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Sample records for alaska native languages

  1. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  2. Alaska Native Languages: A Bibliographical Catalogue. Part One: Indian Languages. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.; McGary, Mary Jane

    This catalogue describes Alaska native language materials at the research library and archive of the Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The volume covers the sections of the library devoted to Indian languages as well as the general and bibliography sections. Since the collection is almost exhaustive, the catalogue is…

  3. A Map of the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E., Comp.

    Recommended for use in classrooms (no specific grade level is assigned) throughout Alaska, this base E sized wall map (4 feet by 3 feet) is color coded (number coded for the ERIC system) to reflect the 20 Alaska Native languages. Designating language dialect areas and boundaries, this map details the language relationships of the four Eskimo…

  4. Bibliography of Educational Publications for Alaska Native Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGary, Jane, Comp.

    Both Indian and Eskimo-Aleut languages are covered in this annotated bibliography of Alaska native languages. Listings for each language are broken down into general works, reference works, materials on bilingual education where there are any available, and educational materials. In many cases the last category is extensive enough to require…

  5. Native Language Dictionaries and Grammars of Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goniwiecha, Mark C.; Hales, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes recent political and social activities aimed at preserving the culture of Native Americans in Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland. An annotated bibliography of sources for the Eskimo Aleut, Tsimshian, Haida, Athabascan (Athapascan), Eyak and Tlingit languages is provided. (CLB)

  6. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... develop high levels of academic attainment in English among English learners (ELs) \\1\\, and to promote... methods of evaluation will provide performance feedback and permit periodic assessment of progress toward... American and Alaska Native Children in School Program: (i) The percentage of English learners (ELs)...

  7. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  8. Reading and Language Arts Curricula in Elementary and Secondary Education for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.

    Native students rank far below norms in reading, language arts, and language arts related subjects. This paper reviews the literature to address strategic plans for reading and language arts curricula for Native students. An overview is presented of theories of first and second language acquisition and learning, stages of language development, and…

  9. Athabaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit Sonorants. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.; Leer, Jeff

    A historical-comparative study of the sonorant system of Athabaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit, American Indian languages of Alaska, is presented. In this study, sonorants are considered as a class rather than as a constituent of the general consonant group. An opening section looks at the development of the generally recognized Proto-Athabaskan (PA)…

  10. American Indians and Alaska Natives with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marilyn J.

    American Indian and Alaska Native children with special needs experience the same ineffective and inefficient services as other minority language children. This paper discusses the special needs of Native children, assessment and curriculum issues, and recommendations for improvement. It provides statistics for various categories of handicaps and…

  11. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village who is primarily... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and towns in Alaska. (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or...

  12. 75 FR 45649 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross, Alaska, and... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR...

  13. Profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Largest Percentage of ELs Who Were Native American and/or…

  14. Bill Demmert and Native Education in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the influences of William Demmert's formative years growing up in Alaska and his years as an educator of Native American students upon his career in Native education policy. It focuses on Alaska Native education during a ten-year period between 1980 and 1990 during which time he served as the director of the Center for…

  15. Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D.

    The monograph on the North Alaskan dialect of Inupiaq, an Eskimo language, makes a phonological comparison of the two sub-dialects, Barrow and Kobuk. An introductory section outlines basic word structure and standard orthography, and gives an overview of the dialects' phonology. Subsequent sections give an extensive phonological analysis of these…

  16. Yupik Eskimo Prosodic Systems: Descriptive and Comparative Studies. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael, Ed.

    Nine papers on Yupik Eskimo prosody systems are presented. An introductory section gives background information on the Yupik language and dialects, defines prosody, and provides notes on orthography. The papers include: "A History of the Study of Yupik Prosody" (Michael Krauss); "Siberian Yupik and Central Yupik Prosody"…

  17. Stroke Mortality Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Ronnie D.; Day, Gretchen M.; Lanier, Anne P.; Provost, Ellen M.; Hamel, Rebecca D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of stroke among Alaska Natives, which is essential for designing effective stroke prevention and intervention efforts for this population. Methods. We conducted an analysis of death certificate data for the state of Alaska for the period 1984 to 2003, comparing age-standardized stroke mortality rates among Alaska Natives residing in Alaska vs US Whites by age category, gender, stroke type, and time. Results. Compared with US Whites, Alaska Natives had significantly elevated stroke mortality from 1994 to 2003 but not from 1984 to 1993. Alaska Native women of all age groups and Alaska Native men younger than 45 years of age had the highest risk, although the rates for those younger than 65 years were statistically imprecise. Over the 20-year study period, the stroke mortality rate was stable for Alaska Natives but declined for US Whites. Conclusions. Stroke mortality is higher among Alaska Natives, especially women, than among US Whites. Over the past 20 years, there has not been a significant decline in stroke mortality among Alaska Natives. PMID:19762671

  18. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How ... conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Breast cancer Cancer ...

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While ...

  20. A Model for Promoting Native American Language Preservation and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Richard E.; Martinez, Alicia, Ed.

    The Interface Alaska Multifunctional Resource Center developed a model for training Native American language teachers to effectively teach Native languages. The model provides Native American paraprofessional language teachers with basic knowledge of classroom techniques and effective teaching strategies. The training introduces the Total Physical…

  1. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Investigator Parkinsonism (PS) is a syndrome characterized by tremor , rigidity, slowness of movement, and problems with walking and balance...2. Developing an identification protocol. The primary source of parkinsonism cases will be the Indian Health Service (IHS) provider database, called...of parkinsonism among Alaska Natives. Status: Complete 3. Developing a secure Alaska Native parkinsonism registry database. Status: The database

  2. Proceedings of the Alaska-Russia Native Peoples Health and Social Issues Conference. May 1992, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D L; Soule, S

    1993-04-01

    An Alaska-Russia Native People's Health and Social Issues Conference, sponsored by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Native Foundation, the University of Anchorage Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies, the International Scientific Center "ARTIKA" (Magadan, Russia), the Associations of Native People of Chukotka and Kolyma, and the Magadan Native Association, was held in Wasilla, Alaska in May, 1992. The conference brought together Native people, primarily health and social services workers, to discuss differences and similarities in issues and approaches, and to lay the foundation for future collaboration. The primary participants came mostly from rural villages and small regional cities, and represented Native Health Corporations, Native Associations, and villages. Additional participants came from the University of Alaska, the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Indian Health Service, the Magadan Health Department, the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, and the International Union for Circumpolar Health. A Total of 39 people participated, including: eight Russian Natives (Chukchi, Even, and Siberian Yup'ik); three non-Native Russians; 18 Alaska Natives (Aleut, Athabaskan, Inupiat, Siberian Yup'ik, Yup'ik); nine non-Native Alaskans; one Canadian. The issues discussed in individual and panel presentations, and in small groups, included history, demography, settlement patterns, the cash and subsistence economies, mental and physical health (epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention), education, governance, culture and language. As the conference participants came to know each other better, the discussions became increasingly open, and, particularly around shared feelings of cultural oppression and loss, emotional.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Among Alaska Native Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alaska Native peoples were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), data now show that this is not the case, despite traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. In this article, the current understanding of CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples, particularly among the Yupik and Inupiat populations, will be discussed, using data from three major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health: Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease among Alaska Natives (GOCADAN), Center for Native Health Research (CANHR), and Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH). Data from these epidemiologic studies have focused concern on CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples. This review will summarize the findings of these three principal studies and will suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:24367710

  4. Alaska Native Education: History and Adaptation in the New Millenium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawagley, Angayuqaq Oscar

    1999-01-01

    Examines ways of learning and knowing among the Yupiaq people of Alaska. Discusses traditional Yupiaq lifeways based on connection to nature, and the consequences of acculturation. Outlines suggestions for seasonal camps in which elders would teach Native language, culture, environmental knowledge, and subsistence skills, as well as the means of…

  5. 75 FR 9427 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ..., Limited. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross and Huslia, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River... Bureau of Land Management [AA-8103-63, AA-8103-65, F-21902-06, F-21903-54, F-21903-55, F-21903- 56; LLAK-96400-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  6. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  7. 75 FR 43198 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The subsurface estate in these lands will be conveyed to Bristol Bay... times in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the lands affected...

  8. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccination against ... the flu. Protect Indian Country by Getting Your Flu Vaccine A flu vaccine not only protects you ...

  9. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Questionable 0 DK f. seborrheic dermatitis 0 Yes 0 No 0 Questionable 0 DK Exclusion criteria O Prominent postural instability in the first 3...4 A. Introduction Parkinsonism (PS) is a syndrome characterized by tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and problems with walking and balance...the Alaska Native Medical Center. B. Body The intent of this proposal is to establish a registry of parkinsonism cases among Alaska native

  10. Alaska Natives and Alaska Higher Education, 1960-1972: A Descriptive Study. Alaska Native Human Resources Development Program, Publication 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquot, Louis F.

    Utilizing data derived from numerous sources (institutions, Alaska Native organizations, Federal and State agencies, conferences, etc.), this descriptive study is divided into 6 chapters which trace the evolution of and the necessity for Alaska Native higher education. Following a detailed introduction, Chapter 2 describes the physical and…

  11. 77 FR 24217 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Iqfijouaq Company. The decision approves for conveyance the surface estate in the lands described...

  12. 78 FR 16527 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10782, AA-11132, AA-10784, AA-12440, AA-11020, AA-10783, AA-10774; LLAK-944000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  13. 76 FR 5395 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-12252, AA-12250, AA-12280, AA-12291, AA-12292, AA-12293; LLAK- 962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  14. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-9915, AA-9916, AA-9921, AA-9936, AA-9937, AA-9965; LLAK-965000- L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 75 FR 13296 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6679-B, AA-6679-C, AA-6679-F, AA-6679-G, AA-6679-K, AA-6679-M, AA- 6679-A2, LLAK964000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  16. 76 FR 55415 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-9428, AA-9752, AA-11237, AA-9755, AA-9837, AA-10075, AA-11467; LLAK-965000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  17. 75 FR 21033 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6670-F, AA-6670-L, AA-6670-M, AA-6670-A2; LLAK964000-L14100000- HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. 75 FR 80838 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-11908, AA-11915, AA-11916, AA-11917, AA-11909, AA-11913, AA-11914; LLAK-962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  19. 77 FR 72383 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10282, AA-10291, AA-10292, AA-10369; LLAK-944000-L14100000-HY0000- P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. 76 FR 43340 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6682-B, AA-6682-D, AA-6682-E, AA-6682-G, AA-6682-H, AA-6682-I, AA- 6682-A2; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  1. 78 FR 10634 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10756, AA-11061, AA-10764, AA-10765, AA-10766, AA-11083; LLAK- 944000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  2. 76 FR 16804 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-8102-05, AA-8102-08, AA-8102-10, AA-8102-25, AA-8102-28, AA-8102- 37, AA-8102-47; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of...

  3. Preserving and Enhancing the Ability of Alaska Natives To Speak and Understand Their Native Languages. Report To Accompany S. 1595. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. 102d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    Testimony concerning Senate Bill 1595 includes statements submitted by Senator Daniel Inouye, from the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, and S. Timothy Wapato, Commissioner, Administration for Native Americans, Department of Health and Human Services. The bill in question aims to preserve and enhance the ability of Alaska Natives to speak and…

  4. Native Language Literacy Screening Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    The purpose the Native Language Literacy Screening Device (NLLSD) is to give English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) practitioners a sense of the native language literacy levels of learners coming into their programs. This is worth knowing because when learners have had limited schooling in their first language instructional strategies used…

  5. Alaska Native Population and Manpower: 1975. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    Numbering approximately 62,005 and representing 15.3% of the total Alaska population in 1975, Alaska Natives are a finite and predominately rural subpopulation. However, a significant portion of the Alaska Native Work Force (estimated at 13,854) now resides in the major urban areas and is available to the Statewide Work Force. Statistics from May,…

  6. A History of Schooling for Alaska Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the geographic and demographic contexts of Alaska schooling, federal policies that have affected education in Alaska, and the evolution of schooling for Alaska Native people. Describes the development of a dual federal/territorial system of schools, the initiation of federal and state reform efforts, Native-sponsored educational…

  7. Politics and Alaska Natives: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoleon, Harold

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on utilization of Alaska Native political resources as a means to achieve beneficial legislation beyond that of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972. Designed to stimulate careful political and…

  8. The Alaska Native Women's Wellness Project.

    PubMed

    Stillwater, B

    1999-01-01

    Alaska Native women have encountered many obstacles in the health care system which deter them from adhering to cancer screening recommendations. To improve access, it was necessary for us to listen to them and their attitudes about health care. As a result of this assessment, we changed our approach resulting in an overall increase in screening rates from 14% to 62%. A case example is presented to demonstrate barriers to cancer screening and our techniques for overcoming them.

  9. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    1-0001 Brian A Trimble, MD Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry Principal Investigator A. Introduction Parkinsonism (PS) is a syndrome...characterized by tremor , rigidity, slowness of movement, and problems with walking and balance. Parkinson’s disease is the most common form of PS... parkinsonism cases will be the Indian Health Service (IHS) provider database, called the Resource and Patient Management System (RPMS), but the protocol will

  10. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    W81XWH-07-1-0001 Brian A Trimble, MD Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry Principal Investigator A. Introduction Parkinsonism (PS) is a...syndrome characterized by tremor , rigidity, slowness of movement, and problems with walking and balance. Parkinson’s disease is the most common form...protocol. The primary source of parkinsonism cases will be the Indian Health Service (IHS) provider database, called the Resource and Patient Management

  11. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Investigator 4 A. Introduction Parkinsonism (PS) is a syndrome characterized by tremor , rigidity, slowness of movement, and problems with walking...2011. The aims of this project are: Specific Aim 1: Identify cases of parkinsonism among Alaska Native people and populate a secure electronic...registry database. Specific Aim 2: Provide education on parkinsonism and its treatment to primary care physicians and other health care providers

  12. 77 FR 2998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). These lands lie entirely within the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Refuge......

  13. 76 FR 55414 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Nunakauiak Yupik Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). The subsurface estate in these lands will be conveyed to Calista......

  14. Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    07-1-0001 TITLE: Alaska Native Parkinson’s Disease Registry PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caroline M. Tanner, M.D...The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  15. Native-Language Education: Addressing the Interests of Special Populations within U.S. Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of three federal laws that address native-language education and illustrates how these federal laws produce different results when coupled with state laws and other regional circumstances. For the purposes of this brief, native-language education refers to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and…

  16. Expanding Job Opportunities for Alaska Natives. (Interim Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Goldsmith, Scott; Killorin, Mary; Sharp, Suzanne; Hild, Carl

    A majority of adults in most Alaska Native villages were without jobs in 1990, and the situation was probably not substantially better in 1998. This report summarizes current Alaska Native employment data and employment trends, provides information on public and private programs that target Native hire, and describes promising approaches for…

  17. Poverty and Public Assistance among Alaska Natives: Implications for 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Matthew; Foster, Karen Pyle

    The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) distributed 44 million acres of land and nearly $1 billion to Alaska Natives. The land and equity is currently being held by 12 regional corporations and 150 village corporations formed by the act. Native shareholders, however, will be free to sell their stock in these corporations for the first time…

  18. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  19. Native Alaska's Floating Factoryship--She Plies the Pacific Ocean for Native Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassaja, The Indian Historian, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the history of the Al-Ind-Esk-A Sea, a floating fish processing factory representing a major hope for the economic independence of Alaska Natives residing outside the state. Discusses employment practices in effect on the ship. Notes interesting facts about the ship's engines and fittings. (SB)

  20. Yesterday Still Lives...Our Native People Remember Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarco, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    In the summer of 1978, seven teenagers and several staff members from the Fairbanks Native Association-Johnson O'Malley program set out to record some of Alaska's past by interviewing a number of older Alaska Natives and writing their biographical sketches. Some of the students spent a week along the Yukon River taping and photographing people;…

  1. American Indian/Alaska Native College Student Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Raphael M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study examining the similarities and differences between American Indian/Alaska Native student perceptions and the perceptions of state representatives, university presidents, and faculty about persistence factors and barriers to degree completion specific to American Indian/Alaska Native students…

  2. A Summary of Changes in the Status of Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage. Inst. of Social and Economic Research.

    Replication of 78 tables from the 1973 2(c) Report by the Secretary of the Interior using 1980 census information provided data to document the social and economic changes in the status of Alaska Natives since the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Comparison of 1970 and 1980 data showed an average 2.4% growth rate in the Native…

  3. Children of the Midnight Sun: Young Native Voices of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tricia

    For Native children, growing up in Alaska today means dwelling in a place where traditional customs sometimes mix oddly with modern conveniences. Through their own words, this book explores the lives of eight Alaska Native children, each representing a unique and ancient culture: Eskimo--Yupik and Inupiat; Aleut; and Indian--Athabascan, Tlingit,…

  4. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  5. Tobacco Use Among Southwestern Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and exposure to tobacco products in a cohort of rural dwelling Alaska Native (AN) people. Methods: We conducted a study of 400 of AN adult tobacco users and nonusers living in Southwestern Alaska. Questionnaires covered variables such as demographics, tobacco-use history, current tobacco use and dependence scales, general health status, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, and quitting history. Results: The study population smoked 7.8 cigarettes per day compared with 16.8 on average for the U.S. population: a significant proportion of the population engaged in dual use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Over one third (40.9%), first tried tobacco at age 11 or younger. The mean measures of tobacco addiction (e.g., Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, Severson Scale of Smokeless Tobacco Dependence) scores were lower compared with other U.S. populations. Conclusions: Very high tobacco-use prevalence, dual product use, and early tobacco use are observed in Southwestern AN people. Unexpectedly these did not appear to be correlated with heavier individual tobacco use or higher levels of addiction in this population. PMID:22949573

  6. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  7. Native Alaskan Dropouts in Western Alaska: Systemic Failure in Native Alaskan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Craig D.; Samson, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The number of Native Alaska secondary students choosing not to complete high school is of great concern to educators and Native communities. In this study, schools in small communities throughout western Alaska were observed while teachers and dropouts were interviewed concerning their perceptions of the education process. It became very clear…

  8. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  9. Effective Language Education Practices and Native Language Survival. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlebear, Dick

    The importance of Native languages to Native Americans and the effort needed to maintain them are discussed in this keynote address at the ninth Native American Language Issues Institute. It is noted that the current cultural transition has demeaned Native languages and cultures and that strategies must be devised by Native Americans to counter…

  10. The Governance, Organization, and Financing of Education for Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dafoe, Don M.

    The history and current status of the governance, organization, and financing of education for Alaska natives are discussed in this report. The first chapter briefly summarizes key factors of geography, environment, economics, and population affecting educational development throughout Alaska's history. Chapter 2 covers the Russian period and the…

  11. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer disparities and health equity research is a critical part of NCI’s research portfolio. The three researchers featured in this video receive funding from NCI to conduct research among American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

  12. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  13. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  14. 34 CFR 303.25 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 303.25 Section 303.25 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.25 Native language. (a) Native language, when used... section 602(18) of the Act), means— (1) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case...

  15. 76 FR 22413 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...) to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The decision... surface estate is conveyed to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions...

  16. Native Literacy: A Living Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Rhonda L.

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy encompasses oral tradition, culture, language, identity, and world view in addition to the written word, and is a process of lifelong learning, much of which occurs beyond school walls. When defining Native literacy, one must move away from measuring Aboriginal students by Euro-Western definitions and move toward a balanced,…

  17. Tobacco cessation intervention during pregnancy among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered.

  18. Tobacco Cessation Intervention During Pregnancy Among Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered. PMID:22311690

  19. American Indian and Alaska Native Cancer Data Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhansstipanov, Linda; Tenney, Martha J.; Hampton, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Data on cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives are sparse and riddled with misclassification errors, resulting in underreporting of cancer incidence and mortality. Incidence rates are discussed for various cancer types in seven Native nations. Barriers to participation in cancer prevention and control programs are examined. Contains…

  20. Early Childhood Education in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Alice S.

    The expansion of early childhood education for American Indians and Alaska Natives has reflected the trend in the larger society. While efforts are being made to improve early childhood care and education for all children, deeper issues must be considered by Native Americans. First among them is the long history of forced assimilation and…

  1. 26 CFR 1.1502-81T - Alaska Native Corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alaska Native Corporations. 1.1502-81T Section... Corporations. (a) General Rule. The application of section 60(b)(5) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 and section 1804(e)(4) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (relating to Native Corporations established under the...

  2. Discovering unique tobacco use patterns among Alaska Native people

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Rohde, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native people are disproportionately impacted by tobacco-related diseases in comparison to non-Native Alaskans. Design We used Alaska’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe tobacco use among more than 4,100 Alaska Native adults, stratified by geographic region and demographic groups. Results Overall tobacco use was high: approximately 2 out of every 5 Alaska Native adults reported smoking cigarettes (41.2%) and 1 in 10 reported using smokeless tobacco (SLT, 12.3%). A small percentage overall (4.8%) reported using iq’mik, an SLT variant unique to Alaska Native people. When examined by geographic region, cigarette smoking was highest in remote geographic regions; SLT use was highest in the southwest region of the state. Use of iq’mik was primarily confined to a specific area of the state; further analysis showed that 1 in 3 women currently used iq’mik in this region. Conclusion Our results suggest that different types of tobacco use are epidemic among diverse Alaska Native communities. Our results also illustrate that detailed analysis within racial/ethnic groups can be useful for public health programme planning to reduce health disparities. PMID:23971010

  3. Advocacy for Native American Indian and Alaska Native Clients and Counselees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Roger

    Helping professionals need to be more informed and more active advocates for proactive counseling strategies with Native American Indian and Alaska Native peoples. The paper discusses the major advocacy needs of these populations. The negative impact of historical and contemporary discriminatory policies and practices on Native peoples has…

  4. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  5. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  6. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  7. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  8. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  9. The Decrease in the Unintentional Injury Mortality Disparity Between American Indians/Alaska Natives and Non–American Indians/Alaska Natives in New Mexico, 1980 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallavi; Nielsen, Larry; Landen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tracked the unintentional injury death disparity between American Indians/Alaska Natives and non–American Indians/Alaska Natives in New Mexico, 1980 to 2009. Methods. We calculated age-adjusted rates and rate ratios for unintentional injury deaths and their external causes among American Indians/Alaska Natives and non–American Indians/Alaska Natives. We tested trend significance with the Mann–Kendall test. Results. The unintentional injury death rate ratio of American Indians/Alaska Natives to non–American Indians/Alaska Natives declined from 2.9 in 1980–1982 to 1.5 in 2007–2009. The rate among American Indians/Alaska Natives decreased 47.2% from 1980–1982 to 1995–1997. Among non–American Indians/Alaska Natives, the rate declined 25.3% from 1980–1982 to 1992–1994, then increased 31.9% from 1992–1994 to 2007–2009. The motor vehicle traffic and pedestrian death rates decreased 57.8% and 74.6%, respectively, among American Indians/Alaska Natives from 1980–1982 to 2007–2009. Conclusions. The unintentional injury death rate disparity decreased substantially from 1980–1982 to 2007–2009 largely because of the decrease in motor vehicle crash and pedestrian death rates among American Indians/Alaska Natives and the increase in the poisoning death rate among non–American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:22994193

  10. American Indian Tribal Values: A Critical Consideration in the Education of American Indians/Alaska Natives Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippeconnic, John W., III; Tippeconnic Fox, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The education of American Indians and Alaska Natives has increasingly become more complex given the differences in tribal languages and cultures, especially as changing demographics and issues of Indian identity are considered. There are over 200 languages and vast cultural differences between and within the 565 federally recognized tribes in…

  11. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  12. Time for Change in the Education of Alaska Natives: A Statement of Preliminary Findings and Recommendations Relating to the Education of Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Governor's Commission on Cross-Cultural Education, Juneau.

    The study presents findings and recommendations regarding education of Alaska natives (Eskimos, Indians, and Aleuts). The paper was prepared for the governor of Alaska by the Commission on Cross-Cultural Education of Alaska, which was designed to find ways to provide new meaning to education for Alaska's multicultural society and to provide…

  13. 76 FR 67472 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... lands are located east of Teller, Alaska, and contain 47.87 acres. Notice of the decision will also be... email at ak.blm.conveyance@blm.gov . Persons who use a Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD)...

  14. 78 FR 53158 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...) to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... Lion Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hooper Bay, Alaska, and are located in:...

  15. Adipose tissue triglyceride fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Alaska Natives and non-Natives.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joe; Middaugh, John; Boudreau, Donald; Malcom, Gray; Parry, Steve; Tracy, Richard; Newman, William

    2005-08-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family are believed to protect against cardiovascular disease. A rich source of omega-3 PUFA is found in fish and marine mammals (seal, walrus, whale), which are a large part of the traditional diet of Alaska Natives (Eskimo, American Indians, Aleuts), a group that has been reported to have a lower mortality rate from cardiovascular disease than non-Natives. An autopsy study using standardized methods to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, and analyses of stored triglyceride fatty acids was conducted in a sample of Alaska Native subjects and non-Native subjects living in Alaska. Findings indicate that Alaska Natives had less advanced atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, along with higher proportions of omega-3 and lower proportions of omega-6 PUFA in adipose tissue, than did non-Natives. We conclude that high dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA may account for the lower extent of coronary artery atherosclerosis, contributing to the reported lower heart disease mortality among Alaska Natives.

  16. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives... recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. (b) During planning, the responsible official must consider the government-to-government relationship between American Indian or Alaska Native...

  17. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives... recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. (b) During planning, the responsible official must consider the government-to-government relationship between American Indian or Alaska Native...

  18. 76 FR 47234 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... conveyed to Bristol Bay Native Corporation when the surface estate is conveyed to Togiak Natives Limited... will also be published four times in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party claiming a...

  19. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below... is conveyed to Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Chignik...

  20. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ..., Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Housing Needs. OMB Approval Number: 2528-0288. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection. Form Number: None. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The...

  1. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Monica C.; Lewis, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN) since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities. PMID:26850112

  2. American Indian & Alaska Native Sources of Health Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Minority Health (PHS/DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This brief directory lists 28 agencies providing culturally sensitive printed health materials for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Each entry provides the agency's address; telephone number; fax number; and annotated titles available, with price. Many materials are free. There is also a subject index with these categories: adolescent…

  3. Resource Guide of American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Owanah P., Comp.; Verble, Sedelta D., Comp.

    A resource listing of 678 prominent American Indian and Alaska Native women representing 159 tribes throughout the United States provides the following information: name, address, date and place of birth, tribal membership, field of interest, current occupation, Indian activities, women's advocacy, educational background and professional interest.…

  4. Cancer Prevention and Control in American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…

  5. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings…

  6. Cultural Diversity and the Experiences of Alaska Native Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmon, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnonursing research study was to discover, describe, and systematically analyze the care expressions, practices, and patterns of Alaska Native nurses within the context of their nursing school experience. The goals of this study were to identify generic and professional care factors that promote the academic success of Alaska…

  7. Alaska Native Stories: Using Narrative to Introduce Expository Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Marilyn

    The reading program described in this lesson plan uses traditional stories of the Native peoples (narrative text) to introduce students to the study of animals in Alaska (expository text). During three 45-minute lessons, students will: complete a KWLQ (Know; Want to Know; Learn; Question) chart; listen and respond to a story (narrative text) by…

  8. Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Alaska Native Community Energy Planning and Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native villages selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  10. Source Document of Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban Indian Council, Denver, CO.

    A source document on American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas, produced by the National Urban Indian Council, provides historical background on relocation to cities, comments on the trust relationship for off-reservation American Indians, discusses urban Indian organizations, and gives statistical information on American Indian…

  11. Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-05

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Introduction and General Provisions § 17.5 Alaska... endangered wildlife, and any provision of subpart D of this part relating to the importation or the taking...

  13. 75 FR 65644 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-11937, AA-11938, AA-11939, AA-11940, AA-11944, AA-11943, AA-11941, AA-11936, AA-11933, AA-11928, AA-11929, AA-11931, AA-11932; LLAK- 962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska...

  14. 75 FR 2154 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... also be published four times in the Tundra Drums. DATES: The time limits for filing an appeal are: 1. Any party claiming a property interest which is adversely affected by the decision shall have until.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the decision may be obtained from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office,...

  15. 77 FR 24217 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... for conveyance lie partially within the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Range in existence on the... lands are in the vicinity of Kotlik, Alaska and are described as: Lands within the Clarence Rhode... the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Range (Public Land Order No. 4589), now known as the Yukon...

  16. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  17. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  18. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  19. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  20. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  1. Cancer Education Resources for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Supplement to Native American Monograph No. 1: Documentation of the Cancer Research Needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhansstipanov, Linda, Comp.; Barry, Kathleen Cooleen, Comp.

    This directory provides information on cancer education materials that have been developed specifically for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The goal is to develop and implement culturally appropriate cancer prevention and control programs for Native Americans. The directory includes a matrix of cancer education materials that identifies…

  2. 75 FR 65644 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management will issue an appealable decision to Bristol Bay Native Corporation. The decision will approve the conveyance of the surface and subsurface...

  3. 76 FR 16805 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bristol Bay Native Corporation. The decision approves conveyance of the surface and subsurface estates in... of the decision will also be published four times in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party...

  4. 78 FR 62656 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... subsurface estate in these lands will be conveyed to Bristol Bay Native Corporation when the ] surface estate.... Notice of the decision will also be published once a week for four consecutive weeks in the Bristol...

  5. 76 FR 3156 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... to Bristol Bay Native Corporation when the surface estate is conveyed to Oceanside Corporation. The... times in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the lands affected...

  6. 78 FR 65354 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... estate in these lands will be conveyed to Bristol Bay Native Corporation when the surface estate is... week for four consecutive weeks in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party claiming a property...

  7. 76 FR 38678 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Bristol Bay Native Corporation. The decision approves conveyance of the surface and subsurface estates in... approximately 19,244 acres. Notice of the decision will also be published four times in the Bristol Bay...

  8. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  9. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  10. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  11. 76 FR 13428 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... conveyed to Bristol Bay Native Corporation when the surface estate is conveyed to Pedro Bay Corporation... of the decision will also be published four times in the Bristol Bay Times. DATES: Any party claiming... Pedro Bay Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below...

  12. Sociocultural stress and the American native in Alaska: an analysis of changing patterns of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among Alaska natives.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R F; Buffler, P A

    1979-06-01

    This paper presents selected morbidity and mortality statistics to outline developing trends and the current status of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among the Aleut, Athabascan, Yupik, Inupiat, Tlingit, Haida and Tsimpshian people of Alaska. Analysis of the records of the Indian Health Service, the Community Mental Health Centers and the Alaska Psychiatric Institute, the providers of care for Alaska Natives, shows that the number of individuals treated as inpatients and outpatients for psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse has been rising steadily. Accidental injury and suicidal behavior are common. The treated prevalence rates for these diagnoses exceed recorded rates for other American Native and non-Native groups. For each category of violent death, suicide, homicide, accidents and alcohol, rates for Alaska Natives are higher than rates for Alaska non-Natives, American Indians and the U.S. (all races) and are rising. The data suggest a public health problem in which the primary elements are behavioral disturbance and violent death.

  13. We Have the Power to Prevent Diabetes: Tips for American Indians & Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders) We Have the Power to Prevent Diabetes: Tips for American Indians & Alaska ... Indians and Alaska Natives, and we have the power to prevent type 2 diabetes. Science has proven ...

  14. Automatically Detecting Authors’ Native Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    for detecting Chinese and Japanese, but it performed less well with Slavic and Romance languages . Empirical analysis of character trigrams also...well for detecting Chinese and Japanese, but it performed less well with Slavics and Romance languages . We also compared the overall performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AUTHORS’ NATIVE LANGUAGE by Charles S. Ahn March 2011 Thesis Advisor

  15. Does Language Testing Need the Native Speaker?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Opinions differ on the importance of the native speaker's concept for language teaching and testing. This Commentary maintains that it is important and seeks to explain why. Three types of grammar are distinguished, the individual's, the community's and the human faculty of language. For first language teaching and testing it is the community's…

  16. National Indian Education Study. Part II: The Educational Experiences of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade American Indian and Alaska Native Students. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2007-454

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.; Mitchell, Julia H.; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Gaertner, Freya E.; Spain, Angeline K.; Rahal, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents results from a national survey, conducted in 2005, that examined the educational experiences of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in grades 4 and 8, with particular emphasis on the integration of native language and culture into school and classroom activities. Students, teachers, and school principals all…

  17. Blood Politics, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Haozous, Emily A.; Strickland, Carolyn J.; Palacios, Janelle F.; Solomon, Teshia G. Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity. PMID:24669226

  18. Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in the Southwestern United States and in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Lanier, Anne P.; Slattery, Martha L.; Schraer, Cynthia D.; Raymer, Terry W.; Dillard, Denise; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome occurs commonly in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native people. Methods We measured the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, among four groups of American Indian and Alaska Native people aged 20 years and older. One group was from the southwestern United States (Navajo Nation), and three groups resided within Alaska. Prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. adult 2000 population and compared to rates for U.S. whites (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1988–1994). Results Among participants from the southwestern United States, metabolic syndrome was found among 43.2% of men and 47.3% of women. Among Alaska Native people, metabolic syndrome was found among 26.5% of men and 31.2% of women. In Alaska, the prevalence rate varied by region, ranging among men from 18.9% (western Alaska) to 35.1% (southeast), and among women from 22.0% (western Alaska) to 38.4 % (southeast). Compared to U.S. whites, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women from all regions except western Alaska were more likely to have metabolic syndrome; men in western Alaska were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than U.S. whites, and the prevalence among women in western Alaska was similar to that of U.S. whites. Conclusion The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome varies widely among different American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Differences paralleled differences in the prevalence rates of diabetes. PMID:19067530

  19. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1925, No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1925-01-01

    This bulletin documents the work of the Alaska division of the Bureau of Education. It reports advance sheets for the biennial survey of education, 1922-1924. The Alaska division is required to make provision for the education of the natives of Alaska, extend to them all possible medical relief, train them to self-support, and, so far as possible,…

  20. Dermatology in the North American Indian/Alaska Native population.

    PubMed

    Kryatova, Maria S; Okoye, Ginette A

    2016-02-01

    Dermatology is greatly understudied in the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population. This topic deserves attention in light of the changing demographics of the United States and the healthcare disparities faced by AIAN, including access to dermatologic care. In this review, we discuss disorders that are more prevalent or otherwise important in the AIAN population, such as cutaneous malignancies, photodermatoses, acanthosis nigricans, connective tissue disorders, cutaneous infections, hypertrophic scar formation, and Heck's disease. We aim to provide an updated review and increase awareness of the dermatologic needs of the AIAN population.

  1. Village Alaska: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoleon, Harold

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on the isolated rural village and its problems in understanding and acting upon the provisions of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972. Designed to stimulate careful political/historical reading and…

  2. Gaps in Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives in the National Healthcare Disparities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Ernest; Smith, Colleen Ryan; Johansson, Patrik; Andrews, Roxanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify gaps in health care data for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Findings indicate that only 42% of measures of health care quality and access tracked in the National Healthcare Disparities Report could be used to assess disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Patient safety data…

  3. Leadership Programs and Alaska Native Perspectives: A Study to Promote University Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Kathryn A.; Fox, Robert M.

    Information for planning a university-sponsored Alaska Native leadership program was derived from a literature review and a review of leadership programs outside Alaska coupled with in-depth interviews with identified Native leaders (N=10 from a list of 90). Among the kinds of programs examined were: a leadership development program; the cultural…

  4. The Common Core Initiative, Education Outcomes, and American Indian/Alaska Native Students: Observations and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explores the ways in which large-scale school reform efforts play out in American Indian/Alaska Native communities and schools, starting from a historical and cultural perspective, and focusing on the translation of research into concrete steps leading to American Indian/Alaska Native student academic success and personal well-being.

  5. Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  6. Developing Language in Digital Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Ingrid C.

    2011-01-01

    The Foreign Language in the Elementary Schools (FLES) program in Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS) provides an opportunity for all students in an elementary school to learn a world language at an early age with a focus on developing students' communicative competence. Technology plays a major role in helping students develop communicative…

  7. Pap prevalence and cervical cancer prevention among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lanier, A P; Kelly, J J; Holck, P

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project (WHP) were to determine the following: (1) Pap prevalence based on chart review before and during an intervention period; (2) the level of understanding of cancer and cancer screening services with emphasis on cervical cancer; (3) use and satisfaction with current health maintenance services; and (4) improvement in knowledge and cancer screening rates following intervention. A random sample of 481 Alaska Native (Eskimo, Aleut, Indian) women living in Anchorage were interviewed face to face about their understanding of cancer risk factors (tobacco use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), reproductive issues), cancer screening examinations (Pap test, breast self-examination (BSE), breast exam by a provider, mammography), and their attitudes about health care and health care services. Sixty-two percent of control women were documented to have had at least one Pap test within the 3-year period prior to the beginning of the study; however, only 9% were documented to have had annual Pap screening. The intervention included distribution of educational materials, counseling on any woman's health issue, special evening clinics, and reminders (mail/phone call) of scheduled Pap appointments.

  8. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Outreach Strategies § 457.125 Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native... the provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. (b) Exemption... from cost sharing for American Indian and Alaska Native children in accordance with § 457.535....

  9. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  10. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  11. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Outreach Strategies § 457.125 Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native... the provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. (b) Exemption... from cost sharing for American Indian and Alaska Native children in accordance with § 457.535....

  12. Lying in a native and foreign language.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Costa, Albert

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the interaction between deceptive language and second language processing. One hundred participants were asked to produce veridical and false statements in either their first or second language. Pupil size, speech latencies, and utterance durations were analyzed. Results showed additive effects of statement veracity and the language in which these statements were produced. That is, false statements elicited larger pupil dilations and longer naming latencies compared with veridical statements, and statements in the foreign language elicited larger pupil dilations and longer speech durations and compared with first language. Importantly, these two effects did not interact, suggesting that the processing cost associated with deception is similar in a native and foreign language. The theoretical implications of these observations are discussed.

  13. Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women.

    PubMed Central

    Stillwater, B; Echavarria, V A; Lanier, A P

    1995-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended. Images p213-a PMID:7631000

  14. College Pride, Native Pride: A Portrait of a Culturally Grounded Precollege Access Program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Adrienne J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Adrienne J. Keene employs the portraiture methodology to explore the story of College Horizons. She examines this precollege access program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian students to understand how a program rooted in Native cultures and identities can not only provide a space to create knowledge…

  15. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  16. Stroke in American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lonnie A.; Muller, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of published studies on stroke epidemiology in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). We used MeSH terms and strict inclusion criteria to search PubMed, identifying a relevant sample of 57 refereed publications. We report a consensus view in which prevalent stroke is more common, and estimates of cerebrovascular risk factors are higher, among AI/ANs than among other US populations. Like other minority groups, AI/ANs suffer stroke at younger ages than do non-Hispanic Whites. However, data on AI/AN stroke mortality are significantly compromised by racial misclassification and nonrepresentative sampling. Studies correcting for these problems have found that stroke mortality rates among AI/ANs are among the highest of all US racial and ethnic groups. As with Black and non-Hispanic White stroke mortality, AI/AN stroke mortality varies by geographic region, with the highest rates in Alaska and the Northwest and the lowest in the Southwest. Our results underscore the need for a concerted national effort to collect accurate cross-sectional and longitudinal data on stroke in AI/ANs. PMID:26066955

  17. Visual Impairment and Eye Care among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Haymes, Sharon A.; Leston, Jessica D.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Etzel, Ruth A.; Lanier, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, eye disease and eye care in the Alaska Native (AN) population, by demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of 3,793 Alaska Native (AN) adults aged 18-94 years enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from March 2004-March 2006. Data on self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and previous dilated eye examinations were collected using audio computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. Results The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.9-9.7), cataract 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.7), glaucoma 2.5% (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) and diabetic eye disease 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.7). In all cases, age-sex adjusted prevalence estimates for the AN population were greater than available estimates for the general U.S. population. Prevalence of visual impairment and each eye disease increased with age (P < 0.01). Additional factors associated with visual impairment were education and annual household income. Overall, 70.0% (95% CI: 68.5-71.6) of participants reported a dilated eye examination within the previous two years. Dilated eye examination within the previous two years was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001). However, men and participants with lower formal education were less likely to report recent dilated eye examination. Among those with diabetes, only 67.7% (95% CI: 60.8-74.1) reported a dilated eye examination within the recommended previous one year. Conclusions Self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease are prevalent in the AN population. These data may be useful in healthcare planning and education programs. PMID:19437311

  18. Colorectal Cancer in Alaska Native People, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Steven R.; Sacco, Frank; Lanier, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Alaska Native (AN) people, and the second leading cause of cancer death. The incidence rate for the combined years 1999 through 2003 was 30% higher than the rate among U.S. whites (USWs) for the same period. Current incidence rates may serve to monitor the impact of screening programs in reducing CRC in the AN population. METHODS: Incidence data are from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. We compared AN CRC incidence, survival rates, and stage at diagnosis with rates in USWs for cases diagnosed from 2005 through 2009. Relative survival calculations were produced in SEER*Stat by the actuarial method. RESULTS: The CRC age-adjusted incidence rate among AN men and women combined was higher than those in USW men and women (84 vs. 43/100,000; P < .05; AN:USW rate ratio [RR] = 2.0). The greatest differences between rates in AN people and USWs were for tumors in the hepatic flexure (RR = 3.1) and in the transverse (RR = 2.9) and sigmoid (RR = 2.5) regions of the colon. Rectal cancer rates among AN people were significantly higher than rates in USWs (21 vs.12/100,000). Five-year relative survival proportions by stage at diagnosis indicate that the CRC 5-year relative survival was similar in AN people and USWs for the period 2004 through 2009. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of CRC in AN people emphasizes the need for screening programs and interventions to reduce known modifiable risks. Research in methods to promote healthy behaviors among AN people is greatly needed. PMID:23112882

  19. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  20. Poverty and health disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native children: current knowledge and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children's development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions.

  1. Differences in cigarette and smokeless tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and the Southwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Anne P.; Renner, Caroline; Smith, Julia; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Slattery, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed self-reported tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health Study in Alaska (n = 3,821) and the Southwest United States (n = 7,505) from 2004 to 2006. Methods: Participants (7,060 women and 4,266 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire on cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use. Results: Current use of cigarettes was considerably higher in Alaska than in the Southwest United States (32% vs. 8%). Current ST use was also more common in Alaska than in the Southwest United States (18% vs. 8%). Additionally, smoking was more common among men, younger age, those who were not married, and who only spoke English at home, while ST use was more common among men, those with lower educational attainment and those who spoke an AI/AN language at home (p < .01). Compared with the U.S. general population, AI/AN people living in Alaska were more likely and those living in the Southwest United States were less likely to be current smokers. Rates of ST use, including homemade ST, in both regions were much higher than the U.S. general population. Discussion: Tobacco use among AI/AN people in the Southwest United States, who have a tradition of ceremonial tobacco use, was far lower than among Alaska Native people, who do not have a tribal tradition. Tobacco use is a key risk factor for multiple diseases. Reduction of tobacco use is a critical prevention measure to improve the health of AI/AN people. PMID:20525781

  2. Alaska Native Students and College Success. ISER Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith

    Factors contributing to Native students' college success were examined in a study of 50 Native freshmen and 42 non-Native freshmen at the University of Alaska in the 1973-74 academic year. The study compared students in relation to three common explanations of college success: level of academic preparation, goal orientation, ease in the campus…

  3. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must...

  4. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must...

  5. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  6. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  7. Strategies for Successful Retention of Alaska Native and American Indian Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts.…

  8. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  9. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  10. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  11. Sleep and native language interference affect non-native speech sound learning.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Myers, Emily B

    2015-12-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one's native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, 2 factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in 3 studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hr after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep.

  12. Sleep and Native Language Interference Affect Non-Native Speech Sound Learning

    PubMed Central

    Earle, F. Sayako; Myers, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Adults learning a new language are faced with a significant challenge: non-native speech sounds that are perceptually similar to sounds in one’s native language can be very difficult to acquire. Sleep and native language interference, two factors that may help to explain this difficulty in acquisition, are addressed in three studies. Results of Experiment 1 showed that participants trained on a non-native contrast at night improved in discrimination 24 hours after training, while those trained in the morning showed no such improvement. Experiments 2 and 3 addressed the possibility that incidental exposure to perceptually similar native language speech sounds during the day interfered with maintenance in the morning group. Taken together, results show that the ultimate success of non-native speech sound learning depends not only on the similarity of learned sounds to the native language repertoire, but also to interference from native language sounds before sleep. PMID:26280264

  13. Establishing a culturally sensitive palliative care program in rural Alaska Native American communities.

    PubMed

    DeCourtney, Christine A; Jones, Kristina; Merriman, Melanie P; Heavener, Nina; Branch, P Kay

    2003-06-01

    End-of-life programs that provide an option for patients to die at home are available in most U.S. communities. However, Alaska Natives living in remote Alaska villages often die alone in hospitals and nursing homes hundreds of miles away from home. The Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation (BBAHC), a tribal organization, is the sole provider of comprehensive primary care services to 34 Alaska Native villages located within a 46,000 square mile area in southwest Alaska. The closest tertiary care hospital is 329 air miles away in Anchorage. Because of the high cost of, and difficulties encountered in trying to deliver end-of-life care services to remote communities, a village-focused, culturally sensitive, volunteer and primary care program combined with a regionally based physician and home health nurse to deliver multi-disciplinary palliative care was developed. The Helping Hands Program blends cultural practices with contemporary palliative care medicine to allow Alaska Natives and others living in remote communities to be cared for at home through the end of life. Since the program was implemented in 1999, the percentage of home deaths for selected causes has changed from 33% in 1997 to 77% in 2001. The Anchorage-based Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC) have recognized the importance and success of the BBAHC program and are investigating expanding the program to other parts of Alaska. Centralizing the program in Anchorage will allow staff trained in palliative care to travel to regional Alaska Native hospitals to help train health care professionals.

  14. The Development of "New" Languages in Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Anne

    This paper examines the belief that as English rapidly infiltrates Native American cultures, school programs for teaching and maintaining native languages are not working. It suggests that Native American children who learn English first and their heritage languages second have difficulty learning the structures of their ancestral languages…

  15. A qualitative study of motivation in Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP) precollege students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatchmeneff, Michele

    The dramatic underrepresentation of Alaska Natives in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degrees and professions calls for rigorous research in how students access these fields. Research has shown that students who complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school are more academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degree programs and professions. There is limited research on what motivates precollege students to become more academically prepared before they graduate from high school. In Alaska, Alaska Native precollege students regularly underperform on required State of Alaska mathematics and science exams when compared to non-Alaska Native students. Research also suggests that different things may motivate Alaska Native students than racial majority students. Therefore there is a need to better understand what motivates Alaska Native students to take and successfully complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school so that they are academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degrees and professions. The Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) is a longitudinal STEM educational enrichment program that works with Alaska Native students starting in middle school through doctoral degrees and further professional endeavors. Research suggests that Alaska Native students participating in ANSEP are completing STEM degrees at higher rates than before the program was available. ANSEP appears to be unique due to its longitudinal approach and the large numbers of Alaska Native precollege, university, and graduate students it supports. ANSEP provides precollege students with opportunities to take advanced high school and college-level mathematics and science courses and complete STEM related projects. Students work and live together on campus during the program components. Student outcome data suggests that ANSEP has been successful at motivating precollege participants to

  16. The American Indian and Alaska Native Higher Education Funding Guide. A Financial Guide to Undergraduate and Graduate Sources of Funding for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Gregory W.

    This book provides American Indian and Alaska Native students with sources for securing financial aid for higher education. The first section covers sources of funding and grants for individuals who are pursuing undergraduate degrees. This financial support includes scholarships with state residency requirements, general undergraduate…

  17. Alaska Native Elders' Contribution to Education: The Fairbanks AISES Science Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Claudette; Reyes, Maria Elena

    The Fairbanks American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) Science Camp was designed for Alaska Native middle school students from 11 school districts. The camp enables students to learn from Native Elders while completing hands-on science projects; stimulates interest and confidence in mathematics, science, and engineering among Alaska…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression and Health Outcomes in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…

  19. The Development of a Curriculum Toolkit with American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, Dwight; Sempier, Tracie T.; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article explains the creation of the "Growing and Learning with Young Native Children" curriculum toolkit. The curriculum toolkit was designed to give American Indian and Alaska Native early childhood educators who work in a variety of settings the framework for developing a research-based, developmentally appropriate, tribally…

  20. Early Education for American Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, R. Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Young American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children are four times as likely to live in rural communities as in nonrural communities. The challenge of providing developmentally and culturally appropriate early childhood education to Native children living in rural areas is exacerbated by poverty. The author reviews the historic evolution of…

  1. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1929, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1929-01-01

    In addition to maintaining schools for the native children of Alaska, the United States Bureau of Education aids entire communities by extending medical aid, by relieving destitution, by fostering commercial enterprises, by supervising the reindeer industry, and by promoting generally the interests of the natives. The organization of the Alaska…

  2. A Southeastern Conference on Native Education. Report (Juneau, Alaska, April 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Ed.

    Representatives from villages, Native organizations, and educational institutions were participants at a conference that explored barriers encountered in the education of Southeastern Alaska Native students, identified problems, discussed solutions, and developed recommendations. The conference was the result of a concern that a major problem in…

  3. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  4. The Dropout/Graduation Crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to Respond Places the Future of Native Peoples at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Tippeconnic, John W., III

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the graduation/dropout crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native students using data from the National Center for Education Statistics. Data from 2005 is drawn from the seven states with the highest percentage of American Indian and Alaska Native students as well as five states in the Pacific and Northwestern regions of…

  5. "Our culture is medicine": perspectives of Native healers on posttrauma recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native patients.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Deborah; Tsosie, Ursula; Nannauck, Sweetwater

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (Native) people experience more traumatic events and are at higher risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder compared with the general population. We conducted in-depth interviews with six Native healers about their perspectives on traumatic injury and healing. We analyzed the interviews using an inductive approach to identify common themes. We categorized these themes into four categories: causes and consequences of traumatic injury, risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to care. The implications of our study include a need for improving cultural competence among health care and social services personnel working with Native trauma patients. Additional cumulative analyses of Native healers and trauma patients would contribute to a much-needed body of knowledge on improving recovery and promoting healing among Native trauma patients.

  6. Relationships between the health of Alaska Native communities and our environment -- phase 1, exploring and communicating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Durelle

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Natives depend on local natural resources for nutritional and, for many, spiritual health. As a result, public health in Alaska is strongly influenced by the relationship between people and their surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. Alaska is vast with diverse wildlife and plant communities that are valued as subsistence foods (fig. 1). These resources are supported by equally diverse ecosystems and their underpinning landforms and geologies. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is attempting to integrate physical, chemical, and biological information to better describe current (2013) environments and project scenarios for the future. Integrating ecological data into the public health dialogue is challenging for the more than 280 rural communities of Alaska. This fact sheet reviews a recent USGS effort, the Geographic Information System (GIS) Native Health Project, to better incorporate scientific information into such dialogue.

  7. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  8. TRADITIONAL FOODS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH CULTURAL FACTORS IN A DIVERSE ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Methods Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Results Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p<0.01). Almost 70% of participants engaged in at least one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p<0.01). Both traditional food and physical activity were associated with greater tribal self-identification, speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p<0.05). Conclusions The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes. PMID:19024803

  9. The coming of the blessing: A successful cross-cultural collaborative effort for American Indian/Alaska Native families.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Carol M; Aragon, Denise; Shephard, Janet; Van Sell, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes how the desire of an American Indian community in Wyoming grew into an American Indian/Alaska Native women's advisory committee, a culturally appropriate prenatal education booklet, and a national initiative for a nonprofit organization. The work began by bringing together women from 13 different nations and tribes, gaining the trust of the American Indian/Alaska Native women and working together to create an award winning booklet and a national initiative to support culturally appropriate prenatal education to every young American Indian/Alaska Native woman across this nation. Reservations from Wisconsin to Alaska have received this program for their young women.

  10. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  11. Native language change during early stages of second language learning

    PubMed Central

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The co-activation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as the second language (L2). The present study asked whether L1 change can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how it is modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared to noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. Additionally, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that the L2 affects the L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact the L1 early in the development of L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  12. Translation Model Decision Differences between Expert (Native or Near-Native) Target Language Speakers and Non-Expert (Non-Native or Second) Target Language Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    A study of the translation process compared the decisions that native speakers (experts) and non-native speakers (non-experts) made that influenced resulting translations. Subjects were 40 students, graduate students, and faculty in a university foreign language department. English language proficiency was measured for native speakers by using the…

  13. 78 FR 10636 - Task Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting AGENCY: Office on Violence Against Women, United States Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: This... Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women(hereinafter ``the Task Force'')....

  14. Intimate Partner Violence in American Indian and/or Alaska Native Communities: A Social Ecological Framework of Determinants and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Duran, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in American Indian and/or Alaska Native communities using a social ecological framework. The review of literature demonstrates that American Indian and/or Alaska Native women are at an elevated risk for IPV compared to non-American Indian women and thus this essay describes…

  15. Native College Success in the Seventies: Trends at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. ISER Occasional Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; And Others

    Researchers analyzed information from student records and student organizations to determine the academic success, dropout, and graduation rates of Alaska Natives at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks (UAF) throughout the late 1970's. Perhaps due to political, social, and policy changes, Native student success peaked in the early 1970's and…

  16. Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2008. NCES 2008-084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill Fleury; Darling-Churchill, Kristen E.

    2008-01-01

    This document examines the educational progress of American Indian/Alaska Native children and adults and challenges in their education. This report shows that over time more American Indian/Alaska Native students have gone on to college and that their attainment expectations have increased. Despite these gains, progress has been uneven and…

  17. 5 CFR 5501.105 - Exemption for otherwise disqualifying financial interests derived from Indian or Alaska Native...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for otherwise disqualifying financial interests derived from Indian or Alaska Native birthrights. 5501.105 Section 5501.105... financial interests derived from Indian or Alaska Native birthrights. (a) Under 18 U.S.C. 208(b)(4),...

  18. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J

    2007-10-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplished through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the New

  19. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    The USGS works in cooperation with American Indian and Alaska Native governments to conduct research on (1) water, energy, and mineral resources, (2) animals and plants that are important for traditional lifeways or have environmental or economic significance, and (3) natural hazards. This report describes most of the activities that the USGS conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2004. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Other activities were conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities.

  20. Sociocultural Dimensions of Voice in Non-Native Language Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harklau, Linda A.; Schecter, Sandra R.

    Discussion of one form of pragmatic competence, projecting a sense of stylistic voice into texts, explores how writing in a non-native language affects the ability to express stylistic voice and enter into social dialogue with readers. Using the published reflections of authors writing professionally in a non-native language, the analysis shows…

  1. Sociocultural Context and Language Learning of Native American Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    A study examined the quantity and quality of language produced by kindergarten and early primary Native American pupils in relation to selected factors in the classroom context in which the language was produced. Observations of about 50 classrooms were conducted in schools serving predominantly Native American pupils on and off reservations in…

  2. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  3. The Impact of Native Language Use on Second Language Vocabulary Learning by Saudi EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2016-01-01

    This paper strives to explore the impact of Native Language use on Foreign Language vocabulary learning on the basis of empirical and available data. The study is carried out with special reference to the English Language Programme students in Buraydah Community College, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The Native Language of these students is…

  4. Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2011-01-01

    Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…

  5. Student Attitudes toward Native and Non-Native Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Tammy Jandrey; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates students' attitudes toward native and nonnative speaking instructors of Spanish. A quantitative questionnaire was administered to 292 students enrolled in three different levels of undergraduate Spanish courses at a U.S. university. Participants were asked to rate Likert scale items related to native versus nonnative…

  6. Gifted and Talented American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonemah, Stuart

    Native American tribes have a critical need for effective leadership, which can be found in the brightest of their youth. However, the focus of federal and state Native programs has been to provide remedial education. Historically, Native students at federal boarding schools did not perform at high levels because of low teacher expectations,…

  7. Understanding Disabilities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities. Toolkit Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This "toolkit" document is intended to provide a culturally appropriate set of resources to address the unique political and legal concerns of people with disabilities in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. It provides information on education, health, vocational rehabilitation (VR), independent living, model approaches, and…

  8. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  9. Traditional and western healing practices for alcoholism in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1998-11-01

    The American Indian and Alaska Native population is a culturally diverse population with a current census of 1,959,000. Prior to White contact, there was historically little use of alcoholic beverages except for American Indians in the Southwest. After White contact, use and misuse of alcohol escalated rapidly; however, the prevalence, patterns, and problems of drinking alcoholic beverages vary enormously even in tribes closely linked geographically. American Indians and Alaska Natives have preserved and revitalized a number of traditional healing practices and applied these to the treatment of alcohol-related problems. These healing practices include the following: nativistic movements, sacred dances, sweat lodges, talking circle, four circles, and cultural enhancement programs. Additionally, Western treatment approaches have been applied in the treatment of problems related to alcohol, such as medication for detoxification, disulfiram (Antabuse), Alcoholics Anonymous, and behavioral interventions. Several investigators have completed a small number of naturalistic follow-up studies, but no one has undertaken a randomized controlled trial looking at specific methods of alcohol treatment in American Indians or Alaska Natives. American Indian and Alaska Native communities have adapted and integrated both Traditional and Western approaches to fit their own unique sociocultural needs.

  10. Factors Affecting Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment: Gender Differences among Alcohol-Dependent Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Cheryl A.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Segal, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Investigates alcohol treatment among Alaska Natives. Time between age at diagnosis and first treatment was similar for men and women. Women were more likely to be parents and reported more contact with health and mental health providers. Among men, acting as a parent, lifetime depression, and type of professional consulted were significantly…

  11. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  12. Ohoyo One Thousand: A Resource Guide of American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Owanah

    The resource guide contains a listing of 1,004 notable American Indian/Alaska Native women who are willing to share their resource skills in 62 Indian-specific programs, Indian priority issues, and women's agenda issues. The women represent 321 tribes and bands and are from 44 states. Biographical briefs for each woman include personal data (name,…

  13. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the…

  14. Information Processing Patterns of Postsecondary American Indian/Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last of a three-part series, this study examined the information processing patterns of postsecondary American Indian/Alaska Native students attending community and tribal colleges in the Southwest. Using a survey design, students completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Briggs and Myers Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Oltman,…

  15. With All My Relations: Counseling American Indians and Alaska Natives within a Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that two thirds of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) live outside of tribal areas, and 50% of those individuals who seek counseling services will not use tribal resources. There is a strong likelihood that counselors will have the opportunity to provide services to AI/AN clients. The review of the academic literature…

  16. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  17. Giving Back: An Analysis of Motivations of Aspiring American Indian/Alaska Native School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Linda R.; Rude, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motivations of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) educators currently enrolled in an educational leadership preparation program aspiring to educational leadership positions within AI/AN communities. Understanding the motivation of AI/AN educators to become school leaders may assist in increasing the pool of AI/AN school…

  18. American Indian/Alaska Native Students' Use of a University Student Support Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Raymond K.; Byers, Steven R.; Fenton, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native college students responded to two surveys: one assessing their overall psychological status; the other, their current commitment to the traditions they learned as children. Students described their psychological status in reliable, yet diverse ways: displaced and lost; comfortable and naturally embedded; sick,…

  19. 77 FR 13137 - Draft Policy on Consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... to ensure consultation and coordination with Indian tribal governments on Federal actions that will... required to consult and coordinate with ANCSA corporations on the same basis as Indian tribes in developing...] shall hereafter consult with Alaska Native corporations on the same basis as Indian tribes...

  20. American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Health, Development, and Education Assessment Research. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Demmert, William G., Jr.

    This digest reports on the very limited research that has focused specifically on early childhood issues in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) health, development, and education. Extant research focuses primarily on infant mortality, birth weight and growth, obesity, and hearing and speech. Beginning in 1985, a longitudinal study called the…

  1. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and... Z. Gould, Federal Register Liaison Officer, Indian Health Service. BILLING CODE 4165-16-M...

  2. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  3. A Review of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Northern American Indian/Alaska Native Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Terese Lipinski

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on psychological and educational assessment of American Indian and Alaska Native children, including the background psychological factors of biological deprivation, motivation, attitudes toward self, and traditional nonformal education. Discusses brain hemispheres, visuospatial skills, otitis media, fetal alcohol syndrome,…

  4. NCES Studies on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. NCES 2005-535

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Indian Education (OIE) helps support local education agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities in their efforts to address the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) so that these students can meet the same challenging…

  5. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  6. Summer Internship Program for American Indian and Native Alaska College Students

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  8. Indian Health Service: A Comprehensive Health Care Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    Comprehensive health care (preventive, curative, rehabilitative, and environmental) for more than 930,000 eligible American Indians and Alaska Natives is the responsibility of the Indian Health Service (IHS). Since 1955, this agency of the U.S. Public Health Service has made notable progress in raising the health status of Indians and Alaska…

  9. The Act of Claiming Higher Education as Indigenous Space: American Indian/Alaska Native Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windchief, Sweeney; Joseph, Darold H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of claiming postsecondary education as Indigenous space using curriculum, American Indian student services, and digital media. The intention of this manuscript is to address the disparities that are the result of assimilative educational practices in higher education for American Indians and Alaska Natives by…

  10. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  11. Perceptions of Child Neglect among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 101 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) parents in Los Angeles was conducted to explore perceptions of child neglect among urban AIAN parents and factors associated with perceptions. Participants rated substance abuse by parents as the most serious type of neglect. Providing material necessities and providing adequate structure were…

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Aspects of Diabetes in American Indians/Alaska Natives: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarton, Lisa J.; de Groot, Mary

    2017-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of…

  13. Education of Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural Areas: New Horizons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David P.

    Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…

  14. The Politics of Education Provision in Rural Native Alaska: The Case of Yukon Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I address the role of educational service provision as a mode of post-colonial assimilation and encapsulation in Native Alaska (USA). I argue that these services have historically served State interests above local interests, implemented with little regard for indigenous values or priorities. The role of education provision in one…

  15. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms among Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Segal, B

    1999-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) involved in alcohol metabolism are polymorphic. Different alleles encode subunits of the enzymes that are related to differences in alcohol metabolism with different ethnic groups. This study examined the allele frequencies at the ADH1, ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci in Alaska Natives entering treatment for alcoholism to determine if allele frequencies at these loci differ among five distinct Alaska Native groups: Yupik and Inupiat Eskimos, Athabascan, Tlingit and Aleut. It was found that all persons were homozygous for the ADH1*1, ADH2*1 and ALDH2*1 alleles. Variations, however, were found for the allele distribution of the ADH3 genotype. Comparison with a general population sample found no differences in allele distributions for ADHs and ALDH2*1, but differences were found when comparisons were made with four Asian Groups. The study's findings suggest that the Alaska Natives are not protected from the risk of alcoholism in the same way that Asians who possess the ALDH2*2 genotype are considered to have a negative risk factor. Nor, does there appear to be any generalized differences between Alaska Native alcoholics and members of the general population with respect to the ALDH and ADH polymorphisms studied herein.

  16. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  17. American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse: Co-Morbidity and Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Norma; Nye, Patricia S.

    2001-01-01

    The devastating impact of substance abuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substance abuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or…

  18. Summer Internship Program for American Indian and Native Alaska College Students

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Secretary shall pay all costs for tuition, books, fees and living expenses incurred by a forester intern... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry...

  20. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary shall pay all costs for tuition, books, fees and living expenses incurred by a forester intern... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry...

  1. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Secretary shall pay all costs for tuition, books, fees and living expenses incurred by a forester intern... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry...

  2. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary shall pay all costs for tuition, books, fees and living expenses incurred by a forester intern... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry...

  3. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Secretary shall pay all costs for tuition, books, fees and living expenses incurred by a forester intern... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry...

  4. Building Healthy Hearts for American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lising, Mimi

    In keeping with its priority to reduce the disproportionate burden of heart, lung, and blood diseases in minority populations, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has established an outreach project called Building Healthy Hearts for American Indians and Alaska Natives. This background report provides an overview of the cardiovascular…

  5. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    PubMed

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training.

  6. Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations in Native and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Charles

    A list of 1,036 terms and definitions used in native and second language acquisition and instruction, linguistics, language testing, and bicultural-multicultural education, including identical items with different meanings, is presented. The terms were derived from manual searches of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics and ERIC…

  7. Language, Learning, and National Goals: A Native American View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmert, William G., Jr.

    As part of a symposium on issues related to diversity and American education reform in the context of Goal 3 of the National Education Goals, this paper addresses public attitudes about languages that are different from official or national languages. It is noted that the use of a native language as the medium of instruction to rebuild historical…

  8. Funding and Resources for American Indian and Alaska Native Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, William

    The Federal Government has a responsibility to fulfill treaty promises for Native education. However, spending for Native education has fallen since 1975, while overall educational spending has increased. Reversal of this trend must include a shift in focus from quantitative goals to qualitative goals and support of culturally relevant education.…

  9. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act and the Alaskans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Karen

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses: the ideological and juridical basis for U.S. relationships with Native Americans, examines some of the most significant provisions of the Act, suggests that those provisions are in conflict with Native cognitive systems, and suggests some effects of the Act in the light of fundamental U.S. ideology. (Author/NQ)

  10. Native Language Arts--English as a Second Language Program; School Year 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Frieda K.

    This Native Language Arts-English as a Second Language Program funded under Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I was designed for economically disadvantaged students who were speakers of a language other than English, and whose ability to read and write in their native tongue and in English was not adequate to permit through June 1975 in 34…

  11. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  12. Indian Education - Curriculum Development: Native Languages, Native Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Brief program descriptions derived from a cross-Canada survey of current enrichment programs and teaching materials for Native Studies programs are presented in this document. Prices for materials and some funding sources are also presented. Brief paragraphs describe on-going programs in each of the following subject areas: art (5 programs);…

  13. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal years 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and is not responsible for regulations or land management. Climate change is a major current issue affecting Native lives and traditions throughout the United States. Climate projections for the coming century indicate an increasing probability for more frequent and more severe droughts in the Southwest, including the Navajo Nation. Erosion has claimed Native homes in Alaska. Fish have become inedible due to diseases that turn their flesh mushy. Native people who rely on or who are culturally sustained by hunting, fishing, and using local plants are living with climate change now. The traditional knowledge of Native peoples enriches and confirms the work of USGS scientists. The results are truly synergistic-greater than the sum of their parts. Traditional ecological knowledge is respected and increasingly used in USGS studies-when the holders of that knowledge choose to share it. The USGS respects the rights of Native people to maintain their patrimony of traditional ecological knowledge. The USGS studies can help Tribes, Native organizations, and natural resource professionals manage Native lands and resources with the best available unbiased data and information that can be added to their traditional knowledge. Wise Native leaders have noted that traditional

  14. An historical profile of American Indians and Alaska Natives in psychology.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Joseph E; Clearing-Sky, Mary

    2009-10-01

    The history of American Indian and Alaska Native psychology is a brief one in comparison with the rich histories of other U.S. ethnic groups. In the mid-1960s, there were probably 10 or so Indians and Natives with doctoral degrees in psychology; since then, that number has increased to about 350. The number of publications dealing with Indian and Native psychological topics also has increased significantly over the past 40 years. Appreciable gains have been made in the number of academic institutions that actively recruit and educate Indian and Native students in psychology and in the conduct of research and scholarly projects. The progress and developments generated and attained in Indian and Native psychology in the United States is summarized in this article. To add to the discussion, the voices and experiences of 5 notable American Indian elder psychologists also are featured.

  15. Native Educators Interface with Culture and Language in Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Octaviana V.; Figueira, Anna; Viri, Denis; Manuelito, Kathryn

    The first year of an ongoing 3-year study focused on the attitudes of Native American preservice teachers toward the inclusion of language and culture in schooling, how teacher preparation programs impact these attitudes, and components of teacher education programs that meet the needs of Native students. Data were gathered via surveys of 232…

  16. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  17. Native and Non-Native Teachers and Administrators for Elementary and Secondary Schools Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson

    This paper discusses issues in the recruitment, retention, and training of Native college students as teachers and school administrators. The number of Native educational professionals serving schools for Native students is extremely small, and there is evidence that even this number is declining relative to the increasing Native school…

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  19. Native-language N400 and P600 predict dissociable language-learning abilities in adults.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-11

    Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information.

  20. A Report on the Status of American Indians and Alaska Natives in Education: Historical Legacy to Cultural Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Octaviana V.; Alston, Denise A.

    2005-01-01

    On October 27, 2004, the National Education Association (NEA) joined with the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) to host "Moving from Research to Practice: A Summit on Indian Students." Over 100 American Indian and Alaska Native education practitioners and researchers from Alaska to Mississippi gathered to share their knowledge…

  1. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Alexandra J.; Jean, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector. PMID:28158284

  2. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska.

    PubMed

    Walker, Xanthe J; Frey, Matthew D; Conway, Alexandra J; Jean, Mélanie; Johnstone, Jill F

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector.

  3. Assessing Working Memory Capacity in a Non-Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Wiley, Jennifer; Miura, Timothy K.; Colflesh, Gregory J. H.; Ricks, Travis R.; Jensen, Melinda S.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies directly test the usefulness of two English-language working memory capacity (WMC) assessments with two samples of students whose native language was not English. Participants completed two widely used complex span tasks, Reading Span (RSpan) and Operation Span (OSpan), in English. To determine whether the well-established…

  4. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  5. Reforming American Indian/Alaska Native Health Care Financing: The Role of Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Chronic underfunding of American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health care by the federal government has weakened the capacity of the Indian Health Service, tribal governments, and the urban Indian health delivery system to meet the health care needs of the AIAN population. I describe the current role of Medicaid in financing health care services for American Indians/Alaska Natives and offer 3 suggestions for reforming Medicaid financing of AIAN health care: (1) apply a 100% federal matching rate to the cost of Medicaid services furnished by urban Indian health programs; (2) apply a 100% federal matching rate to the cost of Medicaid services furnished by referral to AIAN patients of hospitals or clinics operated by the Indian Health Service, tribes, tribal organizations, or urban Indian health programs; and (3) exempt AIAN Medicaid beneficiaries who receive services from such hospitals or clinics from state reductions in Medicaid eligibility and benefits. PMID:15855449

  6. The influence of an Alaska Native accent and reputation on perceived therapist credibility.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Mayra, Jenna; Justice, Chantel; Freitas-Murrell, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of an Alaska Native (AN) accent and reputation on perceived therapist credibility after controlling for universal-diverse orientation. Participants listened to and rated therapist audio recordings that differed in AN accent (strong, minimal) and reputational cues (expert, recent graduate, student). While credibility ratings of the accent conditions did not differ in the expert and recent graduate scenarios, the graduate student therapist was seen as less attractive and useful when she spoke with a strong accent.

  7. Identifying Protective Factors to Promote Health in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Deborah; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience high rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We reviewed existing literature to address three interrelated questions: 1) What is the prevalence of PTSD and PTSD symptoms among AI/ANs? 2) What are the inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and do they differ from those in the general U.S. population? 3) Are studies available to inform clinicians about the course and treatment of PTSD in this population? Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases and a database on AI/AN health, capturing an initial sample of 77 original English-language articles published 1992-2010. After applying exclusion criteria, we retained 37 articles on prevalence of PTSD and related symptoms among AI/AN adults. We abstracted key information and organized it in tabular format. Results: AI/ANs experience a substantially greater burden of PTSD and related symptoms than U.S. Whites. Combat experience and interpersonal violence were consistently cited as leading causes of PTSD and related symptoms. PTSD was associated with bodily pain, lung disorders, general health problems, substance abuse, and pathological gambling. In general, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities appear similar to those in the general U.S. population. Conclusions: Substantial research indicates a strikingly high incidence of PTSD in AI/AN populations. However, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and how they may differ from those in the general population, are poorly understood. Very few studies are available on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD in this vulnerable population. PMID:24022752

  9. Mashkiki: Old Medicine Nourishing the New. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Biomedical Research Careers--II. Proceedings of the Conference (Duluth, Minnesota, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Edwin W., Ed.; Aitken, Larry P., Ed.

    This book consists of papers and panel discussions presented at a conference that focused on encouraging American Indian and Alaska Native students to enter the field of biomedical research. Research and treatment of diseases among Native populations can best be carried out by American Indian and Alaska Native researchers who have a background in…

  10. Community and Federal Collaboration to Assess Pregnancy Outcomes in Alaska Native Women, 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    England, Lucinda J.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Wilson, Hoyt G.; Klejka, Joseph; Tucker, Myra; Lewis, Claire; Kendrick, Juliette S.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are to report the estimated prevalence of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a defined population of Alaska Native women and also examine factors contributing to an intensive and successful collaboration between a tribal health center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigators abstracted medical record data from a random sample of singleton deliveries to residents of the study region occurring between 1997 and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to estimate the prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals of selected pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Records were examined for 505 pregnancies ending in a singleton delivery to 469 women. Pregnancy complication rates were 5.9 % (95 % CI 4.0, 8.4) for gestational diabetes mellitus, 6.1 % (95 % CI 4.2, 8.6 %) for maternal chronic hypertension and 11.5 % (95 % CI 8.8, 14.6) for pregnancy associated hypertension, and 22.9 % (95 % CI 19.2–26.5 %) for anemia. The cesarean section rate was 5.5 % (95 % CI 3.5, 7.5) and 3.8 % (95 % CI 2.3, 5.8) of newborns weighed >4,500 g. Few previous studies reported pregnancy outcomes among Alaska Native women in a specific geographic region of Alaska and regarding the health needs in this population. We highlight components of our collaboration that contributed to the success of the study. Studies focusing on special populations such as Alaska Native women are feasible and can provide important information on health indicators at the local level. PMID:23775248

  11. Cross-language perception of Cantonese vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    PubMed

    So, Connie K; Attina, Virginie

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results indicated that visual cues did not facilitate perception, and performance was better in clear than in noisy conditions. More importantly, the Cantonese talker's vowels were the easiest to discriminate, and the Mandarin talker's vowels were as intelligible as the native talkers' speech. These results supported the interlanguage speech native intelligibility benefit patterns proposed by Hayes-Harb et al. (J Phonetics 36:664-679, 2008). The Mandarin and English listeners' identification patterns were similar to those of the Cantonese listeners, suggesting that they might have assimilated Cantonese vowels to their closest native vowels. In addition, listeners' perceptual patterns were consistent with the principles of Best's Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best in Speech perception and linguistic experience: issues in cross-language research. York Press, Timonium, 1995).

  12. The Effect of Second-Language Experience on Native-Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Marian, Viorica

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on bilingual language processing indicates that native-language skills can influence second-language acquisition. The goal of the present work was to examine the influence of second-language experiences on native-language vocabulary and reading skills in two groups of bilingual speakers. English-Spanish and English-Mandarin bilingual adults were tested on vocabulary knowledge and reading fluency in English, their native language. Participants also provided detailed information regarding their history of second-language acquisition, including age of L2 acquisition, degree of L2 exposure, L2 proficiency, and preference of L2 use. Comparisons across the two bilingual groups revealed that both groups performed similarly on native-language vocabulary and reading measures. However, in English-Spanish bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Spanish were associated with higher English reading-fluency scores, while in English-Mandarin bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Mandarin were associated with lower English reading-fluency scores. These findings suggest that second-language experiences influence native-language performance, and can facilitate or reduce it depending on the properties of the second-language writing system.

  13. Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayo, Dixie Masak, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the five issues of "Sharing Our Pathways" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI) documents efforts to make Alaska rural education--particularly science education--more culturally relevant to Alaska Native students. Articles include "Nurturing Native Languages"…

  14. The Way of the Human Being: Supporting Alaska Native Families Who Have a Child with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan; Murphy, Blanche; Harvey, Sandra; Nygren, Kristin; Kinavey, Erin; Ongtooguk, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Alaska Native peoples refer to themselves and their way of life as the "way of the human being" (Napolean, 1991). This term, referred to as "Yuuyaraq" by the Yup'ik Eskimo, speaks to the value the Yup'ik and other Alaskan Natives place on being fully human. Within the context of the "way of the human life," how can…

  15. Use of Large-Scale Data Sets to Study Educational Pathways of American Indian and Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses issues and challenges encountered in using large-scale data sets to study educational experiences and subsequent outcomes for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. In this chapter, we argue that the linguistic and cultural diversity of Native peoples, coupled with the legal and political ways in which education…

  16. The Native Educators Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Octaviana; Viri, Denis; Figueira, Anna

    In fall 2001, the Center for Indian Education at Arizona State University received a federal grant to conduct research on issues of Native language and culture in the classroom. Currently in its first year, the 3-year study focuses on a large cohort of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian candidates in teacher preparation programs…

  17. Oral Language Skills of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Impact of High-Quality Native Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez, Perla B.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between young English language learners' (ELL) native oral language skills and their language input in transitional bilingual education kindergarten classrooms. Spanish-speaking ELLs' ("n" = 101) Spanish expressive language skills were assessed using the memory for sentences and picture vocabulary…

  18. Assessment of Awareness of Connectedness as a Culturally-based Protective Factor for Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583

  19. Native Language Teachers in a Struggle for Language and Cultural Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suina, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    Language shift among New Mexico Pueblo Indians threatens the loss of their oral-based cultures. Language revival for many Pueblos has resulted in school programs in which students are easily accessible and teachers are accountable to tribes rather than the state. Finding "Pueblo space" for the Native language in school, where it was…

  20. White Mountain Apache Language: Issues in Language Shift, Textbook Development, and Native Speaker-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    This paper is an overview of topics covered at two sessions of the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium, from the perspective of a native speaker of an indigenous language and member of a university academic community. The first section describes a Master's thesis on White Mountain Apache (WMA) language shift. Interviews with…

  1. Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e).

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Conboy, Barbara T; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Rivera-Gaxiola, Maritza; Nelson, Tobey

    2008-03-12

    Infants' speech perception skills show a dual change towards the end of the first year of life. Not only does non-native speech perception decline, as often shown, but native language speech perception skills show improvement, reflecting a facilitative effect of experience with native language. The mechanism underlying change at this point in development, and the relationship between the change in native and non-native speech perception, is of theoretical interest. As shown in new data presented here, at the cusp of this developmental change, infants' native and non-native phonetic perception skills predict later language ability, but in opposite directions. Better native language skill at 7.5 months of age predicts faster language advancement, whereas better non-native language skill predicts slower advancement. We suggest that native language phonetic performance is indicative of neural commitment to the native language, while non-native phonetic performance reveals uncommitted neural circuitry. This paper has three goals: (i) to review existing models of phonetic perception development, (ii) to present new event-related potential data showing that native and non-native phonetic perception at 7.5 months of age predicts language growth over the next 2 years, and (iii) to describe a revised version of our previous model, the native language magnet model, expanded (NLM-e). NLM-e incorporates five new principles. Specific testable predictions for future research programmes are described.

  2. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access.

    PubMed

    Elwan, Deena; Schweinitz, Peter de; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.

  3. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska. PMID:26928369

  4. Code-Switching in Japanese Language Classrooms: An Exploratory Investigation of Native vs. Non-Native Speaker Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Valerie; Matsuo, Ayumi; Payne, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Research on language classroom code-switching ranges from describing both teachers' and learners' first language and target language use to making connections between code-switching and student learning. However, few studies compare differences in practice between native and non-native speaker teachers and even fewer consider culture of learning…

  5. NATIVE-It's Your Game: Adapting a Technology-Based Sexual Health Curriculum for American Indian and Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Gorman, Gwenda; Jessen, Cornelia; Torres, Jennifer; Lane, Travis L; Gaston, Amanda; Revels, Taija Koogei; Williamson, Jennifer; Peskin, Melissa F; D'Cruz, Jina; Tortolero, Susan; Markham, Christine M

    2017-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users. We describe the adaptation process used to develop Native It's Your Game, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing promising sexual health curriculum, It's Your Game-Tech (IYG-Tech). The adaptation included three phases: (1) pre-adaptation needs assessment and IYG-Tech usability testing; (2) adaptation, including design document development, prototype programming, and alpha testing; and (3) post-adaption usability testing. Laboratory- and school-based tests with AI/AN middle school youth demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters. Youth rated the Native IYG lessons favorably in meeting the needs of AI/AN youth (54-86 % agreement across lessons) and in comparison to other learning channels (57-100 %) and rated the lessons as helpful in making better health choices (73-100 %). Tribal stakeholders rated Native IYG favorably, and suggested it was culturally appropriate for AI/AN youth and suitable for implementation in tribal settings. Further efficacy testing is indicated for Native IYG, as a potential strategy to deliver HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention to traditionally underserved AI/AN middle school youth.

  6. Ethics and Community Involvement in Syntheses Concerning American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Around Him, Deana M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the research was to review reporting of ethical concerns and community involvement in peer-reviewed systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) health. Methods Text words and indexed vocabulary terms were used to query PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Native Health Database for systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning AI/AN/NH health published in peer-reviewed journals, followed by a search through reference lists. Each article was abstracted by two independent reviewers; results were discussed until consensus was reached. Results We identified 107 papers published from 1986–2012 that were primarily about AI/AN/NH health or presented findings separately for AI/AN/NH communities. Two reported seeking indigenous reviewer feedback; none reported seeking input from tribes and communities. Approximately 7% reported on institutional review board (IRB) approval of included studies, 5% reported on tribal approval, and 4% referenced the sovereignty of AI/AN tribes. Approximately 63% used evidence from more than one AI/AN/NH population study, and 28% discussed potential benefits to communities from the synthesis research. Conclusions Reporting of ethics and community involvement are not prominent. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses making community-level inferences may pose risks to communities. Future systematic reviews and meta-analyses should consider ethical and participatory dimensions of research. PMID:25089283

  7. Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

  8. Measuring Time Spent on Teaching Native Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otter, Martha E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Mail survey, telephone survey, and keeping time were compared as methods of assessing teaching time for 74 sixth grade teachers teaching language in the Netherlands. Results suggest that each of the three methods can be used to assess the mean total score, but none can assess individual scores. (SLD)

  9. Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Lecumberri, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Studies the possible influence of Spanish on native speakers of that language during their assessment of marked iconicity in English. Looks at discrimination by Spanish learners of English of information focus as signaled by placement of nuclear tones in sentence initial and medial positions. (Author/VWL)

  10. Targeted Native Language Training with Preservice Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santistevan Matthews, Patricia D.; Peterson, Patricia J.; Johnson, Gae R.; Fetsco, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Preservice special education teacher candidates in higher education training programs are given little or no specific training in the use of basic native language or cultural academic instructional techniques to support the learning needs of students who have not reached a level of English proficiency. Preservice special education students are…

  11. Auditory language comprehension of temporally reversed speech signals in native and non-native speakers.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Miklos; Cristescu, Tamara; Fink, Martina; Wittmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies in brain-injured patients with aphasia and children with specific language-learning deficits have shown the dependence of language comprehension on auditory processing abilities, i.e. the detection of temporal order. An impairment of temporal-order perception can be simulated by time reversing segments of the speech signal. In our study, we investigated how different lengths of time-reversed segments in speech influenced comprehension in ten native German speakers and ten participants who had acquired German as a second language. Results show that native speakers were still able to understand the distorted speech at segment lengths of 50 ms, whereas non-native speakers only could identify sentences with reversed intervals of 32 ms duration. These differences in performance can be interpreted by different levels of semantic and lexical proficiency. Our method of temporally-distorted speech offers a new approach to assess language skills that indirectly taps into lexical and semantic competence of non-native speakers.

  12. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard... Number: 2528-0288. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection. Form Number:...

  13. Breast cancer and screening in American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Roubidoux, Marilyn A

    2012-04-01

    Data relative to breast cancer among American Indian and Alaska native (AI/AN) women are limited and vary by regions. Despite national decreases in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates, declines in these measures have not yet appeared among AI/AN women. Health disparities in breast cancer persist, manifest by higher stage at diagnosis, and lower screening rates compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Disproportionately more AI/AN are younger at diagnosis. Screening beginning at age 40, improving access, annual rescreening, community education and outreach, and mobile mammography for rural areas are ways to improve these disparities in breast cancer.

  14. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  15. Native Language Influence in the Segmentation of a Novel Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    A major problem in second language acquisition (SLA) is the segmentation of fluent speech in the target language, i.e., detecting the boundaries of phonological constituents like words and phrases in the speech stream. To this end, among a variety of cues, people extensively use prosody and statistical regularities. We examined the role of pitch,…

  16. Native Language Integrated Queries with CppLINQ in C++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, V.

    2015-05-01

    Programming language evolution brought to us the domain-specific languages (DSL). They proved to be very useful for expressing specific concepts, turning into a vital ingredient even for general-purpose frameworks. Supporting declarative DSLs (such as SQL) in imperative languages (such as C++) can happen in the manner of language integrated query (LINQ). We investigate approaches to integrate LINQ programming language, native to C++. We review its usability in the context of high energy physics. We present examples using CppLINQ for a few types data analysis workflows done by the end-users doing data analysis. We discuss evidences how this DSL technology can simplify massively parallel grid system such as PROOF.

  17. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    PubMed Central

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects. PMID:25698996

  18. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    PubMed

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

  19. Judging stuttering in an unfamiliar language: the importance of closeness to the native language.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Leahy, Margaret M; Pereira, Monica Britto

    2008-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that closeness to the listener's native language is a determining factor when identifying stuttering in an unfamiliar language, three panels of different linguistic background were asked to make judgements of stuttering in a sample of Dutch speakers. It was found that a panel speaking Dutch and a panel speaking English (both West Germanic languages) performed better in identifying Dutch people who stutter and people who do not stutter than a panel speaking Brazilian Portuguese (a Romance language) thus confirming the existence of a closeness of language influence. Further analysis showed that when the native language is more remote from the unfamiliar language there is the possibility of a higher risk for false positive identification.

  20. Inhibiting your native language: the role of retrieval-induced forgetting during second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Levy, Benjamin J; McVeigh, Nathan D; Marful, Alejandra; Anderson, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words--a phenomenon known as first-language attrition. We propose that first-language attrition arises in part from the suppression of native-language phonology during second-language use, and thus is a case of phonological retrieval-induced forgetting. In two experiments, we investigated this hypothesis by having native English speakers name visual objects in a language they were learning (Spanish). Repeatedly naming the objects in Spanish reduced the accessibility of the corresponding English words, as measured by an independent-probe test of inhibition. The results establish that the phonology of the words was inhibited, as access to the concepts underlying the presented objects was facilitated, not impaired. More asymmetry between English and Spanish fluency was associated with more inhibition for native-language words. This result supports the idea that inhibition plays a functional role in overcoming interference during the early stages of second-language acquisition.

  1. Including Alaska Natives in a Program for Native Culture and Arts Development. Report To Accompany S. 1059 from the Committee on Indian Affairs. Senate, 103d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This report recommends a legislative amendment authorizing grants to support arts and culture development programs for Alaska Natives in the same manner as such programs are currently supported for Native Hawaiians. Missionaries and school teachers who arrived in Alaska in the late 19th and early 20th centuries attempted to impress their…

  2. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  3. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Fifth Progress Report, 1 February 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    Summarizing the beginning of the second year of operation of the hatchery and educational program provided by the Applied Fisheries Science Program at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska for Alaska Natives and non-Native groups interested in salmon ranching, this fifth semi-annual report covers the period July 1 through December 31, 1976 and…

  4. American Indian and Alaska Native Education for High Technology: A Research Strategy for Creating Culturally Based Physical Science and Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    A research strategy is presented which enables the development of science and mathematics curriculums for American Indian and Alaska Native children of diverse cultures based on existing subsistence knowledge and skills. This strategy assumes that American Indian and Alaska Native adults implicitly make use of many formal science and mathematics…

  5. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Barry H.; Ann St. Amand,

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  6. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  7. Reproductive Cancer Risk Factors among Alaska Native Women: The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana G.; Lanier, Anne P.; Johnston, Janet M.; Murphy, Neil; Murtaugh, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to provide estimates for the prevalence of reproductive cancer risk factors among Alaska Native (AN) women who enrolled in the Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 2,315 AN women 18 years or older completed reproductive health questions as part of a comprehensive health history questionnaire. The reproductive health section included menstrual status (age at menarche and menopause), pregnancy and live birth history, use of hormonal contraception, hormone replacement therapy, and history of hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. Results A total of 463 (20%) of women experienced menarche before age 12 with a decline in mean age at menarche by age cohort. More than 86% had been pregnant (mean number of pregnancies, 3.8; mean number of live births, 2.9). More than one half of women (58%) had their first live birth between the ages of 18 and 24. Almost 28% of participants had completed menopause, of whom 24% completed menopause after age 52. Fewer than half (43%) reported ever using hormone replacement therapy. Almost two thirds (62%) reported ever using oral contraceptives, and fewer reported ever using birth control shots (30%) or implants (10%). Conclusions This study is unique in reporting reproductive health factors among a large group of AN women. These data show that AN women have selective protective factors for reproductive cancers, including low nulliparity rates, low use of menopausal estrogens, and common use of contraceptive hormones. However, analysis by age cohorts indicates decreasing age at menarche that might increase the risk for reproductive cancers among AN women in the future. PMID:22609255

  8. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The...

  9. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The...

  10. Consuming untreated water in four southwestern Alaska Native communities: reasons revealed and recommendations for change.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Troy L; Lopez, Ellen D S; Goldberger, Rachel; Dobson, Jennifer; Hickel, Korie; Smith, Jeffrey; Johnson, Rhonda M; Bersamin, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the authors provide the first in-depth account of why some Alaska Native people drink untreated water when treated water is available. Their qualitative research was conducted in four Alaska Native village communities that have treated water available from a centralized distribution point. Most respondents (n = 172; 82%) reported that some of their household's drinking water came from an untreated source. Motives for drinking untreated water emerged from analysis of open-ended questions about drinking water practice and could be categorized into six themes: chemicals, taste, health, access, tradition, and cost. Importantly, some residents reported consuming untreated water because they both liked untreated water and disliked treated water. As such, interventions to increase safe water consumption should address this dichotomy by providing education about the benefits of treated water alongside the risks involved with drinking untreated water. Based on the findings, the authors provide specific recommendations for developing behavior change interventions that address influences at multiple social-ecological levels.

  11. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  12. Judging Stuttering in an Unfamiliar Language: The Importance of Closeness to the Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Leahy, Margaret M.; Pereira, Monica Britto

    2008-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that closeness to the listener's native language is a determining factor when identifying stuttering in an unfamiliar language, three panels of different linguistic background were asked to make judgements of stuttering in a sample of Dutch speakers. It was found that a panel speaking Dutch and a panel speaking…

  13. Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Ellen D.S.; Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B.; Mekiana, Deborah; Ctibor, Alaina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN) students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL) at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Student Services (RSS) and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) within which we conducted the “What makes life good?” study aimed towards developing a QOL measure for AN students. Equally important was building a legacy of research trust among AN partners. Study design We describe Phase I of a 2-phase study that employed a sequential mixed methods approach. Discussed are facilitators, challenges and lessons learned while striving to adhere to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Methods Phase I included formative focus groups and QOL measurement development. The research involved the interplay among activities that were co-developed with the goal of enhancing trust and research capacity. Emphasis was placed on ensuring that data collection and analyses were student driven. Conclusions All partners resided at the same university. However, trust and collaboration could not be assumed. Working within a collaborative framework, our partnership achieved the aim of developing a culturally informed QOL measure, while also creating an empowering experience for all partners who became co-investigators in a process that might normally be regarded with mistrust. PMID:23019564

  14. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms

    PubMed Central

    Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals’ language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses. PMID:25386149

  15. Research and Trends in the Studies of Native & Non-Native Speaker Teachers of Languages: A Review on Selected Researches and Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SuriatiJusoh, Fathen; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; De Witt, Dorothy; Hussin, Zaharah; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting and employing native speaker teachers of English Language (NST) in non-native speakers' context are widely practised in countries which learn and use the target language taught by the native speaker teachers (NST) as either as a second or a foreign language. This paper reviews selected journals and thesis on the issues of Native and…

  16. Native language predictors of foreign language proficiency and foreign language aptitude.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-four students were tested at specific time intervals over 10 years to determine best native language (NL) predictors of oral and written foreign language (FL) proficiency and FL aptitude. All participants completed two years of Spanish, French, or German. Each was administered measures of NL literacy, oral language, and cognitive ability in elementary school. A measure of FL aptitude was administered at the beginning of ninth grade and FL proficiency was evaluated at the end of the 10th grade. Among the variables, NL literacy measures were the best predictors of FL proficiency, and NL achievement and general (verbal) intelligence were strong predictors of FL aptitude. Results suggest that indices of NL literacy as early as first grade are related to FL proficiency and FL aptitude nine and 10 years later. Findings provide strong support for connections between L1 and L2 skills, and for speculation that "lower level" skills in phonological processing are important for written language development and oral proficiency in a FL.

  17. Powerful Learning Tools for ELLs: Using Native Language, Familiar Examples, and Concept Mapping to Teach English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yu Ren

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights how English language learners' (ELLs) prior knowledge can be used to help learn science vocabulary. The article explains that the concept of prior knowledge needs to encompass the ELL student's native language, previous science learning, native literacy skills, and native cultural knowledge and life experiences.…

  18. Random number generation in native and foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans; Bohm, Jessica

    2004-06-01

    The effects of different levels of language proficiency on random number generation were examined in this study. 16 healthy right-handed students (7 women, 9 men; aged 22 to 25 years, M=23.8, SD=.83) attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9 at pacing frequencies of 1, 1.5, and 2 Hz. Randomization was done in German (native language L1), English (first foreign language L2), and French (second foreign language L3). There was a pattern of redundancy and seriation tendencies, increasing with speed of generation for all languages (L1-L3). While using L2 and L3, responses slowed and the number of errors committed increased. Further, there was a peculiar pattern of dissociation in nonrandom performance with an increase of habitual counting in ones and a strong reduction of counting in twos. All effects were most pronounced when subjects used L3 and 2-Hz pacing rates. Slowing and nonrandomness was not correlated with self-assessment parameters regarding language proficiency. We suggest that in a task involving number activation in a nonnative language, lack of proficiency will interfere with random number generation, leading to interruptions and rule breaking, at least when reaching the limits of attentional capacity at higher pacing rates.

  19. Ohoyo Makachi: Words of Today's American Indian Women. A First Collection of Oratory by American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verble, Sedelta, Ed.

    The volume presents a collection of 39 conference speeches symbolizing an effort by American Indian and Alaska Native women to speak for themselves, about themselves and to each other. Topics of speeches presented at Tahlequah consist of: past positives and present problems of Indian women; squaw image stereotyping; status of Indian women in…

  20. A Program Evaluation of a Summer Research Training Institute for American Indian and Alaska Native Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaback, Tosha; Becker, Thomas M.; Dignan, Mark B.; Lambert, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a unique summer program to train American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health professionals in a variety of health research-related skills, including epidemiology, data management, statistical analysis, program evaluation, cost-benefit analysis, community-based participatory research, grant writing, and…

  1. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  2. Effect of Race and Ethnicity Classification on Survey Estimates: Anomaly of the Weighted Totals of American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Satter, Delight E.; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial classification is a paramount concern in data collection and analysis for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and has far-reaching implications in health research. We examine how different racial classifications affect survey weights and consequently change health-related indicators for the AI/AN population in California. Using a…

  3. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  4. Breaking New Ground for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth at Risk: Program Summaries. OSAP Technical Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, Denver, CO.

    This technical report examines the literature on substance abuse prevention programs among American Indian and Alaska Native populations, particularly high-risk youth, and reports on aspects of demonstration projects. The literature was reviewed for specific mention of attempted intervention activities focusing on alcohol and drug abuse prevention…

  5. Successful Aging through the Eyes of Alaska Native Elders. What It Means to Be an Elder in Bristol Bay, AK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jordan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Alaska Natives (ANs) view aging from a holistic perspective, which is not typical of the existing successful aging literature. One of the challenges of conducting research with cultural groups (e.g., ANs) is the lack of data, or research, on culture and aging and its impact on how we view successful aging. This research explores…

  6. Planning How to Use Land in Village Alaska: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Bob

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on the influence of change and competition in land use planning. Designed to stimulate careful political/historical assessment at an advanced secondary or adult level, this booklet presents a vocabulary list, 9…

  7. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  8. Shifting Attention from "Discipline Problems" to "Virtue Awareness" in American Indian and Alaska Native Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Don Trent

    To decrease negative behaviors in American Indian/Alaska Native students, teachers should help children understand, care about, and act upon core virtues such as courage, generosity, humility, honesty, fortitude, and patience. Integrating core virtues throughout the curriculum through stories, class discussions, role-playing, and critical…

  9. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors in Western Alaska Native People: The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Day, Gretchen M.; Silverman, Angela; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Austin, Melissa A.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Ebbesson, Sven O.E.; Boyer, Bert B.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease and a key risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health Study consolidates baseline data from four major cohorts residing in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions of western Alaska. This consolidated cohort affords an opportunity for a systematic analysis of high blood pressure and its correlates in a unique population that has high stroke rates over a wide age range. While the prevalence of hypertension among western Alaska Native people (30%, age-standardized) is slightly less than that of the U.S. general population (33%), cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality in this rural population. We found that improvement is needed in hypertension awareness as about two-thirds (64%) reported awareness and only 39% with hypertension were controlled on medication. Future analyses assessing risk and protective factors for incident hypertension in this population are indicated. PMID:25644577

  10. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-01-01

    Background The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03) had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. Methods Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58) or never had a drinking problem (n = 43). This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs) and non-problem drinkers (NPs). Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. Results Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a) individual, family, and community characteristics; (b) trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c) experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d) reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more socially

  11. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  12. A computer-assisted data collection system for use in a multicenter study of American Indians and Alaska Natives: SCAPES.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Roger L; Edwards, Sandra L; Bryner, James; Cunningham, Kelly; Rogers, Amy; Slattery, Martha L

    2008-04-01

    We describe a computer-assisted data collection system developed for a multicenter cohort study of American Indian and Alaska Native people. The study computer-assisted participant evaluation system or SCAPES is built around a central database server that controls a small private network with touch screen workstations. SCAPES encompasses the self-administered questionnaires, the keyboard-based stations for interviewer-administered questionnaires, a system for inputting medical measurements, and administrative tasks such as data exporting, backup and management. Elements of SCAPES hardware/network design, data storage, programming language, software choices, questionnaire programming including the programming of questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), and participant identification/data security system are presented. Unique features of SCAPES are that data are promptly made available to participants in the form of health feedback; data can be quickly summarized for tribes for health monitoring and planning at the community level; and data are available to study investigators for analyses and scientific evaluation.

  13. Emotion and lying in a non-native language.

    PubMed

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Ayçiçeği-Dinn, Ayşe

    2009-03-01

    Bilingual speakers frequently report experiencing greater emotional resonance in their first language compared to their second. In Experiment 1, Turkish university students who had learned English as a foreign language had reduced skin conductance responses (SCRs) when listening to emotional phrases in English compared to Turkish, an effect which was most pronounced for childhood reprimands. A second type of emotional language, reading out loud true and false statements, was studied in Experiment 2. Larger SCRs were elicited by lies compared to true statements, and larger SCRs were evoked by English statements compared to Turkish statements. In contrast, ratings of how strongly participants felt they were lying showed that Turkish lies were more strongly felt than English lies. Results suggest that two factors influence the electrodermal activity elicited when bilingual speakers lie in their two languages: arousal due to emotions associated with lying, and arousal due to anxiety about managing speech production in non-native language. Anxiety and emotionality when speaking a non-naive language need to be better understood to inform practices ranging from bilingual psychotherapy to police interrogation of suspects and witnesses.

  14. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  15. American Indian/Alaska Native willingness to provide biological samples for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Melissa K; Young, Kristin L; Nazir, Niaman; Williams, Chandler; Brown, Travis; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K A; Daley, Christine M

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the willingness of American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) to provide biological samples for research purposes. Prior cases of abuse and misuse of individuals, materials, and data highlight ethical research concerns. Investigators may be hesitant to engage AI/ANs in research projects. We conducted a survey of AI/ANs in the central plains region of the US over 1 year. This convenience sample completed a series of questions on biological samples and research. Survey results (N=998) indicate that 70.15% of AI/ANs would be willing to provide saliva/spit for a specific study with the proper consent and control of samples. In conclusion, researchers should find ways to work with and for AI/ANs, assuring participant input in the research process.

  16. AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE BOYS: EARLY CHILDHOOD RISK AND RESILIENCE AMIDST CONTEXT AND CULTURE.

    PubMed

    Sarche, Michelle; Tafoya, Greg; Croy, Calvin D; Hill, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescent and adult men experience a range of health disparities relative to their non-AIAN counterparts and AIAN women. Given the relatively limited literature on early development in tribal contexts, however, indicators of risk during early childhood specific to AIAN boys are not well-known. The current article reviews sources of strength and challenge within AIAN communities for AIAN children in general, including cultural beliefs and practices that support development, and contextual challenges related to socioeconomic and health disparities and historical trauma affecting the AIAN population as a whole. The research literature on early development is reviewed, highlighting what this literature reveals about early gender differences. The article concludes with calls to action on behalf of AIAN boys that align with each of the five tiers of R. Frieden's (2010) Public Health Pyramid.

  17. Pain Management Experiences and the Acceptability of Cognitive Behavioral Strategies Among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Haozous, Emily A.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Stoner, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this project was to explore the chronic pain experience and establish cultural appropriateness of cognitive behavioral pain management (CBPM) techniques in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Design A semistructured interview guide was used with three focus groups of AI/AN patients in the U.S. Southwest and Pacific Northwest regions to explore pain and CBPM in AI/ANs. Findings The participants provided rich qualitative data regarding chronic pain and willingness to use CBPM. Themes included empty promises and health care insufficiencies, individuality, pain management strategies, and suggestions for health care providers. Conclusion Results suggest that there is room for improvement in chronic pain care among AI/ANs and that CBPM would likely be a viable and culturally appropriate approach for chronic pain management. Implications This research provides evidence that CBPM is culturally acceptable and in alignment with existing traditional AI/AN strategies for coping and healing. PMID:25403169

  18. Healthy nations: reducing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    PubMed

    Noe, Tim; Fleming, Candace; Manson, Spero

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, 14 American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities have worked diligently to reduce the harm due to substance abuse in their communities. Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Healthy Nations Initiative I, these communities implemented creative strategies that span the continuum from community-wide prevention, early identification and treatment to aftercare. Drawing upon the unique strengths of their own cultural traditions to find solutions to local substance abuse problems, these efforts have identified important and useful lessons for not only other AIAN communities, but also for sponsors of substance abuse programming in Indian country and elsewhere. Described here are successful strategies for developing and sustaining substance abuse programs in AIAN communities and an assessment of their impacts and accomplishments.

  19. Advancing Suicide Prevention Research With Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P.; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O’Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance’s prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  20. Family and partner interpersonal violence among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Katherine J; Jubinski, Sarah M; Tanaka, Mina F; Gershon, Robyn Rm

    2014-12-01

    Family and partner interpersonal violence are common among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN women have the second highest prevalence of violence against women among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, and child abuse prevalence rates in AI/AN populations are among the highest. Elder abuse in AI/AN is also an important concern, although data on this are sparse. This review describes the epidemiology of child abuse, violence against women, and elder abuse among AI/AN, including prevalence and associated risk factors. The authors discuss potential reasons for the high burden of interpersonal violence among AI/AN, including common risk factors. Important limitations in existing literature are also highlighted, along with recommendations for future research on this topic.

  1. Do grammatical-gender distinctions learned in the second language influence native-language lexical processing?

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Smith, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    How does learning a second language influence native language processing? In the present study, we examined whether knowledge of Spanish – a language that marks grammatical gender on inanimate nouns – influences lexical processing in English – a language that does not mark grammatical gender. We tested three groups of adult English native speakers: monolinguals, emergent bilinguals with high exposure to Spanish, and emergent bilinguals with low exposure to Spanish. Participants engaged in an associative learning task in English where they learned to associate names of inanimate objects with proper names. For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun’s Spanish translation matched the gender of the proper name (e.g., corn-Patrick). For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun’s Spanish translation mismatched the gender of the proper noun (e.g., beach-William). High-Spanish-exposure bilinguals (but not monolinguals or low-Spanish-exposure bilinguals) were less accurate at retrieving proper names for gender-incongruent than for gender-congruent pairs. This indicates that second-language morphosyntactic information is activated during native-language processing, even when the second language is acquired later in life. PMID:26977134

  2. Do grammatical-gender distinctions learned in the second language influence native-language lexical processing?

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Smith, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    How does learning a second language influence native language processing? In the present study, we examined whether knowledge of Spanish - a language that marks grammatical gender on inanimate nouns - influences lexical processing in English - a language that does not mark grammatical gender. We tested three groups of adult English native speakers: monolinguals, emergent bilinguals with high exposure to Spanish, and emergent bilinguals with low exposure to Spanish. Participants engaged in an associative learning task in English where they learned to associate names of inanimate objects with proper names. For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation matched the gender of the proper name (e.g., corn-Patrick). For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation mismatched the gender of the proper noun (e.g., beach-William). High-Spanish-exposure bilinguals (but not monolinguals or low-Spanish-exposure bilinguals) were less accurate at retrieving proper names for gender-incongruent than for gender-congruent pairs. This indicates that second-language morphosyntactic information is activated during native-language processing, even when the second language is acquired later in life.

  3. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. Discussion We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Summary Broadening this conversation beyond its primary focus on the use of evidence

  4. Acquisition of speech rhythm in a second language by learners with rhythmically different native languages.

    PubMed

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-08-01

    The development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) acquisition was investigated. Speech rhythm was defined as durational variability that can be captured by the interval-based rhythm metrics. These metrics were used to examine the differences in durational variability between proficiency levels in L2 English spoken by French and German learners. The results reveal that durational variability increased as L2 acquisition progressed in both groups of learners. This indicates that speech rhythm in L2 English develops from more syllable-timed toward more stress-timed patterns irrespective of whether the native language of the learner is rhythmically similar to or different from the target language. Although both groups showed similar development of speech rhythm in L2 acquisition, there were also differences: German learners achieved a degree of durational variability typical of the target language, while French learners exhibited lower variability than native British speakers, even at an advanced proficiency level.

  5. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  6. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  7. Domain Analysis and Second-Language Instruction in Northern Ontario Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Kelleen; Allen, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the functions of English and native languages in northern Ontario native communities and argues that native children's greatest need for English is in an anglophone classroom environment. Discusses three types of curriculum design and suggests ways to develop content area reading and writing curricula for Canada native children. (SED)

  8. Evaluating the Role of First Language in Native Education: Developmental Results in a Canadian Inuit Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene

    A study of language learning in Arctic Quebec examines relationships between early Inuktitut competence and later learning of English as a second language, general and local characteristics of native language competence, and early Inuktitut instruction and later competence. It also looks at the reliability of native educators' assessment of…

  9. Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Walters, L L; Tirrell, S J; Shope, R E

    1999-05-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor.

  10. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  11. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Second Progress Report, 1 July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Derek

    Covering the period January 1 through June 30, 1975, this second semi-annual report on the Applied Fishery Science Program operative at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska presents information regarding program progress and Alaska Native students involved in science education. Specifically, this report details: Planning and Coordination…

  12. A Perceptual Phonetic Similarity Space for Languages: Evidence from Five Native Language Listener Groups1

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann; Clopper, Cynthia; Smiljanic, Rajka; Walter, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to devise a means of representing languages in a perceptual similarity space based on their overall phonetic similarity. In Experiment 1, native English listeners performed a free classification task in which they grouped 17 diverse languages based on their perceived phonetic similarity. A similarity matrix of the grouping patterns was then submitted to clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses. In Experiment 2, an independent group of native English listeners sorted the group of 17 languages in terms of their distance from English. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 2 with four groups of non-native English listeners: Dutch, Mandarin, Turkish and Korean listeners. Taken together, the results of these three experiments represent a step towards establishing an approach to assessing the overall phonetic similarity of languages. This approach could potentially provide the basis for developing predictions regarding foreign-accented speech intelligibility for various listener groups, and regarding speech perception accuracy in the context of background noise in various languages. PMID:21179563

  13. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  14. Native language experience shapes neural basis of addressed and assembled phonologies.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, one key region for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis.

  15. Dietary and genetic influences on hemostasis in a Yup'ik Alaska Native population.

    PubMed

    Au, Nicholas T; Reyes, Morayma; Boyer, Bert B; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Black, Jynene; O'Brien, Diane; Fohner, Alison E; Yracheta, Joe; Thornton, Timothy; Austin, Melissa A; Burke, Wylie; Thummel, Kenneth E; Rettie, Allan E

    2017-01-01

    Fish and marine animals are important components of the subsistence diet of Alaska Native people, resulting in a high ω3 PUFA intake. The historical record for circumpolar populations highlights a tendency for facile bleeding, possibly related to ω3 PUFA effects on platelet activation and/or vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. To evaluate these two scenarios in Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska, we examined the association between dietary ω3 PUFA intake and activities of clotting factor II, V, fibrinogen, PT, INR, PTT, and sP-selectin in 733 study participants, using the nitrogen isotope ratio of red blood cells as a biomarker of ω3 PUFA consumption. sP-selectin alone correlated strongly and inversely with ω3 PUFA consumption. Approximately 36% of study participants exhibited PIVKA-II values above the threshold of 2 ng/ml, indicative of low vitamin K status. To assess genetic influences on vitamin K status, study participants were genotyped for common vitamin K cycle polymorphisms in VKORC1, GGCX and CYP4F2. Only CYP4F2*3 associated significantly with vitamin K status, for both acute (plasma vitamin K) and long-term (PIVKA-II) measures. These findings suggest: (i) a primary association of ω3 PUFAs on platelet activation, as opposed to vitamin K-dependent clotting factor activity, (ii) that reduced CYP4F2 enzyme activity associates with vitamin K status. We conclude that high ω3 PUFA intake promotes an anti-platelet effect and speculate that the high frequency of the CYP4F2*3 allele in Yup'ik people (~45%) evolved in response to a need to conserve body stores of vitamin K due to environmental limitations on its availability.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities.

  17. Epidemic assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention involving American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1946-2005.

    PubMed

    Cheek, James E; Hennessy, Thomas W; Redd, John T; Cobb, Nat; Bryan, Ralph T

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe 169 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention epidemic-assistance investigations involving American Indians and Alaska Natives that occurred during 1946-2005. The unique relation between the US federal government and American Indian and Alaska Native tribes is described in the context of transfer in the 1950s of responsibility for Indian health to the US Public Health Service, which at the time included the Communicable Disease Center, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's precursor. The vast majority of epidemic-assistance investigations were for infectious disease outbreaks (86%), with a relatively limited number, since 1980 only, involving environmental exposures and chronic disease. Although outbreaks investigated were often widespread geographically, the majority were limited in scope, typically involving fewer than 100 patients. Epidemic-assistance investigations for hepatitis A, gastrointestinal and foodborne infectious diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases, zoonotic and vectorborne diseases, acute respiratory tract infections, environmental exposures, and chronic diseases are described chronologically in more detail.

  18. A Nationwide Population-Based Study Identifying Health Disparities Between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the General Populations Living in Select Urban Counties

    PubMed Central

    Castor, Mei L.; Smyser, Michael S.; Taualii, Maile M.; Park, Alice N.; Lawson, Shelley A.; Forquera, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Despite their increasing numbers, little is known about the health of American Indians/Alaska Natives living in urban areas. We examined the health status of American Indian/Alaska Native populations served by 34 federally funded urban Indian health organizations. Methods. We analyzed US census data and vital statistics data for the period 1990 to 2000. Results. Disparities were revealed in socioeconomic, maternal and child health, and mortality indicators between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations in urban Indian health organization service areas and nationwide. American Indians/Alaska Natives were approximately twice as likely as these general populations to be poor, to be unemployed, and to not have a college degree. Similar differences were observed in births among mothers who received late or no prenatal care or consumed alcohol and in mortality attributed to sudden infant death syndrome, chronic liver disease, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions. We found health disparities between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations living in selected urban areas and nationwide. Such disparities can be addressed through improvements in health care access, high-quality data collection, and policy initiatives designed to provide sufficient resources and a more unified vision of the health of urban American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:16571711

  19. Second Life for Distance Language Learning: A Framework for Native/Non-Native Speaker Interactions in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusing, Jennifer; Berge, Zane L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a number of theoretical principles governing second language teaching and learning and the ways in which these principles are being applied in 3D virtual worlds such as Second Life. Also examined are the benefits to language learning afforded by the Second Life interface, including access, the availability of native speakers of…

  20. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods.  We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results.  The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions.  American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  1. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Raven E.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Brown, Derek S.; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  2. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for individuals whose native language is not English or for individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations... whose native language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. (a) Individuals whose native language is not English. For an individual whose native language is not English and who is not fluent...

  3. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for individuals whose native language is not English or for individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations... whose native language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. (a) Individuals whose native language is not English. For an individual whose native language is not English and who is not fluent...

  4. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for individuals whose native language is not English or for individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations... whose native language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. (a) Individuals whose native language is not English. For an individual whose native language is not English and who is not fluent...

  5. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for individuals whose native language is not English or for individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations... whose native language is not English or for individuals with disabilities. (a) Individuals whose native language is not English. For an individual whose native language is not English and who is not fluent...

  6. 34 CFR 668.153 - Administration of tests for students whose native language is not English or for persons with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... language is not English or for persons with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations of... native language is not English or for persons with disabilities. Except as provided in § 668.143— (a) Students whose native language is not English. For a student whose native language is not English and...

  7. Native American Education Research and Policy Development in an Era of No Child Left Behind: Native Language and Culture during the Administrations of Presidents Clinton and Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, David

    2008-01-01

    This article traces the history of policy development in Native American education from the second term of President William J. Clinton and his signing of Executive Order 13096 of August 6, 1998 on American Indian/Alaska Native education, through the passage and implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and initial consideration of its…

  8. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program Into American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M.; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G.; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes for those at risk. We evaluated a translational implementation of this intervention in a diverse set of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented the DPP lifestyle intervention among 36 health care programs serving 80 tribes. A total of 2,553 participants with prediabetes were recruited and started intervention by 31 July 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum and underwent a thorough clinical assessment for evaluation of their diabetes status and risk at baseline, soon after completing the curriculum (postcurriculum), and annually for up to 3 years. Diabetes incidence was estimated. Weight loss, changes in blood pressure and lipid levels, and lifestyle changes after intervention were also evaluated. RESULTS The completion rates of SDPI-DP were 74, 59, 42, and 33% for the postcurriculum and year 1, 2, and 3 assessments, respectively. The crude incidence of diabetes among SDPI-DP participants was 4.0% per year. Significant improvements in weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels were observed immediately after the intervention and annually thereafter for 3 years. Class attendance strongly correlated with diabetes incidence rate, weight loss, and change in systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential of translating the lifestyle intervention in diverse AI/AN communities. They have important implications for future dissemination and institutionalization of the intervention throughout the Native American health system. PMID:23275375

  9. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  10. Facebook-Photovoice Interface: Empowering Non-Native Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrico, Jessie Grace U.; Hashim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Engaging non-native pre-service English teachers who are still learning the language themselves requires two tasks: facilitating their language teaching skills and scaffolding their language learning. This action research interfaced Facebook and Photovoice technologies in order to empower participants to be proactive in their language learning and…

  11. Knowledge of a second language influences auditory word recognition in the native language.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-07-01

    Many studies in bilingual visual word recognition have demonstrated that lexical access is not language selective. However, research on bilingual word recognition in the auditory modality has been scarce, and it has yielded mixed results with regard to the degree of this language nonselectivity. In the present study, we investigated whether listening to a second language (L2) is influenced by knowledge of the native language (L1) and, more important, whether listening to the L1 is also influenced by knowledge of an L2. Additionally, we investigated whether the listener's selectivity of lexical access is influenced by the speaker's L1 (and thus his or her accent). With this aim, Dutch-English bilinguals completed an English (Experiment 1) and a Dutch (Experiment 3) auditory lexical decision task. As a control, the English auditory lexical decision task was also completed by English monolinguals (Experiment 2). Targets were pronounced by a native Dutch speaker with English as the L2 (Experiments 1A, 2A, and 3A) or by a native English speaker with Dutch as the L2 (Experiments 1B, 2B, and 3B). In all experiments, Dutch-English bilinguals recognized interlingual homophones (e.g., lief [sweet]-leaf /li:f/) significantly slower than matched control words, whereas the English monolinguals showed no effect. These results indicate that (a) lexical access in bilingual auditory word recognition is not language selective in L2, nor in L1, and (b) language-specific subphonological cues do not annul cross-lingual interactions.

  12. How do you say 'Global Warming' in Your Language?" Linguistic Research on Climate Change in the Upper Tanana Valley, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovick, O.

    2006-12-01

    The Upper Tanana valley in the interior of Alaska used to be one of the most remote regions on the North American continent. This changed rapidly about 100 years ago, with the onset of the gold rush. Ever since, change has come to the Upper Tanana valley in many forms, from the intrusion of white people to climate change and pollution. The changes are severe and on-going, and they affect everyday life in every possible way. It is obvious that the ideal consultant for long-term studies like studies on climate change has to be older rather than younger. In rural communities of Alaska, including the ones targeted in this study, older consultants, that is, consultants in their 60s or older, usually have a first language different from English, in our case Upper Tanana Athabascan. Even though most of these consultants do have some knowledge of English, their skills in this language can be limited. Thus, communication between the (English-speaking) scientist and the (Upper Tanana-speaking) consultant is bound to be problematic and error-prone. This can be avoided by conducting the research in the Native language. This poster illustrates as part of IPY research how the kinds of change mentioned above are regarded by the Upper Tanana Athabascans, and how the Upper Tanana language reflects them. Concepts like 'global warming' or 'greenhouse effect' are relatively new even to the English language. Speakers are asked to translate such and similar terms into their language, and to explain their choice of words. While the Upper Tanana translations of these terms do not necessarily reflect the English original accurately, discussion of such concepts is still possible for a fluent speaker. Still, the ways of expression such concepts differ from language to language, a different pool of metaphors is employed in the formation of words, and there are nuances in Upper Tanana that can easily get lost in translation to English. Thus, the use of the Upper Tanana language reflects to

  13. Correlates of Motivational Interviewing Use Among Substance Use Treatment Programs Serving American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci; Croy, Calvin D; Venner, Kamilla; Moghaddam, Jacquelene; Gueco, Rebekah; Novins, Douglas K

    2017-02-24

    Motivational interviewing (MI) offers a treatment modality that can help meet the treatment needs of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with substance use disorders. This report presents results from a national survey of 192 AI/AN substance abuse treatment programs with regard to their use of MI and factors related to its implementation, including program characteristics, workforce issues, clinician perceptions of MI, and how clinicians learned about MI. Sixty-six percent of programs reported having implemented the use of MI in their programs. In the final logistic regression model, the odds of implementing MI were significantly higher when programs were tribally owned (OR = 2.946; CI95 1.014, 8.564), where more than 50% of staff were Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselors (CADCs) (OR = 5.469; CI95 1.330, 22.487), and in programs in which the survey respondent perceived that MI fit well with their staff's expertise and training (OR = 3.321; CI95 1.287, 8.569).

  14. Food Insecurity and Obesity Among American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in California

    PubMed Central

    JERNIGAN, VALARIE BLUE BIRD; GARROUTTE, EVA; KRANTZ, ELIZABETH M.; BUCHWALD, DEDRA

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is linked to obesity among some, but not all, racial and ethnic populations. We examined the prevalence of food insecurity and the association between food insecurity and obesity among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs) and a comparison group of whites. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, we analyzed responses from 592 AIs/ANs and 7371 white adults with household incomes at or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity was measured using a standard 6-item scale. Sociodemographics, exercise, and obesity were all obtained using self-reported survey data. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations. The prevalence of food insecurity was similar among AIs/ANs and whites (38.7% vs 39.3%). Food insecurity was not associated with obesity in either group in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and exercise. The ability to afford high-quality foods is extremely limited for low-income Californians regardless of race. Health policy discussions must include increased attention on healthy food access among the poor, including AIs/ANs, for whom little data exist. PMID:26865900

  15. Implementing women's cancer screening programs in American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Orians, Carlyn E; Liebow, Edward; Joe, Jennie R; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Erb, Julie; Kenyon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides funding to tribes and tribal organizations to implement comprehensive cancer screening programs using a program model developed for state health departments. We conducted a multiple-site case study using a participatory research process to describe how 5 tribal programs implemented screening services, and to identify strategies used to address challenges in delivering services to American Indian and Alaska Native women. We analyzed data from semistructured interviews with 141 key informants, 16 focus groups with 132 program-eligible women, and program documents. Several challenges regarding the delivery of services were revealed, including implementing screening programs in busy acute-care environments, access to mammography, providing culturally sensitive care, and providing diagnostic/treatment services in rural and remote locations. Strategies perceived as successful in meeting program challenges included identifying a "champion" or main supporter of the program in each clinical setting, using mobile mammography, using female providers, and increasing the capacity to provide diagnostic services at screening sites. The results should be of interest to an international audience, including those who work with health-related programs targeting indigenous women or groups that are marginalized because of culture, geographic isolation, and/or socioeconomic position.

  16. NIJ's Program of Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Christine; Palmer, Jane; Brooks, Alison

    2013-06-01

    The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 (Public Law Number 109-162), at Title IX, Section 904(a) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 3796gg-10 note) mandates that the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in consultation with the U.S. Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), conduct a national baseline study on violence against American Indian and Alaska Native (AI and AN) women living in tribal communities. As a result, NIJ has developed a comprehensive research program consisting of multiple projects that will be accomplished over an extended period of time to address this much needed research. The purpose of the research program is to: examine violence against AI and AN women (including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and murder) and identify factors that place AI and AN women at risk for victimization; evaluate the effectiveness of federal, state, tribal, and local responses to violence against AI and AN women; and propose recommendations to improve effectiveness of these responses.

  17. Perinatal and Infant Health Among Rural and Urban American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Grossman, David C.; Casey, Susan; Hollow, Walter; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide a national profile of rural and urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) maternal and infant health. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of all 1989–1991 singleton AI/AN births to US residents, we compared receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care, low birthweight (< 2500 g), infant mortality, and cause of death for US rural and urban AI/AN and non-AI/AN populations. Results. Receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care was significantly higher for rural than for urban mothers of AI/AN infants (18.1% vs 14.4%, P ≤ .001); rates for both groups were over twice that for Whites (6.8%). AI/AN postneonatal death rates (rural = 6.7 per 1000; urban = 5.4 per 1000) were more than twice that of Whites (2.6 per 1000). Conclusions. Preventable disparities between AI/ANs and Whites in maternal and infant health status persist. PMID:12197982

  18. Infectious Disease Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, James E.; Holman, Robert C.; Redd, John T.; Haberling, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We described death rates and leading causes of death caused by infectious diseases (IDs) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Methods. We analyzed national mortality data, adjusted for AI/AN race by linkage with Indian Health Service registration records, for all US counties and Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. The average annual 1999 to 2009 ID death rates per 100 000 persons for AI/AN persons were compared with corresponding rates for Whites. Results. The ID death rate in AI/AN populations was significantly higher than that of Whites. A reported 8429 ID deaths (rate 86.2) in CHSDA counties occurred among AI/AN persons; the rate was significantly higher than the rate in Whites (44.0; rate ratio [RR] = 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.91, 2.00). The rates for the top 10 ID underlying causes of death were significantly higher for AI/AN persons than those for Whites. Lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia were the top-ranked causes. The greatest relative rate disparity was for tuberculosis (RR = 13.51; 95% CI = 11.36, 15.93). Conclusions. Health equity might be furthered by expansion of interventions to reduce IDs among AI/AN communities. PMID:24754622

  19. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the highest of any ethnic/racial group in the United States. Relatives of CRC patients are at increased risk; however, CRC can be prevented and detected early through screening. The evaluation included key informant interviews (August to November 2012) with AN and non-AN stakeholders and program document review. Five key process evaluation components were identified: program formation, evolution, outreach responses, strengths, and barriers and challenges. Key themes included an incremental approach that led to a fully formed program and the need for dedicated, culturally competent patient navigation. Challenges included differing relatives’ responses to screening outreach, health system data access and coordination, and the program impact of reliance on grant funding. This program evaluation indicated a need for more research into motivating patient screening behaviors, electronic medical records systems quality improvement projects, improved data-sharing protocols, and program sustainability planning to continue the dedicated efforts to promote screening in this increased risk population. PMID:26157041

  20. Formative Evaluation to Assess Communication Technology Access and Health Communication Preferences of Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Renee F.; Dillard, Denise A.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Tierney, Steve; Avey, Jaedon P.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information technology can improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by improving provider and patient access to health information. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional, self-report survey to determine whether Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have access to the health communication technologies available through a patient-centered medical home. Methods In 2011, we administered a self-report survey in an urban, tribally owned and operated primary care center serving AN/AI adults. Patients in the center’s waiting rooms completed the survey on paper; center staff completed it electronically. Results Approximately 98% (n = 654) of respondents reported computer access, 97% (n = 650) email access, and 94% (n = 631) mobile phone use. Among mobile phone users, 60% had Internet access through their phones. Rates of computer access (p = .011) and email use (p = .005) were higher among women than men, but we found no significant gender difference in mobile phone access to the Internet or text messaging. Respondents in the oldest age category (65–80 years of age) were significantly less likely to anticipate using the Internet to schedule appointments, refill medications, or communicate with their health care providers (all p < .001). Conclusion Information on use of health communication technologies enables administrators to deploy these technologies more efficiently to address health concerns in AN/AI communities. Our results will drive future research on health communication for chronic disease screening and health management. PMID:27169131

  1. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Cassels, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n=129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend’s or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR=3.92; 95%CI: 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend’s or family settings (AOR=0.17; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in “riskier” settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR=4.15; 95%CI: 1.59, 10.68). Perceived “safe” places, e.g., friend’s or family’s house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  2. Policy challenges in American Indian/Alaska Native health professions education.

    PubMed

    Warne, Donald

    2007-10-01

    Disparities exist in the numbers of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in the health professions as compared with the general United States (US) population. Numerous factors contribute to this disparity, including inequities in education, healthcare and economic development opportunities. The basis for inequality is rooted in the policy arena. Issues in health professions education blend the arenas of health policy and education policy. Although AI/ANs have a birth right to healthcare and to education programs as a result of treaties signed between the US and tribal governments, these programs are severely under funded. To understand the disparities in health professions education for AI/ANs today, it is important to understand the history of US federal Indian policy over the last two centuries. Following a history of removal, assimilation, reorganization and termination, the current phase of federal Indian policy is tribal self-determination. As a result, opportunities exist to reduce disparities in the number of AI/AN health professionals and in health disparities. AI/AN tribes have the opportunity to work in partnership to coordinate health, education, social and economic development policy to increase the numbers of AI/AN health professionals. Tribes can also make it a priority to coordinate political advocacy efforts to improve funding for AI/AN health and education programs.

  3. Housing characteristics and indoor air quality in households of Alaska Native children with chronic lung conditions.

    PubMed

    Singleton, R; Salkoski, A J; Bulkow, L; Fish, C; Dobson, J; Albertson, L; Skarada, J; Kovesi, T; McDonald, C; Hennessy, T W; Ritter, T

    2017-03-01

    Alaska Native children experience high rates of respiratory infections and conditions. Household crowding, indoor smoke, lack of piped water, and poverty have been associated with respiratory infections. We describe the baseline household characteristics of children with severe or chronic lung disease participating in a 2012-2015 indoor air study. We monitored indoor PM2.5, CO2 , relative humidity %, temperature, and VOCs and interviewed caregivers about children's respiratory symptoms. We evaluated the association between reported children's respiratory symptoms and indoor air quality indicators using multiple logistic regression analysis. Compared with general US households, study households were more likely overcrowded 73% (62%-82%) vs 3.2% (3.1%-3.3%); had higher woodstove use as primary heat source 16% (9%-25%) vs 2.1% (2.0%-2.2%); and higher proportion of children in a household with a smoker 49% (38%-60%) vs 26.2% (25.5%-26.8%). Median PM2.5 was 33 μg/m(3) . Median CO2 was 1401 ppm. VOCs were detectable in all homes. VOCs, smoker, primary wood heat, and PM2.5>25 μg/m(3) were associated with higher risk for cough between colds; VOCs were associated with higher risk for wheeze between colds and asthma diagnosis. High indoor air pollutant levels were associated with respiratory symptoms in household children, likely related to overcrowding, poor ventilation, woodstove use, and tobacco smoke.

  4. Occurrence of pancreatic, biliary tract, and gallbladder cancers in Alaska Native people, 1973–2007

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Steven R.; Kelly, Janet J.; Ashokkumar, Ramkumar; Lanier, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the occurrence of pancreatic, biliary tract, and gallbladder cancers within the Alaska Native (AN) population. Study design Population-based analysis utilizing a tumor registry and comparative population data. Methods Pancreaticobiliary cancers rates for AN people during 1973–2007 were determined from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) AN Tumor Registry. Cancer incidence rates were age-adjusted to the World Standard Million and compared over 2 time periods with US white and black rates. Results During 1973–2007, 213 AN people developed pancreatic cancer, 73 gallbladder cancer and 61 biliary tract cancer. Pancreatic cancer occurs at similar rates in AN men and women, but data for 1993–2007 indicate that the rates among AN men may be increasing. The incidence rate in AN women (9.5/100,000) was statistically higher than in US white women (5.8/100,000). The incidence for biliary tract cancer in AN men and gallbladder cancer in AN men and women is statistically higher than that for US whites and blacks. Conclusions Pancreaticobiliary cancers, particularly biliary tract and gallbladder cancers, in both AN men and women and pancreatic cancer in women occur at an increased rate in AN people. Risk factors relating to the elevated rate are discussed. Certain factors are potentially modifiable, such as the use of tobacco and obesity. PMID:22456038

  5. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D S; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the highest of any ethnic/racial group in the United States. Relatives of CRC patients are at increased risk; however, CRC can be prevented and detected early through screening. The evaluation included key informant interviews (August to November 2012) with AN and non-AN stakeholders and program document review. Five key process evaluation components were identified: program formation, evolution, outreach responses, strengths, and barriers and challenges. Key themes included an incremental approach that led to a fully formed program and the need for dedicated, culturally competent patient navigation. Challenges included differing relatives' responses to screening outreach, health system data access and coordination, and the program impact of reliance on grant funding. This program evaluation indicated a need for more research into motivating patient screening behaviors, electronic medical records systems quality improvement projects, improved data-sharing protocols, and program sustainability planning to continue the dedicated efforts to promote screening in this increased risk population.

  6. The Public Health Foundation of Health Services for American Indians & Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The integration of public health practices with federal health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) largely derives from three major factors: the sovereign nature of AI/AN tribes, the sociocultural characteristics exhibited by the tribes, and that AI/ANs are distinct populations residing in defined geographic areas. The earliest services consisted of smallpox vaccination to a few AI/AN groups, a purely public health endeavor. Later, emphasis on public health was codified in the Snyder Act of 1921, which provided for, among other things, conservation of the health of AI/AN persons. Attention to the community was greatly expanded with the 1955 transfer of the Indian Health Service from the US Department of the Interior to the Public Health Service and has continued with the assumption of program operations by many tribes themselves. We trace developments in integration of community and public health practices in the provision of federal health care services for AI/AN persons and discuss recent trends. PMID:24758580

  7. A comparison of the diets of Siberian Chukotka and Alaska Native adults and recommendations for improved nutrition, a survey of selected previous studies.

    PubMed

    Nobmann, E D; Mamleeva, F Y; Klachkova, E V

    1994-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development of common diseases among Northern indigenous people, i.e. heart disease, cancer, diabetes and iron deficiency. Their unique diets may contribute to or protect from these diseases. The diets consumed by Siberian Chukotka Natives (Russia) and Alaska Natives (United States) during the 1980's are described. Traditional foods still play a major role, although the extent of their use varies. Alaska Natives' diets are more "western" than are those of Chukotka Natives. They consumed a greater proportion of kilocalories as carbohydrates and fat than Chukotka Natives. Coastal Chukotka Natives had lower average serum LDL-cholesterol and higher HDL-cholesterol levels than tundra Chukotka Natives, despite their high fat and kilocalorie intakes. Dietary recommendations common to both groups are presented which encourage the use of traditional foods as the foundation of the diet supplemented with western type foods of appropriate quality and quantity.

  8. Native Language Self-Concept and Reading Self-Concept: Same or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    In assessing verbal academic self-concept with preadolescents, researchers have used scales for students' self-concepts in reading and in their native language interchangeably. The authors conducted 3 studies with German students to test whether reading and German (i.e., native language) self-concepts can be treated as the same or different…

  9. Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

  10. Native and Novel Language Prosodic Sensitivity in English-Speaking Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida; Lin, Candise Y.; Wang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Children with reading disability and normal reading development were compared in their ability to discriminate native (English) and novel language (Mandarin) from nonlinguistic sounds. Children's preference for native versus novel language sounds and for disyllables containing dominant trochaic versus non-dominant iambic stress patterns was also…

  11. Does bilingualism change native-language reading? Cognate effects in a sentence context.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Diependaele, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Becoming a bilingual can change a person's cognitive functioning and language processing in a number of ways. This study focused on how knowledge of a second language influences how people read sentences written in their native language. We used the cognate-facilitation effect as a marker of cross-lingual activations in both languages. Cognates (e.g., Dutch-English schip [ship]) and controls were presented in a sentence context, and eye movements were monitored. Results showed faster reading times for cognates than for controls. Thus, this study shows that one of people's most automated skills, reading in one's native language, is changed by the knowledge of a second language.

  12. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Design Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising

  13. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  14. The effects of native language on Indian English sounds and timing patterns.

    PubMed

    Sirsa, Hema; Redford, Melissa A

    2013-11-01

    This study explored whether the sound structure of Indian English (IE) varies with the divergent native languages of its speakers or whether it is similar regardless of speakers' native languages. Native Hindi (Indo-Aryan) and Telugu (Dravidian) speakers produced comparable phrases in IE and in their native languages. Naïve and experienced IE listeners were then asked to judge whether different sentences had been spoken by speakers with the same or different native language backgrounds. The findings were an interaction between listener experience and speaker background such that only experienced listeners appropriately distinguished IE sentences produced by speakers with different native language backgrounds. Naïve listeners were nonetheless very good at distinguishing between Hindi and Telugu phrases. Acoustic measurements on monophthongal vowels, select obstruent consonants, and suprasegmental temporal patterns all differentiated between Hindi and Telugu, but only 3 of the measures distinguished between IE produced by speakers of the different native languages. The overall results are largely consistent with the idea that IE has a target phonology that is distinct from the phonology of native Indian languages. The subtle L1 effects on IE may reflect either the incomplete acquisition of the target phonology or, more plausibly, the influence of sociolinguistic factors on the use and evolution of IE.

  15. The effects of native language on Indian English sounds and timing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sirsa, Hema; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether the sound structure of Indian English (IE) varies with the divergent native languages of its speakers or whether it is similar regardless of speakers' native languages. Native Hindi (Indo-Aryan) and Telugu (Dravidian) speakers produced comparable phrases in IE and in their native languages. Naïve and experienced IE listeners were then asked to judge whether different sentences had been spoken by speakers with the same or different native language backgrounds. The findings were an interaction between listener experience and speaker background such that only experienced listeners appropriately distinguished IE sentences produced by speakers with different native language backgrounds. Naïve listeners were nonetheless very good at distinguishing between Hindi and Telugu phrases. Acoustic measurements on monophthongal vowels, select obstruent consonants, and suprasegmental temporal patterns all differentiated between Hindi and Telugu, but only 3 of the measures distinguished between IE produced by speakers of the different native languages. The overall results are largely consistent with the idea that IE has a target phonology that is distinct from the phonology of native Indian languages. The subtle L1 effects on IE may reflect either the incomplete acquisition of the target phonology or, more plausibly, the influence of sociolinguistic factors on the use and evolution of IE. PMID:24860200

  16. Native language effects in learning second-language grammatical gender: a training study.

    PubMed

    Lemhöfer, Kristin; Schriefers, Herbert; Hanique, Iris

    2010-10-01

    We investigated cross-language influences in the representation and acquisition of Dutch word gender by native speakers of German. Participants named pictures in Dutch, using gender-marked noun phrases, and were trained on this task using feedback. Nouns differed in gender compatibility and cognate status with respect to German. The results show clear effects of cross-language gender compatibility and cognate status on response accuracy, certainty, and consistency. Feedback during training reduced gender errors approximately by half, and affected the different item conditions similarly. Furthermore, relative to the initial error rates, incorrect gender responses given with great certainty were not harder to modify than those with lower certainty. The results provide insights into the nature and stability of correct and incorrect gender representations in L2, and demonstrate the pervasiveness of transfer from the first to the second language even after intensive training.

  17. Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Theodore G; Dulik, Matthew C; Owings, Amanda C; Zhadanov, Sergey I; Gaieski, Jill B; Vilar, Miguel G; Ramos, Judy; Moss, Mary Beth; Natkong, Francis

    2012-07-01

    The linguistically distinctive Haida and Tlingit tribes of Southeast Alaska are known for their rich material culture, complex social organization, and elaborate ritual practices. However, much less is known about these tribes from a population genetic perspective. For this reason, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in Haida and Tlingit populations to elucidate several key issues pertaining to the history of this region. These included the genetic relationships of Haida and Tlingit to other indigenous groups in Alaska and Canada; the relationship between linguistic and genetic data for populations assigned to the Na-Dene linguistic family, specifically, the inclusion of Haida with Athapaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit in the language family; the possible influence of matrilineal clan structure on patterns of genetic variation in Haida and Tlingit populations; and the impact of European entry into the region on the genetic diversity of these indigenous communities. Our analysis indicates that, while sharing a "northern" genetic profile, the Haida and the Tlingit are genetically distinctive from each other. In addition, Tlingit groups themselves differ across their geographic range, in part due to interactions of Tlingit tribes with Athapaskan and Eyak groups to the north. The data also reveal a strong influence of maternal clan identity on mtDNA variation in these groups, as well as the significant influence of non-native males on Y-chromosome diversity. These results yield new details about the histories of the Haida and Tlingit tribes in this region.

  18. Clan, Language, and Migration History Has Shaped Genetic Diversity in Haida and Tlingit Populations From Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Vilar, Miguel G.; Ramos, Judy; Moss, Mary Beth; Natkong, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The linguistically distinctive Haida and Tlingit tribes of Southeast Alaska are known for their rich material culture, complex social organization, and elaborate ritual practices. However, much less is known about these tribes from a population genetic perspective. For this reason, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in Haida and Tlingit populations to elucidate several key issues pertaining to the history of this region. These included the genetic relationships of Haida and Tlingit to other indigenous groups in Alaska and Canada; the relationship between linguistic and genetic data for populations assigned to the Na-Dene linguistic family, specifically, the inclusion of Haida with Athapaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit in the language family; the possible influence of matrilineal clan structure on patterns of genetic variation in Haida and Tlingit populations; and the impact of European entry into the region on the genetic diversity of these indigenous communities. Our analysis indicates that, while sharing a “northern” genetic profile, the Haida and the Tlingit are genetically distinctive from each other. In addition, Tlingit groups themselves differ across their geographic range, in part due to interactions of Tlingit tribes with Athapaskan and Eyak groups to the north. The data also reveal a strong influence of maternal clan identity on mtDNA variation in these groups, as well as the significant influence of non-native males on Y-chromosome diversity. These results yield new details about the histories of the Haida and Tlingit tribes in this region. PMID:22549307

  19. American Indian and Alaska Native mental health: diverse perspectives on enduring disparities.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Trimble, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AI/AN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AI/AN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AI/AN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AI/AN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AI/AN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AI/AN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms.

  20. Ectopic pregnancy among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 2002-2009.

    PubMed

    de Ravello, Lori; Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-04-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15-44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002-2009. We used 2002-2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15-44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15-19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35-39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1-2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women.

  1. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas.

  2. Patient and Provider Factors Associated With American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Use Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Garroutte, Eva M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading behavioral cause of death among adults 25 years or older. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and of its sequelae. Primary care–based screening of adolescents is an integral step in the reduction of tobacco use, yet remains virtually unstudied. We examined whether delivery of tobacco screening in primary care visits is associated with patient and provider characteristics among AI/AN adolescents. Methods We used a cross-sectional analysis to examine tobacco screening among 4757 adolescent AI/AN patients served by 56 primary care providers at a large tribally managed health system between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2014. Screening prevalence was examined in association with categorical patient characteristics (gender, age, clinic visited, insurance coverage) and provider characteristics (gender, age, tenure) using multilevel logistic regressions with individual provider identity as the nesting variable. Results Thirty-seven percent of eligible patients were screened. Gender of both providers and patients was associated with screening. Male providers delivered screening more often than female providers (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–3.9). Male patients had 20% lower odds of screening receipt (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) than female patients, independent of patient age and provider characteristics. Individual provider identity significantly contributed to variability in the mixed-effects model (variance component 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.4), suggesting individual provider effect. Conclusions Low tobacco screening delivery by female providers and the low receipt of screening among younger, male patients may identify targets for screening interventions. PMID:26319931

  3. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  4. Historical Trends and Regional Differences in All-Cause and Amenable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Since 1950

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated. PMID:24754651

  5. Negotiating Sociolinguistic Borderlands--Native Youth Language Practices in Space, Time, and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Philip Deloria (2004) and recent explorations of "American Indian languages in unexpected places" (Webster & Peterson, 2011a), this article challenges received expectations of Native American languages and language users as "rural" and physically distant and of "urban" Indigenous language…

  6. Spelling Development in Arabic as a Foreign Language among Native Hebrew Speaking Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russak, Susie; Fragman, Alon

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that linguistic proximity affects the ease of acquisition between typologically similar languages, due to the fact that the languages have shared phonological and orthographic properties (Koda, 2008). Thus, a native Hebrew speaker learning Arabic as a foreign language (AFL) would be expected to easily develop linguistic…

  7. Native North American Language Instruction Offered at Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This directory lists colleges and universities in the United States and Canada that offer courses in 51 Native American languages. Entries are organized under language headings and include the name and address of the institution, contact person, telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address. Language headings are Anishinabe, Apache, Arapaho,…

  8. Responsibilities and Roles of Governments and Native People in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickingbird, Kirke; Charleston, G. Mike

    This paper traces the development of the government-to-government relationship between the United States and Native peoples and examines the implications of that relationship for Native American education. In 1532, Francisco de Vitoria refuted the Doctrine of Discovery and laid out four principles to guide Spanish governmental relations with…

  9. Structural correlates for lexical efficiency and number of languages in non-native speakers of English.

    PubMed

    Grogan, A; Parker Jones, O; Ali, N; Crinion, J; Orabona, S; Mechias, M L; Ramsden, S; Green, D W; Price, C J

    2012-06-01

    We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers. We dissociate two different correlates for non-native language processing. Firstly, multilinguals who spoke 2 or more non-native languages had higher grey matter density in the right posterior supramarginal gyrus compared to bilinguals who only spoke one non-native language. This is interpreted in relation to previous studies that have shown that grey matter density in this region is related to the number of words learnt in bilinguals relative to monolinguals and in monolingual adolescents with high versus low vocabulary. Our second result was that, in bilinguals, grey matter density in the left pars opercularis was positively related to lexical efficiency in second language use, as measured by the speed and accuracy of lexical decisions and the number of words produced in a timed verbal fluency task. Grey matter in the same region was also negatively related to the age at which the second language was acquired. This is interpreted in terms of previous findings that associated the left pars opercularis with phonetic expertise in the native language.

  10. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Paola A; Gollan, Tamar H; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region (education range = 8-20 and age range = 20-63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability.

  11. Second-Language Fluency Predicts Native Language Stroop Effects: Evidence from Spanish–English Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Paola A.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana; Group, HNRC

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region (education range =8–20 and age range =20–63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability. PMID:24622502

  12. Effects of native language on perception of voice quality

    PubMed Central

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Khan, Sameer ud Dowla

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how listeners judge phonemic versus allophonic (or freely varying) versus post-lexical variations in voice quality, or about which acoustic attributes serve as perceptual cues in specific contexts. To address this issue, native speakers of Gujarati, Thai, and English discriminated among pairs of voices that differed only in the relative amplitudes of the first versus second harmonics (H1-H2). Results indicate that speakers of Gujarati (which contrasts H1-H2 phonemically) were more sensitive to changes than are speakers of Thai or English. Further, sensitivity was not affected by the overall source spectral slope for Gujarati speakers, unlike Thai and English speakers, who were most sensitive when the spectrum fell away steeply. In combination with previous findings from Mandarin speakers, these results suggest a continuum of sensitivity to H1-H2. In Gujarati, the independence of sensitivity and spectral context is consistent with use of H1-H2 as a cue to the language’s phonemic phonation contrast. Speakers of Mandarin, in which creaky phonation occurs in conjunction with the low dipping Tone 3, apparently also learn to hear these contrasts, but sensitivity is conditioned by spectral context. Finally, for Thai and English speakers, who vary phonation only post-lexically, sensitivity is both lower and contextually-determined, reflecting the smaller role of H1-H2 in these languages. PMID:21152109

  13. Keeping our hearts from touching the ground: HIV/AIDS in American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Walters, Karina L; Beltran, Ramona; Evans-Campbell, Tessa; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-11-01

    HIV/AIDS is a critical and growing challenge to American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women's health. Conceptually guided by the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model, this paper explores the historical and contemporary factors implicated in the HIV epidemic among AIAN women and the co-occurring epidemics of sexual violence and substance abuse. The authors also outline multiple indicators of resiliency in AIAN communities and stress the need for HIV prevention interventions for AIAN women to capitalize on cultural and community strengths.

  14. An overview of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the context of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Smith-Kaprosy, Nolan; Martin, Patricia P; Whitman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the economic security of the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population by exploring AIAN receipt of Social Security benefits and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). This analysis uses data from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, which provides a larger AIAN sample size than many other sources, thereby enabling more reliable estimates. We find that adult AIANs are less likely to receive Social Security benefits and more likely to receive SSI than are adults in the total population. In both programs, median benefit amounts are lower for AIAN recipients than for recipients in the total population.

  15. Assessment of Severity of Stuttering in Native Versus Foreign Language in Secondary (Late) Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    Mamdoh, Haitham; Gomaa, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the severity of stuttering in native versus foreign language in secondary (late) bilingual children. The speech sample of 31 children with stuttering (age ranges 10 years, 1 month to 11 years, 8 months old) speaking in their first Arabic as a (native) language and acquired second English (foreign) language in the KG1 Class of school around the age of 4 years as secondary (late) bilinguals. The speech samples were recorded using Sony MHC-E60X mini Hi Fi component cassette with a fixed distance 15 cm between the speaker and the recorder. The severity of stuttering is assessed using Arabic version of stuttering severity index (A-SSI). The results indicate that there is a significant correlation between stuttering severity in both languages, being more severe in English (foreign) language than in Arabic (native) language.

  16. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska natives: incorporating culture in an "indigenist" stress-coping paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article proposes a new stress-coping model for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs) that reflects a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualization of Native health. It reviews sociodemographic information on AIs, rates of substance abuse and related health outcomes, and the research supporting the model's pathways. OBSERVATIONS: Although health outcomes among AIs are improving, large disparities with other racial and ethnic groups in the United States remain. Many health-related problems are directly linked to high rates of substance use and abuse. CONCLUSION: Eurocentric paradigms focus on individual pathology. An "indigenist" perspective of health incorporates the devastating impact of historical trauma and ongoing oppression of AIs. The model emphasizes cultural strengths, such as the family and community, spirituality and traditional healing practices, and group identity attitudes. PMID:12435834

  17. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  19. Effects of First and Second Language on Segmentation of Non-Native Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Mitterer, Holger; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Do Slovak-German bilinguals apply native Slovak phonological and lexical knowledge when segmenting German speech? When Slovaks listen to their native language, segmentation is impaired when fixed-stress cues are absent (Hanulikova, McQueen & Mitterer, 2010), and, following the Possible-Word Constraint (PWC; Norris, McQueen, Cutler & Butterfield,…

  20. Cross-language Perception of Non-native Tonal Contrasts: Effects of Native Phonological and Phonetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    SO, CONNIE K.; BEST, CATHERINE T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the perception of the four Mandarin lexical tones by Mandarin-naïve Hong Kong Cantonese, Japanese, and Canadian English listener groups. Their performance on an identification task, following a brief familiarization task, was analyzed in terms of tonal sensitivities (A-prime scores on correct identifications) and tonal errors (confusions). The A-prime results revealed that the English listeners' sensitivity to Tone 4 identifications specifically was significantly lower than that of the other two groups. The analysis of tonal errors revealed that all listener groups showed perceptual confusion of tone pairs with similar phonetic features (T1–T2, T1–T4 and T2–T3 pairs), but not of those with completely dissimilar features (T1–T3, T2–T4, and T3–T4). Language specific errors were also observed in their performance, which may be explained within the framework of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM: Best, 1995; Best & Tyler, 2007). The findings imply that linguistic experience with native tones does not necessarily facilitate non-native tone perception. Rather, the phonemic status and the phonetic features (similarities or dissimilarities) between the tonal systems of the target language and the listeners' native languages play critical roles in the perception of non-native tones. PMID:20583732

  1. Infants’ Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language

    PubMed Central

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  2. Adult Learners of English Interacting with Native Speaker Teachers and Non-Native Speaker Teachers: Exploring Differences in Students' Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Melody Hallenbeck

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the lived experience of adult English Language Learners (ELLs) in classrooms led by native speaking teachers, compared with their experience in classrooms led by non-native teachers. The socio-cognitive approach to language and emergent common ground framed the development of the English classroom as a Community…

  3. Mathematics and Science Curricula in Elementary and Secondary Education for American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Vera

    Issues related to the improvement of mathematics and science education pertain to Native students as well as to the general population. Native students are most successful at tasks that use visual and spatial abilities and that involve simultaneous processing. Instruction should build on Native students' strengths. Experiential learning and…

  4. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  5. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 6: Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating With Non-Native English-Speaking Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills ...native speaker of English (or English dialect). 2. Controllers need to develop greater patience with non-native English - speaking pilots. Once interna...when a non-native English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills

  6. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  7. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-04-13

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  8. Exploring How Non-Native Teachers Can Use Commonalities with Students to Teach the Target Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Case, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study demonstrating how teachers who are non-native speakers (NNS) of the target language and who have learned the target language in a similar environment as their students can use their past learning experiences as pedagogical tools in their classes. An analysis of transcripts from classrooms with NNS and…

  9. When [+Native] Is [-Favorable]. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swacker, Marjorie

    This paper discusses the need for foreign language students to develop positive attitudes about regional and social dialect variation, while learning dialectal patterns that will best facilitate their widest acceptance into a community of target language speakers. The latter issue was tested in a study in which native speakers of American English…

  10. The Role of Native Language Phonology in the Production of L2 Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2013-01-01

    We present findings of an investigation into the acquisition of the English /s/-/esh/ contrast by native speakers of Korean and Japanese. Both of these languages have the phones [s] and [esh], and both languages exhibit a pattern--or motivate a rule--whereby /s/ is realized as [esh] before the vowel [i] and the glide [j]--that is, high front…

  11. 50(0) Years out and Counting: Native American Language Education and the Four Rs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Nicholas, Sheilah E.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years after the U.S. Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act (CRA), Native Americans continue to fight for the right "to remain an Indian" (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006) against a backdrop of test-driven language policies that threaten to destabilize proven bilingual programs and violate hard-fought language rights protections…

  12. Transformative Learning: Teaching Vocabulary to Disadvantaged Non-Native Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriansyah, Andriansyah

    2012-01-01

    Many people in non-native English speaking countries learn English as a second language at school. Moreover, most countries build it into the curriculum of national education ranging from elementary to university levels of education. As a compulsory subject in many countries, it is necessary that the students learn the language. They must be able…

  13. Linguistic contributions to speech-on-speech masking for native and non-native listeners: language familiarity and semantic content.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Van Engen, Kristin J; Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R

    2012-02-01

    This study examined whether speech-on-speech masking is sensitive to variation in the degree of similarity between the target and the masker speech. Three experiments investigated whether speech-in-speech recognition varies across different background speech languages (English vs Dutch) for both English and Dutch targets, as well as across variation in the semantic content of the background speech (meaningful vs semantically anomalous sentences), and across variation in listener status vis-à-vis the target and masker languages (native, non-native, or unfamiliar). The results showed that the more similar the target speech is to the masker speech (e.g., same vs different language, same vs different levels of semantic content), the greater the interference on speech recognition accuracy. Moreover, the listener's knowledge of the target and the background language modulate the size of the release from masking. These factors had an especially strong effect on masking effectiveness in highly unfavorable listening conditions. Overall this research provided evidence that that the degree of target-masker similarity plays a significant role in speech-in-speech recognition. The results also give insight into how listeners assign their resources differently depending on whether they are listening to their first or second language.

  14. English vowel identification in quiet and noise: effects of listeners' native language background

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of listener's native language (L1) and the types of noise on English vowel identification in noise. Method: Identification of 12 English vowels was measured in quiet and in long-term speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble (MTB) noise for English- (EN), Chinese- (CN) and Korean-native (KN) listeners at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results: Compared to non-native listeners, EN listeners performed significantly better in quiet and in noise. Vowel identification in long-term speech-shaped noise and in MTB noise was similar between CN and KN listeners. This is different from our previous study in which KN listeners performed better than CN listeners in English sentence recognition in MTB noise. Discussion: Results from the current study suggest that depending on speech materials, the effect of non-native listeners' L1 on speech perception in noise may be different. That is, in the perception of speech materials with little linguistic cues like isolated vowels, the characteristics of non-native listener's native language may not play a significant role. On the other hand, in the perception of running speech in which listeners need to use more linguistic cues (e.g., acoustic-phonetic, semantic, and prosodic cues), the non-native listener's native language background might result in a different masking effect. PMID:25400538

  15. Problems of Definition of Tribe in Alaska Relating to Public Law 93-638. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, 94th Congress, 2nd Session on Problems Associated with the Statutory Definitions of Tribe as They Relate to Native Alaskans (Juneau, Alaska, September 2, 1976; Anchorage, Alaska, September 3, 1976; Bethel, Alaska, September 4, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Testimony presented in these hearings centers on the legal problems derived from the many and varied statutory definitions of "tribe" and the resulting confusion on the part of the administrators of Federal programs designed to benefit American Indians and Alaska Natives (e.g., in Alaska, there are currently about 465 legal entities…

  16. NCADI's 1995 National Directory of Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Programs That Have a Special Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Rebecca, Comp.; Schacht, Robert M., Comp.

    This state-by-state directory lists over 500 alcohol and drug abuse treatment and prevention services that target American Indians and Alaska Natives. The directory was compiled from the website of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Their home page on the Internet is located at http://www.health.org/index.htm. The…

  17. National Indian Education Study 2011: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-466

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES was administered in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 as part of the National…

  18. The Influence of Institutional Culture on Institutional Choice and Post-Freshman Persistence of American Indian/Alaska Native Students at a Bible College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saggio, Joseph J.

    This study examined American Indian and Alaska Native students' college choice and persistence beyond the freshman year at American Indian College. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 29 students from 18 tribes attending American Indian College, a very small Bible college affiliated with the Assemblies of God and located in Phoenix,…

  19. EPA Regional Administrator and American Indian Environmental Office Director Present Recognition of Innovation to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's LEO Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 10, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran and EPA American Indian Environmental Office National Director JoAnn Chase will present a Recognition of Innovation award to the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium'

  20. An Eagle's View: Sharing Successful American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs. Volumes I and II. The Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Bill

    This document consists of two catalogues describing programs, events, and activities designed to prevent the use of alcohol and other drugs by American Indian and Alaska Native people, particularly adolescents and other young people. Together the catalogues include 61 descriptions of programs developed and implemented by the five agencies under…

  1. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, Perceptions of Risk, HIV Testing, and Exposure to Prevention Messages and Methods among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidus, Jodi A.; Bertolli, Jeanne; McGowan, Karen; Sullivan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe HIV risk behaviors, perceptions, testing, and prevention exposure among urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Interviewers administered a questionnaire to participants recruited through anonymous peer-referral sampling. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to compare HIV…

  2. "It Runs in the Family": Intergenerational Transmission of Historical Trauma among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives in Culturally Specific Sobriety Maintenance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhra, Laurelle L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study, which was informed by ethnographic principles, was to better understand the intergenerational transmission of historical trauma among urban American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in culturally specific sobriety maintenance programs. The results of the study were organized into 3 overarching categories, which…

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its defining components among Yup’ik Eskimos. Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study design that included 710 adult Yup’ik Eskimos 18 years of age residing in 8 communities in Southwest Alaska. The prevale...

  4. Story: The Heartbeat of Learning Cancer Education for Alaska Native Community Healthcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne P.; Dignan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Community Health Aides and Community Health Practitioners (CHA/Ps), the primary providers of healthcare in rural Alaska, share the importance of story as a culturally respectful way for creating meaning and broadening understanding. Story is woven into the fabric of cancer education courses for CHA/Ps. Between May 2004 and April 2007, 13 week-long…

  5. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1927, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1927-01-01

    Through its Alaska division, the United State Bureau of Education is developing and educating an aboriginal population of different races dwelling in widely varying regions and climates, many of whom require assistance in adjusting themselves to the new conditions with which civilization has confronted them. The problem involves both educating…

  6. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds.

    PubMed

    Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola; Lipski, Silvia C

    2013-09-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared auditory pre-attentive duration processing in native and non-native vowels across Dutch, Czech, and Spanish. Dutch duration sensitivity patterned with Czech but was larger than Spanish in the native vowel, while it was smaller than Czech and Spanish in the non-native vowel. An interpretation of these findings suggests that in Dutch, duration is used phonemically but it might be relevant for the identity of certain native vowels only. Furthermore, the finding that Spanish listeners are more sensitive to duration in non-native than in native vowels indicates that a lack of duration differences in one's native language could be beneficial for second-language learning.

  7. Geographic variation in trends and characteristics of teen childbearing among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Phyllis A; Lesesne, Catherine A; Smith, Ruben A; de Ravello, Lori; Espey, David K; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Tucker, Myra; Thierry, Judith

    2012-12-01

    To study teen birth rates, trends, and socio-demographic and pregnancy characteristics of AI/AN across geographic regions in the US. The birth rate for US teenagers 15-19 years reached a historic low in 2009 (39.1 per 1,000) and yet remains one of the highest teen birth rates among industrialized nations. In the US, teen birth rates among Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are consistently two to three times the rate among non-Hispanic white teens. Birth certificate data for females younger than age 20 were used to calculate birth rates (live births per 1,000 women) and joinpoint regression to describe trends in teen birth rates by age (<15, 15-17, 18-19) and region (Aberdeen, Alaska, Bemidji, Billings, California, Nashville, Oklahoma, Portland, Southwest). Birth rates for AI/AN teens varied across geographic regions. Among 15-19-year-old AI/AN, rates ranged from 24.35 (California) to 123.24 (Aberdeen). AI/AN teen birth rates declined from the early 1990s into the 2000s for all three age groups. Among 15-17-year-olds, trends were approximately level during the early 2000s-2007 in six regions and declined in the others. Among 18-19-year-olds, trends were significantly increasing during the early 2000s-2007 in three regions, significantly decreasing in one, and were level in the remaining regions. Among AI/AN, cesarean section rates were lower in Alaska (4.1%) than in other regions (16.4-26.6%). This is the first national study to describe regional variation in AI/AN teen birth rates. These data may be used to target limited resources for teen pregnancy intervention programs and guide research.

  8. Successful Aging Through the eyes of Alaska Native Elders. What It Means to Be an Elder in Bristol Bay, AK

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jordan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Alaska Natives (ANs) view aging from a holistic perspective, which is not typical of the existing successful aging literature. One of the challenges of conducting research with cultural groups (e.g., ANs) is the lack of data, or research, on culture and aging and its impact on how we view successful aging. This research explores successful aging from an AN perspective or what it means to reach “Eldership” in rural Alaskan communities, which is an area of successful aging where there is very little research. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 26 elders aged 61–93 years in 6 Bristol Bay communities in Southwest Alaska. An Explanatory Model approach was used and adapted to gain a sense of the beliefs about aging and establish an indigenous understanding of successful aging or what it means to attain “Eldership.” Results: Rather than establishing a definition of successful aging for AN Elders, this study highlights the four elements of “Eldership” or what AN Elders believe are important characteristics to becoming a respected elder. The four elements of “Eldership” are emotional well-being, community engagement, spirituality, and physical health, which are the characteristics of ANs who have reached “Eldership” and become a respected Elder in their community. Implications: This research seeks to inform studies on indigenous aging that prioritizes the perspectives of elders to affect positively on the delivery of health care services in rural Alaska. PMID:21357658

  9. Conference on American Indian Languages Clearinghouse Newsletter. Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidelholtz, James L., Ed.

    The bilingual education bill passed by the Alaska legislature is summarized in this issue, as is the bilingual education law of Massachusetts. The Alaskan bill establishes a bilingual program of education for Native Alaskans and provides for the creation of the Alaskan Native Language Center at the University of Alaska. While the Massachusetts…

  10. The Role of Native-Language Knowledge in the Perception of Casual Speech in a Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Mitterer, Holger; Tuinman, Annelie

    2012-01-01

    Casual speech processes, such as /t/-reduction, make word recognition harder. Additionally, word recognition is also harder in a second language (L2). Combining these challenges, we investigated whether L2 learners have recourse to knowledge from their native language (L1) when dealing with casual speech processes in their L2. In three experiments, production and perception of /t/-reduction was investigated. An initial production experiment showed that /t/-reduction occurred in both languages and patterned similarly in proper nouns but differed when /t/ was a verbal inflection. Two perception experiments compared the performance of German learners of Dutch with that of native speakers for nouns and verbs. Mirroring the production patterns, German learners’ performance strongly resembled that of native Dutch listeners when the reduced /t/ was part of a word stem, but deviated where /t/ was a verbal inflection. These results suggest that a casual speech process in a second language is problematic for learners when the process is not known from the leaner’s native language, similar to what has been observed for phoneme contrasts. PMID:22811675

  11. The Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Claudia J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this talk we will present a concept for building on Native American languages and incorporating STEM concepts. Recently, a student from the Navajo Dine community took it upon himself to define 28 "NASA" terms in the Navajo language. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. We hope to add to this word list with geology and astronomy (comet-related) terms, just as we will in Rosetta public engagement for English-speakers. The U.S. Rosetta project will host these words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map will allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. The initiative will be expanded into other Native communities such as Hawaiian with the objective of drawing Native American students to the marvelous images, and other data, returned from NASA space missions. Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. One of the most important near-term problems is the preservation of Native American language. In some communities, small numbers of native speakers remain. The retention of language, and need to make it relevant to the technological age, represents a large and urgent challenge. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. STEM language elements in Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe can be found at the U.S. Rosetta website: http://rosetta.jpl.nasa.gov. Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was supported by NASA. The Rosetta mission is a cooperative project of NASA and the European Space Agency.

  12. Guideline concordant detection and management of depression among Alaska Native and American Indian people in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Norman, Sara M.; Manson, Spero M.; Dillard, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A tribal health organization in Alaska implemented a primary care depression screening, detection and management initiative amongst 55,000 Alaska Native/American Indian people (AN/AIs). Objectives (a) To describe the proportion of AN/AIs screening positive for depression with depression noted or diagnosed and proportion with guideline concordant management and (b) to assess whether management varied by patient and provider factors. Research design Secondary analysis of electronic and paper medical record information of 400 AN/AIs. Measures Provider variables, patient demographics and patient clinical factors were electronically queried. Manual chart audits assessed depression notation, diagnoses and management within 12 weeks of positive screening. Multilevel ordinal logistic modelling assessed management by patient and provider factors. Results A depression diagnosis was present in 141 (35%) charts and 151 (38%) had depressive symptoms noted. Detection was higher among AN/AIs with moderate and severe depression (p<0.001). In total, 258 patients (66%) received guideline concordant management, 32 (8%) had some management, and 110 (28%) received no management. Younger patient age and increased provider tenure increased odds of management. Conclusions Most AN/AIs screening positive for depression received initial guideline concordant management. Additional outreach to older patients and additional support for providers newer to practices appears warranted. PMID:26519359

  13. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for American Indian and Alaska native children.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Judith; Brenneman, George; Rhoades, Everett; Chilton, Lance

    2009-12-01

    Most American Indian and Alaska Native Children (AIAN) receive health care that is based on the unique historical legacy of tribal treaty obligations and a trust relationship of sovereign nation to sovereign nation. From colonial America to the early 21st century, the wellbeing of AIAN children has been impacted as federal laws were crafted for the health, education and wellbeing of its AIAN citizens. Important public laws are addressed in this article, highlighting the development of the Indian Health Service (IHS), a federal agency designed to provide comprehensive clinical and public health services to citizens of federally recognized tribes. The context during which various acts were made into law are described to note the times during which the policy making process took place. Policies internal and external to the IHS are summarized, widening the lens spanning the past 200 years and into the future of these first nations' youngest members.

  14. Linkages to improve mortality data for American Indians and Alaska Natives: a new model for death reporting?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert N; Copeland, Glenn; Hayes, John Mosely

    2014-06-01

    Racial misclassification is a well-documented weakness of mortality data taken from death certificates. As a result, mortality statistics for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) present, at best, an inaccurate and misleading assessment of mortality in this population. Studies evaluating the quality of race/ethnicity reporting on death certificates have linked data from death certificates to other data sources collected when the decedent was still alive (e.g., Census, Current Population Survey). Such studies have shown substantial misclassification of AI/AN decedents. Despite limitations, linking mortality data from death certificates with data from other sources collected when decedents were living provides opportunities to evaluate and correct misclassification of populations such as AI/AN persons and facilitates the calculation and presentation of more accurate mortality statistics.

  15. Cultural Identity, Multicultural Competence and Resilience: A Pilot Study of Alaska Native Students' Experience at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Burke, Tracey Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and university administrators have noted significant disparities in the rates at which Native students graduate from college in a timely manner relative to students from other racial/ethnic groups. It has been posited that this is because in order to succeed, Native students must negotiate the contradictory values of Western and Native…

  16. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael

    Achieving equity in the number of American Indian and Alaskan Native students who enter college and subsequently graduate is important to Natives and to the nation as a whole. Based on institutional data and demographic data, state equity scores for enrollment (ESEs) and state equity scores for graduation (ESGs) were computed for seven states with…

  17. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  18. Measures of Native and Non-Native Rhythm in a Quantity Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace; Bond, Dzintra

    2005-01-01

    The traditional phonetic classification of language rhythm as stress-timed or syllable-timed is attributed to Pike. Recently, two different proposals have been offered for describing the rhythmic structure of languages from acoustic-phonetic measurements. Ramus has suggested a metric based on the proportion of vocalic intervals and the variability…

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  20. Non-Native Speakers: Problems of Language Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narain, Mona

    Writing teachers need to recognize the special circumstances of culturally displaced students. A specific category of such students are those from the Asian subcontinent, who are not exactly non-native speakers of English, but who do speak non-standard American English. These students occupy a subaltern (marginal) position: they can neither be…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  2. Differential neural contributions to native- and foreign-language talker identification.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Wong, Patrick C M

    2009-12-01

    Humans are remarkably adept at identifying individuals by the sound of their voice, a behavior supported by the nervous system's ability to integrate information from voice and speech perception. Talker-identification abilities are significantly impaired when listeners are unfamiliar with the language being spoken. Recent behavioral studies describing the language-familiarity effect implicate functionally integrated neural systems for speech and voice perception, yet specific neuroscientific evidence demonstrating the basis for such integration has not yet been shown. Listeners in the present study learned to identify voices speaking a familiar (native) or unfamiliar (foreign) language. The talker-identification performance of neural circuitry in each cerebral hemisphere was assessed using dichotic listening. To determine the relative contribution of circuitry in each hemisphere to ecological (binaural) talker identification abilities, we compared the predictive capacity of dichotic performance on binaural performance across languages. Listeners' right-ear (left hemisphere) performance was a better predictor of binaural accuracy in their native language than a foreign one. This enhanced role of the classically language-dominant left hemisphere in listeners' native language demonstrates functionally integrated neural systems for speech and voice perception during talker identification.

  3. Perceptions, barriers, and suggestions for creation of a tobacco and health website among American Indian/Alaska Native college students.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Melissa K; McCloskey, Charlotte; Williams, Chandler; Bull, Julia White; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M

    2013-06-01

    Information concerning American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) Internet use and health information needs is dearth. Our research team explored Internet use among AI/AN college students to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. We used a tobacco site example for participants to describe what they desired in a health site designed specifically for AI/AN. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted 14 focus groups with AI/AN college students (N = 108), to better understand their perceptions of and attitudes toward Internet use and health information needs. Daily Internet use was reported across strata yet health topics investigated differed among groups. Participants in all strata desired a health website that was easy to navigate and interactive. Respectful representation of Native culture was a concern, yet no consensus was reached for a multi-tribal audience. Participants felt a website should use caution with cultural depictions due to the possible misinterpretation. Overall, participants agreed that recreational and traditional tobacco use should be differentiated and the variation of traditional use among tribes acknowledged. Data concerning Internet use for health information among AI/AN college students are needed to establish baseline indicators to effectively address disparities.

  4. Assisting Native Americans in Assuring the Survival and Continuing Vitality of Their Languages. Report To Accompany S. 2044. Senate, 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    Past U.S. policies toward Indian and other Native American languages have attempted to suppress the use of the languages in government-operated Indian schools for assimilating Indian children. About 155 Native languages are spoken today in the United States, but only 20 are spoken by people of all ages. The Native American Languages Act of 1990…

  5. THE ROLE OF NATIVE LANGUAGE PHONOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF L2 CONTRASTS.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Fred; Iverson, Gregory K

    2013-03-01

    We present findings of an investigation into the acquisition of the English /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by native speakers of Korean and Japanese. Both of these languages have the phones [s] and [ʃ], and both languages exhibit a pattern-or motivate a rule-whereby /s/ is realized as [ʃ] before the vowel [i] and the glide [j]-that is, high front vocoids. The crucial difference, and the focus of this study, is that in Korean [s] and [ʃ] are allophones of /s/, whereas in Japanese the two sounds arguably instantiate different phonemes. We present production data showing that the differences in the functioning of [s] and [ʃ] in the second language learner's native language have different consequences for the acquisition patterns and the error types produced in the learning of this contrast.

  6. Native American Languages Act of 1991. Hearings on S. 2044 To Assist Native Americans in Assuring the Survival and Continuing Vitality of Their Languages, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    In June 1992, a Senate hearing received testimony on the need for federal aid for maintenance of Native American languages. Such aid would fund community language facilities and programs, training of Native speakers as teachers, development of instructional materials, and compilation of oral materials. A speaker from the Administration for Native…

  7. Attitudes of Palestinian Undergraduate Students towards Native and Non-Native English Language Teachers and Their Relation to Students' Listening Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafi, Jamal Subhi Ismail; Qabaja, Ziad Mohammed Mahmoud; Al-Kar, Hibah Jabir Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of Palestinian undergraduate students towards native and non-native English language teachers and their relation to students' listening ability. To achieve this purpose and to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, the researchers adopted both the descriptive and inferential…

  8. Concerning the Influence of Native American Languages on American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, Herbert J.

    Drawing on the analogy between the linguistic Romanization of Europe and the Hispanization of America, this paper attempts to investigate the validity of the so-called substream theory to account for the development and diversification of the Romance languages. Phonetic peculiarities of Spanish in America are analyzed, and it is concluded that…

  9. Teaching Native Language and Culture in the Indian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Roy E.

    This summary of a dissertation reports results of a study of teachers providing bilingual education at a Navajo border town school. History, demography and geography, socioeconomics, and politics all affect cultural knowledge to be taught and teachers must study these subjects. However, teaching Navajo language and culture in a bordertown school…

  10. Morphological Structure in Native and Nonnative Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia; Neubauer, Kathleen; Sato, Mikako; Silva, Renita

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated how advanced adult second language (L2) learners process morphologically complex words. The studies reported here have used different kinds of experimental tasks (including speeded grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, and priming) to examine three domains of…

  11. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  12. How Sex, Native Language, and College Major Relate to the Cognitive Strategies Used during 3-D Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yingli; O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Eighty college students mentally rotated 3-D shapes while maintaining a concurrent verbal or spatial memory load to investigate how sex, native language, and college major relate to the cognitive strategies employed during mental rotation (MR). Males were significantly better than females at MR, whereas native language was not related to MR…

  13. Conceptualization of American English Native Speaker Norms: A Case Study of an English Language Classroom in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Kyungja

    2011-01-01

    This case study aims to reveal how conceptualization of native speakership was constructed and reinforced in a South Korean university classroom of English as a foreign language (EFL). In addition, it examines how this conceptualization positions native speakers, a non-native EFL teacher, and learners, and what learning opportunities were provided…

  14. Associations between Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk among Yup’ik Alaska Native People using Food Frequency Questionnaire Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, TK; Boyer, BB; Hopkins, S; Philip, J; Beresford, SAA; Thompson, B; Heagerty, PJ; Pomeroy, JJ; Thummel, KE; Austin, MA

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup’ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a “subsistence foods” dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns “processed foods” and “fruits and vegetables”. In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity). Methods and Results We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n=637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β=0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β=−0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β=2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β=−0.10 and β=−3.99 respectively). Conclusions We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods. PMID:26607703

  15. Syllable Structure Universals and Native Language Interference in Second Language Perception and Production: Positional Asymmetry and Perceptual Links to Accentedness.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bing; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how syllable structure differences between the first Language (L1) and the second language (L2) affect L2 consonant perception and production at syllable-initial and syllable-final positions. The participants were Mandarin-speaking college students who studied English as a second language. Monosyllabic English words were used in the perception test. Production was recorded from each Chinese subject and rated for accentedness by two native speakers of English. Consistent with previous studies, significant positional asymmetry effects were found across speech sound categories in terms of voicing, place of articulation, and manner of articulation. Furthermore, significant correlations between perception and accentedness ratings were found at the syllable onset position but not for the coda. Many exceptions were also found, which could not be solely accounted for by differences in L1-L2 syllabic structures. The results show a strong effect of language experience at the syllable level, which joins force with acoustic, phonetic, and phonemic properties of individual consonants in influencing positional asymmetry in both domains of L2 segmental perception and production. The complexities and exceptions call for further systematic studies on the interactions between syllable structure universals and native language interference with refined theoretical models to specify the links between perception and production in second language acquisition.

  16. Syllable Structure Universals and Native Language Interference in Second Language Perception and Production: Positional Asymmetry and Perceptual Links to Accentedness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how syllable structure differences between the first Language (L1) and the second language (L2) affect L2 consonant perception and production at syllable-initial and syllable-final positions. The participants were Mandarin-speaking college students who studied English as a second language. Monosyllabic English words were used in the perception test. Production was recorded from each Chinese subject and rated for accentedness by two native speakers of English. Consistent with previous studies, significant positional asymmetry effects were found across speech sound categories in terms of voicing, place of articulation, and manner of articulation. Furthermore, significant correlations between perception and accentedness ratings were found at the syllable onset position but not for the coda. Many exceptions were also found, which could not be solely accounted for by differences in L1–L2 syllabic structures. The results show a strong effect of language experience at the syllable level, which joins force with acoustic, phonetic, and phonemic properties of individual consonants in influencing positional asymmetry in both domains of L2 segmental perception and production. The complexities and exceptions call for further systematic studies on the interactions between syllable structure universals and native language interference with refined theoretical models to specify the links between perception and production in second language acquisition. PMID:26635699

  17. Faster Orientation Latencies Toward Native Language in Two-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Houston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the amount of linguistic information needed by 2-year-old infants to recognize whether or not a sentence belongs to their native language. A cross-linguistic study of French and American 2-month-old infants was conducted, measuring the latency of the first ocular saccade toward a loudspeaker playing short French and English utterances.…

  18. The Presence or Absence of Definiteness in the Native Language and Its Impact on ESL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Melhim Abdel-Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if first language interference does play a significant role in the use of articles in English by native speakers of Arabic as compared to other ESL learners. An error analysis was conducted on the use of English articles in essays taken from two groups of advanced ESL learners. The essays were composed by…

  19. Syntax in a Native Language Still Continues to Develop in Adults: Honorification Judgment in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momo, Kanako; Sakai, Hiromu; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2008-01-01

    Native languages (L1s) are tacitly assumed to be complete and stable in adults. Here we report an unexpected individual variation in judgment of L1 regarding Japanese sentences including honorification, and further clarify its neural basis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By contrasting an honorification judgment task with a…

  20. The Impact of the Native American Languages Act on Public School Curriculum: A Different View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Scott Ferrin's argument (EJ 583 598) and, as the former policy director for the U.S. Office for Civil Rights (OCR), decries both Ferrin and OCR for their relentless and, in his view, unwarranted promotion of bilingual education. Contends that no civil-rights laws, including the Native American Languages Act (NALA), support or allow…

  1. Do Native Speakers of North American and Singapore English Differentially Perceive Comprehensibility in Second Language Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya; Shintani, Natsuko

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10…

  2. Effects of native language experience on perceptual learning of Cantonese lexical tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian

    2004-05-01

    In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.

  3. Native Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Choosing Language and Cultural Revitalization over Uniformity and Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

    2011-01-01

    The goal of implementing a culture-based curriculum that draws upon indigenous knowledge, traditions, and language is currently in competition with demands placed on schools by high stakes educational reform to implement a standards-based curriculum in schools. Though often left out of the policy conversation, Native teachers in particular have…

  4. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  5. On Evaluating Arguments for Special Nativism in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates arguments advanced in favor of special nativism in second-language acquisition (SLA). The article considers the following claims: Universal Grammar (UG) is the null hypothesis; any theory of SLA needs a theory of grammar; and showing that interlanguage grammars are underdetermined by the available input implies that UG must be accessible…

  6. Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, Ojibwe Language Instructor. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students introduces Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, a Native American Ojibwe language instructor and bilingual education consultant. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains suggested activities and worksheets, objectives, directions for teachers, vocabulary list, resource list, and an evaluation…

  7. English Language Needs and Preparation for Non-Native English Speaking Army Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robin A.

    A study evaluated language needs, preparation, and screening among non-native-English-speaking U.S. Army officers and enlisted personnel, focusing primarily on the needs of officers. The purpose was to help determine the minimum competency levels needed on two measures of English proficiency. Evaluation questions guiding the study were: (1) What…

  8. Modified Spectral Tilt Affects Older, but Not Younger, Infants' Native-Language Fricative Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Kitamura, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is important to ensure that hearing aid fitting strategies for infants take into account the infant's developing speech perception system. As a way of exploring this issue, this study examined how 6- and 9-month-olds with normal hearing perceive native-language speech in which the natural spectral shape was altered to emphasize either…

  9. Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers, Context and English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2009-01-01

    This article contends that, in spite of a recent upsurge in writing on non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in the global discourse of English language teaching (ELT), the experiences of NNESTSs working within their own state educational systems remain seriously under-investigated. To help to redress this, the article explores, from their…

  10. Agreement Mechanisms in Native and Nonnative Language Processing: Electrophysiological Correlates of Complexity and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the neural and behavioral correlates of grammatical agreement computation during language comprehension in native English speakers and highly advanced L1 Spanish-L2 English bilinguals. In a series of electrophysiological (event-related brain potential (ERP)) and behavioral (acceptability judgment and self-paced…

  11. La formacion de profesores de lengua materna (Native Language Teachers' Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Chacon, Concepcion Elena

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the goals of native language instruction advocating a broadening of horizons, away from traditional grammar and literature teaching, and towards culturally based communication skills. Sociocultural awareness is stressed as the fundamental component of a teacher's background and the basis for mastering the relevant aspects of…

  12. Auditory Training for Experienced and Inexperienced Second-Language Learners: Native French Speakers Learning English Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Paul; Pinet, Melanie; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether high-variability auditory training on natural speech can benefit experienced second-language English speakers who already are exposed to natural variability in their daily use of English. The subjects were native French speakers who had learned English in school; experienced listeners were tested in England and the less…

  13. Using Literature by American Indians and Alaska Natives in Secondary Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes; Gillespie, LaVina

    Literature is a powerful vehicle for the transmission and interpretation of culture. Reading a variety of literature helps students to understand the principles underpinning values and traditions of their own culture and the cultures of others. Studying the myths, legends, and songs of traditional Native literature helps readers understand…

  14. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: The role of native vocabulary knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems. PMID:22310327

  15. An ERP study on Chinese natives' second language syntactic grammaticalization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Zhenhai; Bai, Chen; Qiu, Yinchen

    2013-02-08

    The present study is concerned with how the Chinese learners of English grammaticalize different English syntactic rules. The ERPs (event related potentials) data were collected when participants performed English grammatical judgment. The experimental sentences varied in the degree of the similarity between the first language Chinese (L1) and the second language English (L2): (a) different in the L1 and the L2; (b) similar in the L1 and the L2; (c) unique to the L2. The P600 effect was found in L2 for structures that are similar in the L1 and the L2 and that are unique in L2, but there was no P600 effect of sentence type for the mismatch structures. The results indicate L1-L2 similarity and L2 proficiency interact in a complex way.

  16. Umyuangcaryaraq “Reflecting”: Multidimensional Assessment of Reflective Processes on the Consequences of Alcohol Use among Rural Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Skewes, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Concerns in some settings regarding the accuracy and ethics of employing direct questions about alcohol use suggest need for alternative assessment approaches with youth. Umyuangcaryaraq is a Yup’ik Alaska Native word meaning “Reflecting.” The Reflective Processes Scale is a youth measure tapping awareness and thinking over potential negative consequences of alcohol misuse as a protective factor that includes cultural elements often shared by many other Alaska Native and American Indian cultures. A bifactor model of the scale items with three content factors provided excellent fit to observed data. Item response theory analysis suggested a binary response format as optimal. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity is presented. PMID:22931081

  17. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right.

  18. Extending a Blended Education Program to Native American High School Students in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Locatis, Craig; Gaines, Cynthia; Liu, Wei-Li; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the expansion of a blended learning program sponsored by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) that combines synchronous distance learning with face to face instruction. Background information about the program is briefly discussed and challenges to expanding the program are presented. The expansion was not merely a matter of adding a school. It involved close coordination between the NLM, existing participants and those at the candidate school. The challenges included identifying a candidate school, establishing contact and determining interest, assessing and testing connectivity, developing a calendar and schedule, and identifying faculty. Since NLM is on the east coast, the current school was on the west coast, and the candidate school was in Alaska, all of challenges were compounded by enormous distances and differences in time, but all were resolved successfully. PMID:21494418

  19. Vaccination coverage levels among Alaska Native children aged 19-35 months--National Immunization Survey, United States, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    In 2000, a total of 118,846 persons indicated that their race/ethnicity was Alaska Native (AN), either alone or in combination with one or more other racial/ethnic groups. AN groups comprise 19% of the population of Alaska and 0.4% of the total U.S. population. The AN grouping includes Eskimos, Aleuts, and Alaska Indians (members of the Alaska Athabaskan, Tlingit, Haida, or other AN tribes). Eskimo represented the largest AN tribal grouping, followed by Tlingit/Haida, Alaska Athabascan, and Aleut. Vaccination coverage levels among AN children have not been reported previously. This report presents data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS) for 2000-2001, which indicate that vaccination coverage levels among AN children aged 19-35 months exceeded the national health objective for 2010 (objective no. 14-22) for the majority of vaccines. This achievement indicates the effectiveness of using multiple strategies to increase vaccination coverage. Similar efforts might increase vaccination coverage in other rural regions with American Indian (AI)/AN populations.

  20. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…