced in the Campania Region.

  7. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  8. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska 1980 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  10. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Nairn R. D.; Hudson, Travis

    1981-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  11. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  12. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  13. USGS US topo maps for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Becci; Fuller, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, the USGS National Geospatial Program began producing new topographic maps for Alaska, providing a new map series for the state known as US Topo. Prior to the start of US Topo map production in Alaska, the most detailed statewide USGS topographic maps were 15-minute 1:63,360-scale maps, with their original production often dating back nearly fifty years. The new 7.5-minute digital maps are created at 1:25,000 map scale, and show greatly increased topographic detail when compared to the older maps. The map scale and data specifications were selected based on significant outreach to various map user groups in Alaska. This multi-year mapping initiative will vastly enhance the base topographic maps for Alaska and is possible because of improvements to key digital map datasets in the state. The new maps and data are beneficial in high priority applications such as safety, planning, research and resource management. New mapping will support science applications throughout the state and provide updated maps for parks, recreation lands and villages.

  14. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  15. 77 FR 2998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). These lands lie entirely within the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Refuge......

  16. 78 FR 76174 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to Paimiut Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in certain lands for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The lands approved for conveyance lie partially within a national wildlife......

  17. Jurassic-Neocomian biostratigraphy, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, M.B.; Haga, H.

    1985-04-01

    The foraminiferal and palynological biostratigraphy of subsurface Jurassic and Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age strata from the North Slope were investigated to better define biostratigraphic zone boundaries and to help clarify the correlation of the stratigraphic units in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Through use of micropaleontologic data, eight principal biostratigraphic units have been identified. The Neocomian and Jurassic strata have each been subdivided into four main units.

  18. Observed changes in phenology across the USA: A regional review for the 2013 National Climate Assessment, Alaska and the Arctic Regional Information Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    This information was developed in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s National Climate Assessment and can be used to facilitate preparation for the cascading effects of ongoing climate change.

  19. Alaska English/Language Arts and Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  20. Basewide energy study, Fort Greely, Alaska. Volume 1, executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    In response to the Nation`s commitment to energy conservation, the Army Corps of Engineers (CoE) has contracted with Grumman Aerospace Corporation to perform a Basewide Energy Study of three forts in Alaska. The purpose of the study is to produce a systematic plan of improvement projects to reduce energy consumption.