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Sample records for alaska native population

  1. Alaska Native Population and Manpower: 1975. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    Numbering approximately 62,005 and representing 15.3% of the total Alaska population in 1975, Alaska Natives are a finite and predominately rural subpopulation. However, a significant portion of the Alaska Native Work Force (estimated at 13,854) now resides in the major urban areas and is available to the Statewide Work Force. Statistics from May,…

  2. Alaska Native Population and Manpower Perspectives on Native Labor Force Utilization: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel L.

    As part of a long-term study of the utilization of Alaska Native manpower, new data is combined with that of a similar 1975 study to estimate the Alaska Native and non-Native civilian population and work force for 1978 and 1980. Contrary to 1975 predictions the population ratio of Alaska non-Natives to Natives remains constant at 82%/18%. The…

  3. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  4. 77 FR 31637 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the American Indian and Alaska Native Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Native Population and Labor Force Report AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the American Indian and Alaska Native Population and Labor Force Report. The survey instrument that is... seeking comments on a survey instrument to collect information for the American Indian Population...

  5. The Relevancy of Community-Based Methods: Using Diet within Native American and Alaska Native Adult Populations as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; Okoror, Titilayo A.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in Native Americans and Alaska Natives far exceed that of the general US population. There are many postulating reasons for these excessive rates including the transition from a traditional to a contemporary diet. Although information on the dietary intakes of Native American and Alaska Native communities are limited, there seems to be a consensus that the Native American and Alaska Native diet is high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Further information on the diet needs to be attained so that dietary interventions can effectively be implemented in these communities. An approach that is community based is proposed as the best solution to understanding the Native diet and developing culturally tailored interventions to sustainably improve diet. PMID:22686210

  6. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  7. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  8. Seasonal differences in suicide birth rate in Alaska Natives compared to other populations.

    PubMed

    Kettl, P A; Collins, T; Sredy, M; Bixler, E O

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal differences in suicide birth rates among Alaska Natives and for populations at different latitudes (residents of the Yukon, Saskatchewan, Montana, Wyoming, and Pennsylvania) were investigated. Seasonal birth rates for the general population were similarly examined. Suicide birth rates showed small seasonal variations for Alaska Natives with summer births showing more suicides. However, at lower latitudes, suicide birth rates among other populations showed no seasonal differences. Hours of daily sunlight at the summer and winter solstice correlated with the proportion of suicide victims born during those seasons. Seasonal differences in birth rates of suicide victims correlated strongly with latitude and seasonal differences in daylight. General population birth rates did not show significant seasonal differences, and did not correlate with differences in latitude or sunlight length at the summer or winter solstice. PMID:9458541

  9. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  10. TRADITIONAL FOODS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH CULTURAL FACTORS IN A DIVERSE ALASKA NATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana G; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Schumacher, Mary C; Johnson, Jennifer S; Lanier, Anne P; Helzer, Laurie J; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Slattery, Martha L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of traditional food and physical activity use and associations with cultural factors among 3,830 Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study in 3 regions of Alaska. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Methods Participants (2,323 women and 1,507 men) completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire that included information on diet, physical activity, life-style and cultural factors. Results Over 92% of participants reported eating at least 1 traditional food in the past year. The top 3 traditional foods reported were fish, moose and agutaq (a mixture of berries and fat). The percentage of people who consumed traditional foods varied by region and age but not by sex (p<0.01). Almost 70% of participants engaged in at least one traditional harvesting physical activity. Picking berries or greens, cutting/smoking fish or meat and fishing were the most common activities. Participation in traditional physical activity was highest in south-west Alaska and was higher among men than women, but did not differ by age (p<0.01). Both traditional food and physical activity were associated with greater tribal self-identification, speaking a Native language at home, using traditional remedies and participating in or attending traditional events (p<0.05). Conclusions The EARTH Study found relationships between traditional food use, physical activities, cultural activities and behaviours. Consumption of a variety of traditional foods and participation in traditional physical activities remain an important part of the contemporary Alaska Native life-style. Efforts to promote and sustain these foods and activities in AN/AI populations may lead to improved health outcomes. PMID:19024803

  11. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  12. Advancing Suicide Prevention Research With Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P.; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O’Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance’s prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  13. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  14. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  15. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Eric M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Holman, Robert C.; Seeman, Sara M.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bartholomew, Michael; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children. PMID:26547082

  16. Systematic Review of Health Disparities for Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Factors among American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Rebecca Newlin; Shin, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background American Indians and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience significant health disparities compared to non-Hispanic white populations. Cardiovascular disease and related risk factors are increasingly recognized as growing indicators of global health disparities. However, comparative reports on disparities among this constellation of diseases for AI/AN populations have not been systematically reviewed. Objectives We performed a literature review on the prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease; and associated morbidity and mortality among AI/AN. Data sources A total of 203 articles were reviewed, of which 31 met study criteria for inclusion. Searches were performed on PUBMED, MEDLINE, the CDC MMWR, and the Indian Health Services. Study eligibility criteria Published literature that were published within the last fifteen years and provided direct comparisons between AI/AN to non-AI/AN populations were included. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We abstracted data on study design, data source, AI/AN population, comparison group, and. outcome measures. A descriptive synthesis of primary findings is included. Results Rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are clearly higher for AI/AN populations. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia differences are more equivocal. Our analysis also revealed that there are likely regional and gender differences in the degree of disparities observed. Limitations Studies using BRFSS telephone surveys administered in English may underestimate disparities. Many AI/AN do not have telephones and/or speak English. Regional variability makes national surveys difficult to interpret. Finally, studies using self-reported data may not be accurate. Conclusions and implications of key findings Profound health disparities in cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors for AI/AN populations persist, perhaps due to low

  17. Overview of American Indian/Alaska Native Initiatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... ports several projects in American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations, largely in collaboration with its Network ... The Network strives to: • increase the number of AI/AN researchers, scientists, and medical students involved in ...

  18. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  19. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  20. The Governance, Organization, and Financing of Education for Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dafoe, Don M.

    The history and current status of the governance, organization, and financing of education for Alaska natives are discussed in this report. The first chapter briefly summarizes key factors of geography, environment, economics, and population affecting educational development throughout Alaska's history. Chapter 2 covers the Russian period and the…

  1. Comparison of Fecal Occult Blood Tests for Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Alaska Native Population With High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection, 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Ellen; Asay, Elvin; Roberts, Diana; Haverkamp, Donald; Perdue, David; Bruce, Michael G.; Sacco, Frank; Espey, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Alaska Native colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are the highest of any ethnic/racial group in the United States. CRC screening using guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBT) are not recommended for Alaska Native people because of false-positive results associated with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated hemorrhagic gastritis. This study evaluated whether the newer immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT) resulted in a lower false-positive rate and higher specificity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia than gFOBT in a population with elevated prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods We used a population-based sample of 304 asymptomatic Alaska Native adults aged 40 years or older undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy (April 2008–January 2012). Results Specificity differed significantly (P < .001) between gFOBT (76%; 95% CI, 71%–81%) and iFOBT (92%; 95% CI, 89%–96%). Among H. pylori-positive participants (54%), specificity of iFOBT was even higher (93% vs 69%). Overall, sensitivity did not differ significantly (P = .73) between gFOBT (29%) and iFOBT (36%). Positive predictive value was 11% for gFOBT and 32% for iFOBT. Conclusion The iFOBT had a significantly higher specificity than gFOBT, especially in participants with current H. pylori infection. The iFOBT represents a potential strategy for expanding CRC screening among Alaska Native and other populations with elevated prevalence of H. pylori, especially where access to screening endoscopy is limited. PMID:24721216

  2. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Stephen E.; Townshend-Bulson, Lisa J.; Bruden, Dana J. T.; Homan, Chriss E.; Gove, James E.; Plotnik, Julia N.; Simons, Brenna C.; Spradling, Philip R.; McMahon, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) population. Design In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results Sustained virologic response (SVR) with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18) and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37). Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%), including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%), 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5%) and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%). By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002), estimated duration of infection (p=0.034) and HCV genotype (p<0.0001). There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%). Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%). Conclusions We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1. PMID:27029671

  3. 75 FR 13296 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management will issue an appealable decision approving the conveyance of surface and subsurface estates in certain lands pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act to Bristol Bay Native Corporation for 2.72 acres located southeast of the Native village of Koliganek, Alaska. Notice of the decision will also......

  4. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Natives have 1.5 times the ... Cause of Death (By rank) # American Indian/Alaska Native Deaths American Indian/Alaska Native Death Rate #Non- Hispanic White ...

  5. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  6. 77 FR 35998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Nunapiglluraq Corporation (Native Village of Hamilton). The decision approves the surface estate in the lands... is conveyed to Nunapiglluraq Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hamilton, Alaska, and...

  7. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  8. 78 FR 42543 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  9. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh......

  10. 78 FR 7807 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... decision may be obtained from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State......

  11. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  12. Alaska Native cancer epidemiology in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, R J

    1998-01-01

    Cancer incidence and its possible relation to environmental contaminants, including radiation, continues to be a perceived health threat for the arctic-dwelling Alaska Native (Inupiat Eskimo) people despite the lack of a direct link to high-dose exposure. To better understand this concern, all known malignancies diagnosed in this population (n = 177) in three consecutive eight-year periods (1971-1994) were evaluated. The most recent average incidence rate (age-adjusted to world standard population) of 315 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval, CI = 248-382) represents a 33% surge (albeit non-significant) in Alaska Native cancer incidence over the initial period studied. The male rate 366 (95% CI = 266-466) for the same period exceeds the female rate 258 (95% CI = 169-347) by 42%. Two patterns of cancer incidence are seen at the village level. One, a 24 y upward trend found in the villages of Barrow, Point Hope and Kaktovik (combined rate of increase significant [P = 0.047]) associated with lung cancer; and the other, a stable trend over the past 16 y, associated with colon and rectal cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cancer by site and is primarily a male disease. The recent male lung cancer incidence rate of 137 (95% CI = 73-201) exceeds the female rate by greater than five times. Total lung cancer cases are primarily confined to four villages where the incidence significantly (P = 0.0043) exceeds the remaining population. The major female cancers are colon/rectal and breast with cancer of the cervix virtually eliminated. Breast cancer is found primarily in two villages where its excess is significant (P = 0.025). Inupiat Eskimo cancer epidemiology is unique, differing from both the Alaska Native and other Circumpolar populations. At present, this uniqueness cannot be explained by an overt environmental contaminant exposure. Although tobacco very likely plays a central role, it by itself cannot fully explain the extremely high male lung cancer rate and why

  13. American Indians and Alaska Natives with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marilyn J.

    American Indian and Alaska Native children with special needs experience the same ineffective and inefficient services as other minority language children. This paper discusses the special needs of Native children, assessment and curriculum issues, and recommendations for improvement. It provides statistics for various categories of handicaps and…

  14. 43 CFR 2091.9-1 - Alaska Native selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and... selection and selected by Alaska Natives under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, as amended (43...

  15. Alaska Native Water Rights as Affected by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoebner, Kerry; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A strong legal claim exists for retained Native water rights on Alaska Native-selected lands which are paramount to subsequent competing users. Water rights are critical to the maintenance of Native subsistence economies and continued commercial developments. These water rights can and must be asserted and secured now. (Author/JC)

  16. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, chronic liver disease is ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  17. 76 FR 57759 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Sitnasuak Native Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1604 et seq.). The subsurface estate in these lands will be conveyed to Bering......

  18. HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Considerations for American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sileo, Thomas W.; Gooden, Myma A.

    2004-01-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives represent slightly less than 0.9% of the total U.S. population, yet they account for one percent of the reported HIV and AIDS cases nationwide. Approximately 2537 cumulative AIDS cases have been identified in the American Indian/ Alaska Native community; AIDS related deaths account for about half of the cumulative…

  19. Atherosclerosis in Alaska Natives and non-natives.

    PubMed

    Newman, W P; Middaugh, J P; Propst, M T; Rogers, D R

    1993-04-24

    Low mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) among Eskimos has been attributed to less atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries because of a high dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Other investigators attribute this low mortality to the fact that Eskimos have a high mortality from other causes before middle age, when CHD is common. However, most studies have been epidemiological, either by death-certificate review or risk-factor evaluation. We evaluated the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries and aortas from Alaska Natives. Standardised comparisons between samples from 103 Native and 101 non-native residents show that the extent of raised lesions increases with age in both groups, but the prevalence of raised lesions in native specimens was consistently lower than in those from non-natives. This difference was statistically significant. The data suggest that the differences in CHD mortality between Alaska Natives and non-natives are, at least in part, the result of less atherosclerosis in natives. PMID:8096960

  20. 75 FR 80838 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-11908, AA-11915, AA-11916, AA-11917, AA-11909, AA-11913, AA-11914; LLAK-962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  1. 76 FR 43340 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6682-B, AA-6682-D, AA-6682-E, AA-6682-G, AA-6682-H, AA-6682-I, AA- 6682-A2; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  2. 75 FR 21033 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6670-F, AA-6670-L, AA-6670-M, AA-6670-A2; LLAK964000-L14100000- HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 75 FR 13296 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-6679-B, AA-6679-C, AA-6679-F, AA-6679-G, AA-6679-K, AA-6679-M, AA- 6679-A2, LLAK964000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  4. 76 FR 5395 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-12252, AA-12250, AA-12280, AA-12291, AA-12292, AA-12293; LLAK- 962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  5. 78 FR 16527 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10782, AA-11132, AA-10784, AA-12440, AA-11020, AA-10783, AA-10774; LLAK-944000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

  6. 77 FR 72383 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10282, AA-10291, AA-10292, AA-10369; LLAK-944000-L14100000-HY0000- P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. 76 FR 16804 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-8102-05, AA-8102-08, AA-8102-10, AA-8102-25, AA-8102-28, AA-8102- 37, AA-8102-47; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of...

  8. 76 FR 55415 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-9428, AA-9752, AA-11237, AA-9755, AA-9837, AA-10075, AA-11467; LLAK-965000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  9. 78 FR 10634 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-10756, AA-11061, AA-10764, AA-10765, AA-10766, AA-11083; LLAK- 944000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  10. 78 FR 27991 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... accepted as timely filed. ADDRESSES: A copy of the decision may be obtained from: Bureau......

  11. 78 FR 65354 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), notice is hereby given that an appealable decision will be issued by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM... not be accepted as timely filed. ADDRESSES: A copy of the decision may be obtained from:......

  12. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-9915, AA-9916, AA-9921, AA-9936, AA-9937, AA-9965; LLAK-965000- L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Characteristics of Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, J. S.

    Discussing the "characteristics" of Alaskan Native students presents a serious danger-the problem of overgeneralization and stereotyping. Covering educational programs designed for Native children, the ANNA Project Appendix discusses: (1) cognitive and social strengths of the students; (2) educational problems such as academic achievement and…

  14. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Monica C.; Lewis, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN) since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities. PMID:26850112

  15. It's Okay To Be Native: Alaska Native Cultural Strategies in Urban and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham-Campbell, Mary

    1998-01-01

    The urban Alaska Native community in and around Fairbanks is drawing on its rural roots to reshape schooling experiences. Alaska Natives are resisting the pattern of dropping out and are claiming a place in school, asserting that it's okay to be Native; Native teachers are committed to developing Native curricular materials; and tribal colleges…

  16. Gaining Influence: Alaska Natives Assert Economic Clout amid Cultural Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Kake Tribal Corporation's purchase of a seafood cold storage facility in southeast Alaska is an example of the growing economic clout of Alaska's tribal corporations. However, many claim that the pro-development forces of corporations are weakening the subsistence economy and culture of Alaska Natives. Conflicts involve Native hunting and fishing…

  17. 77 FR 2998 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d), notice is hereby given that the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will issue an appealable decision to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). These lands lie entirely within the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Refuge......

  18. Alaska Native Languages: A Bibliographical Catalogue. Part One: Indian Languages. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.; McGary, Mary Jane

    This catalogue describes Alaska native language materials at the research library and archive of the Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The volume covers the sections of the library devoted to Indian languages as well as the general and bibliography sections. Since the collection is almost exhaustive, the catalogue is…

  19. Expanding Job Opportunities for Alaska Natives. (Interim Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Goldsmith, Scott; Killorin, Mary; Sharp, Suzanne; Hild, Carl

    A majority of adults in most Alaska Native villages were without jobs in 1990, and the situation was probably not substantially better in 1998. This report summarizes current Alaska Native employment data and employment trends, provides information on public and private programs that target Native hire, and describes promising approaches for…

  20. 77 FR 72832 - Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program AGENCY: Office of English Language Acquisition, Department of Education. Overview Information Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  1. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  2. Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment.

    PubMed

    Garza, D

    2001-11-01

    The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity. While Alaska commerce has contributed little to these global changes and impacts, Alaska and its resources are nonetheless affected by the changes. While Alaska Natives have historically relied on Alaska's land, water and animals for survival and cultural identity, today their faith in the safety and quality of these resources has decreased. Alaska Natives no longer believe that these wild resources are the best and many are turning to alternative store-bought foods. Such a change in diet and activity may be contributing to a decline in traditional activities and a decline in general health. Contaminants are showing up in the animals, fish and waters that Alaska Natives use. Efforts need to be expanded to empower Alaska Native Tribes to collect and analyze local wild foods for various contaminants. In addition existing information on contaminants and pollution should be made readily available to Alaska residents. Armed with this type of information Alaska Native residents will be better prepared to make informed decisions on using wild foods and materials. PMID:11768422

  3. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  4. Native Alaska's Floating Factoryship--She Plies the Pacific Ocean for Native Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassaja, The Indian Historian, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the history of the Al-Ind-Esk-A Sea, a floating fish processing factory representing a major hope for the economic independence of Alaska Natives residing outside the state. Discusses employment practices in effect on the ship. Notes interesting facts about the ship's engines and fittings. (SB)

  5. A Summary of Changes in the Status of Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage. Inst. of Social and Economic Research.

    Replication of 78 tables from the 1973 2(c) Report by the Secretary of the Interior using 1980 census information provided data to document the social and economic changes in the status of Alaska Natives since the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Comparison of 1970 and 1980 data showed an average 2.4% growth rate in the Native…

  6. Yesterday Still Lives...Our Native People Remember Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarco, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    In the summer of 1978, seven teenagers and several staff members from the Fairbanks Native Association-Johnson O'Malley program set out to record some of Alaska's past by interviewing a number of older Alaska Natives and writing their biographical sketches. Some of the students spent a week along the Yukon River taping and photographing people;…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1502-81T - Alaska Native Corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation that is affiliated with a Native Corporation through application of section 60(b)(5) of the Tax... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alaska Native Corporations. 1.1502-81T Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Administrative Provisions and Other Rules § 1.1502-81T Alaska...

  8. American Indian/Alaska Native College Student Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Raphael M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study examining the similarities and differences between American Indian/Alaska Native student perceptions and the perceptions of state representatives, university presidents, and faculty about persistence factors and barriers to degree completion specific to American Indian/Alaska Native students…

  9. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Children in the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    Because of their unique social, legal, and political status, American Indians and Alaska Natives are subject to legislative oversight unlike any other group in the United States. Census data are used to monitor the size and characteristics of the American Indian and Alaska Native population living on and off reservations. Passed in 1978 to ensure…

  11. Research in American Indian and Alaska Native communities: navigating the cultural universe of values and process.

    PubMed

    Norton, I M; Manson, S M

    1996-10-01

    The National Institutes of Health's guidelines for recruiting ethnic minorities and women into clinical research have raised numerous questions among investigators. Highlighted in this article are a number of important issues for those researchers seeking to include American Indians and Alaska Natives in their studies; that is, defining the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives for inclusion in a study, participation of the tribes in research and approval by the Institutional Review Board, issues of confidentiality and anonymity of individuals and tribes, identifying potential benefits to American Indian and Alaska Native communities, and the importance of evaluating the scientific merit of a proposed study. Awareness and a commitment to ongoing education regarding these issues will enhance the quality and benefits of research among American Indian and Alaska Native people. PMID:8916611

  12. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  13. Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Brown, Jennifer K.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Dillard, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design Stratified focus groups. Methods Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178) were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens. PMID:22663942

  14. 76 FR 22413 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...) to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions Native Corporation. The decision... surface estate is conveyed to Afognak Native Corporation, Successor in Interest to Port Lions...

  15. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...

  16. Mashkiki: Old Medicine Nourishing the New. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Biomedical Research Careers--II. Proceedings of the Conference (Duluth, Minnesota, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Edwin W., Ed.; Aitken, Larry P., Ed.

    This book consists of papers and panel discussions presented at a conference that focused on encouraging American Indian and Alaska Native students to enter the field of biomedical research. Research and treatment of diseases among Native populations can best be carried out by American Indian and Alaska Native researchers who have a background in…

  17. Tobacco cessation intervention during pregnancy among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered. PMID:22311690

  18. American Indian and Alaska Native Cancer Data Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhansstipanov, Linda; Tenney, Martha J.; Hampton, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Data on cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives are sparse and riddled with misclassification errors, resulting in underreporting of cancer incidence and mortality. Incidence rates are discussed for various cancer types in seven Native nations. Barriers to participation in cancer prevention and control programs are examined. Contains…

  19. Profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Largest Percentage of ELs Who Were Native American and/or…

  20. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  1. “Our Culture Is Medicine”: Perspectives of Native Healers on Posttrauma Recovery Among American Indian and Alaska Native Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Deborah; Tsosie, Ursula; Nannauck, Sweetwater

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (Native) people experience more traumatic events and are at higher risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder compared with the general population. We conducted in-depth interviews with six Native healers about their perspectives on traumatic injury and healing. We analyzed the interviews using an inductive approach to identify common themes. We categorized these themes into four categories: causes and consequences of traumatic injury, risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to care. The implications of our study include a need for improving cultural competence among health care and social services personnel working with Native trauma patients. Additional cumulative analyses of Native healers and trauma patients would contribute to a much-needed body of knowledge on improving recovery and promoting healing among Native trauma patients. PMID:22529755

  2. American Indian and Alaska Native Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the American Indian and Alaska Native high school students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. There are an estimated 4.4…

  3. Independent Living Resource Manual for American Indians and Alaska Natives with Significant Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Priscilla Lansing; And Others

    This resource manual for American Indians and Alaska Natives with significant disabilities lists sources of independent living information and resources available within tribal, state, and federal organizations. The first section defines independent living in the context of this population and introduces state level services, mechanisms for…

  4. Stroke in American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lonnie A.; Muller, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of published studies on stroke epidemiology in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). We used MeSH terms and strict inclusion criteria to search PubMed, identifying a relevant sample of 57 refereed publications. We report a consensus view in which prevalent stroke is more common, and estimates of cerebrovascular risk factors are higher, among AI/ANs than among other US populations. Like other minority groups, AI/ANs suffer stroke at younger ages than do non-Hispanic Whites. However, data on AI/AN stroke mortality are significantly compromised by racial misclassification and nonrepresentative sampling. Studies correcting for these problems have found that stroke mortality rates among AI/ANs are among the highest of all US racial and ethnic groups. As with Black and non-Hispanic White stroke mortality, AI/AN stroke mortality varies by geographic region, with the highest rates in Alaska and the Northwest and the lowest in the Southwest. Our results underscore the need for a concerted national effort to collect accurate cross-sectional and longitudinal data on stroke in AI/ANs. PMID:26066955

  5. 78 FR 54481 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Dina L. Torres, Land Transfer Resolution Specialist..., Alaska T. 25 N., R. 18 W., Sec. 20. Containing 639.92 acres. Notice of the decision will also...

  6. 78 FR 35047 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    .... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Ralph L. Eluska, Sr., Land Transfer Resolution...: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 45 W., Secs. 30 and 31. Containing 1,254.64 acres. Notice of...

  7. 78 FR 10634 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...) to Huna Totem Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... Huna Totem Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hoonah, Alaska, and are located in:...

  8. 77 FR 59220 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    .... Survey No. 9993, Alaska. Containing 129.97 acres. Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 5 S., R. 24 W., Tract A. Containing 1,242.28 acres. T. 6 S., R. 24 W., Secs. 6, 21, 22, 28, and 33. Containing 3,164.08 acres. T. 6 S., R. 25 W., Tracts Q, R, and S; Tracts T, X, and Z. Containing approximately 1,683...

  9. 76 FR 75899 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below... is conveyed to Chignik Lagoon Native Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Chignik...

  10. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions (ANNH) Programs; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  11. American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Education in the States. StateNotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    State policies pertaining to the education of American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian students vary considerably in their scope and type among the states. This StateNote report examines policies found in state statutes. Additionally, states that have tribal colleges--independent colleges that are operated by the tribes--within their…

  12. The Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1921, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    The work of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska includes the Alaska school service, the Alaska medical service, and the Alaska reindeer service, with a field force in Alaska, in 1920, of 6 superintendents, 133 teachers, 9 physicians, and 13 nurses. This bulletin provides details on the following topics: (1) Extent of territory; (2)…

  13. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on student proficiency in reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07, this report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and Alaska Native students. In response to a request by…

  14. Traditional and western healing practices for alcoholism in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1998-11-01

    The American Indian and Alaska Native population is a culturally diverse population with a current census of 1,959,000. Prior to White contact, there was historically little use of alcoholic beverages except for American Indians in the Southwest. After White contact, use and misuse of alcohol escalated rapidly; however, the prevalence, patterns, and problems of drinking alcoholic beverages vary enormously even in tribes closely linked geographically. American Indians and Alaska Natives have preserved and revitalized a number of traditional healing practices and applied these to the treatment of alcohol-related problems. These healing practices include the following: nativistic movements, sacred dances, sweat lodges, talking circle, four circles, and cultural enhancement programs. Additionally, Western treatment approaches have been applied in the treatment of problems related to alcohol, such as medication for detoxification, disulfiram (Antabuse), Alcoholics Anonymous, and behavioral interventions. Several investigators have completed a small number of naturalistic follow-up studies, but no one has undertaken a randomized controlled trial looking at specific methods of alcohol treatment in American Indians or Alaska Natives. American Indian and Alaska Native communities have adapted and integrated both Traditional and Western approaches to fit their own unique sociocultural needs. PMID:9818991

  15. Encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Vora, Neil M; Blanton, Jesse; Gordon, Paul H; Cheek, James E

    2014-04-01

    Encephalitis produces considerable morbidity in the United States, but morbidity rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have not been described. Hospitalization records listing an encephalitis diagnosis were analyzed by using Indian Health Service direct/contract inpatient data. For 1998-2010, there were 436 encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among AI/AN people, an average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate of 3.1/100,000 population. The rate for infants (11.9) was more than double that for any other age group. Death occurred for 4.1% of hospitalizations. Consistent with reports for the general U.S. population, the rate was high among infants and most (53.9%) hospitalizations were of unexplained etiology. The average annual rate during the study period appeared lower than for the general U.S. population, due particularly to lower rates in the elderly. Future community-based surveillance and mortality studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine reasons underlying the low rates of encephalitis in AI/AN people. PMID:24515941

  16. Alaska Native Stories: Using Narrative to Introduce Expository Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Marilyn

    The reading program described in this lesson plan uses traditional stories of the Native peoples (narrative text) to introduce students to the study of animals in Alaska (expository text). During three 45-minute lessons, students will: complete a KWLQ (Know; Want to Know; Learn; Question) chart; listen and respond to a story (narrative text) by…

  17. Alaska Native Education: History and Adaptation in the New Millenium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawagley, Angayuqaq Oscar

    1999-01-01

    Examines ways of learning and knowing among the Yupiaq people of Alaska. Discusses traditional Yupiaq lifeways based on connection to nature, and the consequences of acculturation. Outlines suggestions for seasonal camps in which elders would teach Native language, culture, environmental knowledge, and subsistence skills, as well as the means of…

  18. Oregon American Indian/Alaska Native Education State Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The Oregon State Plan for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) education was developed by AI/AN communities and educators, the State Board of Education, and the State Department of Education. The plan includes 11 major educational goals: (1) the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) should promote effective education for AI/AN children; (2)…

  19. Oregon American Indian Alaska Native Education State Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Susan

    This state plan presents Oregon's 11 educational goals for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) education, which have been revised and detailed by the statewide Indian Education Council. The goals support the policy of the Oregon Department of Education (ODE), the educational philosophy of the AI/AN community, and the Indian Student Bill of…

  20. Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-05

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Resource Guide of American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Owanah P., Comp.; Verble, Sedelta D., Comp.

    A resource listing of 678 prominent American Indian and Alaska Native women representing 159 tribes throughout the United States provides the following information: name, address, date and place of birth, tribal membership, field of interest, current occupation, Indian activities, women's advocacy, educational background and professional interest.…

  2. Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Cancer Prevention and Control in American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…

  4. Alaska Native Community Energy Planning and Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native villages selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  5. Cultural Diversity and the Experiences of Alaska Native Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmon, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnonursing research study was to discover, describe, and systematically analyze the care expressions, practices, and patterns of Alaska Native nurses within the context of their nursing school experience. The goals of this study were to identify generic and professional care factors that promote the academic success of Alaska…

  6. Source Document of Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Urban Indian Council, Denver, CO.

    A source document on American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas, produced by the National Urban Indian Council, provides historical background on relocation to cities, comments on the trust relationship for off-reservation American Indians, discusses urban Indian organizations, and gives statistical information on American Indian…

  7. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of…

  8. American Indian & Alaska Native Sources of Health Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Minority Health (PHS/DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This brief directory lists 28 agencies providing culturally sensitive printed health materials for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Each entry provides the agency's address; telephone number; fax number; and annotated titles available, with price. Many materials are free. There is also a subject index with these categories: adolescent…

  9. Comprehensive Health Care Program for American Indians & Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet summarizes programs of the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS was created in 1954 as part of the Public Health Service when responsibility for American Indian and Alaska Native health care was transferred from the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The goal of…

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Education. Executive Order 13096.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, William J.

    1998-01-01

    This Executive Order of the President outlines a plan for federal agencies to develop a long-term comprehensive federal Indian education policy that will accomplish six goals for American Indian and Alaska Native education. These goals are improving reading and mathematics; increasing high school completion and postsecondary attendance rates;…

  11. Alaska Native Land Claims. Teacher's Guide to Accompany Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Lydia L.

    Designed to be used in conjunction with a student workbook accompanying the secondary textbook, "Alaska Native Land Claims", this teacher's guide focuses upon specified learner outcomes and presents a variety of approaches to achieve them. Like the student workbook, this guide presents 39 individual lessons which parallel the subtitles of the 9…

  12. 76 FR 54787 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... efforts have been expended to locate, parties who fail or refuse to sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested... seq.). The lands are in the vicinity of Point Hope, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River...

  13. 76 FR 45604 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested, shall have until August 29, 2011 to file an appeal. 2. Parties... Sheldon Point, Alaska, and contain 20.55 acres. Notice of the decision will also be published four...

  14. 76 FR 16805 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... expended to locate, parties who fail or refuse to sign their return receipt, and parties who receive a copy of the decision by regular mail which is not certified, return receipt requested, shall have until... Interest Lands Conservation Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Clarks Point, Alaska, and are located...

  15. 75 FR 26785 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d... located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 7 N., R. 15 W., Secs. 3 and 4; Sec. 5, lots 1 and 2. Containing approximately 1,420 acres. T. 9 N., R. 13 W., Sec. 35. Containing approximately 640 acres....

  16. 76 FR 61737 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    .... ACTION: Notice of Decision Approving Lands for Conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR 2650.7(d... decision may be obtained from: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 222 West Seventh Avenue, 13... business hours. In addition, the FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message...

  17. 75 FR 65644 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-11937, AA-11938, AA-11939, AA-11940, AA-11944, AA-11943, AA-11941, AA-11936, AA-11933, AA-11928, AA-11929, AA-11931, AA-11932; LLAK- 962000-L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska...

  18. 75 FR 26784 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management [AA-11973, AA-11993, AA-11968, AA-11972, AA-12018, AA-12013, AA-12014, AA-12015, AA-12016, AA-12017, AA-11984, AA-11994, AA-11995, AA-11996, AA-12003, AA-12012, AA-11967, AA-12020, AA-12021; LLAK-962000- L14100000-HY0000-P] Alaska......

  19. 78 FR 53158 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...) to Sea Lion Corporation. The decision approves the surface estate in the lands described below for... estate in these lands will be conveyed to Calista Corporation when the surface estate is conveyed to Sea Lion Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Hooper Bay, Alaska, and are located in:...

  20. Law and Alaska Native Education: The Influence of Federal and State Legislation Upon Education of Rural Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getches, David H.

    Education for rural Alaska Natives has come along a lengthy and tortuous path. Today the much criticized tripartite system remains in which the Federal, state and local governments deliver educational services. A new state law, S.B. 35, which attempts to decentralize control, raises some serious legal problems because of its inconsistency with…

  1. Cancer Education Resources for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Supplement to Native American Monograph No. 1: Documentation of the Cancer Research Needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhansstipanov, Linda, Comp.; Barry, Kathleen Cooleen, Comp.

    This directory provides information on cancer education materials that have been developed specifically for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The goal is to develop and implement culturally appropriate cancer prevention and control programs for Native Americans. The directory includes a matrix of cancer education materials that identifies…

  2. Easy Guide to Breastfeeding for American Indian and Alaska Native Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian Community Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, WIC Native American Community Health Center, Phoenix, Arizona William Daychild, the ... sensitive at first. • Since before anyone can remember, American Native and Alaska Native women have made enough breast ...

  3. Ethnic identity, drinking motives, and alcohol consequences among Alaska Native and non-Native college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W

    2015-01-01

    This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm. PMID:25536236

  4. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  5. 77 FR 39464 - American Indian and Alaska Native Consultation and Coordination Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Consultation and Coordination Policy AGENCY: Department of Commerce... messenger service: Submit comments to Dee Alexander, Senior Advisor on Native American Affairs Office of..., ``American Indian and Alaska Native Policy of the Department of Commerce,'' promulgated on March 30,...

  6. Remarks at the Alaska Native Education Summit (Anchorage, AK, November 30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongtooguk, Paul

    Remarks of Alaska Native researcher and educator Paul Ongtooguk are presented. Alaska Natives have successfully educated themselves for thousands of years. Along with the promise of preparing students for the future, schools have promoted the idea that Native cultures should be stripped from the minds of children in order to prepare them for a…

  7. Enhancing American Indian and Alaska Native health research: a multi-faceted challenge.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2007-10-01

    The quality, relevance, timeliness, and impact of public health research among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) has improved markedly over the last several decades. These advances are attributable to the more careful fit between investigative methods and field exigencies, to the increased presence of Native scientists among research teams, to greater emphasis on meaningful collaboration between researchers and participating communities, and to new Federal investments in the infrastructure that supports health research within this special population. This paper describes the lessons learned from this recent progress, and highlights opportunities to promote further gains as well as continuing needs in developing our capacity to conduct policy relevant AIAN health research. PMID:17896244

  8. Beverage consumption in an Alaska Native village: a mixed-methods study of behaviour, attitudes and access

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks. Methods Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69). Results High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily. Conclusion Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska. PMID:26928369

  9. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  10. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity. PMID:24669226

  11. Blood Politics, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Haozous, Emily A.; Strickland, Carolyn J.; Palacios, Janelle F.; Solomon, Teshia G. Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity. PMID:24669226

  12. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    PubMed

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  13. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  14. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  15. Traditional living and cultural ways as protective factors against suicide: perceptions of Alaska Native university students

    PubMed Central

    DeCou, Christopher R.; Skewes, Monica C.; López, Ellen D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Native peoples living in Alaska have one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. This represents a significant health disparity for indigenous populations living in Alaska. This research was part of a larger study that explored qualitatively the perceptions of Alaska Native university students from rural communities regarding suicide. This analysis explored the resilience that arose from participants’ experiences of traditional ways, including subsistence activities. Previous research has indicated the importance of traditional ways in preventing suicide and strengthening communities. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 university students who had migrated to Fairbanks, Alaska, from rural Alaskan communities. An interview protocol was developed in collaboration with cultural and community advisors. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Participants were asked specific questions concerning the strengthening of traditional practices towards the prevention of suicide. Transcripts were analysed using the techniques of grounded theory. Findings Participants identified several resilience factors against suicide, including traditional practices and subsistence activities, meaningful community involvement and an active lifestyle. Traditional practices and subsistence activities were perceived to create the context for important relationships, promote healthy living to prevent suicide, contrast with current challenges and transmit important cultural values. Participants considered the strengthening of these traditional ways as important in suicide prevention efforts. However, subsistence and traditional practices were viewed as a diminishing aspect of daily living in rural Alaska. Conclusions Many college students from rural Alaska have been affected by suicide but are strong enough to cope with such tragic events. Subsistence living and traditional practices were perceived as important social and cultural processes with

  16. Effect of Race and Ethnicity Classification on Survey Estimates: Anomaly of the Weighted Totals of American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Satter, Delight E.; Ponce, Ninez A.

    2009-01-01

    Racial classification is a paramount concern in data collection and analysis for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and has far-reaching implications in health research. We examine how different racial classifications affect survey weights and consequently change health-related indicators for the AI/AN population in California. Using a…

  17. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1925, No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1925-01-01

    This bulletin documents the work of the Alaska division of the Bureau of Education. It reports advance sheets for the biennial survey of education, 1922-1924. The Alaska division is required to make provision for the education of the natives of Alaska, extend to them all possible medical relief, train them to self-support, and, so far as possible,…

  18. Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

  19. Alaska Native Rural Development: The NANA Experience. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Michael J.

    Faced with the need to build new social and economic institutions following the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Natives formed 12 regional non-profit making corporations. One of these, Northwest Arctic Inupiat (NANA), is bringing a human resources development approach to the area in an effort to develop enduring economic and…

  20. Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  1. Gaps in Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives in the National Healthcare Disparities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Ernest; Smith, Colleen Ryan; Johansson, Patrik; Andrews, Roxanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify gaps in health care data for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Findings indicate that only 42% of measures of health care quality and access tracked in the National Healthcare Disparities Report could be used to assess disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Patient safety data…

  2. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcoholrelated incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported…

  3. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  4. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  5. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Outreach Strategies § 457.125 Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native... the provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. (b) Exemption... from cost sharing for American Indian and Alaska Native children in accordance with § 457.535....

  6. A qualitative study of motivation in Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP) precollege students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatchmeneff, Michele

    The dramatic underrepresentation of Alaska Natives in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degrees and professions calls for rigorous research in how students access these fields. Research has shown that students who complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school are more academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degree programs and professions. There is limited research on what motivates precollege students to become more academically prepared before they graduate from high school. In Alaska, Alaska Native precollege students regularly underperform on required State of Alaska mathematics and science exams when compared to non-Alaska Native students. Research also suggests that different things may motivate Alaska Native students than racial majority students. Therefore there is a need to better understand what motivates Alaska Native students to take and successfully complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school so that they are academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degrees and professions. The Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) is a longitudinal STEM educational enrichment program that works with Alaska Native students starting in middle school through doctoral degrees and further professional endeavors. Research suggests that Alaska Native students participating in ANSEP are completing STEM degrees at higher rates than before the program was available. ANSEP appears to be unique due to its longitudinal approach and the large numbers of Alaska Native precollege, university, and graduate students it supports. ANSEP provides precollege students with opportunities to take advanced high school and college-level mathematics and science courses and complete STEM related projects. Students work and live together on campus during the program components. Student outcome data suggests that ANSEP has been successful at motivating precollege participants to

  7. Native Education 101: Basic Facts about American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document contains information about education of indigenous American peoples, including: (1) Demographics; (2) Reservations and Native Lands Map; (3) Important Community Issues and Concepts; (4) Educational Issues for Native Students; (5) Type of Schools for Native Students; (6) Indian Education Legislation and Executive Orders; (7)…

  8. College Pride, Native Pride: A Portrait of a Culturally Grounded Precollege Access Program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Adrienne J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Adrienne J. Keene employs the portraiture methodology to explore the story of College Horizons. She examines this precollege access program for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian students to understand how a program rooted in Native cultures and identities can not only provide a space to create knowledge…

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae non-susceptibility and outpatient antimicrobial prescribing rates at the Alaska Native Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Ryan W.; Wenger, Jay; Bulkow, Lisa; Bruce, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people suffer substantially higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) than the general US population. We evaluated antimicrobial prescribing data and their association with non-susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae causing IPD in AI/AN people between 1992 and 2009. Methods Antimicrobial use data were gathered from the electronic patient management system and included all prescriptions dispensed to Alaska Native patients aged 5 years and older from outpatient pharmacies at the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC). Antimicrobial susceptibility data were gathered from pneumococcal isolates causing IPD among Anchorage Service Unit AI/AN residents aged 5 years and older. Data were restricted to serotypes not contained in the pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7). Results Over the study period, overall antimicrobial prescribing increased 59% (285/1,000 persons/year in 1992 to 454/1,000 persons per year in 2009, p<0.001). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prescribing increased (43/1,000 persons/year in 1992 to 108/1,000 persons/year in 2009, p<0.001) and non-susceptibility to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in AI/AN patients ≥5 years of age increased in non-PCV7 serotypes (0–12%, p<0.05). Similarly, prescribing rates increased for macrolide antibiotics (46/1,000 persons/year in 1992 to 84/1,000 persons/year in 2009, p<0.05). We observed no statistically significant change over time in erythromycin non-susceptibility among non-PCV7 serotypes in AI/AN patients aged 5 years or greater (0–7%, p=0.087). Conclusion Antimicrobial prescribing patterns of some antibiotics in the AI/AN population corresponded to increased antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates. This study highlights the on-going threat of antimicrobial resistance, the critical importance of judicious prescribing of antibiotics and the potential utility of prescribing data for addressing this issue. PMID:24358456

  10. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  11. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  12. Teaching American Indian and Alaska Native Languages in the Schools: What Has Been Learned. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Thomas D.; Day, Donald R.

    This digest considers issues, possible solutions, and successful efforts in dealing with Native language loss, maintenance, and restoration in American Indian and Alaska Native communities and schools. The preservation and maintenance of the remaining 210 tribal languages is a major cultural and education concern in Native communities. The problem…

  13. A Framework for Conducting a National Study of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088

  14. Ethics and Community Involvement in Syntheses Concerning American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Around Him, Deana M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the research was to review reporting of ethical concerns and community involvement in peer-reviewed systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) health. Methods Text words and indexed vocabulary terms were used to query PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the Native Health Database for systematic reviews or meta-analyses concerning AI/AN/NH health published in peer-reviewed journals, followed by a search through reference lists. Each article was abstracted by two independent reviewers; results were discussed until consensus was reached. Results We identified 107 papers published from 1986–2012 that were primarily about AI/AN/NH health or presented findings separately for AI/AN/NH communities. Two reported seeking indigenous reviewer feedback; none reported seeking input from tribes and communities. Approximately 7% reported on institutional review board (IRB) approval of included studies, 5% reported on tribal approval, and 4% referenced the sovereignty of AI/AN tribes. Approximately 63% used evidence from more than one AI/AN/NH population study, and 28% discussed potential benefits to communities from the synthesis research. Conclusions Reporting of ethics and community involvement are not prominent. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses making community-level inferences may pose risks to communities. Future systematic reviews and meta-analyses should consider ethical and participatory dimensions of research. PMID:25089283

  15. Promoting ethical research with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nicole P; Bartgis, Jami; Demers, Deirdre

    2014-11-01

    Most health research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people has focused on tribal communities on reservation lands. Few studies have been conducted with AI/AN people living in urban settings despite their documented health disparities compared with other urban populations. There are unique considerations for working with this population. Engaging key stakeholders, including urban Indian health organization leaders, tribal leaders, research scientists and administrators, and policymakers, is critical to promoting ethical research and enhancing capacity of urban AI/AN communities. Recommendations for their involvement may facilitate an open dialogue and promote the development of implementation strategies. Future collaborations are also necessary for establishing research policies aimed at improving the health of the urban AI/AN population. PMID:25211730

  16. Promoting Ethical Research With American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bartgis, Jami; Demers, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Most health research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people has focused on tribal communities on reservation lands. Few studies have been conducted with AI/AN people living in urban settings despite their documented health disparities compared with other urban populations. There are unique considerations for working with this population. Engaging key stakeholders, including urban Indian health organization leaders, tribal leaders, research scientists and administrators, and policymakers, is critical to promoting ethical research and enhancing capacity of urban AI/AN communities. Recommendations for their involvement may facilitate an open dialogue and promote the development of implementation strategies. Future collaborations are also necessary for establishing research policies aimed at improving the health of the urban AI/AN population. PMID:25211730

  17. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  18. Future Land Use Planning Alternatives for Alaska: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter B.

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on land use planning alternatives after December of 1976 when the configuration of Alaska lands will have been largely finalized under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972. While this particular booklet…

  19. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  20. The Educational Aspirations/Attainment Gap among Rural Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Aaron; Kleinfeld, Judith; Reyes, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous students in rural Alaska hold high educational aspirations and yet few students realize their educational goals (Hamilton & Seyfrit, 1993; Kleinfeld & McDiarmid, 1986; McDiarmid & Kleinfeld, 1981). Our purpose in this study was to understand why so many Alaska Native students from small, isolated communities "drift" after high school,…

  1. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consider the government-to-government relationship between American Indian or Alaska Native tribal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska...

  2. Strategies for Successful Retention of Alaska Native and American Indian Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts.…

  3. American Indian/Alaska Native cancer policy: systemic approaches to reducing cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Warne, Donald; Kaur, Judith; Perdue, David

    2012-04-01

    Members of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes have a unique political status in the United States in terms of citizenship, and that political status determines eligibility for certain unique healthcare services. The AI/AN population has a legal right to healthcare services based on treaties, court decisions, acts of Congress, Executive Orders, and other legal bases. Although the AI/AN population has a right to healthcare services, the Indian Health Service (the federal agency responsible for providing healthcare to AI/ANs) is severely underfunded, limiting access to services (including cancer care). In order to overcome distinct cancer health disparities, policy changes will be needed. This paper reviews the historical pattern of AI/AN healthcare and the challenges of the complex care needed from prevention through end-of-life care for cancer. PMID:22311689

  4. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Design Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising

  5. Bridging the Great Divide: Connecting Alaska Native Learners and Leaders via "High Touch-High Tech" Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkshire, Steven; Smith, Gary

    The Rural Alaska Native Adult program of Alaska Pacific University is specifically designed for adult Native learners. Courses in business administration, human services, and teacher education are offered to rural Native adult students via an interactive Internet-based format after an initial 1-week residency. The Internet component is facilitated…

  6. Diabetes-Related Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Geiss, Linda S.; Burrows, Nilka Rios; Roberts, Diana L.; Bullock, Ann K.; Toedt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed diabetes-related mortality for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites. Methods. Study populations were non-Hispanic AI/AN and White persons in Indian Health Service (IHS) Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties; Hispanics were excluded. We used 1990 to 2009 death certificate data linked to IHS patient registration records to identify AI/AN decedents aged 20 years or older. We examined disparities and trends in mortality related to diabetes as an underlying cause of death (COD) and as a multiple COD. Results. After increasing between 1990 and 1999, rates of diabetes as an underlying COD and a multiple COD subsequently decreased in both groups. However, between 2000 and 2009, age-adjusted rates of diabetes as an underlying COD and a multiple COD remained 2.5 to 3.5 times higher among AI/AN persons than among Whites for all age groups (20–44, 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ≥ 75 years), both sexes, and every IHS region except Alaska. Conclusions. Declining trends in diabetes-related mortality in both AI/AN and White populations are consistent with recent improvements in their health status. Reducing persistent disparities in diabetes mortality will require developing effective approaches to not only control but also prevent diabetes among AI/AN populations. PMID:24754621

  7. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Raven E.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Brown, Derek S.; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  8. The Affordable Care Act and Implications for Health Care Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ross, Raven E; Garfield, Lauren D; Brown, Derek S; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations report poor physical and mental health outcomes while tribal health providers and the Indian Health Service (IHS) operate in a climate of significant under funding. Understanding how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) affects Native American tribes and the IHS is critical to addressing the improvement of the overall access, quality, and cost of health care within AI/AN communities. This paper summarizes the ACA provisions that directly and/or indirectly affect the service delivery of health care provided by tribes and the IHS. PMID:26548665

  9. Sex Differences in Obesity Prevalence and Cardiometabolic Factors among Western Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, SE; Austin, MA; Metzger, JS; Koller, KR; Umans, JG; Kaufmann, C; Wolfe, AW; Howard, BV; Boyer, BB

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Prevalence estimates for metabolic disorders are well documented in many populations, but Alaska Native groups are understudied. The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health Study combines data from three Alaska Native study cohorts to assess differences in obesity prevalence and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors by sex. Methods and Results Analyses were based upon a sample of 3985 adult Yup’ik and Inupiat participants with a mean age of 40 years. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic risk factors was assessed according to nationally recognized guidelines. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, including lipids, blood pressure and glucose. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was significantly higher in women (40%) than men (20%). Only 18.6% of men had a waist circumference (WC) >102cm, while 58% of women had a WC >88cm (p<0.001). Women had higher mean HDL-C and triglyceride levels compared to men, while systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, and glucose means were higher in men than in women. In multivariate analyses, BMI and WC were significantly associated with all of the cardiometabolic risk factors, although these associations were more pronounced in men than women. Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity and central adiposity among AN women is an important public health concern. Differences in associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by sex warrants further investigation to develop effective intervention programs. PMID:25467216

  10. A qualitative study of motivation in Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP) precollege students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatchmeneff, Michele

    The dramatic underrepresentation of Alaska Natives in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degrees and professions calls for rigorous research in how students access these fields. Research has shown that students who complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school are more academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degree programs and professions. There is limited research on what motivates precollege students to become more academically prepared before they graduate from high school. In Alaska, Alaska Native precollege students regularly underperform on required State of Alaska mathematics and science exams when compared to non-Alaska Native students. Research also suggests that different things may motivate Alaska Native students than racial majority students. Therefore there is a need to better understand what motivates Alaska Native students to take and successfully complete advanced mathematics and science courses while in high school so that they are academically prepared to pursue and succeed in STEM degrees and professions. The Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) is a longitudinal STEM educational enrichment program that works with Alaska Native students starting in middle school through doctoral degrees and further professional endeavors. Research suggests that Alaska Native students participating in ANSEP are completing STEM degrees at higher rates than before the program was available. ANSEP appears to be unique due to its longitudinal approach and the large numbers of Alaska Native precollege, university, and graduate students it supports. ANSEP provides precollege students with opportunities to take advanced high school and college-level mathematics and science courses and complete STEM related projects. Students work and live together on campus during the program components. Student outcome data suggests that ANSEP has been successful at motivating precollege participants to

  11. The American Indian and Alaska Native Higher Education Funding Guide. A Financial Guide to Undergraduate and Graduate Sources of Funding for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Gregory W.

    This book provides American Indian and Alaska Native students with sources for securing financial aid for higher education. The first section covers sources of funding and grants for individuals who are pursuing undergraduate degrees. This financial support includes scholarships with state residency requirements, general undergraduate…

  12. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1929, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1929-01-01

    In addition to maintaining schools for the native children of Alaska, the United States Bureau of Education aids entire communities by extending medical aid, by relieving destitution, by fostering commercial enterprises, by supervising the reindeer industry, and by promoting generally the interests of the natives. The organization of the Alaska…

  13. Alaska Native Elders' Contribution to Education: The Fairbanks AISES Science Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Claudette; Reyes, Maria Elena

    The Fairbanks American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) Science Camp was designed for Alaska Native middle school students from 11 school districts. The camp enables students to learn from Native Elders while completing hands-on science projects; stimulates interest and confidence in mathematics, science, and engineering among Alaska…

  14. Nurturing Resilience and School Success in American Indian and Alaska Native Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Joyce A.; Peacock, Thomas D.

    This digest examines recent literature on factors related to resilience, well-being, and school success for American Indian and Alaska Native students. The characteristics of resilient Native youth are discussed, including the ability to bounce back from adversity, and protective factors that enable high-risk resilient children to avoid negative…

  15. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  16. Early Education for American Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, R. Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Young American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children are four times as likely to live in rural communities as in nonrural communities. The challenge of providing developmentally and culturally appropriate early childhood education to Native children living in rural areas is exacerbated by poverty. The author reviews the historic evolution of…

  17. The Development of a Curriculum Toolkit with American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, Dwight; Sempier, Tracie T.; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article explains the creation of the "Growing and Learning with Young Native Children" curriculum toolkit. The curriculum toolkit was designed to give American Indian and Alaska Native early childhood educators who work in a variety of settings the framework for developing a research-based, developmentally appropriate, tribally specific…

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Burhan A.; Robinson, Renee F.; Smith, Julia J.; Dillard, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Results Of the 125 participants, 56% (n=71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n=38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n=54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n=25) of participants with an additional 18% (n=29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p<0.0001) and 2nd trimester (p<0.0001). A history of tobacco use (p=0.0403) and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (p<0.0001) were also associated with binge drinking during pregnancy. Conclusion Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts. PMID:23984278

  19. CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY NATIVITY SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a cross-sectional survey conducted with about 57,000 households every month, primarily to measure changes in the labor force. It is conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and administered to panels of respondents, which revolve into the ...

  20. Development, adaptation, and implementation of a cardiovascular health program for Alaska native women.

    PubMed

    Stefanich, Charlotte A; Witmer, Julie M; Young, Bonnie D; Benson, LouAnn E; Penn, Cheryl A; Ammerman, Alice S; Garcia, Beverly A; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Etzel, Ruth A

    2005-10-01

    Southcentral Foundation's Traditions of the Heart program is an innovative cardiovascular disease prevention program for women designed to build on the strengths of the Alaska Native culture as a way to support and encourage positive lifestyle behaviors that focus on healthy eating, active living, stress management, and tobacco cessation. After conducting assessments of existing intervention programs and formative data collection, we adapted two existing programs, Native Nutrition Circles and A New Leaf... Choices for Healthy Living, to develop the Traditions of the Heart program. We implemented and evaluated a pilot intervention study to determine the program's acceptance among Alaska Native women. We used the evaluation results to further refine our study protocol. This article describes the adaptation of these programs to the cultural needs and strengths of Alaska Native women and the results of the formative evaluation used to improve the program design. The complete pilot study outcomes will be published separately. PMID:16210690

  1. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  2. The Dropout/Graduation Crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to Respond Places the Future of Native Peoples at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Tippeconnic, John W., III

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the graduation/dropout crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native students using data from the National Center for Education Statistics. Data from 2005 is drawn from the seven states with the highest percentage of American Indian and Alaska Native students as well as five states in the Pacific and Northwestern regions of…

  3. Honoring children, mending the circle: cultural adaptation of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for American Indian and Alaska native children.

    PubMed

    BigFoot, Dolores Subia; Schmidt, Susan R

    2010-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives are vulnerable populations with significant levels of trauma exposure. The Indian Country Child Trauma Center developed an American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adaptation of the evidence-based child trauma treatment, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. Honoring Children, Mending the Circle (HC-MC) guides the therapeutic process through a blending of AI/AN traditional teachings with cognitive-behavioral methods. The authors introduced the HC-MC treatment and illustrated its therapeutic tools by way of a case illustration. PMID:20549679

  4. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  5. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  6. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of a larger report that focuses on student proficiency reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and…

  7. Feasibility of a tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant Alaska Native women

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Richard A.; Renner, Caroline C.; Enoch, Carrie; Hochreiter, Angela; Nevak, Caroline; Smith, Christina A.; Decker, Paul A.; Bonnema, Sarah; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta region of Western Alaska, about 79% smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco during pregnancy. Treatment methods developed and evaluated among Alaska Native pregnant tobacco users do not exist. This pilot study used a randomized two-group design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention for Alaska Native pregnant women. Methods: Recruitment occurred over an 8-month period. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 18; brief face-to-face counseling at the first visit and written materials) or to the intervention group (n = 17) consisting of face-to-face counseling at the first visit, four telephone calls, a video highlighting personal stories, and a cessation guide. Interview-based assessments were conducted at baseline and follow-up during pregnancy (≥60 days postrandomization). Feasibility was determined by the recruitment and retention rates. Results: The participation rate was very low with only 12% of eligible women (35/293) enrolled. Among enrolled participants, the study retention rates were high in both the intervention (71%) and control (94%) groups. The biochemically confirmed abstinence rates at follow-up were 0% and 6% for the intervention and control groups, respectively. Discussion: The low enrollment rate suggests that the program was not feasible or acceptable. Alternative approaches are needed to improve the reach and efficacy of cessation interventions for Alaska Native women. PMID:20018946

  8. Cardiometabolic Correlates of Low Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Western Alaska Native People -- the WATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kathryn R.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Jolly, Stacey E.; Umans, Jason G.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Wilson, Amy S.; Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Raymer, Terry W.; Austin, Melissa A.; Howard, Barbara V.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Previously rare among Alaska Native (AN) people, type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevalence as indicated by registry data has increased by as much as 300% in some western Alaska regions. We sought to determine prevalence and incidence of DM2 and analyze associated cardiometabolic risk factors in western AN people. Methods DM2 and prediabetes prevalence and incidence were determined by the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health using consolidated data from cohort studies conducted during 2000–2010. Crude and age-adjusted incidence for DM2 and prediabetes were calculated using 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Effects of covariates on DM2 and prediabetes were determined using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, adjusted for age and sex. Results Excluding baseline diabetes (n=124, 4.5%), 53 cases of new DM2 were identified among 2,630 participants. Age- and sex-adjusted DM2 incidence was 4.3/1,000 (95% CI 2.9, 5.0) person-years over an average 5.9-year follow up. After excluding baseline prediabetes, 387 new cases of prediabetes were identified among 1,841 participants; adjusted prediabetes incidence was 44.5/1,000 (95% CI 39.5, 49.5) person years. Independent predictors for DM2 included age, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome; family history of diabetes and obesity were additional independent predictors for prediabetes. Conclusions DM2 incidence in western AN people is substantially lower than that for U.S. whites; however, incidence of prediabetes is more than 10-fold higher than western AN DM2 incidence and more closely aligned with U.S. rates. Interventions aimed at achieving healthy lifestyles are needed to minimize risk factors and maximize protective factors for DM2 in this population. PMID:25805711

  9. All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in Western Alaska Native People: Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH)

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Jesse S.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Jolly, Stacey E.; Asay, Elvin D.; Wang, Hong; Wolfe, Abbie W.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Raymer, Terry W.; Trimble, Brian; Provost, Ellen M.; Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Austin, Melissa A.; Howard, William James; Umans, Jason G.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in western Alaska Native people and examined agreement between death certificate information and adjudicated cause of deaths. Methods. Data from 4 cohort studies were consolidated. Death certificates and medical records were reviewed and adjudicated according to standard criteria. We compared adjudicated CVD and cancer deaths with death certificates by calculating sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and κ statistics. Results. Men (n = 2116) and women (n = 2453), aged 18 to 95 years, were followed an average of 6.7 years. The major cause of death in men was trauma (25%), followed by CVD (19%) and cancer (13%). The major cause of death in women was CVD (24%), followed by cancer (19%) and trauma (8%). Stroke rates in both genders were higher than those of US Whites. Only 56% of deaths classified as CVD by death certificate were classified as CVD by standard criteria; discordance was higher among men (55%) than women (32%; κs = 0.4 and 0.7). Conclusions. We found lower rates for coronary heart disease death but high rates of stroke mortality. Death certificates overestimated CVD mortality; concordance between the 2 methods is better for cancer mortality. The results point to the importance of cohort studies in this population in providing data to assist in health care planning. PMID:24754623

  10. 78 FR 10636 - Task Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting AGENCY: Office on Violence Against Women, United States Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: This... Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women(hereinafter ``the Task Force'')....

  11. Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2008. NCES 2008-084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill Fleury; Darling-Churchill, Kristen E.

    2008-01-01

    This document examines the educational progress of American Indian/Alaska Native children and adults and challenges in their education. This report shows that over time more American Indian/Alaska Native students have gone on to college and that their attainment expectations have increased. Despite these gains, progress has been uneven and…

  12. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives fiscal year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Brunstein, F. Craig, (Edited By)

    2006-01-01

    The USGS works in cooperation with American Indian and Alaska Native governments to conduct research on (1) water, energy, and mineral resources, (2) animals and plants that are important for traditional lifeways or have environmental or economic significance, and (3) natural hazards. This report describes most of the activities that the USGS conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2004. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Other activities were conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities.

  13. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcohol-related incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported receiving 0 to 43 treatment experiences. Moreover, participants had a significantly greater number of alcohol-related incarcerations than all other treatments combined. These findings underline the importance of making alcohol treatment available within criminal justice settings. PMID:17602406

  14. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... June 8, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-14131, on page 33318, in the first column, last complete sentence in the... Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction... American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one...

  15. Giving Back: An Analysis of Motivations of Aspiring American Indian/Alaska Native School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Linda R.; Rude, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motivations of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) educators currently enrolled in an educational leadership preparation program aspiring to educational leadership positions within AI/AN communities. Understanding the motivation of AI/AN educators to become school leaders may assist in increasing the pool of AI/AN school…

  16. With All My Relations: Counseling American Indians and Alaska Natives within a Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that two thirds of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) live outside of tribal areas, and 50% of those individuals who seek counseling services will not use tribal resources. There is a strong likelihood that counselors will have the opportunity to provide services to AI/AN clients. The review of the academic literature…

  17. Summer Internship Program for American Indian and Native Alaska College Students

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  19. Summer Internship Program for American Indian and Native Alaska College Students

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory's Summer Internship Program for American Indian & Native Alaska College Students. Supported by the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) in partnership with the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Drug Abuse Prevention Research Needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…

  1. Plans for Dropout Prevention and Special School Support Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    American Indian and Alaska Native students have the highest dropout rate among all ethnic or racial groups, about 30%. Many studies have focused on the supposed deficits of students who drop out, such as intelligence, school attendance, and parental income. Less attention has been given to the deficits of schools and teachers pushing out Native…

  2. Drop-Out Rates among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Beyond Cultural Discontinuity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germaine, Richard

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students regularly face obstacles during the transition to high school and have the highest dropout rate of all U.S. racial and ethnic groups. Educational theorists and researchers have various explanations for this high failure rate, each with its own prescriptions. These explanations include: (1) deficit…

  3. 78 FR 77009 - Section 306D Water Systems for Rural and Native Villages in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...The Rural Utilities Service (RUS), an Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), proposes to modify its existing regulations and establish a separate regulation for making grants to rural or Native Alaskan Villages under the Rural Alaska Village Grant (RAVG) Program. The existing RAVG regulation (7 CFR 1780.49) will be relocated to its own section and modified to conform......

  4. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the…

  5. Alcohol Use and American Indian/Alaska Native Student Academic Performance among Tribal Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cometsevah, Cecelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance, persistence, and graduation among American Indian/Alaska Native students in higher education are very low compared to other racial groups. Studies have shown that American Indian students enter higher education with a lack of academic preparedness, financial challenges, lack of social skills development, and lack of…

  6. Indian Health Service: A Comprehensive Health Care Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    Comprehensive health care (preventive, curative, rehabilitative, and environmental) for more than 930,000 eligible American Indians and Alaska Natives is the responsibility of the Indian Health Service (IHS). Since 1955, this agency of the U.S. Public Health Service has made notable progress in raising the health status of Indians and Alaska…

  7. Culturally Based Math Education as a Way to Improve Alaska Native Students' Math Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Adams, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Culturally based instruction has long been touted as a preferred approach to improving the performance of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students? academic performance. However, there has been scant research to support this conjecture, particularly when quantitative data and quasi-experimental designs are included. The results of this…

  8. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Health, Development, and Education Assessment Research. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Demmert, William G., Jr.

    This digest reports on the very limited research that has focused specifically on early childhood issues in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) health, development, and education. Extant research focuses primarily on infant mortality, birth weight and growth, obesity, and hearing and speech. Beginning in 1985, a longitudinal study called the…

  10. NCES Studies on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. NCES 2005-535

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Indian Education (OIE) helps support local education agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, postsecondary institutions, and other entities in their efforts to address the unique educational and culturally related academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) so that these students can meet the same challenging…

  11. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  12. The Politics of Education Provision in Rural Native Alaska: The Case of Yukon Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I address the role of educational service provision as a mode of post-colonial assimilation and encapsulation in Native Alaska (USA). I argue that these services have historically served State interests above local interests, implemented with little regard for indigenous values or priorities. The role of education provision in one…

  13. Suicide Among Young Alaska Native Men: Community Risk Factors and Alcohol Control

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined community risk factors that explained variation in suicide rates among young rural Alaska Native men, evaluating the effectiveness of local alcohol control as a public health policy to reduce this population’s historically high vulnerability. Methods. I compiled suicide data, alcohol control status, and community-level social, cultural, and economic characteristics for Alaska Native men aged 15 to 34 years in 178 small Alaska communities from 1980 to 2007. Poisson regression equations explained variation in suicide rates as a function of endogenous alcohol control and community characteristics. Results. Suicide rates were higher in communities prohibiting alcohol importation under state law, but the effect was not significant after controlling for other community characteristics. More remote communities, those with fewer non-Natives, and those with evidence of cultural divides had higher suicide risks. Communities with higher incomes, more married couples, and traditional elders had lower risks. Conclusions. Alcohol control is ineffective in preventing suicide among Alaska Natives; suicide instead appears related to particular complex community characteristics that are either protective or increase risk. Communities have limited means to pursue economic and cultural development strategies that might offer more protection. PMID:24754505

  14. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  15. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  16. The Act of Claiming Higher Education as Indigenous Space: American Indian/Alaska Native Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windchief, Sweeney; Joseph, Darold H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of claiming postsecondary education as Indigenous space using curriculum, American Indian student services, and digital media. The intention of this manuscript is to address the disparities that are the result of assimilative educational practices in higher education for American Indians and Alaska Natives by…

  17. Standards-Based Mathematics Reforms and Mathematics Achievement of American Indian/Alaska Native Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Mueller, Heather E.

    2008-01-01

    Using the NAEP nationally-representative data collected from eighth-graders, we investigated the relative exposure of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) students to mathematics teachers who are knowledgeable about standards, participate in standards-based professional development, and practice standards-based instruction; American Indian/Alaska…

  18. Circle of Life HIV/AIDS-Prevention Intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Litchfield, Anne; Schupman, Edwin; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western…

  19. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  20. Education of Indian and Alaska Native Children in Rural Areas: New Horizons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, David P.

    Recent organizational changes in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as well as the formation of Alaska's Rural Education Attendance Areas (REAAs) have important implications for the education of rural Native American children. The Title XI Education Amendments passed in November, 1978 (P.L. 95-561) aim at solving some of the administrative…

  1. Ohoyo One Thousand: A Resource Guide of American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Owanah

    The resource guide contains a listing of 1,004 notable American Indian/Alaska Native women who are willing to share their resource skills in 62 Indian-specific programs, Indian priority issues, and women's agenda issues. The women represent 321 tribes and bands and are from 44 states. Biographical briefs for each woman include personal data (name,…

  2. American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse: Co-Morbidity and Cultural Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Norma; Nye, Patricia S.

    2001-01-01

    The devastating impact of substance abuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substance abuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or…

  3. Career and Academic Guidance for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutiva, Charmaine L.

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students strive to maintain their heritage while learning to be successful in the dominant culture. Although academic and career success are worthy goals, AI/AN students can pay a heavy price to achieve them. To provide effective and responsive career and academic guidance for AI/AN youth, teachers and…

  4. A Review of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Northern American Indian/Alaska Native Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Terese Lipinski

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on psychological and educational assessment of American Indian and Alaska Native children, including the background psychological factors of biological deprivation, motivation, attitudes toward self, and traditional nonformal education. Discusses brain hemispheres, visuospatial skills, otitis media, fetal alcohol syndrome,…

  5. Integrating American Indian/Alaska Native Culture into Shared Storybook Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglebret, Ella; Jones, Carla; Pavel, D. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical exchange is to provide information for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) so they will be able to provide culturally responsive intervention for young children of American Indian and Alaska Native heritage. The focus is on a particular strategy--the integration of culturally based stories into shared…

  6. Ohoyo Training Manual. Leadership: Self Help American Indian-Alaska Native Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verble, Sedelta D.; Walton, M. Frances

    The training manual provides self-help in six areas of leadership development for American Indian and Alaska Native women. Following an introduction describing how to use the manual are six chapters focusing on the theories and development of leadership skills, the vulnerability of Indian women to poverty, nontraditional careers for Indian women,…

  7. Characterising the reproducibility and reliability of dietary patterns among Yup'ik Alaska Native people.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Tove K; Boyer, Bert B; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O'Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Austin, Melissa A

    2015-02-28

    FFQ data can be used to characterise dietary patterns for diet-disease association studies. In the present study, we evaluated three previously defined dietary patterns--'subsistence foods', market-based 'processed foods' and 'fruits and vegetables'--among a sample of Yup'ik people from Southwest Alaska. We tested the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns, as well as the associations of these patterns with dietary biomarkers and participant characteristics. We analysed data from adult study participants who completed at least one FFQ with the Center for Alaska Native Health Research 9/2009-5/2013. To test the reproducibility of the dietary patterns, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a hypothesised model using eighteen food items to measure the dietary patterns (n 272). To test the reliability of the dietary patterns, we used the CFA to measure composite reliability (n 272) and intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability (n 113). Finally, to test the associations, we used linear regression (n 637). All factor loadings, except one, in CFA indicated acceptable correlations between foods and dietary patterns (r>0·40), and model-fit criteria were >0·90. Composite and test-retest reliability of the dietary patterns were, respectively, 0·56 and 0·34 for 'subsistence foods', 0·73 and 0·66 for 'processed foods', and 0·72 and 0·54 for 'fruits and vegetables'. In the multi-predictor analysis, the dietary patterns were significantly associated with dietary biomarkers, community location, age, sex and self-reported lifestyle. This analysis confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns in the present study population. These dietary patterns can be used for future research and development of dietary interventions in this underserved population. PMID:25656871

  8. Characterizing the Reproducibility and Reliability of Dietary Patterns among Yup’ik Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Boyer, Bert B.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Austin, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data can be used to characterize dietary patterns for diet-disease association studies. Among a sample of Yup’ik people from Southwest Alaska, we evaluated three previously defined dietary patterns: “subsistence foods” and market-based “processed foods” and “fruits and vegetables”. We tested the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns and tested associations of the patterns with dietary biomarkers and participant characteristics. We analyzed data from adult study participants who completed at least one FFQ with the Center for Alaska Native Health Research 9/2009–5/2013. To test reproducibility we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a hypothesized model using 18 foods to measure the dietary patterns (n=272). To test the reliability of the dietary patterns, we used CFA to measure the composite reliability (n=272) and intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability (n=113). Finally, to test associations we used linear regression (n=637). All CFA factor loadings, except one, indicated acceptable correlations between foods and dietary patterns (r > 0.40) and model fit criteria were greater than 0.90. Composite and test-retest reliability of dietary patterns were respectively 0.56 and 0.34 for subsistence foods, 0.73 and 0.66 for processed foods, and 0.72 and 0.54 for fruits and vegetables. In the multi-predictor analysis, dietary patterns were significantly associated with dietary biomarkers, community location, age, sex, and self-reported lifestyle. This analysis confirmed the reproducibility and reliability of the dietary patterns in this study population. These dietary patterns can be used for future research and development of dietary interventions in this underserved population. PMID:25656871

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Deborah; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience high rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We reviewed existing literature to address three interrelated questions: 1) What is the prevalence of PTSD and PTSD symptoms among AI/ANs? 2) What are the inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and do they differ from those in the general U.S. population? 3) Are studies available to inform clinicians about the course and treatment of PTSD in this population? Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases and a database on AI/AN health, capturing an initial sample of 77 original English-language articles published 1992-2010. After applying exclusion criteria, we retained 37 articles on prevalence of PTSD and related symptoms among AI/AN adults. We abstracted key information and organized it in tabular format. Results: AI/ANs experience a substantially greater burden of PTSD and related symptoms than U.S. Whites. Combat experience and interpersonal violence were consistently cited as leading causes of PTSD and related symptoms. PTSD was associated with bodily pain, lung disorders, general health problems, substance abuse, and pathological gambling. In general, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities appear similar to those in the general U.S. population. Conclusions: Substantial research indicates a strikingly high incidence of PTSD in AI/AN populations. However, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and how they may differ from those in the general population, are poorly understood. Very few studies are available on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD in this vulnerable population. PMID:24022752

  10. Population structure and genetic diversity of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer I; Hundertmark, Kris J; Bowyer, R Terry; McCracken, Kevin G

    2009-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are highly mobile mammals that occur across arboreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) range across much of Alaska and are primary herbivore consumers, exerting a prominent influence on ecosystem structure and functioning. Increased knowledge gained from population genetics provides insights into their population dynamics, history, and dispersal of these unique large herbivores and can aid in conservation efforts. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of moose (n = 141) with 8 polymorphic microsatellites from 6 regions spanning much of Alaska. Expected heterozygosity was moderate (H(E) = 0.483-0.612), and private alleles ranged from 0 to 6. Both F(ST) and R(ST) indicated significant population structure (P < 0.001) with F(ST) < 0.109 and R(ST) < 0.125. Results of analyses from STRUCTURE indicated 2 prominent population groups, a mix of moose from the Yakutat and Tetlin regions versus all other moose, with slight substructure observed among the second population. Estimates of dispersal differed between analytical approaches, indicating a high level of historical or current gene flow. Mantel tests indicated that isolation-by-distance partially explained observed structure among moose populations (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.01). Finally, there was no evidence of bottlenecks either at the population level or overall. We conclude that weak population structure occurs among moose in Alaska with population expansion from interior Alaska westward toward the coast. PMID:18836148

  11. Evaluation of a Tobacco Educational Intervention for Pregnant Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Larsen, Karin; Decker, Paul A.; Anderson, Kari J.; Nevak, Caroline; Glasheen, Ann; Offord, Kenneth P.; Lanier, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed and evaluated for Alaska Native women do not exist. As part of routine clinical care provided at a prenatal visit, a brief tobacco educational intervention for Alaska Native pregnant women (N=100; mean ± SD age = 25.9±6.2 years; mean 6.3±2.6 months gestation) was piloted at the Y-K Delta Regional Hospital in Bethel, Alaska. This retrospective study reports on the evaluation of this clinical program. The intervention was consistent with the clinical practice guidelines (i.e., 5 A’s – ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), with an average duration of 20.2 ± 6.8 minutes. The self-reported tobacco abstinence rate following the intervention was 11% at the last prenatal visit and 12% at delivery. Delivering a tobacco cessation intervention at a prenatal visit is feasible, but there is a need to identify more effective interventions for Alaska Native pregnant women. PMID:20333259

  12. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  15. Mathematics and Science Curricula in Elementary and Secondary Education for American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Vera

    Issues related to the improvement of mathematics and science education pertain to Native students as well as to the general population. Native students are most successful at tasks that use visual and spatial abilities and that involve simultaneous processing. Instruction should build on Native students' strengths. Experiential learning and…

  16. A Process Evaluation of the Alaska Native Colorectal Cancer Family Outreach Program

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana; Provost, Ellen; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Skewes, Monica; Johnson, Rhonda; Christensen, Claudia; Sacco, Frank; Haverkamp, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a process evaluation of the Alaska Native (AN) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Family Outreach Program, which encourages CRC screening among AN first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, adult children; hereafter referred to as relatives) of CRC patients. Among AN people incidence and death rates from CRC are the highest of any ethnic/racial group in the United States. Relatives of CRC patients are at increased risk; however, CRC can be prevented and detected early through screening. The evaluation included key informant interviews (August to November 2012) with AN and non-AN stakeholders and program document review. Five key process evaluation components were identified: program formation, evolution, outreach responses, strengths, and barriers and challenges. Key themes included an incremental approach that led to a fully formed program and the need for dedicated, culturally competent patient navigation. Challenges included differing relatives’ responses to screening outreach, health system data access and coordination, and the program impact of reliance on grant funding. This program evaluation indicated a need for more research into motivating patient screening behaviors, electronic medical records systems quality improvement projects, improved data-sharing protocols, and program sustainability planning to continue the dedicated efforts to promote screening in this increased risk population. PMID:26157041

  17. Perinatal and Infant Health Among Rural and Urban American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Grossman, David C.; Casey, Susan; Hollow, Walter; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to provide a national profile of rural and urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) maternal and infant health. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of all 1989–1991 singleton AI/AN births to US residents, we compared receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care, low birthweight (< 2500 g), infant mortality, and cause of death for US rural and urban AI/AN and non-AI/AN populations. Results. Receipt of an inadequate pattern of prenatal care was significantly higher for rural than for urban mothers of AI/AN infants (18.1% vs 14.4%, P ≤ .001); rates for both groups were over twice that for Whites (6.8%). AI/AN postneonatal death rates (rural = 6.7 per 1000; urban = 5.4 per 1000) were more than twice that of Whites (2.6 per 1000). Conclusions. Preventable disparities between AI/ANs and Whites in maternal and infant health status persist. PMID:12197982

  18. The Public Health Foundation of Health Services for American Indians & Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The integration of public health practices with federal health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) largely derives from three major factors: the sovereign nature of AI/AN tribes, the sociocultural characteristics exhibited by the tribes, and that AI/ANs are distinct populations residing in defined geographic areas. The earliest services consisted of smallpox vaccination to a few AI/AN groups, a purely public health endeavor. Later, emphasis on public health was codified in the Snyder Act of 1921, which provided for, among other things, conservation of the health of AI/AN persons. Attention to the community was greatly expanded with the 1955 transfer of the Indian Health Service from the US Department of the Interior to the Public Health Service and has continued with the assumption of program operations by many tribes themselves. We trace developments in integration of community and public health practices in the provision of federal health care services for AI/AN persons and discuss recent trends. PMID:24758580

  19. FastStats: Health of Mexican American Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or ... 1 [PDF - 993 KB] Related FastStats Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or ...

  20. Hospital resource utilization by American Indians/Alaska Natives for alcoholism and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hisnanick, J J; Erickson, P M

    1993-01-01

    Previous work examining the issue of alcoholism and alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives can be broadly categorized as either descriptions of the consumption patterns and behaviors of specific tribes or mortality studies, focusing on deaths due to alcoholism, alcohol abuse, chronic liver disease, or cirrhosis. A major shortcoming of previous studies has been that they have not looked at the burden this problem has imposed upon the system of health care delivery for this minority population. By using an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification taxonomy of diagnostic codes developed by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) and the national Indian Health Service (IHS) inpatient database for direct and contract admissions, utilization patterns for 43 IHS facilities were investigated. The period of study was 1980-1988, and our case definition included any individual 14 years and older who had any mention upon discharge of an alcohol-related diagnosis (ARD). For the 9-year period under investigation, 43,302 adult inpatient admissions occurred at the 43 IHS facilities for ARD. These admissions accounted for an overall estimated per annum rate of 13.7% of the adult inpatient days. In addition, age and gender specific discharge rates for ARD were estimated and compared to reported ARD discharge rates of the United States civilian population prepared by the NIAAA using the National Hospital Discharge Survey over the period 1979-1988. In contrast, the IHS discharge rates for ARD were three times greater than reported ARD discharge rates for the United States civilian population. PMID:8213702

  1. Impact of adaptive functioning on readmission to alcohol detoxification among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ursula Running; Anderson, Heather; Manson, Spero M.; Shore, Jay H.; Prochazka, Allan V.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined predictors associated with readmission to detoxification in a sample of adult Alaska Native patients admitted to inpatient alcohol detoxification. Even though Alaska Native people diagnosed with alcoholism have been identified as frequent utilizers of the health care system and at elevated risk of death, little is known about factors associated with readmission to detoxification for this group. Methods We sought to predict readmission using a retrospective cohort study. The sample included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to an inpatient detoxification unit and diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal during 2006 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations with time to readmission within one year. Results Forty-two percent of the patients were readmitted within one year. Global Assessment Functioning (GAF; Axis V in the multi-axial diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM IV]) score measured at the time of intake was associated with readmission. A one point increase in the GAF score (HR = .96, 95% CL = .94, .99, P = .002) was associated with a four percent decrease in readmission. The results also indicated that the GAF mediated the relationship between readmission and: employment and housing status. Conclusions The GAF measures both illness severity and adaptive functioning, is part of standard behavioral health assessments, and is easy to score. Readmission rates potentially could be decreased by creating clinical protocols that account for differences in adaptive functioning and illness severity during detoxification treatment and aftercare. PMID:24837583

  2. The National Eye Health Education Program: increasing awareness of diabetic eye disease among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Silver, Karen; Williams, Meredith; Macario, Everly

    2006-01-01

    With the highest prevalence of diabetes in the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives are at greatest risk for diabetic eye disease (DED), a leading cause of blindness. The National Eye institute (NEI) conducted formative research to understand DED-related knowledge, identify approaches to managing this disease, and design a communication plan to increase awareness and reduce DED among these populations. The NEI conducted qualitative research at five locations in indian country with representatives from national organizations, tribal members, and healthcare providers. While diabetes ranked high on their list of primary community health issues in need of attention, study participants had only a basic level of diabetes-related knowledge, acknowledged the need for DED education, and underscored the importance of the use of interpersonal and culturally appropriate communication strategies. This is the first exploratory qualitative research study to examine the status of diabetic eye disease among American indians and Alaska Natives whose primary purpose was to inform the design of a national DED communication campaign. PMID:17061747

  3. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  4. American Indian and Alaska Native mental health: diverse perspectives on enduring disparities.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Trimble, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    As descendants of the indigenous peoples of the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have experienced a resurgence in population and prospects since the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, tribally affiliated individuals number over two million, distributed across 565 federally recognized tribal communities and countless metropolitan and nonreservation rural areas. Although relatively little evidence is available, the existing data suggest that AI/AN adults and youth suffer a disproportionate burden of mental health problems compared with other Americans. Specifically, clear disparities have emerged for AI/AN substance abuse, posttraumatic stress, violence, and suicide. The rapid expansion of mental health services to AI/AN communities has, however, frequently preceded careful consideration of a variety of questions about critical components of such care, such as the service delivery structure itself, clinical treatment processes, and preventive and rehabilitative program evaluation. As a consequence, the mental health needs of these communities have easily outpaced and overwhelmed the federally funded agency designed to serve these populations, with the Indian Health Service remaining chronically understaffed and underfunded such that elimination of AI/AN mental health disparities is only a distant dream. Although research published during the past decade has substantially improved knowledge about AI/AN mental health problems, far fewer investigations have explored treatment efficacy and outcomes among these culturally diverse peoples. In addition to routine calls for greater clinical and research resources, however, AI/AN community members themselves are increasingly advocating for culturally alternative approaches and opportunities to address their mental health needs on their own terms. PMID:22149479

  5. Culturally competent research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: findings and recommendations of the first symposium of the work group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joyce Y; Davis, Jamie D; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shephard; Goins, R Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R; Johnson, Sharon R; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M; Marshall, Catherine A; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse populations of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and documents the need for community-based, collaborative, participatory action research. We discuss the major findings of the first American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology national symposium, and articulate a set of 20 guiding principles for conducting research and program evaluation. PMID:17602391

  6. The Way of the Human Being: Supporting Alaska Native Families Who Have a Child with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan; Murphy, Blanche; Harvey, Sandra; Nygren, Kristin; Kinavey, Erin; Ongtooguk, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Alaska Native peoples refer to themselves and their way of life as the "way of the human being" (Napolean, 1991). This term, referred to as "Yuuyaraq" by the Yup'ik Eskimo, speaks to the value the Yup'ik and other Alaskan Natives place on being fully human. Within the context of the "way of the human life," how can early interventionists and…

  7. Use of Large-Scale Data Sets to Study Educational Pathways of American Indian and Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses issues and challenges encountered in using large-scale data sets to study educational experiences and subsequent outcomes for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. In this chapter, we argue that the linguistic and cultural diversity of Native peoples, coupled with the legal and political ways in which education…

  8. Native-Language Education: Addressing the Interests of Special Populations within U.S. Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of three federal laws that address native-language education and illustrates how these federal laws produce different results when coupled with state laws and other regional circumstances. For the purposes of this brief, native-language education refers to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and…

  9. Strategies for successful retention of Alaska Native and American Indian study participants.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts. Follow-up completion rates were significantly higher for women, those living in a rural area, over age 55, married, employed, having a higher household income, and at current residence for more than five years. Follow-up of large numbers of Alaska Native and American Indian people living in geographically diverse areas is feasible, although challenging. Successful strategies to avoid attrition include using telephones as the primary method of contact; using a computerized contact relationship management system to track efforts and manage data; obtaining contact information from participant contact networks, medical records, and community networks; using local village interviewers to contact participants without telephone service; and mailing paper questionnaires to participants who are incarcerated or use social services. PMID:20155325

  10. Cultural Adaptation for Therapy with American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jacqueline S.; Rose, WanmdiWi J.

    2012-01-01

    Most indigenous approaches for any interpersonal interaction begin with the relationship, knowing a person, developing trust, and respect for the individual that fits well with Western interpersonal approaches. Unfortunately, there exists no Western research to determine the efficacy of this method with indigenous populations. Because of the…

  11. Impacts of Federal Policy Decisions on Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Reviews findings of a four-year study designed to identify and measure the impacts of Federal decisions about the risks associated with large development projects on rural Alaskan populations. Addresses the consequences of off-shore oil and gas development activity. Consequences reinforce an urban bias and sustain dependencies on declining…

  12. 76 FR 46832 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Assessment of Native American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... American, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian populations with respect to both their housing conditions and... similar assessment in 1996, prior to the passage of the Native American Housing Assistance and...

  13. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  14. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  15. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or ... 1 [PDF - 993 KB] Related FastStats Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or ...

  16. Epidemiology and Etiology of Substance Use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Risk, Protection, and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology and etiology of substance use and disorder in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities have received increasing attention over the past 25 years and accumulating evidence provides important insights into substance use patterns in these populations. Objectives and methods We provide a descriptive sketch of the AI/AN population in the United States today, present a brief review of the literature on the epidemiology and etiology of substance use within these populations, and discuss key implications of this literature for prevention efforts. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Patterns of alcohol use and abuse in AI/AN populations are complex and vary across cultural groups, but alcohol clearly impacts both physical health and mental health within these communities. Tobacco use – and associated health consequences – is typically higher in these populations than among other US groups, although significant variation across Native communities is apparent here as with alcohol. Evidence regarding drug use and disorder is less extensive and thus less conclusive, but evidence demonstrates higher rates of use as well. Etiological explanations for substance use and disorder cut across individual characteristics (e.g., genetics) or experiences (e.g., exposure to trauma), to social contexts (e.g., family disruption), and to cultural factors (e.g., historical trauma). Protective factors likely cut across these multiple levels as well and deserve more focused attention for informing prevention efforts. The development of effective prevention strategies, built through collaboration between researchers and Native communities, drawing from the wisdom of both, is a high priority. PMID:22931069

  17. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1927, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1927-01-01

    Through its Alaska division, the United State Bureau of Education is developing and educating an aboriginal population of different races dwelling in widely varying regions and climates, many of whom require assistance in adjusting themselves to the new conditions with which civilization has confronted them. The problem involves both educating…

  18. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Avey, Jaedon P.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Beans, Julie A.; Robinson, Renee F.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes. PMID:26487575

  19. Health Promotion and Diabetes Prevention in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities--Traditional Foods Project, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Dawn; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Santos, Marjorie; Alonso, Larry; Frank, Melinda

    2016-02-12

    Type 2 diabetes was probably uncommon in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations before the 1940s. During 2010-2012, AI/AN adults were approximately 2.1 times as likely to have diabetes diagnosed as non-Hispanic white adults. Although type 2 diabetes in youth is still uncommon, AI/AN youth (aged 15-19 years) experienced a 68% increase in diagnosed diabetes from 1994 to 2004. Health disparities are related to biological, environmental, sociological, and historical factors. This report highlights observations from the Traditional Foods Project (2008-2014) that illustrate tribally driven solutions, built on traditional ecological knowledge, to reclaim foods systems for health promotion and prevention of chronic illnesses, including diabetes. PMID:26916637

  20. Local perspectives of the ability of HIA stakeholder engagement to capture and reflect factors that impact Alaska Native health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jen; Nix, Nancy A.; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges

    2014-01-01

    Background Health impact assessment (HIA) is a process used to inform planning and decision making in a range of sectors by identifying potential positive and negative health effects of proposed projects, programs, or policies. Stakeholder engagement is an integral component of HIA and requires careful consideration of participant diversity and appropriate methodologies. Ensuring that the engagement process is able to capture and address Indigenous worldviews and definitions of health is important where Indigenous populations are impacted, particularly in northern regions experiencing increases in natural resource development activities on Indigenous lands. Objective Investigate local participant perspectives of an HIA of a proposed Alaska coal mine, with a focus on the ability of the HIA process to capture, reflect, and address health concerns communicated by Alaska Native participants. Design A qualitative approach guided by semi-structured interviews with purposeful sampling to select key informants who participated in the coal mine HIA stakeholder engagement process. Results Qualitative data identified three key themes as important from the perspective of Alaska Native participants in the Alaska coal mine HIA stakeholder engagement process: (i) the inability of the engagement process to recognize an Indigenous way of sharing or gathering information; (ii) the lack of recognizing traditional knowledge and its use for identifying health impacts and status; and (iii) the inability of the engagement process to register the relationship Indigenous people have with the environment in which they live. Issues of trust in the HIA process and of the HIA findings were expressed within each theme. Conclusions Recommendations derived from the research identify the need to acknowledge and incorporate the history of colonialism and assimilation policies in an HIA when assessing health impacts of resource development on or near Indigenous lands. These historical contexts must

  1. Intersecting discourses on race and sexuality: compounded colonization among LGBTTQ American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Balestrery, Jean E

    2012-01-01

    This article examines discourses on race and sexuality in scientific literature during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries in context of U.S. settler colonialism. It uses a theoretical and methodological intersectional perspective to identify rhetorical strategies deployed in discursive representations salient to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, Two-Spirit, and queer American Indians and Alaska Natives. These representations reflect a context of compounded colonization, a historical configuration of co-constituting discourses based on cultural and ideological assumptions that invidiously marked a social group with consequential, continued effects. Hence, language is a vector of power and a critical vehicle in the project of decolonization. PMID:22587356

  2. Impaired fasting tolerance among Alaska Native Children with a common Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A sequence variant

    PubMed Central

    Gillingham, Melanie B.; Hirschfeld, Matthew; Lowe, Sarah; Matern, Dietrich; Shoemaker, James; Lambert, William E.; Koeller, David M.

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence of the sequence variant c.1436C>T in the CPT1A gene has been identified among Alaska Native newborns but the clinical implications of this variant are unknown. We conducted medically supervised fasts in 5 children homozygous for the c.1436C>T variant. Plasma free fatty acids increased normally in these children but their long-chain acylcarnitine and ketone production was significantly blunted. The fast was terminated early in two subjects due to symptoms of hypoglycemia. Homozygosity for the c.1436C>T sequence variant of CPT1A impairs fasting ketogenesis, and can cause hypoketotic hypoglycemia in young children. PMID:21763168

  3. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  4. An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range.

    PubMed

    Veale, A J; Holland, O J; McDonald, R A; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2015-05-01

    Invasive, non-native species are one of the major causes of global biodiversity loss. Although they are, by definition, successful in their non-native range, their populations generally show major reductions in their genetic diversity during the demographic bottleneck they experience during colonization. By investigating the mitochondrial genetic diversity of an invasive non-native species, the stoat Mustela erminea, in New Zealand and comparing it to diversity in the species' native range in Great Britain, we reveal the opposite effect. We demonstrate that the New Zealand stoat population contains four mitochondrial haplotypes that have not been found in the native range. Stoats in Britain rely heavily on introduced rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus as their primary prey and were introduced to New Zealand in a misguided attempt at biological control of rabbits, which had also been introduced there. While invasive stoats have since decimated the New Zealand avifauna, native stoat populations were themselves decimated by the introduction to Britain of Myxoma virus as a control measure for rabbits. We highlight the irony that while introduced species (rabbits) and subsequent biocontrol (myxomatosis) have caused population crashes of native stoats, invasive stoats in New Zealand, which were also introduced for biological control, now contain more genetic haplotypes than their most likely native source. PMID:25655531

  5. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Barry H.; Ann St. Amand

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  6. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  7. Including Alaska Natives in a Program for Native Culture and Arts Development. Report To Accompany S. 1059 from the Committee on Indian Affairs. Senate, 103d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This report recommends a legislative amendment authorizing grants to support arts and culture development programs for Alaska Natives in the same manner as such programs are currently supported for Native Hawaiians. Missionaries and school teachers who arrived in Alaska in the late 19th and early 20th centuries attempted to impress their…

  8. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Fifth Progress Report, 1 February 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    Summarizing the beginning of the second year of operation of the hatchery and educational program provided by the Applied Fisheries Science Program at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska for Alaska Natives and non-Native groups interested in salmon ranching, this fifth semi-annual report covers the period July 1 through December 31, 1976 and…

  9. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

  10. Soil pathogen communities associated with native and non-native Phragmites australis populations in freshwater wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eric B; Karp, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Soil pathogens are believed to be major contributors to negative plant–soil feedbacks that regulate plant community dynamics and plant invasions. While the theoretical basis for pathogen regulation of plant communities is well established within the plant–soil feedback framework, direct experimental evidence for pathogen community responses to plants has been limited, often relying largely on indirect evidence based on above-ground plant responses. As a result, specific soil pathogen responses accompanying above-ground plant community dynamics are largely unknown. Here, we examine the oomycete pathogens in soils conditioned by established populations of native noninvasive and non-native invasive haplotypes of Phragmites australis (European common reed). Our aim was to assess whether populations of invasive plants harbor unique communities of pathogens that differ from those associated with noninvasive populations and whether the distribution of taxa within these communities may help to explain invasive success. We compared the composition and abundance of pathogenic and saprobic oomycete species over a 2-year period. Despite a diversity of oomycete taxa detected in soils from both native and non-native populations, pathogen communities from both invaded and noninvaded soils were dominated by species of Pythium. Pathogen species that contributed the most to the differences observed between invaded and noninvaded soils were distributed between invaded and noninvaded soils. However, the specific taxa in invaded soils responsible for community differences were distinct from those in noninvaded soils that contributed to community differences. Our results indicate that, despite the phylogenetic relatedness of native and non-native P. australis haplotypes, pathogen communities associated with the dominant non-native haplotype are distinct from those of the rare native haplotype. Pathogen taxa that dominate either noninvaded or invaded soils suggest different potential

  11. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  12. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  13. Lived challenges and getting through them: Alaska Native youth narratives as a way to understand resilience.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Jernigan, Kasey; Mazzotti, Janet; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Griffin, Megan; Joule, Linda; Garoutte, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Because of imposed rapid social change, Alaska Native youth are growing up in a context different from their elders and suffering far worse health and behavioral outcomes. This research seeks to understand (a) their everyday struggles and life challenges, (b) the practices and resources they rely on to get through challenges, and (c) the meaning they make from these experiences. Data were generated from interviews with 20 Alaska Native youth between the ages of 11 and 18 years, balanced by gender and age-group (early and late adolescence). Purposive sampling identified participants with a broad range of experiences. Following a semistructured guide, youth participated in face-to-face, audio-recorded interviews, transcribed verbatim. A codebook was developed using an iterative process and transcripts were coded using ATLAS.ti. The most commonly identified stressors were relationship loss, "not being there for me," nonsupportive/hostile experiences, transitioning into adulthood, and boredom. Resilience strategies included developing and maintaining relationships with others, being responsible, creating systems of reciprocity, practicing subsistence living, and giving back to family and the community. These opportunities allowed youth to gain a sense of competence and mastery. When difficult experiences align with opportunities for being responsible and competent, youth are most likely to exhibit resilience. PMID:23431127

  14. Providing Culturally Competent Services for American Indian and Alaska Native Veterans to Reduce Health Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Kaufmann, L. Jeanne; Brooks, Elizabeth; Shore, Jay H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted an exploratory study to determine what organizational characteristics predict the provision of culturally competent services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health facilities. Methods. In 2011 to 2012, we adapted the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) for a survey of 27 VA facilities in the Western Region to assess organizational readiness and capacity to adopt and implement native-specific services and to profile the availability of AI/AN veteran programs and interest in and resources for such programs. Results. Several ORCA subscales (Program Needs, Leader’s Practices, and Communication) statistically significantly predicted whether VA staff perceived that their facilities were meeting the needs of AI/AN veterans. However, none predicted greater implementation of native-specific services. Conclusions. Our findings may aid in developing strategies for adopting and implementing promising native-specific programs and services for AI/AN veterans, and may be generalizable for other veteran groups. PMID:25100420

  15. Validation of a Dietary History Questionnaire for American Indian and Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Ma, Khe-ni; Greene, Tom; Redwood, Diana; Edwards, Sandra; Johnson, Jennifer; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We assessed reliability and relative validity of a self-administered computer-assisted dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) for use in a prospective study of diet, lifestyle, and chronic disease in American Indians in the Dakotas and Southwestern US and Alaska Native people. Design Reliability was assessed by one-month test-retest of the dietary history questionnaire. Validity was assessed by comparison of the weighted average of up to 12 monthly 24-hour recalls collected prospectively and a dietary history questionnaire completed in the 13th month. Participants Participants were recruited at the baseline visit of the Education and Research Toward Health Study in Alaska, the Northern Plains and the Dakotas. Results Reliability (Pearson correlation) of the DHQ ranged from r= 0.43 for vitamin A density to r=0.90 for energy intake. The association of nutrient and food estimates assessed by 24-hour recalls and the DHQ completed at the end of the year reflected no bias towards recent intake. Macronutrients expressed as density (nutrients per 1000 calories) did appear to be valid (r 0.50–0.71) as did several micronutrients (range r=.22 to 0.59), fiber (r=0.51), and servings of red meat (r=0.67). However, the DHQ overestimated intake and gross amounts of nutrients were not strongly associated with the weighted average of the 24-hour recalls. Conclusions The DHQ developed for estimation of dietary intake in American Indians and Native people in Alaska is reliable. Estimates of nutrient density appeared to have acceptable relative validity for use in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21305833

  16. Effect of race and ethnicity classification on survey estimates: Anomaly of the weighted totals of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Satter, Delight E; Ponce, Ninez A

    2009-01-01

    Racial classification is a paramount concern in data collection and analysis for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and has far-reaching implications in health research. We examine how different racial classifications affect survey weights and consequently change health-related indicators for the AI/AN population in California. Using a very large random population-based sample of AI/ANs, we compared the impact of three weighting strategies on counts and rates of selected health indicators. We found that different weights examined in this study did not change the percentage estimates of health-related variables for AI/ANs, but did influence the population total estimates dramatically. In survey data, different racial classifications and tabulations of AI/ANs could yield discrepancies in weighted estimates for the AI/AN population. Policy makers need to be aware that the choice of racial classification schemes for this racial-political group can generally influence the data they use for decision making. PMID:20052630

  17. Mental health disorders among an invisible minority: depression and dementia among american Indian and alaska native elders.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Mario D; Baldridge, Dave; Benson, William; Crowder, Jolie; Aldrich, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    According to the 2010 Census, 5.2 million people identified themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) in the United States. This was an increase of 39% from the prior Census, making AIANs one of the nation's fastest growing populations. The health and social programs reaching them, however, have experienced documented devastating shortfalls. Decades of inadequate resources have resulted in significant health and socioeconomic disparities. AIANs are often considered an "invisible minority." In 2012, there were 266,000 AIAN elders 65 or older who claimed one race alone. That number is projected to almost triple by 2030-when the nation's baby boomers move into the ranks of the older population. This article provides an overview of two primary mental health issues-depression and dementia-that will confront this emerging AIAN elder population. Although other health and social issues exist, this article addresses depression and dementia because they are hidden from the community and from health care agencies. This paper focuses both on the unique characteristics of the AIAN population and why it is important to address depression and dementia. The conclusion explores pragmatic policy recommendations for improving the health and long-term mental health care status of AIAN elders. PMID:26035598

  18. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer N; Emlen, Douglas J; Pearson, Dean E

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders' web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe's architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations. PMID:27082240

  19. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Emlen, Douglas J.; Pearson, Dean E.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe’s architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations. PMID:27082240

  20. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-01-01

    Background The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03) had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. Methods Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58) or never had a drinking problem (n = 43). This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs) and non-problem drinkers (NPs). Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. Results Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a) individual, family, and community characteristics; (b) trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c) experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d) reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more socially

  1. Warm Springs: A Case Study Approach to Recognizing the Strengths of the American Indian and Alaska Native Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Janet, Ed.; Rosenthal, Gail, Ed.

    A training manual, intended to foster cooperative, coordinated approaches to resolving Indian child welfare cases, uses the case study approach to help tribal social service and court workers recognize strengths of American Indian and Alaska Native families. The first chapter covers primary aspects and needs of children of all cultures, from…

  2. 76 FR 5358 - Alaska Native Education; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Alaska Native Education; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.356A Dates:...

  3. Planning How to Use Land in Village Alaska: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Bob

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on the influence of change and competition in land use planning. Designed to stimulate careful political/historical assessment at an advanced secondary or adult level, this booklet presents a vocabulary list, 9…

  4. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska, 1916-17. Bulletin, 1918, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1918

    1918-01-01

    The work of the Bureau of Education for the native races of Alaska has been carried on in accordance with the terms and purposes of Congressional appropriations for their education, medical relief, and for the extension of the reindeer industry among them. In the schools, emphasis has been placed upon instruction in matters pertaining to health,…

  5. Trends in Perinatal and Infant Health Disparities Between Rural American Indians and Alaska Natives and Rural Whites

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, David C.; Murowchick, Elise; Larson, Eric H.; Hollow, Walter B.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Freeman, William L.; Hart, L. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in perinatal care, birth outcomes, and infant health between rural American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) persons and rural Whites over time. Methods. We compared perinatal and infant health measures for 217 064 rural AIAN births and 5 032 533 rural non-Hispanic White births. Results. Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, unadjusted rates of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, 36.3%; 1995–1997, 26.3%) and postneonatal death (1985–1987, 7.1 per 1000; 1995–1997, 4.8 per 1000) improved significantly. However, disparities between American Indians and Alaska Natives and Whites in adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of postneonatal death (1985–1987, AOR = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 1.71; 1995–1997, AOR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.64) and adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) of inadequate prenatal care (1985–1987, ARR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.65, 1.69; 1995–1997, ARR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.81, 1.87) persisted. Conclusions. Despite significant decreases in inadequate prenatal care and postneonatal death among American Indians and Alaska Natives, additional measures are needed to close persistent health gaps for this group. PMID:18703453

  6. Successful Aging through the Eyes of Alaska Native Elders. What It Means to Be an Elder in Bristol Bay, AK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jordan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Alaska Natives (ANs) view aging from a holistic perspective, which is not typical of the existing successful aging literature. One of the challenges of conducting research with cultural groups (e.g., ANs) is the lack of data, or research, on culture and aging and its impact on how we view successful aging. This research explores…

  7. Characteristics of American Indian and Alaska Native Education: Results from the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael; And Others

    This report summarizes findings of the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) with regard to schools that serve American Indian and Alaska Native students. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and federally recognized tribal organizations under BIA grants and contracts operate 149 elementary and secondary schools. In addition, 1,260 public…

  8. A Program Evaluation of a Summer Research Training Institute for American Indian and Alaska Native Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaback, Tosha; Becker, Thomas M.; Dignan, Mark B.; Lambert, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a unique summer program to train American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health professionals in a variety of health research-related skills, including epidemiology, data management, statistical analysis, program evaluation, cost-benefit analysis, community-based participatory research, grant writing, and…

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  10. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  11. American Indian Tribal Values: A Critical Consideration in the Education of American Indians/Alaska Natives Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippeconnic, John W., III; Tippeconnic Fox, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The education of American Indians and Alaska Natives has increasingly become more complex given the differences in tribal languages and cultures, especially as changing demographics and issues of Indian identity are considered. There are over 200 languages and vast cultural differences between and within the 565 federally recognized tribes in…

  12. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. 457.125 Section 457.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  13. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. 457.125 Section 457.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  14. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. 457.125 Section 457.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  15. 42 CFR 457.125 - Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provision of child health assistance to American Indian and Alaska Native children. 457.125 Section 457.125 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  16. The Use of Academic Achievement Tests and Measurements with American Indian and Alaska Native Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippeconnic, John W., III

    This digest focuses on academic testing and American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. Ideally, test results should be used to improve student learning. Proponents of high-stakes testing say it is needed to measure student achievement and school quality and to hold students and teachers accountable. High-stakes testing is also used to…

  17. The Power of Protection: A Population-Based Comparison of Native and Non-Native Youth Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, Juliette; Perkins, Tamara; Furrer, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    This study provides actionable information about intervening with American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth to prevent suicide. Statewide school survey data were used to model the impact of risk and protective factors on self-reported suicide attempts (both AI/AN and non-AI/AN). The cumulative risk and protective model worked similarly for both…

  18. Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Lewis, Cecil M; Jakobsson, Mattias; Ramachandran, Sohini; Ray, Nicolas; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Molina, Julio A; Gallo, Carla; Mazzotti, Guido; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Labuda, Damian; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W; Rosenberg, Noah A; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    We examined genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using 678 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 422 individuals representing 24 Native American populations sampled from North, Central, and South America. These data were analyzed jointly with similar data available in 54 other indigenous populations worldwide, including an additional five Native American groups. The Native American populations have lower genetic diversity and greater differentiation than populations from other continental regions. We observe gradients both of decreasing genetic diversity as a function of geographic distance from the Bering Strait and of decreasing genetic similarity to Siberians--signals of the southward dispersal of human populations from the northwestern tip of the Americas. We also observe evidence of: (1) a higher level of diversity and lower level of population structure in western South America compared to eastern South America, (2) a relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations, (3) a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating peoples to traverse in comparison with inland routes, and (4) a partial agreement on a local scale between genetic similarity and the linguistic classification of populations. These findings offer new insights into the process of population dispersal and differentiation during the peopling of the Americas. PMID:18039031

  19. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sohini; Ray, Nicolas; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Molina, Julio A; Gallo, Carla; Mazzotti, Guido; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Labuda, Damian; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W; Rosenberg, Noah A; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    We examined genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using 678 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 422 individuals representing 24 Native American populations sampled from North, Central, and South America. These data were analyzed jointly with similar data available in 54 other indigenous populations worldwide, including an additional five Native American groups. The Native American populations have lower genetic diversity and greater differentiation than populations from other continental regions. We observe gradients both of decreasing genetic diversity as a function of geographic distance from the Bering Strait and of decreasing genetic similarity to Siberians—signals of the southward dispersal of human populations from the northwestern tip of the Americas. We also observe evidence of: (1) a higher level of diversity and lower level of population structure in western South America compared to eastern South America, (2) a relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations, (3) a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating peoples to traverse in comparison with inland routes, and (4) a partial agreement on a local scale between genetic similarity and the linguistic classification of populations. These findings offer new insights into the process of population dispersal and differentiation during the peopling of the Americas. PMID:18039031

  20. Decolonizing Strategies for Mentoring American Indians and Alaska Natives in HIV and Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) scholars in the fields of mental health and HIV face formidable barriers to scientific success. These include justifiable mistrust of historically oppressive educational systems, educational disparities, role burdens within academe, the devaluation and marginalization of their research interests, and outright discrimination. Research partners can work to dismantle these barriers by embracing indigenous worldviews, engaging in collaborative research partnerships, building research capacity within universities and tribal communities, changing reward systems, and developing mentoring programs. At the individual level, aspiring AIAN scholars must build coalitions, reject internalized colonial messages, and utilize indigenous ethical frames. The creation of a cadre of AIAN researchers is crucial to improving the health of AIAN peoples. PMID:19246668

  1. Impaired fasting tolerance among Alaska native children with a common carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A sequence variant.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Melanie B; Hirschfeld, Matthew; Lowe, Sarah; Matern, Dietrich; Shoemaker, James; Lambert, William E; Koeller, David M

    2011-11-01

    A high prevalence of the sequence variant c.1436C→T in the CPT1A gene has been identified among Alaska Native newborns but the clinical implications of this variant are unknown. We conducted medically supervised fasts in 5 children homozygous for the c.1436C→T variant. Plasma free fatty acids increased normally in these children but their long-chain acylcarnitine and ketone production was significantly blunted. The fast was terminated early in two subjects due to symptoms of hypoglycemia. Homozygosity for the c.1436C→T sequence variant of CPT1A impairs fasting ketogenesis, and can cause hypoketotic hypoglycemia in young children. Trial registration www.clinical trials.gov NCT00653666 "Metabolic Consequences of CPT1A Deficiency" PMID:21763168

  2. Factors That Influence Mammography Use among Older American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    James, Rosalina D.; Gold, Dana E.; St John BlackBird, Arlene; Trinidad, Susan Brown

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have relatively high breast-cancer mortality rates despite the availability of free or low-cost screening. Purpose This qualitative study explored issues that influence the participation of older AIAN women in mammography screening through tribally directed National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Programs (NBCCEDP). Methods We interviewed staff (n=12) representing five tribal NBCCEDP and conducted four focus groups with AIAN women ages 50 to 80 years (n = 33). Results Our analysis identified four main areas of factors that predispose, enable, or reinforce decisions around mammography: financial issues and personal investments, program characteristics including direct services and education, access issues such as transportation, and comfort zone topics that include cultural or community-wide norms regarding cancer prevention. Conclusion This study has implications for nurse education and training on delivering effective mammography services and preventive cancer outreach and education programs in AIAN communities. PMID:24626283

  3. American Indian/Alaska Native Willingness to Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kristin L.; Nazir, Niaman; Williams, Chandler; Brown, Travis; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. A.; Daley, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the willingness of American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) to provide biological samples for research purposes. Prior cases of abuse and misuse of individuals, materials, and data highlight ethical research concerns. Investigators may be hesitant to engage AI/ANs in research projects. We conducted a survey of AI/ANs in the central plains region of the US over 1 year. This convenience sample completed a series of questions on biological samples and research. Survey results (N = 998) indicate that 70.15% of AI/ANs would be willing to provide saliva/spit for a specific study with the proper consent and control of samples. In conclusion, researchers should find ways to work with and for AI/ANs, assuring participant input in the research process. PMID:22057422

  4. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  5. Racial discrimination's influence on smoking rates among American Indian Alaska Native two-spirit individuals: does pain play a role?

    PubMed

    Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Belcourt, Annie; Town, Matthew; Walls, Melissa L; Walters, Karina L

    2014-11-01

    High rates of racial discrimination and non-ceremonial tobacco smoking exist among American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) Two-Spirit/LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) populations. The authors examined whether or not pain mediates between racial discrimination and smoking among Two-Spirits. Two-Spirit adults (n=447) from seven urban U.S. locations were surveyed during the HONOR project. The Indigenist stress coping model was used as framework in which to conduct descriptive, bivariate and regression analyses. A majority of the participants reported smoking (45.2%) and pain (57%). Pain was found to mediate the association between racial discrimination and smoking. Racial discrimination appears to be a significant factor influencing tobacco smoking and health behaviors within Two-Spirit populations. Effective tobacco cessation and/or prevention planning for Two-Spirits and others who experience frequent racial discrimination, stress, and trauma should also consider the influence of pain. Pain may serve as the embodiment of discrimination, and this possibility requires future research PMID:25418234

  6. Locally harvested foods support serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D sufficiency in an indigenous population of Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Luick, Bret; Bersamin, Andrea; Stern, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low serum vitamin D is associated with higher latitude, age, body fat percentage and low intake of fatty fish. Little documentation of vitamin D concentrations is available for Alaska Native populations. Objective This study was undertaken to investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations of the Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska in relation to demographic and lifestyle variables, particularly with the use of locally harvested (local) foods. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods We estimated 25(OH)D, dietary vitamin D and calcium, percent of energy from local foods and demographic variables in 497 Yup'ik people (43% males) aged 14–92 residing in southwestern Alaska. Sampling was approximately equally divided between synthesizing and non-synthesizing seasons, although the preponderance of samples were drawn during months of increasing daylight. Results Mean vitamin D intake was 15.1±20.2 µg/d, while local foods accounted for 22.9±17.1% of energy intake. The leading sources of vitamin D were local fish (90.1%) followed by market foods. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 95.6±40.7 nmol/L. Participants in the upper 50th percentile of 25(OH)D concentration tended to be older, male, of lower body mass index, sampled during the synthesizing season, and among the upper 50th percentile of local food use. Conclusions A shift away from locally harvested foods will likely increase the risk for serum 25(OH)D insufficiency in this population. PMID:24665435

  7. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. Discussion We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Summary Broadening this conversation beyond its primary focus on the use of evidence

  8. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  9. Disparities in Life Expectancy of Pacific Northwest American Indians and Alaska Natives: Analysis of Linkage-Corrected Life Tables

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Megan J.; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Knaster, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience a high burden of mortality and other disparities compared with the general population. Life tables are an important population health indicator; however, federal agencies have not produced life tables for AI/ANs, largely due to racial misclassification on death certificates. Our objective was to correct this misclassification and create life tables for AI/ANs who resided in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., making comparisons with the general population. Methods To correct racial misclassification, we conducted probabilistic record linkages between death certificates from three Northwest states—Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State—issued during 2008–2010, and AI/AN patient registration records. We calculated mortality rates and generated period life tables for AI/ANs and non-Hispanic white (NHW) Americans. Results Overall life expectancy at birth for Northwest AI/ANs was 72.8 years, which was 6.9 years lower than that of NHW Americans. Male AI/ANs had a lower life expectancy (70.9 years) than female AI/ANs (74.6 years). The disparity in life expectancy between AI/ANs and their NHW counterparts was higher for females (with AI/ANs living 7.3 years fewer than NHW females) than for males (with AI/ANs living 6.7 years fewer than NHW males). The greatest disparity in mortality rates was seen among young adults. Conclusion Data linkage with a registry of known AI/ANs allowed us to generate accurate life tables that had not previously been available for this population and revealed disparities in both life expectancy at birth and survival across the life span. These results represent an important tool to help AI/AN communities as they monitor their health and promote efforts to eliminate health disparities. PMID:25552757

  10. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. PMID:20215030

  11. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    PubMed

    Jemison, Lauri A; Pendleton, Grey W; Fritz, Lowell W; Hastings, Kelly K; Maniscalco, John M; Trites, Andrew W; Gelatt, Tom S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  12. Inter-Population Movements of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska with Implications for Population Separation

    PubMed Central

    Jemison, Lauri A.; Pendleton, Grey W.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Hastings, Kelly K.; Maniscalco, John M.; Trites, Andrew W.; Gelatt, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15–30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000–2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either ‘West’ or ‘East’). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2–5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two ‘mixing zone’ rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  13. Application of the PEN-3 Model to Tobacco Initiation, Use, and Cessation Among American Indian and Alaska Native Adults.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Trinidad, Susan B; Avey, Jaedon P; Robinson, Renee F

    2016-07-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. As part of a formative research project investigating stakeholder understandings, preferences, and needs surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment, we sought to characterize sociocultural issues related to tobacco use and cessation. We used the PEN-3 cultural model to frame the research question and analysis of stakeholder interviews with 20 AI/AN patients, 12 health care providers, and 9 tribal leaders. Our study found high knowledge levels of the negative health effects of tobacco use; however, most patient participants ascribed negative health effects only to regular, heavy tobacco use and not to light use, which is more common in the population. The majority of patient participants did not endorse use of tobacco cessation treatment despite evidence of efficacy among AI/AN adults. Health promotion messaging to target low-tobacco consuming AI/AN people is needed. Additionally, messaging to promote tobacco cessation treatment using successful AI/AN former tobacco users to improve community perception of tobacco cessation treatment is recommended. PMID:27178836

  14. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population. PMID:26306776

  15. Tobacco Cessation Treatment for Alaska Native Adolescents: Group Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and the potential efficacy of a targeted cessation intervention for AN youth using a group randomized design. Methods: Eight villages in western Alaska were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 4 villages) or a delayed treatment control condition (written materials only; n = 4 villages). Ten adolescents aged 12–17 years were targeted from each village with a planned enrollment of 80. The intervention was held over a weekend, and youth traveled from their villages to quit tobacco use with other teens. The intervention comprised 8hr of group-based counseling. Talking circles, personal stories from elders, and recreational activities were included to enhance cultural acceptability and participation. Newsletters were mailed weekly for 5-weeks postprogram. Assessments were conducted at baseline, week 6 (end-of-treatment), and 6 months. Self-reported tobacco abstinence was confirmed with salivary cotinine. Results: Recruitment targets were met in the intervention (41 enrolled) but not in control villages (27 enrolled). All intervention participants attended the weekend program. Retention was high; 98% of intervention and 86% of control participants completed 6-month follow-up. The 7-day point-prevalence self-reported tobacco abstinence rates for intervention and control participants were 10% (4/41) and 0% (0/27) at both week 6 and 6 months (p = .15). Only 1 adolescent in the intervention condition was biochemically confirmed abstinent at week 6 and none at 6 months. Conclusion: The intensive individual-focused intervention used in this study was feasible but not effective for tobacco cessation among AN youth. Alternative approaches are warranted. PMID:24532352

  16. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Second Progress Report, 1 July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Derek

    Covering the period January 1 through June 30, 1975, this second semi-annual report on the Applied Fishery Science Program operative at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska presents information regarding program progress and Alaska Native students involved in science education. Specifically, this report details: Planning and Coordination…

  17. Honoring children, making relatives: the cultural translation of parent-child interaction therapy for American Indian and Alaska Native families.

    PubMed

    Bigfoot, Dolores Subia; Funderburk, Beverly W

    2011-01-01

    The Indian Country Child Trauma Center, as part of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, designed a series of American Indian and Alaska Native transformations of evidence-based treatment models. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) was culturally adapted/translated to provide an effective treatment model for parents who have difficulty with appropriate parenting skills or for their children who have problematic behavior. The model, Honoring Children-Making Relatives, embeds the basic tenets and procedures of PCIT in a framework that supports American Indian and Alaska Native traditional beliefs and parenting practices that regard children as being the center of the Circle. This article provides an overview of the Honoring Children-Making Relatives model, reviews cultural considerations incorporated into ICCTC's model transformation process, and discusses specific applications for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy within the model. PMID:22400462

  18. Patterns of Injury Mortality among Athabascan Indians in Interior Alaska 1977-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andon, Helen B.

    1997-01-01

    During 1977-87, almost half of all deaths in rural interior Alaska resulted from accidents, suicide, or homicide. These causes of death were significantly higher among Natives compared to non-Natives or to other Alaska Native populations, among males compared to females, and among adolescents and young adults compared to other age groups. Includes…

  19. Native American admixture in the Quebec founder population.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Claudia; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Jomphe, Michèle; Bhérer, Claude; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Vézina, Hélène; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Labuda, Damian

    2013-01-01

    For years, studies of founder populations and genetic isolates represented the mainstream of genetic mapping in the effort to target genetic defects causing Mendelian disorders. The genetic homogeneity of such populations as well as relatively homogeneous environmental exposures were also seen as primary advantages in studies of genetic susceptibility loci that underlie complex diseases. European colonization of the St-Lawrence Valley by a small number of settlers, mainly from France, resulted in a founder effect reflected by the appearance of a number of population-specific disease-causing mutations in Quebec. The purported genetic homogeneity of this population was recently challenged by genealogical and genetic analyses. We studied one of the contributing factors to genetic heterogeneity, early Native American admixture that was never investigated in this population before. Consistent admixture estimates, in the order of one per cent, were obtained from genome-wide autosomal data using the ADMIXTURE and HAPMIX software, as well as with the fastIBD software evaluating the degree of the identity-by-descent between Quebec individuals and Native American populations. These genomic results correlated well with the genealogical estimates. Correlations are imperfect most likely because of incomplete records of Native founders' origin in genealogical data. Although the overall degree of admixture is modest, it contributed to the enrichment of the population diversity and to its demographic stratification. Because admixture greatly varies among regions of Quebec and among individuals, it could have significantly affected the homogeneity of the population, which is of importance in mapping studies, especially when rare genetic susceptibility variants are in play. PMID:23776491

  20. Discrimination and participation in traditional healing for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Momper, Sandra L; Fong, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) who live in urban areas today face the daunting task of navigating an urban landscape while maintaining the facets of their respective Native cultures. While AIs/ANs continue to grapple with the intergenerational trauma associated with forced assimilation, relocation movements, and boarding schools, these traumas have manifested themselves in elevated rates of psychopathology. AIs/ANs have elevated rates of domestic abuse, poverty, suicide, and substance misuse. Furthermore, AIs/ANs, like many other minority cultures often face discrimination in their everyday lives. In light of the aversive experiences they face, AI/AN people have followed the tenets of ritual and traditional healing to address imbalances in the body, mind, and spirit. For providers working with AI/AN clients, it is important to understand who is using traditional healing and why they are using alternative services. Secondary data analyses of survey data from 389 urban AIs/ANs were utilized in order to determine the relationship between experiences of discrimination and traditional healing use. Analyses indicated that experiences of discrimination in healthcare settings were significantly associated with participation in traditional healing. Analyses also indicated that nearly a quarter of the sample reported discrimination in a healthcare setting, roughly half of the sample had used traditional healing, and that the majority of those who had used traditional healing were women, and ages 35-44 (27%). This study calls attention to the socio-demographic factors implicated in traditional healing use by urban AI/AN people, in addition to the clinical and demographic characteristics of this sample. PMID:23821254

  1. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program Into American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M.; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G.; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes for those at risk. We evaluated a translational implementation of this intervention in a diverse set of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented the DPP lifestyle intervention among 36 health care programs serving 80 tribes. A total of 2,553 participants with prediabetes were recruited and started intervention by 31 July 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum and underwent a thorough clinical assessment for evaluation of their diabetes status and risk at baseline, soon after completing the curriculum (postcurriculum), and annually for up to 3 years. Diabetes incidence was estimated. Weight loss, changes in blood pressure and lipid levels, and lifestyle changes after intervention were also evaluated. RESULTS The completion rates of SDPI-DP were 74, 59, 42, and 33% for the postcurriculum and year 1, 2, and 3 assessments, respectively. The crude incidence of diabetes among SDPI-DP participants was 4.0% per year. Significant improvements in weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels were observed immediately after the intervention and annually thereafter for 3 years. Class attendance strongly correlated with diabetes incidence rate, weight loss, and change in systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential of translating the lifestyle intervention in diverse AI/AN communities. They have important implications for future dissemination and institutionalization of the intervention throughout the Native American health system. PMID:23275375

  2. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  3. Enculturation, Perceived Stress, and Physical Activity: Implications for Metabolic Risk among the Yup’ik – The Center for Alaska Native Health Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Andrea; Wolsko, Christopher; Luick, Bret; Boyer, Bert; Lardon, Cecile; Hopkins, Scarlett; Stern, Judith S.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Objectives American Indians and Alaska Natives report among the lowest levels of physical activity in the U.S, but there is very little systematic research examining the determinants of physical activity patterns in these populations. This study investigated the relationships between enculturation (or, cultural traditionality), psychosocial stress, and physical activity in a community-based sample of Yup’ik women and men living in rural Alaska Native communities. Associations between these variables and several metabolic risk factors were also examined. Design A sample of 488 Yup’ik participants (284 women and 204 men) from 6 villages in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region completed a wellness survey and an array of physiological assessments (e.g., BMI, blood pressure). A subset of 179 participants also completed a 3-day pedometer assessment of physical activity. Results Multivariate linear regression models indicated that participants who were more enculturated (i.e. living more of a traditional lifestyle) and who experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress were significantly more physically active. In turn, lower levels of psychosocial stress and higher levels of physical activity were both associated with lower BMI, lower percent body fat, and lower waist circumference. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of gaining a culturally-specific understanding of physical activity patterns in indigenous groups in order to inform effective health promotion strategies. PMID:23297688

  4. Fine-Grained Distribution of a Non-Native Resource Can Alter the Population Dynamics of a Native Consumer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New interactions with non-native species can alter selection pressures on native species. Here, we examined the effect of the spatial distribution of a non-native species, a factor that determines ecological and evolutionary outcomes but that is poorly understood, particularly on a fine scale. Specifically, we explored a native butterfly population and a non-native plant on which the butterfly oviposits despite the plant’s toxicity to larvae. We developed an individual-based model to describe movement and oviposition behaviors of each butterfly, which were determined by plant distribution and the butterfly's host preference genotype. We estimated the parameter values of the model from rich field data. We simulated various patterns of plant distributions and compared the rates of butterfly population growth and changes in the allele frequency of oviposition preference. Neither the number nor mean area of patches of non-native species affected the butterfly population, whereas plant abundance, patch shape, and distance to the nearest native and non-native patches altered both the population dynamics and genetics. Furthermore, we found a dramatic decrease in population growth rates when we reduced the distance to the nearest native patch from 147 m to 136 m. Thus changes in the non-native resource distribution that are critical to the fate of the native herbivore could only be detected at a fine-grained scale that matched the scale of a female butterfly’s movement. In addition, we found that the native butterfly population was unlikely to be rescued by the exclusion of the allele for acceptance of the non-native plant as a host. This study thus highlights the importance of including both ecological and evolutionary dynamics in analyses of the outcome of species interactions and provides insights into habitat management for non-native species. PMID:26575843

  5. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Cassels, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n=129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend’s or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR=3.92; 95%CI: 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend’s or family settings (AOR=0.17; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in “riskier” settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR=4.15; 95%CI: 1.59, 10.68). Perceived “safe” places, e.g., friend’s or family’s house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  6. NIJ's Program of Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Christine; Palmer, Jane; Brooks, Alison

    2013-06-01

    The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 (Public Law Number 109-162), at Title IX, Section 904(a) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 3796gg-10 note) mandates that the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in consultation with the U.S. Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), conduct a national baseline study on violence against American Indian and Alaska Native (AI and AN) women living in tribal communities. As a result, NIJ has developed a comprehensive research program consisting of multiple projects that will be accomplished over an extended period of time to address this much needed research. The purpose of the research program is to: examine violence against AI and AN women (including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and murder) and identify factors that place AI and AN women at risk for victimization; evaluate the effectiveness of federal, state, tribal, and local responses to violence against AI and AN women; and propose recommendations to improve effectiveness of these responses. PMID:23996854

  7. Formative Evaluation to Assess Communication Technology Access and Health Communication Preferences of Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Renee F.; Dillard, Denise A.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Tierney, Steve; Avey, Jaedon P.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information technology can improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by improving provider and patient access to health information. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional, self-report survey to determine whether Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have access to the health communication technologies available through a patient-centered medical home. Methods In 2011, we administered a self-report survey in an urban, tribally owned and operated primary care center serving AN/AI adults. Patients in the center’s waiting rooms completed the survey on paper; center staff completed it electronically. Results Approximately 98% (n = 654) of respondents reported computer access, 97% (n = 650) email access, and 94% (n = 631) mobile phone use. Among mobile phone users, 60% had Internet access through their phones. Rates of computer access (p = .011) and email use (p = .005) were higher among women than men, but we found no significant gender difference in mobile phone access to the Internet or text messaging. Respondents in the oldest age category (65–80 years of age) were significantly less likely to anticipate using the Internet to schedule appointments, refill medications, or communicate with their health care providers (all p < .001). Conclusion Information on use of health communication technologies enables administrators to deploy these technologies more efficiently to address health concerns in AN/AI communities. Our results will drive future research on health communication for chronic disease screening and health management. PMID:27169131

  8. Satisfaction With Telehealth for Cancer Support Groups in Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Eaton, Linda H.; Haozous, Emily; Towle, Cara; Revels, Laura; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive study was conducted to determine the information needs of American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) cancer survivors and assess satisfaction with and acceptability of telehealth support group services for cancer survivors in AI and AN rural communities. AI and AN cancer survivors were asked to complete the Telehealth Satisfaction Survey and two open-ended questions, one regarding information needs and one seeking comments and suggestions about cancer support group meetings. Thirty-two surveys were returned. Information about nutrition during treatment and treatment-related side effects were the most sought after topics. Participants valued the opportunity to interact with other AI and AN cancer survivors who also lived in remote locations and the usefulness of the information presented. The link with geographically distant survivors was valuable to participants as they felt they were no longer alone in their cancer experiences. Determining survivors’ information needs provides meaningful topics for future support group education. Telehealth is a viable way to facilitate cancer support groups to AI and AN cancer survivors in rural communities. PMID:21112853

  9. Assessing the Everyday Discrimination Scale among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kelly L; Noonan, Carolyn; Goins, R Turner; Henderson, William G; Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) has been used widely as a measure of subjective experiences of discrimination. The usefulness of this measure for assessments of perceived experiences of discrimination by American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) peoples has not been explored. Data derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians--Healthy Heart Demonstration Project (SDPI-HH), a large-scale initiative to reduce cardiovascular risk among AI/ANs with Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 3,039) completed a self-report survey that included the EDS and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Missing data were estimated by multiple imputation techniques. Reliability estimates for the EDS were calculated, yielding a single factor with high internal consistency (α = .92). Younger, more educated respondents reported greater perceived discrimination; retired or widowed respondents reported less. Convergent validity was evidenced by levels of distress, anger, and hostility, which increased as the level of perceived discrimination increased (all p < .001). Divergent validity was evidenced by the absence of an association between EDS and resilient coping. Resilient coping and insulin-specific diabetes knowledge were not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (p = .61 and 0.16, respectively). However, general diabetes-related health knowledge was significantly associated with perceived discrimination (p = .02). The EDS is a promising measure for assessing perceived experiences of discrimination among those AI/ANs who participated in the SDPI-HH. PMID:26146948

  10. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  11. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska native women.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n = 129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend's or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR = 3.92; 95 % CI 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend's or family settings (AOR = 0.17; 95 % CI 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in "riskier" settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR = 4.15; 95 % CI 1.59, 10.68). Perceived "safe" places, e.g., friend's or family's house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  12. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Native and Invasive Populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiali; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Lou, Anru; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aims We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China. Methods We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China. Important Findings We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (FIS) or population differentiation (FST). Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China. PMID:24224008

  13. How do providers serving American Indians and Alaska Natives with substance abuse problems define evidence-based treatment?

    PubMed

    Moore, Laurie A; Aarons, Gregory A; Davis, Jordan H; Novins, Douglas K

    2015-05-01

    Rates of substance abuse remain high in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. While there are many evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for substance use problems, no studies exist describing how directors of treatment programs serving AI/ANs perceive and use EBTs. Twenty-one key informant interviews with program administrators and 10 focus groups with clinicians were conducted at 18 treatment programs for AI/ANs with substance use problems. Demographic data were not collected to protect participant privacy. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. A majority of participants correctly defined an EBT using the key terms "effective" and "research" found in standard definitions of the phrase. More detailed descriptions were uncommon. Prevalent themes related to attitudes about EBTs included concerns about cultural relevance, external mandates to use EBTs, and their reliance on western conceptualization of substance abuse. While most administrators and clinicians who treat AI/AN clients for substance abuse had a basic understanding of what constitutes an EBT, there was little consensus regarding their relevance for use with AI/ANs. Recognizing that broad geographic and tribal diversity among AI/AN populations may impact conclusions drawn about EBTs, several factors may enhance the abilities of program staff to identify EBTs most appropriate for local implementation. These include gaining a more detailed understanding of how an EBT is developed and how to assess its scientific grounding, as well as utilizing definitions of EBTs that include not only research evidence, but also clinical expertise and judgment, and fit with consumer choice, preference, and culture. PMID:25961645

  14. Estimating cotinine associations and a saliva cotinine level to identify active cigarette smoking in alaska native pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia J; Robinson, Renee F; Khan, Burhan A; Sosnoff, Connie S; Dillard, Denise A

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate nicotine metabolism varies by race and can change during pregnancy. Given high rates of tobacco use and limited studies among Alaska Native (AN) women, we estimated associations of saliva cotinine levels with cigarette use and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and estimated a saliva cotinine cutoff to distinguish smoking from non-smoking pregnant AN women. Using questionnaire data and saliva cotinine, we utilized multi-variable linear regression (n = 370) to estimate cotinine associations with tobacco use, SHS exposure, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors. Additionally, we estimated an optimal saliva cotinine cutoff for indication of active cigarette use in AN pregnant women using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (n = 377). Saliva cotinine significantly decreased with maternal age and significantly increased with cigarettes smoked per day, SHS exposure, and number of previous full term pregnancies. Using self-reported cigarette use in the past 7 days as indication of active smoking, the area under the ROC curve was 0.975 (95 % CI: 0.960-0.990). The point closest to 100 % specificity and sensitivity occurred with a cotinine concentration of 1.07 ng/mL, which corresponded to sensitivity of 94 % and specificity of 94 %. We recommend using a saliva cotinine cutoff of 1 ng/mL to distinguish active smoking in pregnant AN women. This cutoff is lower than used in other studies with pregnant women, most likely due to high prevalence of light or intermittent smoking in the AN population. Continued study of cotinine levels in diverse populations is needed. PMID:23423858

  15. Preserving and Enhancing the Ability of Alaska Natives To Speak and Understand Their Native Languages. Report To Accompany S. 1595. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. 102d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    Testimony concerning Senate Bill 1595 includes statements submitted by Senator Daniel Inouye, from the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, and S. Timothy Wapato, Commissioner, Administration for Native Americans, Department of Health and Human Services. The bill in question aims to preserve and enhance the ability of Alaska Natives to speak and…

  16. Origin and evolutionary relationships of native Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Rothhammer, F; Llop, E; Carvallo, P; Moraga, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to explore the origin and the evolutionary relationships of native Andean populations using a multidisciplinary approach. Archeological and linguistic evidence is briefly reviewed. A genetic distance analysis among major linguistic groupings and among Andean and Amazonian native populations, together with information obtained from archaeological and linguistic sources was used to generate a migration model. It is suggested that in the late Pleistocene a group of nomadic hunters entered South America through the Isthmus of Panama and split afterwards into two groups, one moving southward into the central and south Andean areas and after crossing the Colombian, Equador and Peruvian highlands to people northwestern Argentina, the open park country of east Brazil and the Argentine Pampas. The second group migrated eastwards into Venezuela and Guyana and later southward, peopling the Brazilian Amazon. Following available waterways the Amazonian Indians expanded east and west arriving probably at the eastern slopes of the Andes some 3,500 years ago. It is hypothesized that present day Andean natives are descendants of the Amazonian groups that migrated eastwards. PMID:11443003

  17. Serious Psychological Distress and Diabetes Management among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Huyser, Kimberly R.; Manson, Spero M.; Nelson, Lonnie A.; Noonan, Carolyn; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper examined associations between serious psychological distress and blood glucose level (HbA1C) and Body Mass Index (BMI) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) participants in a cardiovascular disease prevention program. Design Using linear regression, we assessed the relationships between serious psychological distress and HbA1C and BMI at baseline and one-year later. Setting, Participants, and Intervention: AI/AN participants were 18 years or older, diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, and enrolled in the Special Diabetes Project for Indians - Healthy Heart Project. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were percentage of HbA1C and BMI, measured at enrollment and first annual exam. Both outcomes were continuous measures in all analyses. Results Serious psychological distress was associated at baseline with increased HbA1C in the unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted b=0.17%, p< 0.01). Serious psychological distress also was associated at baseline with increased BMI (0.635 kg/m2, p = 0.01) and at one-year with increased BMI (0.174 kg/m2, p = 0.01) in the unadjusted model. After adjustment for demographic and health characteristics, these relationships were no longer significant. Conclusions Cross-sectional baseline findings are consistent with existing literature. One-year findings suggest need for further inquiry into mediators of psychological distress and examination of additional diabetes-specific health outcomes. Additional years of observation may be needed to disentangle relationships between serious psychological distress and BMI. PMID:26118140

  18. Ectopic Pregnancy Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 2002–2009

    PubMed Central

    Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15–44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002–2009. We used 2002–2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15–44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15–19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35–39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1–2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women. PMID:25023759

  19. Patient and Provider Factors Associated With American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Use Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Garroutte, Eva M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading behavioral cause of death among adults 25 years or older. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and of its sequelae. Primary care–based screening of adolescents is an integral step in the reduction of tobacco use, yet remains virtually unstudied. We examined whether delivery of tobacco screening in primary care visits is associated with patient and provider characteristics among AI/AN adolescents. Methods We used a cross-sectional analysis to examine tobacco screening among 4757 adolescent AI/AN patients served by 56 primary care providers at a large tribally managed health system between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2014. Screening prevalence was examined in association with categorical patient characteristics (gender, age, clinic visited, insurance coverage) and provider characteristics (gender, age, tenure) using multilevel logistic regressions with individual provider identity as the nesting variable. Results Thirty-seven percent of eligible patients were screened. Gender of both providers and patients was associated with screening. Male providers delivered screening more often than female providers (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–3.9). Male patients had 20% lower odds of screening receipt (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) than female patients, independent of patient age and provider characteristics. Individual provider identity significantly contributed to variability in the mixed-effects model (variance component 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.4), suggesting individual provider effect. Conclusions Low tobacco screening delivery by female providers and the low receipt of screening among younger, male patients may identify targets for screening interventions. PMID:26319931

  20. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. PMID:27431046

  1. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas. PMID:26896055

  2. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13–17 years, young adults aged 18–24 years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups with high smoking prevalence or smoking risk. Using nine graphic labels, this study collected participant data in the field via an iPad-administered survey and card sorting of graphic warning labels. This paper reports on findings for AI/AN participants. Results After viewing graphic warning labels, participants rated their likelihood of talking about smoking risks to friends, parents and siblings higher than their likelihood of talking to teachers and doctors. Further, this study found that certain labels (eg, the label of the toddler in the smoke cloud) made them think about their friends and family who smoke. Conclusions Given the influence of community social networks on health beliefs and attitudes, health communication using graphic warning labels could effect change in the smoking habits of AI/AN community members. Study findings suggest that graphic labels could serve as stimuli for conversations about the risks of smoking among AI/AN community members, and could be an important element of a peer-to-peer smoking cessation effort. PMID:27009143

  3. Historical Trends and Regional Differences in All-Cause and Amenable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Since 1950

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated. PMID:24754651

  4. Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Theodore G; Dulik, Matthew C; Owings, Amanda C; Zhadanov, Sergey I; Gaieski, Jill B; Vilar, Miguel G; Ramos, Judy; Moss, Mary Beth; Natkong, Francis

    2012-07-01

    The linguistically distinctive Haida and Tlingit tribes of Southeast Alaska are known for their rich material culture, complex social organization, and elaborate ritual practices. However, much less is known about these tribes from a population genetic perspective. For this reason, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in Haida and Tlingit populations to elucidate several key issues pertaining to the history of this region. These included the genetic relationships of Haida and Tlingit to other indigenous groups in Alaska and Canada; the relationship between linguistic and genetic data for populations assigned to the Na-Dene linguistic family, specifically, the inclusion of Haida with Athapaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit in the language family; the possible influence of matrilineal clan structure on patterns of genetic variation in Haida and Tlingit populations; and the impact of European entry into the region on the genetic diversity of these indigenous communities. Our analysis indicates that, while sharing a "northern" genetic profile, the Haida and the Tlingit are genetically distinctive from each other. In addition, Tlingit groups themselves differ across their geographic range, in part due to interactions of Tlingit tribes with Athapaskan and Eyak groups to the north. The data also reveal a strong influence of maternal clan identity on mtDNA variation in these groups, as well as the significant influence of non-native males on Y-chromosome diversity. These results yield new details about the histories of the Haida and Tlingit tribes in this region. PMID:22549307

  5. Clan, Language, and Migration History Has Shaped Genetic Diversity in Haida and Tlingit Populations From Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Vilar, Miguel G.; Ramos, Judy; Moss, Mary Beth; Natkong, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The linguistically distinctive Haida and Tlingit tribes of Southeast Alaska are known for their rich material culture, complex social organization, and elaborate ritual practices. However, much less is known about these tribes from a population genetic perspective. For this reason, we analyzed mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in Haida and Tlingit populations to elucidate several key issues pertaining to the history of this region. These included the genetic relationships of Haida and Tlingit to other indigenous groups in Alaska and Canada; the relationship between linguistic and genetic data for populations assigned to the Na-Dene linguistic family, specifically, the inclusion of Haida with Athapaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit in the language family; the possible influence of matrilineal clan structure on patterns of genetic variation in Haida and Tlingit populations; and the impact of European entry into the region on the genetic diversity of these indigenous communities. Our analysis indicates that, while sharing a “northern” genetic profile, the Haida and the Tlingit are genetically distinctive from each other. In addition, Tlingit groups themselves differ across their geographic range, in part due to interactions of Tlingit tribes with Athapaskan and Eyak groups to the north. The data also reveal a strong influence of maternal clan identity on mtDNA variation in these groups, as well as the significant influence of non-native males on Y-chromosome diversity. These results yield new details about the histories of the Haida and Tlingit tribes in this region. PMID:22549307

  6. Capacity Building from the Inside Out: Development and Evaluation of a CITI Ethics Certification Training Module for American Indian and Alaska Native Community Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Parker, Myra; Fisher, Celia B.; Moreno, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Current Human Subject Research training modules fail to capture ethically relevant cultural aspects of research involving American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) community members. Applying a Community Engaged Research (CEnR) approach, we adapted the Collaborative IRB Training Initiative training module “assessing risk and benefits.” In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, followed by debriefing interviews, we evaluated module acceptability and understandability (test scores) among 40 reservation-based community members. Participants who took the adapted module, compared to those who took the standard module, reported higher scores on relevance of the material overall satisfaction, module quiz scores, and a trend toward higher self-efficacy. Implications of the efficacy of this approach for enhancing ethics training and community participation in research within AI/AN and other cultural populations within and outside the United States are discussed. PMID:24572083

  7. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives-Fiscal years 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and is not responsible for regulations or land management. Climate change is a major current issue affecting Native lives and traditions throughout the United States. Climate projections for the coming century indicate an increasing probability for more frequent and more severe droughts in the Southwest, including the Navajo Nation. Erosion has claimed Native homes in Alaska. Fish have become inedible due to diseases that turn their flesh mushy. Native people who rely on or who are culturally sustained by hunting, fishing, and using local plants are living with climate change now. The traditional knowledge of Native peoples enriches and confirms the work of USGS scientists. The results are truly synergistic-greater than the sum of their parts. Traditional ecological knowledge is respected and increasingly used in USGS studies-when the holders of that knowledge choose to share it. The USGS respects the rights of Native people to maintain their patrimony of traditional ecological knowledge. The USGS studies can help Tribes, Native organizations, and natural resource professionals manage Native lands and resources with the best available unbiased data and information that can be added to their traditional knowledge. Wise Native leaders have noted that traditional

  8. Special Populations: Migrant Students with Disabilities; Native Pacific Basin and Native Hawaiian Students with Disabilities. Appendix G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Innovation and Development.

    This appendix to the 14th annual report on implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act contains reports on progress in addressing the needs of two special populations: migrant students with disabilities and Native Pacific Basin and Native Hawaiian students with disabilities. Migrant students with disabilities tend to have…

  9. 75 FR 60780 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... education to expand their role and effectiveness in addressing community development needs in their... Partnerships administers HUD's ongoing grant programs to institutions of higher education as well as creates.../ Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities Program Funding Competition, by Institution,...

  10. Keeping our hearts from touching the ground: HIV/AIDS in American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Walters, Karina L; Beltran, Ramona; Evans-Campbell, Tessa; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-11-01

    HIV/AIDS is a critical and growing challenge to American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women's health. Conceptually guided by the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model, this paper explores the historical and contemporary factors implicated in the HIV epidemic among AIAN women and the co-occurring epidemics of sexual violence and substance abuse. The authors also outline multiple indicators of resiliency in AIAN communities and stress the need for HIV prevention interventions for AIAN women to capitalize on cultural and community strengths. PMID:22055677

  11. Denisovan Ancestry in East Eurasian and Native American Populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Although initial studies suggested that Denisovan ancestry was found only in modern human populations from island Southeast Asia and Oceania, more recent studies have suggested that Denisovan ancestry may be more widespread. However, the geographic extent of Denisovan ancestry has not been determined, and moreover the relationship between the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania and that elsewhere has not been studied. Here we analyze genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 2,493 individuals from 221 worldwide populations, and show that there is a widespread signal of a very low level of Denisovan ancestry across Eastern Eurasian and Native American (EE/NA) populations. We also verify a higher level of Denisovan ancestry in Oceania than that in EE/NA; the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania is correlated with the amount of New Guinea ancestry, but not the amount of Australian ancestry, indicating that recent gene flow from New Guinea likely accounts for signals of Denisovan ancestry across Oceania. However, Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA populations is equally correlated with their New Guinea or their Australian ancestry, suggesting a common source for the Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA and Oceanian populations. Our results suggest that Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA is derived either from common ancestry with, or gene flow from, the common ancestor of New Guineans and Australians, indicating a more complex history involving East Eurasians and Oceanians than previously suspected. PMID:26104010

  12. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  13. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska natives: incorporating culture in an "indigenist" stress-coping paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article proposes a new stress-coping model for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs) that reflects a paradigmatic shift in the conceptualization of Native health. It reviews sociodemographic information on AIs, rates of substance abuse and related health outcomes, and the research supporting the model's pathways. OBSERVATIONS: Although health outcomes among AIs are improving, large disparities with other racial and ethnic groups in the United States remain. Many health-related problems are directly linked to high rates of substance use and abuse. CONCLUSION: Eurocentric paradigms focus on individual pathology. An "indigenist" perspective of health incorporates the devastating impact of historical trauma and ongoing oppression of AIs. The model emphasizes cultural strengths, such as the family and community, spirituality and traditional healing practices, and group identity attitudes. PMID:12435834

  14. The power of protection: a population-based comparison of Native and non-Native youth suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Mackin, Juliette; Perkins, Tamara; Furrer, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    This study provides actionable information about intervening with American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth to prevent suicide. Statewide school survey data were used to model the impact of risk and protective factors on self-reported suicide attempts (both AI/AN and non-AI/AN). The cumulative risk and protective model worked similarly for both groups. AI/AN youth had a higher threshold of risk before making a suicide attempt. Protective factors buffered the impact of risk, particularly for the higher risk youth. PMID:22875471

  15. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrücken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; Damgaard, Peter de Barros; Allentoft, Morten E; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Smith, Colin I; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Posukh, Olga L; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M J; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R; Malhi, Ripan S; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D; Song, Yun S; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-08-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  16. 33 CFR 203.16 - Federally recognized Indian Tribes and the Alaska Native Corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL DISASTER PROCEDURES Introduction § 203.16 Federally recognized Indian Tribes and the Alaska...

  17. Epidemic assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention involving American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1946-2005.

    PubMed

    Cheek, James E; Hennessy, Thomas W; Redd, John T; Cobb, Nat; Bryan, Ralph T

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe 169 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention epidemic-assistance investigations involving American Indians and Alaska Natives that occurred during 1946-2005. The unique relation between the US federal government and American Indian and Alaska Native tribes is described in the context of transfer in the 1950s of responsibility for Indian health to the US Public Health Service, which at the time included the Communicable Disease Center, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's precursor. The vast majority of epidemic-assistance investigations were for infectious disease outbreaks (86%), with a relatively limited number, since 1980 only, involving environmental exposures and chronic disease. Although outbreaks investigated were often widespread geographically, the majority were limited in scope, typically involving fewer than 100 patients. Epidemic-assistance investigations for hepatitis A, gastrointestinal and foodborne infectious diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases, zoonotic and vectorborne diseases, acute respiratory tract infections, environmental exposures, and chronic diseases are described chronologically in more detail. PMID:22135397

  18. Land Claims and Native Manpower. Staffing Regional and Village Corporations under Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfeld, Judith; And Others

    An exploratory examination of the professional, technical, and clerical manpower needs of Alaskan regional and village corporations established under the Native Land Claims Settlement Act, this report recognized that critical staffing needs can only be met by carefully designed educational and training programs. The staffing demand analyses were,…

  19. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  20. A longitudinal study of tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native tribal college students

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background American Indians (AI) have the highest smoking rates of any ethnic group in the US (40.8%), followed most closely by African Americans (24.3%) and European Americans (23.6%). AI smokers also have more difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, evidenced by their significantly lower quit ratios, and are among the least successful in maintaining long term abstinence. While health disparities like these have existed for years among AI, the epidemiology of smoking and nicotine dependence has not been optimally described among this underserved population. Our overarching hypothesis is that the susceptibility of AI to cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence and its consequences has both an underlying nicotine metabolism component as well as psychosocial, cultural, and environment causes. We are well-positioned to explore this issue for the first time in this population. Our objective is to establish a cohort of AI tribal college/university students to determine the predictors of smoking initiation (non-use to experimentation), progression (experimentation to established use), and cessation (established use to cessation). Much of what is known about the process of smoking initiation and progression comes from quantitative studies with non-Native populations. Information related to smoking use among AI tribal college/university (TCU) students is entirely unknown and critically needs further investigation. This study will be the first of its kind among AI college students who are at the highest risk among all ethnic groups for tobacco dependence. Methods/design First year students at Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas will be recruited over four consecutive years and will be surveyed annually and repeatedly through year 5 of the study. We will use both longitudinal quantitative surveys and qualitative focus group methods to examine key measures and determinants of initiation and use among this high risk group. PMID:20955575

  1. Case–control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Adrianne K.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sacco, Frank D.; Varner, D. Wayne; Lanier, Anne P.; Rubin, Carol H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN) women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design A case–control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls) recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM) and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180) were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid) than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid) (p=0.04). Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16–4.05, p=0.02) and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13–5.25, p=0.02) logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER)–/progesterone receptor (PR)-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index. The

  2. Mental Health, Health, and Substance Abuse Service Needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofoot, Thomas L.; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining…

  3. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  4. An Emerging Native Language Education Framework for Reservation Public Schools with Mixed Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Phyllis Bo-yuen

    2008-01-01

    Currently, we lack a viable indigenous language education framework for reservation public schools with mixed Native and non-Native student populations. Can stakeholders holding different and often conflicting points of view agree to accept and nurture Native language education programs in the public school arena? In search of a workable framework…

  5. National Indian Education Study 2011: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-466

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES was administered in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 as part of the National…

  6. 13 CFR 124.109 - Do Indian tribes and Alaska Native Corporations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Do Indian tribes and Alaska Native Corporations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.109 Section 124.109 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  7. NCADI's 1995 National Directory of Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Programs That Have a Special Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Rebecca, Comp.; Schacht, Robert M., Comp.

    This state-by-state directory lists over 500 alcohol and drug abuse treatment and prevention services that target American Indians and Alaska Natives. The directory was compiled from the website of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Their home page on the Internet is located at http://www.health.org/index.htm. The…

  8. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, Perceptions of Risk, HIV Testing, and Exposure to Prevention Messages and Methods among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidus, Jodi A.; Bertolli, Jeanne; McGowan, Karen; Sullivan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe HIV risk behaviors, perceptions, testing, and prevention exposure among urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Interviewers administered a questionnaire to participants recruited through anonymous peer-referral sampling. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to compare HIV…

  9. Unpacking the Placement of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Special Education Programs and Services in the Early Grades: School Readiness as a Predictive Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Jacob; Faircloth, Susan C.; Farkas, George

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Jacob Hibel, Susan Faircloth, and George Farkas investigate the persistent finding that American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students are overrepresented in special education. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, the authors compare the third-grade special education placement rate…

  10. "It Runs in the Family": Intergenerational Transmission of Historical Trauma among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives in Culturally Specific Sobriety Maintenance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhra, Laurelle L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study, which was informed by ethnographic principles, was to better understand the intergenerational transmission of historical trauma among urban American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in culturally specific sobriety maintenance programs. The results of the study were organized into 3 overarching categories, which…

  11. A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

  12. Problems of Definition of Tribe in Alaska Relating to Public Law 93-638. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, 94th Congress, 2nd Session on Problems Associated with the Statutory Definitions of Tribe as They Relate to Native Alaskans (Juneau, Alaska, September 2, 1976; Anchorage, Alaska, September 3, 1976; Bethel, Alaska, September 4, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Testimony presented in these hearings centers on the legal problems derived from the many and varied statutory definitions of "tribe" and the resulting confusion on the part of the administrators of Federal programs designed to benefit American Indians and Alaska Natives (e.g., in Alaska, there are currently about 465 legal entities which may be…

  13. 42 CFR 600.160 - Protections for American Indian and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under 45 CFR 155.420(d)(8). Indians will be allowed to enroll in, or change enrollment in, standard... CFR 156.430(g), BHP offerors may not reduce the payment for services to Indian health providers by the... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protections for American Indian and Alaska...

  14. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska. Bulletin, 1923, No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William

    1923-01-01

    The administration of the work of the Bureau of Education in Alaska involves great difficulties, arising principally from the remoteness of most of the schools, the enormous distances between the schools, the meager means of communication, and the severity of the climate. In addition to maintaining schools for the children belonging to the…

  15. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Potyvirus Isolated from Native Larkspur (Delpinium glaucum) in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delphinium glaucum (larckspur) plants at the Georgeson Botanical Garden in Fairbanks, Alaska displayed leaf vein-clearing and chlorotic mosaic in 2000, and by 2008, were severely stunted. Purified preparations and leaf dips examined by electron microscopy contained many flexuous filamentous particle...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Yup'ik Eskimos: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its defining components among Yup’ik Eskimos. Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional study design that included 710 adult Yup’ik Eskimos 18 years of age residing in 8 communities in Southwest Alaska. The prevale...

  17. Genetic diversity and structure of native and non-native populations of the endangered plant Pinus dabeshanensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Wang, H; Chen, W; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a severe decline in its abundance, Pinus dabeshanensis has been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Although several restoration events have been undertaken since the 1960s, the natural population genetic structure of this species remains to be investigated. Herein, we examined the level of genetic diversity and structure of two native and two non-native populations using 10 microsatellite loci. A relatively high level of genetic variation (HO = 0.586 ± 0.039) and a low level of population differentiation (FST = 0.016 ± 0.011) were revealed. For forensic investigation, an assignment test was performed. To better understand the genetic differentiation between the native and non-native populations, the individuals in the transplanted and cultivated populations may have derived from populations that were not surveyed in this study. In light of our results, we discuss the real problems faced by all four populations and provide useful information for management decision-making. PMID:27323170

  18. Statistical Record of Native North Americans. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Marlita A., Ed.

    This book compiles statistical data on Native North American populations, including Alaska and Canada Natives. Data sources include federal and state agencies, census records, tribal governments, associations, and other organizations. The book includes statistics on Native North Americans as compared with other racial and ethnic groups under…

  19. Cultural Identity, Multicultural Competence and Resilience: A Pilot Study of Alaska Native Students' Experience at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Burke, Tracey Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and university administrators have noted significant disparities in the rates at which Native students graduate from college in a timely manner relative to students from other racial/ethnic groups. It has been posited that this is because in order to succeed, Native students must negotiate the contradictory values of Western and Native…

  20. The American Indian and Alaska Native Student's Guide to College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael; Inglebret, Ella

    2007-01-01

    This book will help Native people clarify their postsecondary aspirations, improve their college choice, and increase their success in college. After a thorough examination of the issues that should be considered, the authors present the different types of colleges available, programs and services to meet the special needs of Native students, and…

  1. American Indians and Alaska Natives in Higher Education: Research on Participation and Graduation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, D. Michael

    Achieving equity in the number of American Indian and Alaskan Native students who enter college and subsequently graduate is important to Natives and to the nation as a whole. Based on institutional data and demographic data, state equity scores for enrollment (ESEs) and state equity scores for graduation (ESGs) were computed for seven states with…

  2. Creating a path: American Indian/Alaska Native high school students pursuing college and a career in nursing.

    PubMed

    Katz, Janet R; Smart, Denise; Paul, Robbie Nez Perce

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative descriptive pre- and post-survey study was to analyze four years of data documenting differences in pre- and post-test responses by American Indian/Alaska Native high school students attending a weeklong residency program. The program was designed to provide information and role models to motivate students to go to college and pursue a career in nursing. The survey measured student perceptions of college and nursing. In addition, the analysis included comparisons of responses between students who lived on reservations and those who did not. Results demonstrated that students changed their views of nursing as a profession, how they would be perceived by their tribe, and the financial security they could gain. Students living on their reservations were concerned that college might be too far from home. Recommendations include the need to provide indigenous students with role models and accurate information as well as mentors to support them. PMID:20678078

  3. Patterns of Clinical Response to PSA Elevation in American Indian/Alaska Native Men: A Multi-center Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilburt, Jon C.; Koller, Kathryn; Tiesinga, James J.; Wilson, Robin T.; Trinh, Anne C.; Hill, Kristin; Hall, Ingrid J.; Smith, Judith Lee; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Petersen, Wesley O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess clinical treatment patterns and response times among American Indian/Alaska Native men with a newly elevated PSA. Methods We retrospectively identified men ages 50–80 receiving care in one of three tribally-operated clinics in Northern Minnesota, one medical center in Alaska, and who had an incident PSA elevation (≥ 4 ng/ml) in a specified time period. A clinical response was considered timely if it was documented as occurring within 90 days of the incident PSA elevation. Results Among 82 AI/AN men identified from medical records with an incident PSA elevation, 49 (60%) received a timely clinical response, while 18 (22%) had no documented clinical response. Conclusions One in five AI/AN men in our study had no documented clinical action following an incident PSA elevation. Although a pilot study, these findings suggest the need to improve the documentation, notification, and care following an elevated PSA at clinics serving AI/AN men. PMID:24185163

  4. Guideline concordant detection and management of depression among Alaska Native and American Indian people in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Norman, Sara M.; Manson, Spero M.; Dillard, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A tribal health organization in Alaska implemented a primary care depression screening, detection and management initiative amongst 55,000 Alaska Native/American Indian people (AN/AIs). Objectives (a) To describe the proportion of AN/AIs screening positive for depression with depression noted or diagnosed and proportion with guideline concordant management and (b) to assess whether management varied by patient and provider factors. Research design Secondary analysis of electronic and paper medical record information of 400 AN/AIs. Measures Provider variables, patient demographics and patient clinical factors were electronically queried. Manual chart audits assessed depression notation, diagnoses and management within 12 weeks of positive screening. Multilevel ordinal logistic modelling assessed management by patient and provider factors. Results A depression diagnosis was present in 141 (35%) charts and 151 (38%) had depressive symptoms noted. Detection was higher among AN/AIs with moderate and severe depression (p<0.001). In total, 258 patients (66%) received guideline concordant management, 32 (8%) had some management, and 110 (28%) received no management. Younger patient age and increased provider tenure increased odds of management. Conclusions Most AN/AIs screening positive for depression received initial guideline concordant management. Additional outreach to older patients and additional support for providers newer to practices appears warranted. PMID:26519359

  5. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  6. Specificity of extrafloral nectar induction by herbivores differs among native and invasive populations of tallow tree

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Carrillo, Juli; Siemann, Evan; Wheeler, Gregory S.; Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xue; Ding, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Invasive plants can be released from specialist herbivores and encounter novel generalists in their introduced ranges, leading to variation in defence among native and invasive populations. However, few studies have examined how constitutive and induced indirect defences change during plant invasion, especially during the juvenile stage. Methods Constitutive extrafloral nectar (EFN) production of native and invasive populations of juvenile tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were compared, and leaf clipping, and damage by a native specialist (Noctuid) and two native generalist caterpillars (Noctuid and Limacodid) were used to examine inducible EFN production. Key results Plants from introduced populations had more leaves producing constitutive EFN than did native populations, but the content of soluble solids of EFN did not differ. Herbivores induced EFN production more than simulated herbivory. The specialist (Noctuid) induced more EFN than either generalist for native populations. The content of soluble solids in EFN was higher (2·1 times), with the specialist vs. the generalists causing the stronger response for native populations, but the specialist response was always comparable with the generalist responses for invasive populations. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutive and induced indirect defences are retained in juvenile plants of invasive populations even during plant establishment, perhaps due to generalist herbivory in the introduced range. However, responses specific to a specialist herbivore may be reduced in the introduced range where specialists are absent. This decreased defence may benefit specialist insects that are introduced for classical biological control of invasive plants. PMID:23761685

  7. Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, James H.; Manson, Spero M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the differences between Western and indigenous concepts of depression. Describes several culture-specific Indian depression syndromes. Notes the rising incidence of Native behavior. Describes several theories of depression etiology. Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines Road, Portland, Oregon 97201.…

  8. Using Literature by American Indians and Alaska Natives in Secondary Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes; Gillespie, LaVina

    Literature is a powerful vehicle for the transmission and interpretation of culture. Reading a variety of literature helps students to understand the principles underpinning values and traditions of their own culture and the cultures of others. Studying the myths, legends, and songs of traditional Native literature helps readers understand…

  9. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  10. Umyuangcaryaraq “Reflecting”: Multidimensional Assessment of Reflective Processes on the Consequences of Alcohol Use among Rural Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Skewes, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Concerns in some settings regarding the accuracy and ethics of employing direct questions about alcohol use suggest need for alternative assessment approaches with youth. Umyuangcaryaraq is a Yup’ik Alaska Native word meaning “Reflecting.” The Reflective Processes Scale is a youth measure tapping awareness and thinking over potential negative consequences of alcohol misuse as a protective factor that includes cultural elements often shared by many other Alaska Native and American Indian cultures. A bifactor model of the scale items with three content factors provided excellent fit to observed data. Item response theory analysis suggested a binary response format as optimal. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity is presented. PMID:22931081

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives - Fiscal Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities.

  12. Aerial videography for estimating goose populations staging in Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.M.; Stehn, R.A.; Anderson, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted experimental photographic surveys of black brant and Canada geese in a pre-migration staging area on the Alaska Peninsula to compare precision and efficiency of this technique to currently employed ocular estimates. Video and digital cameras sensitive to near infrared and visible radiation were tested at various altitudes and with lenses of different focal length. Using information from these tests, we constructed an artifical population of geese to determine sampling effort and efficiency of the technique.

  13. Using GIS in a first national mapping of functional disability among older American Indians and Alaska natives from the 2000 census

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Margaret P; Schell, Matthew C; Goins, R Turner

    2006-01-01

    Background Geographical information systems (GIS) have been used mainly in understanding infectious diseases and environmental threats in health research. Here, GIS was used to examine patterns of functional disability as one impact of chronic disease in American Indians and Alaska Natives. The study purpose was to create the first national mapping of functional disability for AIANs using the 2000 U.S. Census. Results American Indians and Alaska Natives over age 65 reported disability at a rate of 57.6% versus 41.9% for all people over 65 (P ≤ 0.0001). Regional differences in levels and type of disability were evident. Conclusion Maps help visualize those who might otherwise be 'lost' from the data. The significance of this study is that gerontologic programs and policies are data-driven, yet there is a lack of reliable national level data from US health systems on functional disability among American Indians and Alaska Natives. One study limitation was that Census questions regarding disability differed from traditional measures of activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. An immediate policy recommendation would be to incorporate standard activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living language into future Census for a comprehensive, linked database for the future. PMID:16948854

  14. Obesity, Diabetes, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Native Populations of South America.

    PubMed

    Ingaramo, Roberto A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. In South America, the native population comprises a great number of different ethnic groups. The cardiovascular risk factors observed in these groups have proved similar to and even higher than those found in general non-native populations. Relatively recent epidemiologic information reveals that many native communities have healthy habits with low prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, while their prevalence is higher in those who have kept close contact with non-native populations and have westernized their habits. The differences in the presence of risk factors in these populations have been explained as the result of several interacting factors including genetic to environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural causes. PMID:26780771

  15. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…

  16. Genetic variation in native and introduced populations of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic analysis of both native and introduced populations of invasive species can be used to examine population origins and spread. Accurate delineation of an invasive species’ source populations can contribute to the search for specific and effective biological control agents. Medusahead, Taenia...

  17. Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2007-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute, began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. The student body is approximately 94 percent Alaska Native. RAHI students take classes that earn them seven to ten college credits, thus giving them a head start on college. Courses include: writing, study skills, desk top publishing, Alaska Native dance or swimming, and a choice of geoscience, biochemistry, math, business, rural development, or engineering. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities to make up the RAHI program of early preparation for college. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. They are treated as honors students and are expected to meet all rigorous academic and social standards set by the program. All of this effort and activity support the principal goal of RAHI: promoting academic success for rural students in college. Over 25 years, 1,200 students have attended the program. Sixty percent of the RAHI alumni have entered four-year academic programs. Over 230 have earned a bachelors degree, twenty-nine have earned masters degrees, and seven have graduated with professional degrees (J.D., Ph.D., or M.D.), along with 110 associate degrees and certificates. In looking at the RAHI cohort, removing those students who have not been in college long enough to obtain a degree, 27.3 percent of RAHI alums have received a bachelors degree. An April 2006 report by the American Institutes for Research through the National Science Foundation found that: Rural Native students in the

  18. Building Native Nations through Native Student's Commitment to Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of building Native nations entails motivating American Indian/Alaska Native youth to become committed to their communities so as to sustain and move forward with the goals of American Indian/Alaska Native nations. This study determined the impact of one Native American Studies department on its Native students' life goals. Through its…

  19. Abuse, Mastery, and Health Among Lesbian, Bisexual, and Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or “two-spirit” appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women. PMID:19594256

  20. Design of a behavioral health program for urban American Indian/Alaska Native youths: a community informed approach.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L

    2011-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) urban youths experience significant mental health and substance use problems. However, culturally relevant treatment approaches that incorporate community perspectives within the urban setting are limited. This study analyzes community perspectives from AI/AN parents, AI/AN youths, and services providers within Los Angeles County. Information gathered was utilized to develop a needs assessment for AI/AN youths with mental health and substance use problems and to design a community-informed treatment approach. Nine focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. The Los Angeles County community strongly expressed the need for providing urban AI/AN youths with traditional healing services and cultural activities within their treatment program. However, various barriers to accessing mental health and substance abuse treatment services were identified. An integrated treatment approach was subsequently designed as a result of input derived from community perspectives. The community believed that providing urban AI/AN youths with an integrated treatment approach has the potential to decrease the risk of mental health and substance abuse problems in addition to enhancing their cultural identity and self esteem. PMID:22400466

  1. A CAUTIONARY TALE: RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES AMONG URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  2. Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M

    2009-07-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women. PMID:19594256

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Edward J.; Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A.; Gutilla, Margaret J.; Knepper, Stephanie L.; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  4. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    PubMed

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  5. A cautionary tale: risk reduction strategies among urban American Indian/Alaska Native men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M

    2013-02-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  6. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species. PMID:26354937

  7. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

  8. Reindeer introgression and the population genetics of caribou in southwestern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Colson, Kevin E; Mager, Karen H; Hundertmark, Kris J

    2014-01-01

    Alaska caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in southwestern Alaska are a poorly understood system, with differing descriptions of their regional population structure, population abundance that has varied greatly through time and instances of the release of domestic reindeer (R. t. tarandus) into their range. Here, we use 21 microsatellites and 297 individuals to investigate the genetic population structure of herds and examine for population bottlenecks. Then, using genetic characteristics of existing reindeer populations, we examine introgression into the wild caribou populations. Caribou of the area are genetically diverse (H E between 0.69 and 0.84), with diversity decreasing along the Alaska Peninsula (AP). Using G ST and Jost's D, we find extensive structuring among all herds; Migrate-n finds that AP herds share few effective migrants with other herds, with Southern AP and Unimak Island herds having the least. Bayesian clustering techniques are able to resolve all but Denali and Mulchatna caribou herds. Using a conservative assignment threshold of q reindeer ≥ 0.2, 3% of caribou show signs of domestic introgression. Denali herd has the most introgressed individuals (6.9%); those caribou herds that were historically adjacent to smaller reindeer herds, or were historically without adjacent herding, show no admixture. This domestic introgression persists despite the lack of managed reindeer in the region since the 1940s. Our results suggest that despite previous movement data indicating metapopulation-like dispersal in this region, there may be unknown barriers to reproduction by dispersing individuals. Finally, our results support findings that wild and domestic Rangifer can hybridize and show this introgression may persist dozens of generations after domestics are no longer present. PMID:24842565

  9. Population size and trend of Yellow-billed Loons in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Stehn, R.A.; Platte, Robert; Larned, W.W.; Mallek, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii) is of conservation concern due to its restricted range, small population size, specific habitat requirements, and perceived threats to its breeding and wintering habitat. Within the U.S., this species breeds almost entirely within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, nearly all of which is open, or proposed to be opened, for oil development. Rigorous estimates of Yellow-billed Loon population size and trend are lacking but essential for informed conservation. We used two annual aerial waterfowl surveys, conducted 1986a??2003 and 1992a??2003, to estimate population size and trend on northern Alaskan breeding grounds. In estimating population trend, we used mixed-effects regression models to reduce bias and sampling error associated with improvement in observer skill and annual effects of spring phenology. The estimated population trend on Alaskan breeding grounds since 1986 was near 0 with an estimated annual change of a??0.9% (95% CI of a??3.6% to +1.8%). The estimated population size, averaged over the past 12 years and adjusted by a correction factor based on an intensive, lake-circling, aerial survey method, was 2221 individuals (95% CI of 1206a??3235) in early June and 3369 individuals (95% CI of 1910a??4828) in late June. Based on estimates from other studies of the proportion of loons nesting in a given year, it is likely that <1000 nesting pairs inhabit northern Alaska in most years. The highest concentration of Yellow-billed Loons occurred between the Meade and Ikpikpuk Rivers; and across all of northern Alaska, 53% of recorded sightings occurred within 12% of the area.

  10. Native American population data based on the Globalfiler(®) autosomal STR loci.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Viray, Joy; Budowle, Bruce; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2016-09-01

    Native American population data are limited and thus impact computing accurate statistical parameters for forensic investigations. Thus, additional information should be generated from geographically representative tribes in North America, particularly from those that are not included in existing population databases for forensic use. The Globafiler(®) PCR Amplification kit was used to produce STR genotypic data for 533 individuals who represent 31 Native American tribal populations derived from eight geographically diverse regions in North America. Population genetic estimates from 21 autosomal STRs are reported. PMID:27421760

  11. Herbivores mediate different competitive and facilitative responses of native and invader populations of Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Strauss, Sharon Y; García, Yedra; Cascales, Modesto Berbel; Gómez, José M

    2013-10-01

    Differences in plant and herbivore community assemblages between exotic and native ranges may select for different levels of plant traits in invasive and native populations of plant species. Little is currently known of how herbivores may mediate competitive and facilitative interactions between invasive and native populations of plant species and their plant neighbors. Here, we conducted a common-garden field experiment to test whether invasive and native populations of Brassica nigra differ in phenotypic expressions of growth (biomass and plant height) and reproductive (seed yield) traits under different plant neighbor treatments and ambient vs. reduced level of insect herbivore damage on the B. nigra plants. We found significant interactive effects of plant neighbor treatments, level of insect herbivore damage on B. nigra plants, and invasive status of B. nigra on the phenotypic trait expressions. Plant neighbor treatments had minimal effects on phenotypic trait expressions by invasive populations of B. nigra under either level of insect herbivore damage. In contrast, for native populations of B. nigra, ambient level of insect herbivore damage resulted in plant neighbors facilitating expression of the traits above, while reduced damage resulted in plant neighbors competitively suppressing trait expression. Our results suggest that insect herbivores and plant neighbors interactively shape expression of plant traits in native and exotic ranges of invasive plants. Such interactions could potentially lead to different selection pressures on traits that determine antiherbivore defenses and plant-plant interactions. PMID:24358714

  12. Genetic characterization of native and invasive Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) populations in Brazilian hydrographic basins.

    PubMed

    Panarari-Antunes, R S; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Júlio, H F; Oliveira, A V; Agostinho, C S; Silva Filho, J P; Prioli, L M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of invasive and native populations of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) from the Paraná, Parnaiba and Araguaia-Tocantins river basins was assessed by using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Genetic data confirmed the hypothesis of low genetic variability within and among P. squamosissimus populations introduced in the upper Paraná River basin, and indicated that they likely originated from a common ancestor. Moreover, the data demonstrated that, in agreement with available historical records, the P. squamosissimus populations established in the Paraná River basin were derived from a population native to the Parnaíba River basin. The genetic data presented here are of potential future application for the management of the invasive P. squamosissimus populations and for the preservation of the genetic legacy of native fish. PMID:26600490

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for HIV/AIDS in Native Americans: Implications for Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mary Kate

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has steadily increased in Native American and Alaska Native populations, and despite efforts at control many challenges remain. This article examines historical, biological, social, and behavioral cofactors related to the spread of HIV/AIDS within the context of Native American culture. Special attention is given to vulnerable subgroups…

  14. Commonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake; Blum, Michael J.; Clayton, Murray K.; Hain, Ernie F.; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D.; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies. PMID:24194883

  15. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies. PMID:24194883

  16. Comparison of native and introduced flathead catfish populations in Alabama and Georgia: Growth, mortality, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.; Jolley, J.C.; Harrison, D.

    2006-01-01

    We compared growth of flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris from two native populations in Alabama (Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers) and two introduced populations in Georgia (Ocmulgee and Satilla rivers). We also compared mortality rates and potential outcomes of various management regimes (minimum length limits [MLLs]) among the populations. Total length-log10(age) regression slopes for introduced fish were higher than those for native fish, and von Bertalanffy growth coefficients (K) were greater for introduced fish (Ocmulgee: 0.195; Satilla: 0.201) than for native individuals (Coosa: 0.057; Tallapoosa: 0.059). Therefore, introduced flathead catfish grew more rapidly than those in their native range. Mortality (instantaneous mortality rate, Z) was higher in the Satilla River population (Z = -0.602) than in the Ocmulgee River (Z = -0.227) and Coosa River (Z = -0.156) populations. However, fish in the Satilla River population had been introduced for only 10 years and presumably did not reach their theoretical maximum age, potentially biasing the mortality estimate for that population. Simulation of management regimes in Fishery Analyses and Simulation Tools software predicted that maximum biomass of flathead catfish in the Ocmulgee (1,668 kg) and Satilla (1,137 kg) rivers was substantially larger than that in the Coosa (873 kg) and Tallapoosa (768 kg) populations. However, increased exploitation rates in the Ocmulgee and Satilla River populations resulted in dramatic declines in overall biomass, especially at lower MLLs (254 and 356 mm, respectively). Therefore, in systems where introduced flathead catfish represent an important recreational fishery but have dramatically reduced the abundance of native fishes through predation, minimal protection is recommended. We contend that rapid growth of introduced flathead catfish has major implications for their management and the conservation of native fishes. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. Divergence Effect at Alaska's Treelines a Result of Sub-Population Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmking, M.; Singh, J.

    2007-12-01

    The "divergence effect" (off-set between tree-ring based temperature reconstruction and measured temperatures) in northern forest poses a serious question to tree-ring based climate reconstructions, since it seems to violate the uniformitarian principle of dendroclimatology. Several possible reasons emerge, among them false assumptions about 1) climate data (e.g. which climate parameter can be modeled most effectively), 2) tree-ring data (e.g. shift in climate sensitivity of tree growth) or 3) a truly new and unprecedented phenomenon (e.g. rapid climate warming exceeding the adaptive capacity of trees). Here we test, if undetected emergent sub-population behavior at Alaska's treelines might result in a divergence effect. We reanalyzed seven data sets spanning the entire northern treeline in the Brooks Range, Alaska, which showed populations of trees responding positively, non-significant and negatively to recent warming. There is no effect of standardization (i.e. conventional versus RCS) technique on the grouping and we thus used RCS for the following analysis. Without grouping into sub- populations, a clear divergence between tree-ring based temperature reconstruction and actual climate data emerged. However, if only those trees were used for the climate reconstruction, which showed a consistent positive response to the target temperatures (June/July), tree growth modeled climate data extremely well following the rise in temperature during the last decades (actual climate data 0.53°/decade versus tree-ring based reconstruction 0.44°/decade over 1970-2000 period). This result hints at the possibility that some of the reported divergence might be eliminated (at least at Alaska's treelines) through careful test of sub-population behavior.

  18. Feasibility of a Community Intervention for the Prevention of Suicide and Alcohol Abuse with Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth: The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-01-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research (CBPR) process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30–.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial. PMID:24952248

  19. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    PubMed

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial. PMID:24952248

  20. Teachers, Tundra, and Talking Circles: Learning History and Culture in an Alaska Native Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser

    2005-01-01

    What teachers know about their subject-matter and how to teach it has become increasingly important as states continue to expect more rigorous learning outcomes for K-12 students--even more so when we consider that they must teach this content to an increasingly diverse student population. This article reports the findings from a four-year case…

  1. How Schools Can Help Heal American Indian and Alaska Native Communities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Don Trent

    Historical trauma may be a significant cause of the well-documented disparities between the health of American Indians and the general population. The inability to resolve past injustices against American Indians may continue to have health consequences as long as this history continues to repeat itself. Schools can play a role in healing American…

  2. Genetic differentiation in life-history traits of introduced and native common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, K A; Rieseberg, L

    2011-12-01

    Introduced species represent opportunities to observe evolution over contemporary time scales, and as exotics encounter new environments, adaptive responses can occur, potentially contributing to invasion. Here, we compare 22 native North American populations and 12 introduced European populations of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in five common gardens (control, herbivory, light stress, nutrient stress and drought). We found evidence for improved growth and reproduction of the introduced populations in most environments, particularly in the light stress. However, under drought conditions, the introduced plants experienced more rapid wilting and mortality than their native counterparts, evidence consistent with a life-history trade-off between rapid growth and drought tolerance. Moreover, we found parallel latitudinal clines in flowering time and correlations between fitness components and the local climate of the source populations in both ranges. Together these data provide evidence for adaptation to local environmental conditions in the native and introduced range of common ragweed. PMID:22023052

  3. Morphological variability of black bullhead Ameiurus melas in four non-native European populations.

    PubMed

    Novomeská, A; Katina, S; Copp, G H; Pedicillo, G; Lorenzoni, M; Pompei, L; Cucherousset, J; Kováč, V

    2013-04-01

    External morphology in black bullhead Ameiurus melas, a fish species considered to have high invasive potential, was studied in its four non-native European populations (British, French, Italian and Slovak). The aim of this study was to examine this species' variability in external morphology, including ontogenetic context, and to evaluate its invasive potential. Specimens from all non-native populations reached smaller body size compared to individuals from native populations. Juvenile A. melas were found to have a relatively uniform body shape regardless of the population's origin, whereas adults developed different phenotypes depending upon location. Specimens from the U.K., Slovak and French populations appeared to be rather similar to each other, whereas the Italian population showed the most distant phenotype. This probably results from the different thermal regime in the Italian habitat. Ameiurus melas from non-native European populations examined in this study showed some potential to alter the body shape both within and between populations. The phenotypic plasticity of A. melas, however, was not found to be as significant as in other invasive fish species. The results suggest that morphological variability itself is not necessarily essential for invasive success. The invasiveness of A. melas is therefore probably favoured by variations in its life-history traits and reproduction variables, together with some behavioural traits (e.g. voracious feeding and parental care) rather than by phenotypic plasticity expressed in external morphology. PMID:23557294

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0-17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6-29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  6. High Natality Rates of Endangered Steller Sea Lions in Kenai Fjords, Alaska and Perceptions of Population Status in the Gulf of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, John M.; Springer, Alan M.; Parker, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Steller sea lions experienced a dramatic population collapse of more than 80% in the late 1970s through the 1990s across their western range in Alaska. One of several competing hypotheses about the cause holds that reduced female reproductive rates (natality) substantively contributed to the decline and continue to limit recovery in the Gulf of Alaska despite the fact that there have been very few attempts to directly measure natality in this species. We conducted a longitudinal study of natality among individual Steller sea lions (n = 151) at a rookery and nearby haulouts in Kenai Fjords, Gulf of Alaska during 2003–2009. Multi-state models were built and tested in Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. The models that most closely fit the data suggested that females which gave birth had a higher probability of surviving and giving birth in the following year compared to females that did not give birth, indicating some females are more fit than others. Natality, estimated at 69%, was similar to natality for Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska prior to their decline (67%) and much greater than the published estimate for the 2000s (43%) which was hypothesized from an inferential population dynamic model. Reasons for the disparity are discussed, and could be resolved by additional longitudinal estimates of natality at this and other rookeries over changing ocean climate regimes. Such estimates would provide an appropriate assessment of a key parameter of population dynamics in this endangered species which has heretofore been lacking. Without support for depressed natality as the explanation for a lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska, alternative hypotheses must be more seriously considered. PMID:20386691

  7. High natality rates of endangered Steller sea lions in Kenai Fjords, Alaska and perceptions of population status in the Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Steller sea lions experienced a dramatic population collapse of more than 80% in the late 1970s through the 1990s across their western range in Alaska. One of several competing hypotheses about the cause holds that reduced female reproductive rates (natality) substantively contributed to the decline and continue to limit recovery in the Gulf of Alaska despite the fact that there have been very few attempts to directly measure natality in this species. We conducted a longitudinal study of natality among individual Steller sea lions (n = 151) at a rookery and nearby haulouts in Kenai Fjords, Gulf of Alaska during 2003-2009. Multi-state models were built and tested in Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. The models that most closely fit the data suggested that females which gave birth had a higher probability of surviving and giving birth in the following year compared to females that did not give birth, indicating some females are more fit than others. Natality, estimated at 69%, was similar to natality for Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska prior to their decline (67%) and much greater than the published estimate for the 2000s (43%) which was hypothesized from an inferential population dynamic model. Reasons for the disparity are discussed, and could be resolved by additional longitudinal estimates of natality at this and other rookeries over changing ocean climate regimes. Such estimates would provide an appropriate assessment of a key parameter of population dynamics in this endangered species which has heretofore been lacking. Without support for depressed natality as the explanation for a lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska, alternative hypotheses must be more seriously considered. PMID:20386691

  8. Differences in aggression, activity and boldness between native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pintor, L.M.; Sih, A.; Bauer, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/ boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  9. Alcohol/Drug Exposure, HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Evidence from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Ebama, Malembe S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Migration of the native populations from reservations to the urban areas has resulted in mixed ethnicities of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN) children. Minority youth require special attention and services in urban schools as they disproportionately experience poverty, low educational attainment, unemployment, and single-parent…

  10. Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Kremen, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, restoration within farms could enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination by native pollinators. Although governments and conservation groups are promoting small-scale restoration on working farms, there are few studies that assess whether these practices enhance pollinator communities in restored areas. Further, there is no information on whether floral enhancements will deplete pollinators in adjacent fields by concentrating ambient populations or whether they result in a net increase in abundance in adjacent farm fields. We investigated whether field edges restored with native perennial plants in California's Central Valley agricultural region increased floral abundance and potential bee nesting sites, and native bee and syrphid fly abundance and diversity, in comparison to relatively unmanaged edges. Native bees and syrphid flies collected from flowers were more abundant, species-rich, and diverse at hedgerow sites than in weedy, unmanaged edges. Abundance of bees collected passively in pan traps was negatively correlated with floral abundance, was significantly different from communities captured by net sampling from flowers, and did not distinguish between site types; we therefore focused on the results of net samples and visual observations. Uncommon species of native bees were sevenfold more abundant on hedgerow flowers than on flowers at weedy, unmanaged edges. Of the species on flowers at hedgerows, 40% were exclusive to hedgerow sites, but there were no species exclusively found on flowers at control sites. Hedgerows were especially important for supporting less-common species of native bees in our intensive agricultural landscape. Hedgerows did not concentrate ambient native bee, honey bee, or syphid fly populations, and they acted as net exporters of native bees into adjacent fields. Within-farm habitat restoration such as hedgerow creation may be essential for enhancing native pollinator

  11. The Indian Health Service approach to alcoholism among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, E R; Mason, R D; Eddy, P; Smith, E M; Burns, T R

    1988-01-01

    The transfer to the Indian Health Service (IHS) of 158 alcohol treatment programs that had been administered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism began in 1978. Today, approximately 300 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs offer services to American Indians, among them primary residential treatment, halfway houses, outreach, and aftercare. This system provides a national network upon which additional activities may be established. Along with increasing its attention to health promotion and disease prevention, the IHS has moved toward the prevention of alcoholism. A variety of preventive programs are in place that emphasize improved self-image, value and attitude clarification, decision-making, and physical and emotional effects of alcohol and substance abuse. Many begin as Head Start programs and continue through adulthood. In 1986, after consulting with both academic and tribal experts, the IHS devised a strategic plan for alcoholism control that stresses comprehensive care and prevention activities; it serves as a guide for further program development. The Secretary of Health and Human Services created a Task Force on Indian Alcoholism in 1986 to serve as a coordinating body for activities carried out by the IHS and other agencies and units of the Department. Passage of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act in 1986 added resources for the development of adolescent treatment centers and, more importantly, for community-based pre- and post-residential care for youths and their families. Concomitant with these initiatives have been several instances of increased attention by various tribes to the problem of alcoholism. The IHS strategic plan, together with the Secretary's initiative, the Anti-Drug Act, and tribal actions, has added substantial momentum to efforts directed at controlling alcoholism among American Indians. Although the mortality rate from alcoholism is about four times greater for the American Indian population than for the entire U

  12. Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact.

    PubMed

    O'Fallon, Brendan D; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2011-12-20

    The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans. PMID:22143784

  13. Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Brendan D.; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans. PMID:22143784

  14. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  15. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  16. Improving Firearm Storage in Alaska Native Villages: A Randomized Trial of Household Gun Cabinets

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Helen A.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Hill, Ryan; Retzer, Kyla D.; Jones, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined if the installation of gun cabinets improved household firearm storage practices. Methods. We used a wait list, randomized trial design with 2 groups. The “early” group received the intervention at baseline, and the “late” group received it at 12 months. Up to 2 gun cabinets were installed in each enrolled home, along with safety messages. In-person surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months to determine the proportion of households reporting unlocked guns or ammunition. Direct observations of unlocked guns were also compared. Results. At baseline, 93% of homes reported having at least 1 unlocked gun in the home, and 89% reported unlocked ammunition. At 12 months, 35% of homes in the early group reported unlocked guns compared with 89% in the late group (P < .001). Thirty-six percent of the early homes reported unlocked ammunition compared with 84% of late homes (P < .001). The prevalence of these storage practices was maintained at 18 months. Observations of unlocked guns decreased significantly (from 20% to 8%) between groups (P < .03). Conclusions. Gun cabinet installation in rural Alaskan households improved the storage of guns and ammunition. If these gains are sustained over time, it may lead to a reduction in gun-related injuries and deaths in this population. PMID:22401514

  17. "I'm in this world for a reason": Resilience and recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native two-spirit women.

    PubMed

    Elm, Jessica H L; Lewis, Jordan P; Walters, Karina L; Self, Jen M

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native sexual minority (two-spirit) women are vulnerable to substance misuse and mental health challenges due to multiple minority oppressed status and exposure to stress and trauma. Yet, these women find pathways toward healing and wellness. We conducted a qualitative data analysis of interviews derived from a national health study and gained an understanding of 11 two-spirit women's resilience and recovery patterns. Emergent from the data, a braided resiliency framework was developed which elucidates multilayered abilities, processes, and resources involved in their resiliency. We recommend that resilience-promoting strategies be incorporated into substance misuse and mental health interventions. PMID:27254761

  18. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  19. Longitudinal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Respiratory Bacteria in Indigenous Australian and Alaska Native Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79) and Alaska (n = 41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions

  20. Population genetic structure of moose (Alces Alces) of South-central Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robert E.; McDonough, John T.; Barboza, Perry S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Farley, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    The location of a population can influence its genetic structure and diversity by impacting the degree of isolation and connectivity to other populations. Populations at range margins areoften thought to have less genetic variation and increased genetic structure, and a reduction in genetic diversity can have negative impacts on the health of a population. We explored the genetic diversity and connectivity between 3 peripheral populations of moose (Alces alces) with differing potential for connectivity to other areas within interior Alaska. Populations on the Kenai Peninsula and from the Anchorage region were found to be significantly differentiated (FST= 0.071, P < 0.0001) with lower levels of genetic diversity observed within the Kenai population. Bayesian analyses employing assignment methodologies uncovered little evidence of contemporary gene flow between Anchorage and Kenai, suggesting regional isolation. Although gene flow outside the peninsula is restricted, high levels of gene flow were detected within the Kenai that is explained by male-biased dispersal. Furthermore, gene flow estimates differed across time scales on the Kenai Peninsula which may have been influenced by demographic fluctuations correlated, at least in part, with habitat change.

  1. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  2. mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in four Native American populations from southern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Chen, Yu.S.; Lott, M.T.; Wallace, D.C. ); Semino, O.; Santachiara-Beneceretti, A.S. ); Scott, C.R. ); Winter, M. )

    1994-02-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Four groups of mtDNA haplotypes (haplogroups A,B,C, and D) characterize Amerind populations. The comparison of their mtDNA variation with that observed in other populations from Mexico and Central America permits a clear distinction among the different Middle American tribes and raises questions about some of their linguistic affiliations. The males of these population samples were also analyzed for Y-chromosome RFLPs with the probes 49a, 49f, and 12f2. This analysis suggests that certain Y-chromosome haplotypes were brought from Asia during the colonization of the Americas, and a differential gene flow was introduced into Native American populations from European males and females. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    Forecasting invasion success remains a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. The effort to identify universal characteristics that predict which species become invasive has faltered in part because of the diversity of taxa and systems considered. Here, we use an alternative approach focused on the spread stage of invasions. FST, a measure of alternative fixation of alleles, is a common proxy for realized dispersal among natural populations, summarizing the combined influences of life history, behaviour, habitat requirements, population size, history and ecology. We test the hypothesis that population structure in the native range (FST) is negatively correlated with the geographical extent of spread of marine species in an introduced range. An analysis of the available data (29 species, nine phyla) revealed a significant negative correlation (R(2) = 0.245-0.464) between FST and the extent of spread of non-native species. Mode FST among pairwise comparisons between populations in the native range demonstrated the highest predictive power (R(2) = 0.464, p < 0.001). There was significant improvement when marker type was considered, with mtDNA datasets providing the strongest relationship (n = 21, R(2) = 0.333-0.516). This study shows that FST can be used to make qualitative predictions concerning the geographical extent to which a non-native marine species will spread once established in a new area. PMID:23595272

  4. Common garden comparisons of native and introduced plant populations: latitudinal clines can obscure evolutionary inferences

    PubMed Central

    Colautti, Robert I; Maron, John L; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2009-01-01

    Common garden studies are increasingly used to identify differences in phenotypic traits between native and introduced genotypes, often ignoring sources of among-population variation within each range. We re-analyzed data from 32 common garden studies of 28 plant species that tested for rapid evolution associated with biological invasion. Our goals were: (i) to identify patterns of phenotypic trait variation among populations within native and introduced ranges, and (ii) to explore the consequences of this variation for how differences between the ranges are interpreted. We combined life history and physiologic traits into a single principal component (PCALL) and also compared subsets of traits related to size, reproduction, and defense (PCSIZE, PCREP, and PCDEF, respectively). On average, introduced populations exhibited increased growth and reproduction compared to native conspecifics when latitude was not included in statistical models. However, significant correlations between PC-scores and latitude were detected in both the native and introduced ranges, indicating population differentiation along latitudinal gradients. When latitude was explicitly incorporated into statistical models as a covariate, it reduced the magnitude and reversed the direction of the effect for PCALL and PCSIZE. These results indicate that unrecognized geographic clines in phenotypic traits can confound inferences about the causes of evolutionary change in invasive plants. PMID:25567860

  5. Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting invasion success remains a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. The effort to identify universal characteristics that predict which species become invasive has faltered in part because of the diversity of taxa and systems considered. Here, we use an alternative approach focused on the spread stage of invasions. FST, a measure of alternative fixation of alleles, is a common proxy for realized dispersal among natural populations, summarizing the combined influences of life history, behaviour, habitat requirements, population size, history and ecology. We test the hypothesis that population structure in the native range (FST) is negatively correlated with the geographical extent of spread of marine species in an introduced range. An analysis of the available data (29 species, nine phyla) revealed a significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.245–0.464) between FST and the extent of spread of non-native species. Mode FST among pairwise comparisons between populations in the native range demonstrated the highest predictive power (R2 = 0.464, p < 0.001). There was significant improvement when marker type was considered, with mtDNA datasets providing the strongest relationship (n = 21, R2 = 0.333–0.516). This study shows that FST can be used to make qualitative predictions concerning the geographical extent to which a non-native marine species will spread once established in a new area. PMID:23595272

  6. Challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska native communities: perspectives of staff from 18 treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance abuse continues to exact a significant toll, despite promising advancements in treatment, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities remain disproportionately impacted. Understanding the challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities could ultimately result in more effective treatment interventions, but no multi-site studies have examined this important issue. Methods This qualitative study examined the challenges of providing substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted key informant interviews and focus groups at 18 substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Seventy-six service participants (21 individuals in clinical administrative positions and 55 front-line clinicians) participated in the project. Interview transcripts were coded to identify key themes. Results We found that the challenges of bringing effective substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities fell into three broad categories: challenges associated with providing clinical services, those associated with the infrastructure of treatment settings, and those associated with the greater service/treatment system. These sets of challenges interact to form a highly complex set of conditions for the delivery of these services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that substance abuse treatment services for AI/AN communities require more integrated, individualized, comprehensive, and longer-term approaches to care. Our three categories of challenges provide a useful framework for eliciting challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment in other substance abuse treatment settings. PMID:24938281

  7. Dialectical behavior therapy with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents diagnosed with substance use disorders: combining an evidence based treatment with cultural, traditional, and spiritual beliefs.

    PubMed

    Beckstead, D Joel; Lambert, Michael J; DuBose, Anthony P; Linehan, Marsha

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study examined pre to post-change of patients in a substance use residential treatment center that incorporated Dialectical Behavior Therapy with specific cultural, traditional and spiritual practices for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Specifically, the incorporation of cultural, spiritual and traditional practices was done while still maintaining fidelity to the evidence based treatment (DBT). 229 adolescents participated in the study and were given the Youth Outcome Questionnaire-Self-Report version at pre-treatment and post-treatment and the total scores were compared. The results of the research study showed that 96% of adolescents were either "recovered" or "improved" using clinical significant change criteria. Additionally, differences between the group's pre-test scores and post-test scores were statistically significant using a matched standard T-test comparison. Finally, the effect size that was calculated using Cohen's criteria was found to be large. The results are discussed in terms of the implication for integrating western and traditional based methods of care in addressing substance use disorders and other mental health disorders with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. PMID:26240942

  8. Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity Attitudes in Relation to Self-Rated Health and Physical Pain and Impairment Among Two-Spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Karina L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between racial discrimination and actualization, defined as the degree of positive integration between self-identity and racial group identity, and self-rated health and physical pain and impairment. Methods. We used logistic regressions to analyze data from 447 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and other sexual-minority American Indians/Alaska Natives. Results. Greater self-reported discrimination was associated with higher odds of physical pain and impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.78); high levels of actualization were associated with lower odds of physical pain and impairment (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.35, 0.99) and self-rated fair or poor health (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.90). Actualization also moderated the influence of discrimination on self-rated health (t = –2.33; P = .020). Discrimination was positively associated with fair or poor health among participants with low levels of actualization, but this association was weak among those with high levels of actualization. Conclusions. Among two-spirit American Indians/Alaska Natives, discrimination may be a risk factor for physical pain and impairment and for fair or poor self-rated health among those with low levels of actualization. Actualization may protect against physical pain and impairment and poor self-rated health and buffer the negative influence of discrimination. PMID:19218182

  9. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Amidon, Frederick A.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2012-01-01

    Bird habitat on the island of Tinian, Mariana Islands, has been substantially altered, and only around 5% of the island has native forest today. The modern bird fauna is likely to be a subset of the original avifauna where only species tolerant to native forest loss and human disturbance have survived. Avian surveys were conducted on the island in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current densities and abundances of the remaining species, and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. During the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 11 species. Five of the nine native species and one alien bird have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two birds (one native and one alien) were considered relatively stable. Only five birds, including the Tinian Monarch, showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Increased development on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearing and expansion of human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would likely continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded development activities on Tinian would also mean increased cargo movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian, which would lead to precipitous decreases and extinctions.

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Adult Education and Vocational Training Programs: Historical Beginnings, Present Conditions and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, John

    The success of Native adult education and vocational training programs is linked to the economic health of Native communities. Reports since 1923 document the failure of Federal Government programs in producing educated Native adults and the inadequacy of adult education delivery systems. An array of federal legislation has attempted to increase…

  11. The Healing Generation's Journey to the Year 2000...The National Agenda for American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United National Indian Tribal Youth, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    Based on the ideas of participants at a Native American youth conference, this document sets out an agenda to bring about a new future for Native American youth by the year 2000. The agenda presents 12 interrelated goals concerned with the development of a stronger, more self-reliant Native American society. Several strategies for action are…

  12. Introduced Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) invades the genome of native populations in vulnerable heathland habitats.

    PubMed

    Rostgaard Nielsen, Lene; Brandes, Ursula; Dahl Kjaer, Erik; Fjellheim, Siri

    2016-06-01

    Cytisus scoparius is a global invasive species that affects local flora and fauna at the intercontinental level. Its natural distribution spans across Europe, but seeds have also been moved among countries, mixing plants of native and non-native genetic origins. Hybridization between the introduced and native gene pool is likely to threaten both the native gene pool and the local flora. In this study, we address the potential threat of invasive C. scoparius to local gene pools in vulnerable heathlands. We used nuclear single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers together with plastid SSR and indel markers to investigate the level and direction of gene flow between invasive and native heathland C. scoparius. Analyses of population structures confirmed the presence of two gene pools: one native and the other invasive. The nuclear genome of the native types was highly introgressed with the invasive genome, and we observed advanced-generation hybrids, suggesting that hybridization has been occurring for several generations. There is asymmetrical gene flow from the invasive to the native gene pool, which can be attributed to higher fecundity in the invasive individuals, measured by the number of flowers and seed pods. Strong spatial genetic structure in plastid markers and weaker structure in nuclear markers suggest that seeds spread over relatively short distances and that gene flow over longer distances is mainly facilitated by pollen dispersal. We further show that the growth habits of heathland plants become more vigorous with increased introgression from the invaders. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to future management of invading C. scoparius. PMID:27105397

  13. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research. PMID:27379884

  14. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  15. Detrital Zircon U-Pb Age Populations in Time and Space in the Arctic Alaska Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Alaska Terrane (ATT) occupies the only margin of the Ameriasia Basin whose origin and position since Paleozoic time is incompletely known. To better understand its tectonic history, detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb ages from about 75 samples of clastic strata were obtained from representative parts of the ATT in northern Alaska. The oldest known strata of the AAT are Neoproterozoic clastic rocks exposed in the northeastern Brooks Range. DZ dating of these rocks show that they contain abundant ~1.8 Ga zircons and subordinate populations that indicate derivation from the northwest part of Laurentia. Upper Neoproterozoic strata in the Brooks Range, in contrast, contain populations dominated by ~600 Ma zircons. The latter ages are similar to those in parts of the ATT outside of northern Alaska, including the Seward Peninsula, Chukotka, and Wrangel Island that are thought to have been derived from the Timanian orogen of northern Baltica. Similar DZ populations have also been obtained from Silurian sandstones of the Lisburne Peninsula, suggesting that much of the western and southern parts of AAT may have formed in or near northern Baltica. A third group of DZ ages were found in deformed clastic rocks that were deposited across large parts of the North Slope in the Silurian and/or Devonian and are also present in parautochthonous settings in the Brooks Range. These rocks typically are dominated by DZ ages of 390-470 Ma, and sometimes contain subordinate non-Laurentian populations of ~1.5 Ga. These DZ ages, the underlying rocks of probable Baltic and Laurentian affinity, and evidence of significant deformation indicate that the ATT may have been constructed by Caledonian tectonism in the Silurian and Devonian. Following Devonian deformation, Mississippian to Triassic platform strata of the Ellesmerian Sequence were deposited on a regional unconformity. DZ ages from these rocks appear to reflect the compositions of the sub-unconformity units and indicate that Timanian

  16. Population genetic structure of native versus naturalized sympatric shrub willows (Salix; Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Juan; Gibbs, James P; Smart, Lawrence B

    2009-04-01

    Vegetative propagation of an introduced species can contribute significantly to its ability to spread and become naturalized, potentially in competition with native species. This study focused on the naturalization of a willow shrub, Salix purpurea, which was introduced to the United States from Europe and is commonly sympatric with the native shrub willow, S. eriocephala. Both species are capable of vegetative and sexual reproduction, but little is known about their relative frequency, nor the impact of clonal propagation on population-level genetic diversity. We analyzed genotypes at several microsatellite loci in 993 individuals belonging to 30 subpopulations of S. eriocephala and 28 subpopulations of S. purpurea in areas of sympatry across three watersheds to compare their genetic diversity and genetic structure. Our results revealed six subpopulations of S. purpurea containing plants with identical multilocus genotypes, while clonal individuals were rare among S. eriocephala populations. These species are dioecious with relatively high levels of heterozygosity, but S. eriocephala had much higher allelic diversity and genotypic diversity than did S. purpurea. These results strongly suggest that vegetative propagation has contributed to the naturalization of S. purpurea and has resulted in higher levels of genetic differentiation among S. purpurea populations than among native S. eriocephala populations. PMID:21628232

  17. Microbiome diversity of Aphis glycines with extensive superinfection in native and invasive populations.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A Rouf; Michel, Andy P

    2014-02-01

    Associations among insects and microbes can lead to beneficial or parasitic interactions. Using 454 sequencing of 16S RNA genes, we compared microbiome diversity and abundance among field-collected (F) and laboratory-reared (L) populations of the invasive soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), a pest of soybean. Additionally, we screened A. glycines populations from native (Japan, South Korea and China) and invasive regions (North America) to broadly determine the microbiome diversity. Our results suggested that Arsenophonus (relative abundance of 54.6%), Buchnera (38.7%) and Wolbachia (3.7%) were the major bacteria associated with A. glycines. Arsenophonus was the most abundant in F populations but was significantly reduced in L populations; additional bacteria species also had lower relative abundances in L populations. Native and invasive populations were largely similar in bacteria communities and revealed substantial superinfection of Arsenophonus and Wolbachia. The lone exception was a lack of Arsenophonus in A. glycines from Japan. Divergent selection pressures among natural and laboratory populations were inferred as factors driving the differential bacterial communities observed. Our results will allow for improved comparative aphid-symbiont research and broaden our understanding of the interactions among insects, endosymbionts and their environments. PMID:24596263

  18. Call types of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca) in western Alaska: Using vocal dialects to assess population structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Deborah Lynn

    Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.

  19. Complementary population dynamics of exotic and native Daphnia in North American reservoir communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havel, J.E.; Graham, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    During its invasion of North America, the exotic Daphnia lumholtzi has rapidly colonized numerous reservoirs, natural lakes, and large rivers. In the current study, we examine the overlap between D. lumholtzi and native Daphnia species through analysis of two data sets: co-occurrence in reservoirs of the south-central United States and population dynamics in one reservoir. In 171 reservoirs and oxbow lakes, D. lumholtzi was among the most prevalent species and its distribution was independent of other Daphnia species. Over a 28-month period in Stockton Lake, Missouri, D. lumholtzi was abundant only in late summer, a period when the epilimnion was warm (25-30??C) and cyanobacteria were common. Native Daphnia (D. mendotae, D. parvula, and D. retrocurva) complemented this pattern, being generally rare in summer and most abundant during winter and spring. Peak densities and average fecundities of native Daphnia during the cooler months were typically greater than densities and fecundities of D. lumholtzi in summer. The complementary population dynamics between native and exotic species may be significant for the food webs in warm reservoirs, with D. lumholtzi providing another food resource when the abundance of large zooplankton is ordinarily low. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  20. “What makes life good?” Developing a culturally grounded quality of life measure for Alaska Native college students

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B.; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Mekiana, Deborah; Ctibor, Alaina; Church, Charlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native (AN) college students experience higher attrition rates than their non-Native peers. Understanding the factors that contribute to quality of life (“what makes life good”) for AN students will help inform supportive programs that are congruent with their culture and college life experiences. Objectives Co-develop a conceptual model and a measure of quality of life (QOL) that reflects the experiences of AN college students. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 26 AN college students. Within a community–academic partnership, interactive data collection activities, co-analysis workgroup sessions and an interactive findings forum ensured a participant-driven research process. Findings Students identified and operationally defined eight QOL domains (values, culture and traditions, spirituality, relationships, basic needs, health, learning and leisure). The metaphor of a tree visually illustrates how the domains values, culture and traditions and spirituality form the roots to the other domains that appear to branch out as students navigate the dual worldviews of Native and Western ways of living. Conclusions The eight QOL domains and their items identified during focus groups were integrated into a visual model and an objective QOL measure. The hope is to provide a useful tool for developing and evaluating university-based programs and services aimed toward promoting a positive QOL and academic success for AN students. PMID:23984302

  1. National Indian Education Study, 2007. Part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2007 Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2008-457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, R.; Rampey, B. D.; Dion, G.; Donahue, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results for Part I of the study focusing on the performance of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) fourth- and eighth-graders on the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading and mathematics. A national sample of approximately 10,100 AI/AN students at grades 4 and 8 participated in the 2007 reading…

  2. National Indian Education Study--Part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2009 Reading and Mathematics Assessments. NCES 2010-462

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, W.; Moran, R.; Kuang, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which was expanded to allow more in-depth reporting on the achievement and experiences of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. It fulfills a mandate of Executive Order 13336 issued in 2004 calling for closer…

  3. National Indian Education Study Part I: The Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students on NAEP 2005 Reading and Mathematics Assessments Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-463

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampey, B.D.; Lutkus, Anthony D.; Weiner, Arlene W.; Rahman, Taslima

    2006-01-01

    The National Indian Education Study is a two-part study designed to describe the condition of education for American Indian/Alaska Native students in the United States. The study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics for the U.S. Department of Education, with the support of the Office of Indian Education. This report, Part…

  4. National Indian Education Study--Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-463

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, N.; Grigg, W.; Moran, R.; Kuang, M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the National Indian Education Study (NIES) has provided educators, policymakers, and the public with information about the background and academic performance of fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. This report, the second in a two-part series based on the 2009 NIES survey,…

  5. Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology, Symposium on Research and Evaluation Methodology: Lifespan Issues Related to American Indians/Alaska Natives with Disabilities (Washington, DC, April 26-27, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jamie D., Ed.; Erickson, Jill Shepard, Ed.; Johnson, Sharon R., Ed.; Marshall, Catherine A., Ed.; Running Wolf, Paulette, Ed.; Santiago, Rolando L., Ed.

    This first symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology (AIRPEM) explored American Indian and Alaska Native cultural considerations in relation to "best practices" in research and program evaluation. These cultural considerations include the importance of tribal consultation on research projects and…

  6. The Potential of a Culturally Based Supplemental Mathematics Curriculum to Improve the Mathematics Performance of Alaska Native and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Lipka, Jerry; Adams, Barbara L.; Rickard, Anthony; Andrew-Ihrke, Dora; Yanez, Eva Evelyn; Millard, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial conducted in Alaska examined the efficacy of 2 second-grade modules of the reform-oriented and culturally based Math in a Cultural Context (MCC) teacher training and curriculum. The results show that the "Picking Berries" (representing and measuring) and "Going to Egg Island" (grouping and place…

  7. Work of the Bureau of Education for the Natives of Alaska, 1917-18. Bulletin, 1919, No. 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1919

    1919-01-01

    During the year the field force of the Bureau of Education in Alaska consisted of 5 superintendents, 1 assistant superintendent, 116 teachers, 9 physicians, and 11 nurses. Sixty-nine schools were maintained with an enrollment of 3,635. School buildings were erected at White Mountain, whither the Eskimos had migrated from Council; at Elim, within a…

  8. The Potential of a Culturally Based Supplemental Mathematics Curriculum to Improve the Mathematics Performance of Alaska Native and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Lipka, Jerry; Adams, Barbara L.; Rickard, Anthony; Andrew-Ihrke, Dora; Yanez, Eva Evelyn; Millard, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial conducted in Alaska examined the efficacy of 2 second-grade modules of the reform-oriented and culturally based Math in a Cultural Context (MCC) teacher training and curriculum. The results show that the "Picking Berries" (representing and measuring) and "Going to Egg Island" (grouping and place value) modules…

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Higher Education: Toward a New Century of Academic Achievement and Cultural Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bobby

    This paper reviews the history of higher education for Native Americans and proposes change strategies. Assimilation was the primary goal of higher education from early colonial times to the 20th century. Tribal response ranged from resistance to support of higher education. When the Federal Government began to dominate Native education in the…

  10. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  11. Influenza surveillance using electronic health records in the American Indian and Alaska Native population

    PubMed Central

    Keck, James W; Redd, John T; Cheek, James E; Layne, Larry J; Groom, Amy V; Kitka, Sassa; Bruce, Michael G; Suryaprasad, Anil; Amerson, Nancy L; Cullen, Theresa; Bryan, Ralph T; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) provides new opportunities for public health surveillance. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, we developed a new EHR-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system designed to be resource sparing, rapidly scalable, and flexible. 4 weeks after the first pandemic case, ILI data from Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities were being analyzed. Materials and methods The system defines ILI as a patient visit containing either an influenza-specific International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) code or one or more of 24 ILI-related ICD-9 codes plus a documented temperature ≥100°F. EHR-based data are uploaded nightly. To validate results, ILI visits identified by the new system were compared to ILI visits found by medical record review, and the new system's results were compared with those of the traditional US ILI Surveillance Network. Results The system monitored ILI activity at an average of 60% of the 269 IHS electronic health databases. EHR-based surveillance detected ILI visits with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 97.8% based on chart review (N=2375) of visits at two facilities in September 2009. At the peak of the pandemic (week 41, October 17, 2009), the median time from an ILI visit to data transmission was 6 days, with a mode of 1 day. Discussion EHR-based ILI surveillance was accurate, timely, occurred at the majority of IHS facilities nationwide, and provided useful information for decision makers. EHRs thus offer the opportunity to transform public health surveillance. PMID:23744788

  12. Thank you for not flowering: conservation genetics and gene flow analysis of native and non-native populations of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Thomasset, M; Hodkinson, T R; Restoux, G; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Douglas, G C; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F

    2014-01-01

    The risks of gene flow between interfertile native and introduced plant populations are greatest when there is no spatial isolation of pollen clouds and phenological patterns overlap completely. Moreover, invasion probabilities are further increased if introduced populations are capable of producing seeds by selfing. Here we investigated the mating system and patterns of pollen-mediated gene flow among populations of native ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and mixed plantations of non-native ash (F. angustifolia and F. excelsior) as well as hybrid ash (F. excelsior × F. angustifolia) in Ireland. We analysed the flowering phenology of the mother trees and genotyped with six microsatellite loci in progeny arrays from 132 native and plantation trees (1493 seeds) and 444 potential parents. Paternity analyses suggested that plantation and native trees were pollinated by both native and introduced trees. No signs of significant selfing in the introduced trees were observed and no evidence of higher male reproductive success was found for introduced trees compared with native ones either. A small but significant genetic structure was found (φft=0.05) and did not correspond to an isolation-by-distance pattern. However, we observed a significant temporal genetic structure related to the different phenological groups, especially with early and late flowering native trees; each phenological group was pollinated with distinctive pollen sources. Implications of these results are discussed in relation to the conservation and invasiveness of ash and the spread of resistance genes against pathogens such as the fungus Chalara fraxinea that is destroying common ash forests in Europe. PMID:24424162

  13. Languages, geography and HLA haplotypes in native American and Asian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, M V; Helgason, A; Devine, D V

    1999-01-01

    A number of studies based on linguistic, dental and genetic data have proposed that the colonization of the New World took place in three separate waves of migration from North-East Asia. Recently, other studies have suggested that only one major migration occurred. It is the aim of this study to assess these opposing migration hypotheses using molecular-typed HLA class II alleles to compare the relationships between linguistic and genetic data in contemporary Native American populations. Our results suggest that gene flow and genetic drift have been important factors in shaping the genetic landscape of Native American populations. We report significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances in Native American and East Asian populations. In contrast, a less clear-cut relationship seems to exist between genetic distances and linguistic affiliation. In particular, the close genetic relationship of the neighbouring Na-Dene Athabaskans and Amerindian Salishans suggests that geography is the more important factor. Overall, our results are most congruent with the single migration model. PMID:10649635

  14. Acceptability of a web-based community reinforcement approach for substance use disorders with treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-05-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version [therapeutic education system (TES)] of the community reinforcement approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N = 40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range 7.8-9.4 on 0-10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted. PMID:25022913

  15. Self-reported versus administrative identification of American Indian and Alaska Native arrestees: effects on relative estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Wood, Darryl S; Hays, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program data were used to consider the effects of two methods of racial classification upon estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) arrestees. Overall, compared to arrestees who self-identified as Black, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, or Hispanic, arrestees self-identifying as AI/AN were most likely to be identified administratively as something other than AI/AN. Results of 'difference of difference' analyses indicate that differences in estimates of AI/AN versus non-AI/AN arrestees' illicit drug use and alcohol abuse were much more extreme when identification was based on administrative records than when based upon arrestees' self-reports. PMID:25111841

  16. Breaking the cycle/mending the hoop: adverse childhood experiences among incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native women in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    De Ravello, Lori; Abeita, Jessica; Brown, Pam

    2008-03-01

    Incarcerated American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have multiple physical, social, and emotional concerns, many of which may stem from adverse childhood experiences (ACE). We interviewed 36 AI/AN women incarcerated in the New Mexico prison system to determine the relationship between ACE and adult outcomes. ACE assessment included physical neglect, dysfunctional family (e.g., household members who abused substances, were mentally ill or suicidal, or who were incarcerated), violence witnessed in the home, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. The most prevalent ACE was dysfunctional family (75%), followed by witnessing violence (72%), sexual abuse (53%), physical abuse (42%), and physical neglect (22%). ACE scores were positively associated with arrests for violent offenses, lifetime suicide attempt(s), and intimate partner violence. PMID:18350429

  17. Landscape Effects of a Non-Native Grass Facilitate Source Populations of a Native Generalist Bug, Stenotus rubrovittatus, in a Heterogeneous Agricultural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, A.; Takada, M. B.; Washitani, I.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species can provide native generalist insects, including pests, with novel food and habitats. It is hypothesized that local and landscape-level abundances of non-native plants can affect the population size of generalist insects, although generalists are assumed to be less sensitive to habitat connectivity than specialists. In a heterogeneous landscape in Japan, the relationship between the density of a native pest of rice (Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Heteroptera: Miridae)) and the abundance of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poales: Poaceae)), a non-native meadow grass known to facilitate S. rubrovittatus, was analyzed. Statistical analyses of data on bug density, vegetation, and the spatial distribution of fallow fields and meadows dominated by Italian ryegrass, obtained by field surveys, demonstrated that local and landscape-level abundances of Italian ryegrass (the unmowed meadow areas within a few hundred meters of a sampling plot) positively affected bug density before its immigration into rice fields. Our findings suggest that a generalist herbivorous insect that prefers non-native plants responds to spatial availability and connectivity of plant species patches at the metapopulation level. Fragmentation by selective mowing that decreases the total area of source populations and increases the isolation among them would be an effective and environmentally-friendly pest management method. PMID:25205015

  18. mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in four Native American populations from southern Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A.; Chen, Y. S.; Semino, O.; Santachiara-Beneceretti, A. S.; Scott, C. R.; Lott, M. T.; Winter, M.; Wallace, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Four groups of mtDNA haplotypes (haplogroups A, B, C, and D) characterize Amerind populations, but only three (haplogroups A, B, and C) were observed in these Mexican populations. The comparison of their mtDNA variation with that observed in other populations from Mexico and Central America permits a clear distinction among the different Middle American tribes and raises questions about some of their linguistic affiliations. The males of these population samples were also analyzed for Y-chromosome RFLPs with the probes 49a, 49f, and 12f2. This analysis suggests that certain Y-chromosome haplotypes were brought from Asia during the colonization of the Americas, and a differential gene flow was introduced into Native American populations from European males and females. Images Figure 4 PMID:8304347

  19. Bald eagle survival and population dynamics in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Bernatowicz, J.A.; Schempf, P.F.

    1995-04-01

    We investigated age-specific annual survival rates for 159 bald eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) radiotagged from 1989 to 1992 in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. We monitored radio-tagged eagles for {le}3 years beginning 4 months after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in survival rates between eagles radiotagged in oiled areas and eagles radiotagged in unoiled areas of PWS. Pooled annual survival rates were 71% for first-year eagles, 95% for subadults, and 88% for adult bald eagles. Most deaths occurred from March to May. We found no indication that survival of bald eagles radiotagged >4 months after the oil spill in PWS was directly influenced by the spill and concluded that any effect of the spill on survival occurred before eagles were radiotagged. A deterministic life table model suggests that the PWS bald eagle population has an annual finite growth rate of 2%. Given the cumulative effects of direct mortality and reduced productivity caused by the oil spill, we predicted that the bald eagle population would return to its pre-spill size by 1992. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, C.M.; Swanson, S.A.; Nigro, Debora A.; Matsuoka, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of birds breeding within five ecological landforms in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, a 10,194-km2 roadless conservation unit on the Alaska-Canada border in the boreal forest zone. Passerines dominated the avifauna numerically, comprising 97% of individuals surveyed but less than half of the 115 species recorded in the Preserve. We used distance-sampling and discrete-removal models to estimate detection probabilities, densities, and population sizes across the Preserve for 23 species of migrant passerines and five species of resident passerines. Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were the most abundant species, together accounting for 41% of the migrant passerine populations estimated. White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Boreal Chickadees (Poecile hudsonica), and Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were the most abundant residents. Species richness was greatest in the Floodplain/Terrace landform flanking the Yukon River but densities were highest in the Subalpine landform. Species composition was related to past glacial history and current physiography of the region and differed notably from other areas of the northwestern boreal forest. Point-transect surveys, augmented with auxiliary observations, were well suited to sampling the largely passerine avifauna across this rugged landscape and could be used across the boreal forest region to monitor changes in northern bird distribution and abundance. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  1. Admixture and Genetic Diversity Distribution Patterns of Non-Recombining Lineages of Native American Ancestry in Colombian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Catarina; Builes, Juan José; Gomes, Verónica; Ospino, Jose Miguel; Aquino, Juliana; Parson, Walther; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Goios, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity of present American populations results from very complex demographic events involving different types and degrees of admixture. Through the analysis of lineage markers such as mtDNA and Y chromosome it is possible to recover the original Native American haplotypes, which remained identical since the admixture events due to the absence of recombination. However, the decrease in the effective population sizes and the consequent genetic drift effects suffered by these populations during the European colonization resulted in the loss or under-representation of a substantial fraction of the Native American lineages. In this study, we aim to clarify how the diversity and distribution of uniparental lineages vary with the different demographic characteristics (size, degree of isolation) and the different levels of admixture of extant Native groups in Colombia. We present new data resulting from the analyses of mtDNA whole control region, Y chromosome SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes, and autosomal ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms in Colombian individuals from different ethnic and linguistic groups. The results demonstrate that populations presenting a high proportion of non-Native American ancestry have preserved nevertheless a substantial diversity of Native American lineages, for both mtDNA and Y chromosome. We suggest that, by maintaining the effective population sizes high, admixture allowed for a decrease in the effects of genetic drift due to Native population size reduction and thus resulting in an effective preservation of the Native American non-recombining lineages. PMID:25775361

  2. ThE Alaska Native Tribal Health System Dental Health Aide Therapist as a dentist-centric model.

    PubMed

    Williard, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Differences in disease patterns and living circumstances should play no role in the quality of oral health care or in dentists' role in directing this care. Such differences, however, very likely suggest that the delivery model that works in many circumstances may not be best in all. The Alaska Tribal Health System Dental Health Aide Therapist (DHAT) model is one alternative whose potential is being evaluated. These teams are managed by dentists and have several features in common with general practice residency training programs. Alaska dentists supervising DHATs customize their practice protocols based on the skills of the therapists and the needs of the communities served. The emphasis of therapists is on prevention and basic oral health services, leaving the dentists to focus on higher level treatment that better uses the skills for which they have been trained. The characteristics of effective dentist team managers and the economic and social realities of this program are discussed. PMID:22856051

  3. Reproductive habitat selection in alien and native populations of the genus Discoglossus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoriza, Daniel; Boix, Dani

    2014-08-01

    The existence of suitable breeding habitats is an important factor explaining the regional presence of an anuran species. This study examined patterns of habitat selection in populations of three species of the genus Discoglossus: Discoglossusgalganoi (south-western Iberian Peninsula), Discoglossusscovazzi (Morocco) and Discoglossuspictus (three different areas were included in the study: Sicily, Tunisia and north-eastern Iberian Peninsula). The populations of D. pictus on the Iberian Peninsula are allochthonous, and analysis of these patterns may provide insights into the processes that regulate the invasion phase. The hypotheses tested were: (i) congeneric species show the same patterns of habitat selection, and alien species have been established following these patterns; (ii) there are differences in species associations between assemblages structured deterministically and by chance, i.e. native versus invaded assemblages. The larval habitats of three species of this genus were characterized by measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water bodies. We examined the covariation between the presence of Discoglossus species and the species richness of sympatric anurans, and investigated a possible relationship between morphological similarity (as a proxy of functional group) and overlap in habitat use. The results showed that congeneric species are morphologically conservative and also select very similar types of aquatic habitat. The alien population and other sympatric species showed a high degree of overlap in habitat use, which was greater than that observed in the native assemblage with a similar functional richness. Species associations were not structured on the basis of morphological similarity in any of the assemblages. Among native populations, the presence of Discoglossus was either negatively correlated or not significantly correlated with species richness. Only the alien population showed a positive correlation between its presence and species

  4. Population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth W; Renshaw, Benjamin; Clement, Christopher J; Himschoot, Elizabeth A; Hundertmark, Kris J; Hueffer, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    For pathogens that infect multiple species, the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We tested the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to possibly distinguish reservoir and spillover hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and nine microsatellites to assess population structure in those two species. mtDNA structure did not correspond to rabies virus variant structure in either species. Microsatellite analyses gave varying results. Bayesian clustering found two groups of arctic foxes in the coastal tundra region, but for red foxes it identified tundra and boreal types. Spatial Bayesian clustering and spatial principal components analysis identified 3 and 4 groups of arctic foxes, respectively, closely matching the distribution of rabies virus variants in the state. Red foxes, conversely, showed eight clusters comprising two regions (boreal and tundra) with much admixture. These results run contrary to previous beliefs that arctic fox show no fine-scale spatial population structure. While we cannot rule out that the red fox is part of the maintenance host community for rabies in Alaska, the distribution of virus variants appears to be driven primarily by the arctic fox. Therefore, we show that host population genetics can be utilized to distinguish between maintenance and spillover hosts when used in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26661691

  5. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, P.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (,5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasmagondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in nai{dotless}??ve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virusto otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak,Alaska, USA, since the 1990s. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2011.

  6. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s. PMID:21719822

  7. Genetic diversity and floral width variation in introduced and native populations of a long-lived woody perennial

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Jane C.; Duffy, Karl J.; Egan, Paul A.; Harbourne, Maeve; Hodkinson, Trevor R.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of introduced species in their new environments are expected to differ from native populations, due to processes such as genetic drift, founder effects and local adaptation, which can often result in rapid phenotypic change. Such processes can also lead to changes in the genetic structure of these populations. This study investigated the populations of Rhododendron ponticum in its introduced range in Ireland, where it is severely invasive, to determine both genetic and flower width diversity and differentiation. We compared six introduced Irish populations with two populations from R. ponticum's native range in Spain, using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat genetic markers. We measured flower width, a trait that may affect pollinator visitation, from four Irish and four Spanish populations by measuring both the width at the corolla tip and tube base (nectar holder width). With both genetic markers, populations were differentiated between Ireland and Spain and from each other in both countries. However, populations displayed low genetic diversity (mean Nei's genetic diversity = 0.22), with the largest proportion (76–93 %) of genetic variation contained within, rather than between, populations. Although corolla width was highly variable between individuals within populations, tube width was significantly wider (>0.5 mm) in introduced, compared with native, populations. Our results show that the same species can have genetically distinct populations in both invasive and native regions, and that differences in floral width may occur, possibly in response to ecological sorting processes or local adaptation to pollinator communities. PMID:25527475

  8. Population of non-native states of lysozyme variants drives amyloid fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Mossuto, Maria F.; Cremades, Nunilo; Kumita, Janet R.; Dumoulin, Mireille; Welland, Mark E.; Knowles, Tuomas P.J.; Salvatella, Xavier; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The propensity of protein molecules to self-assemble into highly ordered, fibrillar aggregates lies at the heart of the understanding of many disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease or lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. In this article we use highly accurate kinetic measurements of amyloid fibril growth in combination with spectroscopic tools to quantify the effect of modifications in the solution conditions and the amino acid sequence of human lysozyme on its propensity to form amyloid fibrils under acidic conditions. We elucidate and quantify the correlation between the rate of amyloid growth and the population of non-native states, and show that changes in amyloidogenicity are almost entirely due to alterations in the stability of the native state, while other regions of the global free energy surface remain largely unmodified. These results provide insight into the complex dynamics of a macromolecule on a multidimensional energy landscape, and point the way for a better understanding of misfolding diseases. PMID:21528861

  9. High intraspecific recombination rate in a native population of Candidatus pelagibacter ubique (SAR11).

    PubMed

    Vergin, Kevin L; Tripp, H James; Wilhelm, Larry J; Denver, Dee R; Rappé, Michael S; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Recombination is an important process in microbial evolution. Rates of recombination with extracellular DNA matter because models of microbial population structure are profoundly influenced by the degree to which recombination is occurring within the population. Low rates of recombination may be sufficient to ensure the lateral propagation of genes that have a high selective advantage without disrupting the clonal pattern of inheritance for other genes. High rates of recombination potentially can obscure clonal patterns, leading to linkage equilibrium, and give microbial populations a population genetic structure more akin to sexually interbreeding eukaryotic populations. We examined eight loci from nine strains of candidatus Pelagibacter ubique (SAR11), isolated from a single 2L niskin sample of natural seawater, for evidence of genetic recombination between strains. The Shimodaira-Hasegawa test revealed significant phylogenetic incongruence in seven of the genes, indicating that frequent recombination obscures phylogenetic signals from the linear inheritance of genes in this population. Statistical evidence for intragenic recombination was found for six loci. An informative sites matrix showed extensive evidence for a widespread breakdown of linkage disequilibrium. Although the mechanisms of genetic transfer in native SAR11 populations are unknown, we measured recombination rates, rho, that are much higher than point mutation rates, theta, as a source of genetic diversity in this clade. The eukaryotic model of species sharing a common pool of alleles is more apt for this SAR11 population than a strictly clonal model of inheritance in which allelic diversity is controlled by periodic selection. PMID:17803769

  10. 36 CFR 51.83 - Sale of Native Handicrafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaska Native by the Alaska native village or native groups of which he or she claims to be a member and whose father or mother is (or, if deceased, was) regarded as an Alaska Native by any village or group... devices as allow the manual skill of the maker to condition the shape and design of each individual...

  11. Intraspecific Geographic Variation of Fragrances Acquired by Orchid Bees in Native and Introduced Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886

  12. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. PMID:20623328

  13. Inter-annual variation in the foraging ecology of a brown bear population in southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricker, C. A.; Kovach, S. D.; Collins, G. H.; Farley, S. D.; Rye, R. O.; Hinkes, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Brown bear (Ursus arctos) population size correlates with density of high-quality food resources. We report on a ten-year study (1993 - 2003) of brown bear nutritional ecology in southwestern Alaska during which changes in resource availability and density occurred. The diets of 21 female bears captured multiple years were characterized by stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of guard hairs and putative diet items, followed by application of a Bayesian mixing model to derive assimilated diet estimates. Diet estimates were subsequently used to characterize individual-level resource specialization. Over the entire study period, salmon accounted for the highest proportion of bear diets (42.1%), followed by berries (24.5%), mammals (13.5%), freshwater fish (11.2%), and other plant matter (8.7%). The average salmon contribution to bear diets declined significantly from 48% to 34% following a precipitous reduction in salmon escapement mid-way through the study, after which the bear population shifted toward a more generalist diet. However, evaluation of individual animals recaptured multiple times during the study revealed variation in inter-annual dietary habits unrelated to the salmon crash. Individual variation presumably reflects local density changes in a variety of resources, with concomitant annual shifts in the degree of individual specialization. We also relate these patterns to other individual traits, such as reproductive status, home range, and habitat use to better constrain foraging habits. This study provides unique insights into the nutritional ecology of Alaskan brown bears and complements traditional wildlife studies by offering important covariates to better understand changes in population vital rates.

  14. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food-web perspective

    PubMed Central

    Estes, J.A.; Doak, D.F.; Springer, A.M.; Williams, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in turn affected the distribution, abundance and productivity of numerous other species. Ecological consequences of the pinniped declines are largely unknown. Increased predation by transient (marine mammal-eating) killer whales probably caused the sea otter declines and may have caused the pinniped declines as well. Springer et al. proposed that killer whales, which purportedly fed extensively on great whales, expanded their diets to include a higher percentage of sea otters and pinnipeds following a sharp reduction in great whale numbers from post World War II industrial whaling. Critics of this hypothesis claim that great whales are not now and probably never were an important nutritional resource for killer whales. We used demographic/energetic analyses to evaluate whether or not a predator–prey system involving killer whales and the smaller marine mammals would be sustainable without some nutritional contribution from the great whales. Our results indicate that while such a system is possible, it could only exist under a narrow range of extreme conditions and is therefore highly unlikely. PMID:19451116

  15. Contrasting patterns of nuclear and mtDNA diversity in Native American populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning Ning; Mazières, Stephane; Bravi, Claudio; Ray, Nicolas; Wang, Sijia; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Molina, Julio A; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Petzl-Erler, Maria L; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Labuda, Damian; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Excoffier, Laurent; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2010-11-01

    We report an integrated analysis of nuclear (autosomal, X- and Y-chromosome) short tandem repeat (STR) data and mtDNA D-loop sequences obtained in the same set of 22 Native populations from across the Americas. A north to south gradient of decreasing population diversity was observed, in agreement with a settlement of the Americas from the extreme northwest of the continent. This correlation is stronger with "least cost distances," which consider the coasts as facilitators of migration. Continent-wide estimates of population structure are highest for the Y-chromosome and lowest for the autosomes, consistent with the effective size of the different marker systems examined. Population differentiation is highest in East South America and lowest in Meso America and the Andean region. Regional analyses suggest a deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium consistent with population expansion in Meso America and the Andes and population contraction in Northwest and East South America. These data hint at an early divergence of Andean and non-Andean South Americans and at a contrasting demographic history for populations from these regions. PMID:20887376

  16. The dynamics, transmission, and population impacts of avian malaria in native hawaiian birds: A modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Decastro, F.; Ahumada, J.A.; Lapointe, D.A.; Atkinson, C.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Duffy, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an epidemiological model of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) across an altitudinal gradient on the island of Hawaii that includes the dynamics of the host, vector, and parasite. This introduced mosquito-borne disease is hypothesized to have contributed to extinctions and major shifts in the altitudinal distribution of highly susceptible native forest birds. Our goal was to better understand how biotic and abiotic factors influence the intensity of malaria transmission and impact on susceptible populations of native Hawaiian forest birds. Our model illustrates key patterns in the malaria-forest bird system: high malaria transmission in low-elevation forests with minor seasonal or annual variation in infection;episodic transmission in mid-elevation forests with site-to-site, seasonal, and annual variation depending on mosquito dynamics;and disease refugia in high-elevation forests with only slight risk of infection during summer. These infection patterns are driven by temperature and rainfall effects on parasite incubation period and mosquito dynamics across an elevational gradient and the availability of larval habitat, especially in mid-elevation forests. The results from our model suggest that disease is likely a key factor in causing population decline or restricting the distribution of many susceptible Hawaiian species and preventing the recovery of other vulnerable species. The model also provides a framework for the evaluation of factors influencing disease transmission and alternative disease control programs, and to evaluate the impact of climate change on disease cycles and bird populations. ??2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Intravarietal polymorphisms reveal possible common ancestor of native Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi populations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J V C; Crispim, B A; Vasconcelos, A A; Geelen, D; Grisolia, A B; Vieira, M C

    2016-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a perennial native from Atlantic forest. It is of high ecological plasticity and is used in traditional medicine. Based on promising reports concerning its bioactivity, it was included as a species of great interest for distribution through the National Health System. A number of agronomic studies to guide its crop production are therefore underway. This study examined diversity and phylogenetic relationships among native S. terebinthifolius populations from different Brazilian ecosystems: Cerrado; sandbanks; dense rainforest; and deciduous forest. The intergenic regions rpl20-5'rps12, trnH-psbA, and trnS-trnG were sequenced from cpDNA and aligned using BLASTn. There were few fragments for comparison in GenBank and so only region trnS-trnG was informative. There were variations among and within populations with intravarietal polymorphisms and three distinct haplotypes (HpSM, HpDDO, HpNE), once populations from NE (sandbanks and rainforest) clustered together. Sequences from HpSM, HpNE, and HpDDO returned greater similarity to haplotypes A (AY928398.1), B (AY928399.1), and C (AY928400.1), respectively. A network, built by median-joining among native haplotypes and 10 available on GenBank, revealed HpSM as the origin of all other haplogroups. HpDDO showed the most mutations and was closely related to haplogroups from Argentina. While this could indicate hybridization, we believe that the polymorphisms resulted from adaptation to events such as deforestation, fire, rising temperature, and seasonal drought during the transition from Atlantic forest to Cerrado. While more detailed phylogeographical studies are needed, these results indicate eligible groups for distinct climates as an important step for pre-breeding programs before field propagation. PMID:26909905

  18. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH HISTORY DATABASE (NHHD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  19. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE (NHRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  20. Population-level resource selection by sympatric brown and American black bears in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belant, J.L.; Griffith, B.; Zhang, Y.; Follmann, E.H.; Adams, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Distribution theory predicts that for two species living in sympatry, the subordinate species would be constrained from using the most suitable resources (e.g., habitat), resulting in its use of less suitable habitat and spatial segregation between species. We used negative binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed effects to estimate seasonal population-level resource selection at two spatial resolutions for female brown bears (Ursus arctos) and female American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska during May-September 2000. Black bears selected areas occupied by brown bears during spring which may be related to spatially restricted (i.e., restricted to low elevations) but dispersed or patchy availability of food. In contrast, black bears avoided areas occupied by brown bears during summer. Brown bears selected areas near salmon streams during summer, presumably to access spawning salmon. Use of areas with high berry production by black bears during summer appeared in response to avoidance of areas containing brown bears. Berries likely provided black bears a less nutritious, but adequate food source. We suggest that during summer, black bears were displaced by brown bears, which supports distribution theory in that black bears appeared to be partially constrained from areas containing salmon, resulting in their use of areas containing less nutritious forage. Spatial segregation of brown and American black bears apparently occurs when high-quality resources are spatially restricted and alternate resources are available to the subordinate species. This and previous work suggest that individual interactions between species can result in seasonal population-level responses. ?? US Government 2009.