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Sample records for alaska oil spill

  1. Hopper dredges applied to the Alaska oil spill, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.H.; Redlinger, J.F.

    1992-03-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This accident resulted in the largest American oil spill ever and spoiled one of the most pristine areas in North America. In April 1989, the US Army Corps of Engineers was requested to assist in the cleanup of this disastrous oil spill. Two of the Corps' minimum fleet hopper dredges, the Yaquina and the Essayons, were dispatched to assist in collecting oil. Although unmodified hopper dredges had never been used in this capacity, the Yaquina and the Essayons proved to be the most effective tools in the recovery of oil. Given proper air support, adequate containment boom, and commitment at the earliest possible time, hopper dredges can make a significant contribution to the cleanup of large oil spills.

  2. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  3. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  4. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  5. Alaska's response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, D.D.; Kendziorek, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The primary lesson of the Exxon Valdez spill is that oil spill prevention and response technologies need substantial, sustained research and development. There must be adequate amounts of equipment in place in time to properly respond to an oil spill. Management systems need to be improved so they effectively use these technologies. The combination of inadequate technology, insufficient amounts of response equipment, and ineffective management of the available resources produced serious problems in the initial response. Exxon eventually deployed large amounts of equipment and personnel. By the time the long-term shoreline treatment phase began, Exxon had also improved the management of its operations. However, at that point, much of the damage had already occurred. The extent of injury to natural resource is now being assessed through scientific studies. Based on the results of these studies, the final step in the response will be restoration projects which are now in the planning stage. In light of the experience with the Exxon Valdez spill, state and federal laws have been strengthened to provide better prevention measures, response planning, and in-region cleanup capacity. As with most pollution problems, prevention - through both management and technology - should be the first line of defense.

  6. Fate and effects of crude oil spilled on subarctic permafrost terrain in interior Alaska: Fifteen years later

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Racine, C.H.; Walsh, M.E.

    1993-08-01

    The effects of two large experimental oil spills conducted in the winter and summer of 1976 in the permafrost-underlain black spruce forest of interior Alaska were assessed 15 years after the spills. Effects on the permafrost, as determined from measurements of active layer thaw depths and of the total amount of ground subsidence, were far more pronounced on the winter spill because it had a larger area with oil on the surface. The winter spill also had a more drastic effect on the vegetation. Where the black, asphalt-like oil is present on the surface, black spruce mortality is 100% and there is very little live vegetation cover, except for cottongrass tussocks. Changes in oil chemistry vary with depth; surface samples show signs of microbiological degradation, whereas some subsurface samples taken just above the permafrost show no evidence of degradation and still contain volatiles. Black spruce forest, Crude oil, Oil spills, Terrestrial oil spills, Interior Alaska, Permafrost.

  7. Economic aspects of technological accidents: An evaluation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on southcentral Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of natural disasters to generate short-term economic benefits for impacted populations has become an accepted social science notion. The economic dimensions of human-made disasters have not received sufficient examination to justify a conclusive determination. Two analyses are conducted to examine the economic aspects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the communities of southcentral Alaska. First, a stochastic time-series model is employed to forecast the aggregate earnings that would have been achieved in the absence of the oil spill. This evaluation indicates that while the accident's proceeds were not distributed evenly across all communities in the affected region, this catastrophic event generated substantial aggregate monetary benefits in the short term. This analysis is followed by an examination of the oil spill's ex-vessel revenue impacts on each of southcentral Alaska's major fishery products (chinook, sockeye, coho, pink, chum, king crab, tanner crab, Dungeness crab, Pacific herring sac roe, Pacific halibut, and sablefish). The economic boom motivated by the oil spill obscured a decline in the profitability of commercial fishing and exacerbated deterioration of international market conditions for the region's fishery products. The accident reduced ex-vessel revenue for southcentral Alaska's commercial fishers during 1989 by an estimated amount between $6.1-$43.6 million. This analysis indicates that the oil spill's ex-vessel revenue impacts in 1990 were between $11.2-$44.9 million. In both years ex-vessel revenue reductions were greatest for sockeye and pink salmon, while increased ex-vessel prices for Pacific halibut and sablefish marginally mitigated these declines. Employing 1988 as a baseline, these amounts represent between 1.6-11.1 percent of the ex-vessel value of southcentral Alaska's commercial fishing economy. This evaluation provides a bounded interval in which one measure of the accident's economic dimensions can be considered.

  8. Bald eagle survival and population dynamics in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Bernatowicz, J.A.; Schempf, P.F.

    1995-04-01

    We investigated age-specific annual survival rates for 159 bald eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) radiotagged from 1989 to 1992 in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. We monitored radio-tagged eagles for {le}3 years beginning 4 months after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in survival rates between eagles radiotagged in oiled areas and eagles radiotagged in unoiled areas of PWS. Pooled annual survival rates were 71% for first-year eagles, 95% for subadults, and 88% for adult bald eagles. Most deaths occurred from March to May. We found no indication that survival of bald eagles radiotagged >4 months after the oil spill in PWS was directly influenced by the spill and concluded that any effect of the spill on survival occurred before eagles were radiotagged. A deterministic life table model suggests that the PWS bald eagle population has an annual finite growth rate of 2%. Given the cumulative effects of direct mortality and reduced productivity caused by the oil spill, we predicted that the bald eagle population would return to its pre-spill size by 1992. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Allan K; Shigenaka, Gary; Coats, Douglas A

    2014-07-15

    Intertidal infaunal communities were sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1990-2000 to evaluate impacts and recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Initial findings suggested that the spill and cleanup depressed abundances of all taxonomic groups. By 1992, abundances of major taxonomic categories at disturbed sites had either converged or paralleled populations at Unoiled sites. Abundances of littleneck clams, Leukoma (Protothaca) staminea, slowly increased at Treated sites and converged with Unoiled sites by 2000. Infaunal population differences positively correlated with fine-grained sediments at Treated sites. We believe that sediment fines removal during cleanup, and subsequent slow natural replenishment, impeded the return of the environment to pre-spill conditions. This suggests physical recovery of spill-affected beaches is an important precursor to biological recovery.

  10. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Experimental recovery of sea otter carcasses at Kodiak Island, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Doroff, Angela M.; Monson, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    ound,  Alaskaspilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oilOil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.ound,  Alaskaspilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oilOil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.On 24 March 1989, the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling approximately 11 million barrels of crude oil. Oil was deposited on beaches nearly 700 km from the spill site (Galt and Payton 1990, Piatt et al. 1990), affecting thousands of hectares of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat. Two of the principal limitations in determining the initial effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otter populations were a lack of recent population data, and a lack of information on the proportion of the total number of sea otters killed by the spill that were actually recovered.In late

  12. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  13. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  14. Beach geomorphic factors for the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuqiang; Boufadel, Michel C

    2011-12-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persists in some of the Prince William Sound (Alaska) beaches and continues to be a potential threat to the fauna. This paper reports a field investigation during the summer of 2008 of groundwater flow and solute transport in a tidal gravel beach in Smith Island, Prince William Sound. The beach contains oil on one side, the left side (facing landward). Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for an approximate duration of 64 h for two transects, the oiled transect and a clean transect (the right transect). It was found that the hydraulic conductivity and the fresh groundwater recharge into the two transects were similar. It was also found that the beach slope of the mid to high tidal zone along the oiled (left) transect was ~7.4% which is considerably smaller than that of the clean (right) transect (~11.8%). This suggests a higher flushing/replenishing of the right transect with nutrients and/or oxygen, which would have enhanced biodegradation of oil on the right transect if that oil was not washed by waves. We also found that the degree of oiling at each location was inversely dependent on the armoring of the beach surface with clasts and boulders. The applied tracer concentration at the left transect was less than 2% of the source or close to the background level at all locations except a seaward well closest to the applied location, indicating that the tracer applied was diluted or washed out from the beach during the application. Thus, in situations where oil biodegradation is limited by the availability of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen, applying the chemicals on the beach surface would most likely not enhance oil biodegradation as the applied chemicals would be greatly diluted prior to reaching the oil. Thus, deep injection of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen is probably the only option for enhancing oil biodegradation.

  15. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  16. Monitoring lingering oil from the Exxon Valdez spill on Gulf of Alaska armored beaches and mussel beds sixteen years post-spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Final Rept. ; Prepared in Cooperation With Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Arctic Biology. Sponsored By National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, Ak. AlaskaFisheries Science Center. ; Stranded Exxon Valdez Oil Has Persisted for 16 Years At Boulder-Armored Beach Sites Along National Park Coastlines Bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These Sites Are Up to 640 Km From the Spill Origin and Were Contaminated By Oil Mousse, a Viscous Water-in-Oil Emulsion. Although Surface Oil Has Continued to Decline, Subsurface Oiling Persists in Patches. Especially Striking Is the General Lack of Weathering of Stranded Oil on Armored Beaches Over the Last 16 Years. At Three of the Four Sites Where Oil Was Sampled in 2005, the Oil Was Compositionally Similar to 11-Day Old Exxon Valdez Oil, Even After 16 Years. The Formation of Mousse Allowed Less-Weathered Oil to Be Transported Long Distances. The Sequestration of the Oil Beneath a Boulder Armor, Coupled With the Stability of the Boulder Armoring (Investigated By Examining Movement of Marked Boulders), Had Contributed to the Lengthy Persistence of This Stranded Oil. Opportunistic Sampling of Several Previously Studied Oiled Mussel Beds Indicates Continued Contamination of At Least One of the Sites By Not Very Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil. Long-Term Persistence of Oil in These Habitats Should Cause Reconsideration of Response Activities After Spills, and May Influence the Environmental Sensitivity Indices Applied to These Habitats. 

  17. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  18. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska. (Chapter 12). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application in this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. These studies supported bioremediation as a useful cleanup alternative that was subsequently used by Exxon on a large scale. They have also generated a number of insightful lessons that have significant relevance to future oil bioremediation efforts. This chapter discusses these lessons and examines complications and difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in the field.

  19. Monitoring Recovery of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Bioavailability of PAH in Offshore Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Jerry M.; Boehm, Paul D.; Kropp, Roy K.; Stubblefield, William A.; Page, David S.

    2004-11-02

    We determined the bioavailability to sediment dwelling marine worms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with offshore sediments from 3 spill path and 3 non-spill path areas of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The PAHs in sediments from 4 sites sampled in 2001 were primarily from a regional natural petrogenic background derived from organic-rich shales and natural oil seeps associated with sources southeast of PWS. Pyrogenic (combustion) PAHs, primarily from former human and industrial activities, were more abundant than petrogenic PAHs in nearshore sediments from 2 bays associated with past and current human activities. We performed sediment bioaccumulation tests with the six sediments and polychaete worms according to standard EPA protocols. All the PAHs had a very low bioavailability, as indicated by low values for biota/sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the worms. Mean BSAFs for total PAHs (sum of 41 analyte groups) ranged from 0.002 to 0.009. The worms exposed to spill path and non-spill path sediments bioaccumulated small amounts of 4- and 5-ring PAHs, particularly fluoranthene and pyrene; these higher molecular weight PAHs are responsible for induction of mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity in marine fish, birds, and mammals. These results may help to explain in part why fish from throughout PWS exhibit induced MFO activity. Elevated levels of MFO activity cannot be used as evidence of recent exposure by marine fish, birds, and mammals in the sound to Exxon Valdez oil.

  20. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  1. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  2. Modeling bird mortality associated with the M/V Citrus oil spill off St. Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Fowler, Ada C.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a model to estimate the number of bird carcasses that were likely deposited on the beaches of St. Paul Island, Alaska following the M/V Citrus oil spill in February 1996. Most of the islands beaches were searched on an irregular schedule, resulting in the recovery of 876 King Eider carcasses. A sub-sample of beaches were intensively studied to estimate daily persistence rate and detection probability [Fowler, A.C., Flint, P.L., 1997. Marine Pollution Bulletin]. Using these data, our model predicted that an additional 733±70 King Eider carcasses were not detected during our searches. Therefore, we estimate that at least 1609±70 King Eider carcasses occurred on beaches as a result of the spill. We lacked sufficient sample size to model losses for other species, thus we applied the estimated recovery rate for King Eiders (54%) to other species and estimate a total combined loss of 1765 birds. In addition, 165 birds were captured alive making the total estimated number of birds impacted by the M/V Citrus spill 1930. Given that oiled birds occurred in places on the island which could not be systematically searched combined with the fact that it was unlikely that oiled birds that died at sea would have been recovered during our searches [Flint, P.L., Fowler, A.C., 1998. Marine Pollution Bulletin], our estimate of total mortality associated with the spill should be considered a minimum.

  3. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on black oystercatchers breeding in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Bird study number 12. Restoration study number 17. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    Black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) were studied in central Prince William Sound, Alaska, to determine the effects that the Exxon Valdez oil spill had on their population, reproductive biology, and behavioral ecology. Estimates of direct mortality of black oystercatchers varied widely among the methods used to assess losses and ranged from 4% to 57% of the population inhabitating the spill zone; mortality probably did not exceed 20% of the population. Although the black oystercatcher population appears to be recovering in some areas of the Sound, delayed reproduction in the species precludes determination of the total effect of the spill on the population until at least 1994.

  4. Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David

    2003-12-01

    Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (P<0.001). We conclude that demersal rockfish were exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure.

  5. Criteria for oil spill recovery: a case study of the intertidal community of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Skalski, J R; Coats, D A; Fukuyama, A K

    2001-07-01

    Marine intertidal organisms in Prince William Sound were exposed to crude oil following the TN Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The intertidal communities were also subjected to mechanical disturbance during invasive oil spill remediation and cleanup efforts. Using monitoring data collected from 1989 to 1997, impacts and eventual recovery were assessed at oiled but uncleaned sites and oiled and cleaned study areas. A statistical model where recovery was defined as parallelism between the time profiles at control and oiled sites was evaluated. Statistical analysis and graphical presentations of the data suggest intertidal epibiota communities recovered from the oil spill by 1992 at the oiled sites and by 1994 at the oiled and remediated sites. Empirical data from the intertidal monitoring program supports the use of tests of parallelism in evaluating recovery and the need to avoid simply the comparison of sample means from control and oiled sites.

  6. Geochemical changes in crude oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez supertanker into Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1994-01-01

    North Slope crude oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in March 1989 and contaminated about 500 km of Prince William Sound shoreline. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in oil samples collected in August 1990 and June 1992 from beaches on six islands impacted by the spill have been compared with the hydrocarbons from North Slope crude oil taken from the stricken tanker. Degradation processes have changed the physical appearance of this residual spilled oil; the beached oil as collected ranged from a light brown color, to a heavy black viscous oil, to a black, powder-like residue. In these physically different samples, terpane, sterane, and aromatic sterane distributions, as well as carbon isotope values, are similar and correlate with the original Exxon Valdez oil. On the other hand, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, and many of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are present in the original crude oil are dramatically altered in the oil samples collected from the beaches.

  7. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  9. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  10. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  11. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  12. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  13. Oil spill response scenarios for remote arctic environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Grosskopf, W.G.; Cox, J.C.; Schultz, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Special problems occur during oil spill cleanup in remote inland areas in cold climates. In Alaska these problems result from the harsh climate, the unusual terrain features, and the special problems of spills along swift rivers. The analysis begins with a description of the environmental conditions that occur in Alaska that affect oil spill behavior and oil spill cleanup. The study then describes four spill scenarios in remote areas giving engineering details of the mechanics of the spill movement and the cleanup effort. One scenario covers a winter blowout of a well on the north slope tundra. The next involves a Trans-Alaska Pipeline spill. The fourth scenario involves a fuel tank truck spill into a sensitive sport fishing stream. The study describes the impact of these spills on the environment. Further, it provides a numerical evaluation of the effectiveness of the spill response effort and the cost effectiveness of three incremental levels of spill response for the cleanup effort.

  14. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Current Risks to Harlequin Ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Parker, Keith R.; Murphy, Stephen M.; Day, Robert H.; Bence, A. Edward; Neff, Jerry M.; Wiens, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were adversely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and some have suggested effects continue two decades later. We present an ecological risk assessment evaluating quantitatively whether PWS seaducks continue to be at-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residual Exxon Valdez oil. Potential pathways for PAH exposures are identified for initially oiled and never-oiled reference sites. Some potential pathways are implausible (e.g., a seaduck excavating subsurface oil residues), whereas other pathways warrant quantification. We used data on PAH concentrations in PWS prey species, sediments, and seawater collected during 2001–2008 to develop a stochastic individual-based model projecting assimilated doses to seaducks. We simulated exposures to 500,000 individuals in each of eight age/gender classes, capturing the variability within a population of seaducks living in PWS. Doses to the maximum-exposed individuals are ∼400–4,000 times lower than chronic toxicity reference values established using USEPA protocols for seaducks. These exposures are so low that no individual-level effects are plausible, even within a simulated population that is orders-of-magnitude larger than exists in PWS. We conclude that toxicological risks to PWS seaducks from residual Exxon Valdez oil two decades later are essentially non-existent. PMID:23723680

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Current Risks to Harlequin Ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Parker, Keith R; Murphy, Stephen M; Day, Robert H; Bence, A Edward; Neff, Jerry M; Wiens, John A

    2012-03-01

    Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were adversely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and some have suggested effects continue two decades later. We present an ecological risk assessment evaluating quantitatively whether PWS seaducks continue to be at-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residual Exxon Valdez oil. Potential pathways for PAH exposures are identified for initially oiled and never-oiled reference sites. Some potential pathways are implausible (e.g., a seaduck excavating subsurface oil residues), whereas other pathways warrant quantification. We used data on PAH concentrations in PWS prey species, sediments, and seawater collected during 2001-2008 to develop a stochastic individual-based model projecting assimilated doses to seaducks. We simulated exposures to 500,000 individuals in each of eight age/gender classes, capturing the variability within a population of seaducks living in PWS. Doses to the maximum-exposed individuals are ∼400-4,000 times lower than chronic toxicity reference values established using USEPA protocols for seaducks. These exposures are so low that no individual-level effects are plausible, even within a simulated population that is orders-of-magnitude larger than exists in PWS. We conclude that toxicological risks to PWS seaducks from residual Exxon Valdez oil two decades later are essentially non-existent.

  17. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  18. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  19. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  20. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-07

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  1. Fate and toxicity of spilled oil from the Exxon Valdez. Subtidal study number 4. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Three separate papers are represented in this final report; Toxicity of intertidal and subtidal sediments contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill; Comparative toxicities of polar and non-polar organic fractions from sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska; and Fate of the oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  2. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  3. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C.; Litzow, Michael A.; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures—before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-200 and 89-273-2111, Exxon/Valdez Alaska oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, R.W.; Berardinelli, S.P.; Bender, T.R.

    1991-05-01

    In response to requests from the Laborer's International Union of North America, the Alaska State Health Department, and the United States Coast Guard an evaluation was undertaken of health hazards present during the cleanup of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound. Three field trips were made to the area. The cleanup involved thousands of workers dispersed over hundreds of square miles. After the first two visits, the following issues were targeted for additional evaluation: worker training; adequacy, availability, use and decontamination of personal protective equipment; exposure assessment including a review of prior exposure assessment data, analysis of bulk samples, inhalation exposures, skin exposures, and noise exposures; decontamination procedures; reports of illnesses; and reports of injuries. The authors conclude that at the time of the evaluation, inhalation exposure to volatile components of weathered crude oil was insignificant. Decontamination procedures and the wearing of personal protective equipment were not always effectively and consistently implemented at all sites. The authors recommend measures for future operations of this type, including testing of chemical protective clothing, emergency response plans with provisions for assessment of exposures to volatile organics at the very early stages of cleanup, minimizing exposures to diesel fumes, and that additional general safety recommendations and a proposed surveillance system for tracking injuries be enforced.

  5. Oil Spills Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  6. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  8. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  9. Response of common murres to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska marine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Anderson, Paul; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of the 1989 TV Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds were dramatic and well documented. Seabird populations at sea in the spill zone were immediately depressed, and more than 30,000 dead, oiled seabirds were recovered from beaches within months of the spill. It is estimated that 250,000 seabirds were killed by oil, of which 74% were murres. Based on comparisons of prespill (1970s) and postspill (1989-1994) data, long-term effects on murres attributed to oil pollution included population declines, reduced breeding success, and delayed breeding phenology. Populations remained depressed, but breeding success phenology gradually returned to normal levels by 1993. An alternative hypothesis to explain these long-term effects is that murres were responding to natural events in their marine environment. Flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) was at an all-time low in 1989, and this may have reduced and delayed biological productivity in the ACC. On a broader time scale, marked changes in marine fish communities have occurred during the past 20 years. Coincident with cyclical fluctuations in seawater temperatures, the abundance of small forage species (e.g., humpy shrimp, capelin, and Pacific sandfish) declined precipitously in the late 1970s while populations of large predatory fish (e.g., walleye pollock, Pacific cod, and flatfish) increased dramatically. Correspondingly, seabird diets shifted from mostly capelin in the 1970s to mostly Pacific sand land and juvenile pollock in the late 1980s. Furthermore, a variety of seabirds and marine mammals both inside and outside of the oil spill zone exhibited signs of food stress (population declines, reduced productivity, die-offs) throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. We conclude that available data are inadequate to distinguish between long-term effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murres and a natural response of murres to long-term changes in their marine environment.

  10. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety and Health Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ...

  11. Common murre restoration monitoring in the Barren Islands, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93049. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of common murre (Uria aalge) restoration monitoring work conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Information on population numbers, nesting chronology, and productivity of murres were collected by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologists at the injured East of Amatuli Island - Light Rock and Nord Island - Northwest Islet colonies in the Barren Islands during the 1993 breeding season. These data are presented and statistically compared with information reported in the 1989-1992 FWS murre damage assessment and restoration studies.

  12. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  13. Assessment of injury to river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Terrestrial mammal study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Faro, J.B.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Duffy, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) were killed by direct effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but the magnitude of that loss is unknown due to lack of pre-spill data. A time lag in spill effects is reflected by the reduction in species richness and diversity in the summer diets of otters in oiled areas between 1989 and 1990. Otters from oiled areas had higher haptoglobin levels in both 1990 and 1991. Male otters captured in oiled areas in 1990 had significantly lower body mass than otters from nonoiled areas. Otters from oiled areas had home ranges that were twice as large as those from a non-spill area. Differences in rates of fecal deposition between oiled and nonoiled latrine sites in 1989 suggest otters used heavily oiled areas less often. Otters avoided shorelines with shallow slopes on the oiled area, whereas they strongly preferred these slopes on nonoiled sites, suggesting that otters lost habitat as a result of the spill.

  14. Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska: Fifteen Years Later

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    34 sphagnum mosses, sedges, grasses, population growing while others declined in the and heath or ericaceous shrubs covers much of in- areas heavily affected...effect of the oil spill on permafrost soil would such as n-C17, are more easily metabolized than be the sum of the subsidence plus the increased...measured for the original oil. Since al- tention of these compounds longer than was origi- kanes are metabolized aerobically, the trend of de- nally thought

  15. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Bence, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lance, B K; Irons, D B; Kendall, S J; McDonald, L L

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwaka Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilize shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  17. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental.

  18. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.D.; Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures.

  20. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  1. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ``Sediment Quality Triad`` approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Marine bird and sea otter population abundance of Prince william sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989-93. Restoration project 93045. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to estimate marine bird and sea otter (Enhdra lutris) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March and July 1993, using methods developed for the 1989-91 surveys (Klosiewski and Laing 1994). During 1993, we recorded 65 birds and 13 mammal species. We estimated that 402,760 + or - 167,697 marine birds were in the Sound during March 1993, an increase of >200,000 birds over 1990 and 1991. To examine trends in our marine bird population estimates from 1989-93, we assumed that in the absence of oil spill effects, population estimates in the oiled zone would change at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we examined population trends from 1989-1993, using regression analyses. We also examined the relative abundance of the species groups seen in Prince William Sound from 1972 to 1993. Sea otter populations in 1993 were estimated at 6,813 + or - 1,861 for March and 8,216 + or - 2,435 for July. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1989-93 for either the March or July population estimates. There was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1989-93.

  3. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Study design and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a large field and laboratory program to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The study was designed so that results could be generalized area-wide (biology, chemistry) or habitat-wide (toxicology) and projected forward in time (chemistry). It made use of the sediment quality triad approach, combining biological, chemical, and toxicological measurements to assess shoreline recovery. Key aspects of the study include the following: coordinated field sampling for chemical, toxicological, and biological studies; stratified random sampling (SRS) as a basis for spatial generalization; periodic sampling to assess trends, including sites with worst-case conditions; analysis of oil-spill effects on hundreds of species; statistical methods based on normal and non-normal theory, consistent with the structure of the data, including generalized linear models and multivariate correspondence analysis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Electrobioremediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Aulenta, Federico; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Franzetti, Andrea; Arends, Jan B A; Sherry, Angela; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-05-01

    Annually, thousands of oil spills occur across the globe. As a result, petroleum substances and petrochemical compounds are widespread contaminants causing concern due to their toxicity and recalcitrance. Many remediation strategies have been developed using both physicochemical and biological approaches. Biological strategies are most benign, aiming to enhance microbial metabolic activities by supplying limiting inorganic nutrients, electron acceptors or donors, thus stimulating oxidation or reduction of contaminants. A key issue is controlling the supply of electron donors/acceptors. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged, in which an electrical current serves as either electron donor or acceptor for oil spill bioremediation. BES are highly controllable and can possibly also serve as biosensors for real time monitoring of the degradation process. Despite being promising, multiple aspects need to be considered to make BES suitable for field applications including system design, electrode materials, operational parameters, mode of action and radius of influence. The microbiological processes, involved in bioelectrochemical contaminant degradation, are currently not fully understood, particularly in relation to electron transfer mechanisms. Especially in sulfate rich environments, the sulfur cycle appears pivotal during hydrocarbon oxidation. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the research on bioelectrochemical remediation of oil spills and of the key parameters involved in the process.

  5. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  7. Social conflict and the formation of emergent groups in a technological disaster: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and the response of residents in the area of Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    To date there has been a paucity of research on the formation of emergent groups in the wake of technological disasters. A majority of researchers have contended that whereas natural disasters engender social cohesion and stimulate the formation of emergent groups, technological disasters have the tendency to constrain such formation because of the social conflict which follows in the wake of a technological disaster. This thesis challenges that assumption and examines both the nature of the social conflict and the formation of emergent groups that occurred in the aftermath of this country's largest environmental disaster: the Exxon Valdez oil spill. An anthropological perspective is employed. The investigator examines the formation of such groups in the area of Homer, Alaska. The differential response to the disaster and the ensuing social conflict is examined by a combination of participant-observation methods, formal and informal, in-depth interviews, and archival records. This investigation reveals that although there was considerable social conflict, there was also sufficient social cohesion to promote the formation of emergent group responses to the oil spill and the cleanup that followed. Moreover, it finds that the resultant conflict and the formation of such groups was attributable in part to a widely reported sense of a loss of control' and considerable uncertainty about many of the facts' surrounding the spill. This included uncertainty about who was ultimately in control of the cleanup and which clean-up technologies and remediation efforts were most urgent and useful. This thesis concludes that, contrary to the expectations of most social scientists, emergent groups can form in the wake of a technological disaster. Moreover, given the sense of urgency and the common perception of disaster victims that authorities are both unable and unwilling to respond to disasters, the formation of such groups is inevitable.

  8. Hydrocarbon composition and toxicity of sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Stubblefield, William A; Parker, Keith R; Gilfillan, Edward S; Neff, Jerry M; Maki, Alan W

    2002-07-01

    An 1-year study of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill found that spill residues on the oiled shorelines rapidly lost toxicity through weathering. After 1990, toxicity of sediments remained at only a few heavily oiled, isolated locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA), as measured by a standard amphipod bioassay using Rhepoxynius abronius. Data from 648 sediment samples taken during the 1990 to 1993 period were statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the total concentration of 39 parent and methyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (defined as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [TPAH]) and amphipod mortality and the effect of oil weathering on toxicity. A logistic regression model yielded estimates of the lower threshold, LC10 (lethal concentration to 10% of the population), and LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of 2,600, 4,100, and 10,750 ng/g TPAH (dry wt), respectively. Estimates of the threshold and LC50 values in this field study relate well to corresponding sediment quality guideline (SQG) values reported in the literature. For sediment TPAH concentrations >2,600 ng/g, samples with high mortality values (>90%) had relatively high fractions of naphthalenes and those with low mortality (<20%) had relatively high fractions of chrysenes. By 1999, the median sediment TPAH concentration of 117 ng/g for the post-1989 worst-case sites studied were well below the 2,600 ng/g toxicity threshold value, confirming the lack of potential for long-term toxic effects. Analysis of biological community structure parameters for sediment samples taken concurrently found that species richness and Shannon diversity decreased with increasing TPAH above the 2,600 ng/g threshold, demonstrating a correspondence between sediment bioassay results and biological community effects in the field. The low probability of exposure to toxic concentrations of weathered spill residues at the worst-case sites sampled in this study is consistent with the

  9. Workshop report: Residual shoreline oiling. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project. Final report (restoration project 95266). Held in Chenega Bay, Alaska on November 1-2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.M.; Piper, E.; Munson, D.

    1996-02-01

    Significant surface and subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill remains at numerous locations in Prince William Sound, many of which are near the village of Chenega Bay. The Trustee Council sponsored the workshop on Residual Shoreline Oil to attempt to answer the significant technical, social, and policy questions that surround this issue. These include the financial cost, environmental cost, and benefits of additional shoreline treatment. Workshop attendees concluded that it was possible to construct a treatment program that might provide significant benefits to residents of Chenega Bay without incurring environmental harm with area-wide significance. To provide options for Trustee Council consideration, DEC and residents of Chenega Bay constructed five treatment alternatives. Costs include estimates for treatent, monitoring, and agency project management. The workshop also made recommendations with respect to future monitoring of the persistence or degradation of surface and subsurface oil on shorelines in the spill area.

  10. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  11. Prespill and postspill concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels at intertidal sites in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Coastal habitat study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, M.M.; Short, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The authors compared hydrocarbon concentrations in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and sediments from beaches before and after oil contaminated beaches in the Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Mussels and sediments collected outside the path of floating oil or before it became beached, indicated that other sources of hydrocarbons were negligible compared with the spilled oil. In sediments from stations away from the spilled oil, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were usually less than 100 ng/g. Results for stations not impacted by the Spill can be used to determine quantitative restoration criteria for oiled beaches.

  12. Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

  13. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  14. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  15. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on shallow subtidal communities in Prince William sound, Alaska, 1989-93. Restoration project 93047. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jewett, S.C.; Dean, T.A.; Smith, R.O.; Stekoll, M.; Haldorson, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    Injuries to several of the dominant taxa in the nearshore subtidal community were observed in the heavily oiled portions of western Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989. The initial effects were most pronounced in more protected eelgrass and silled fjord habitats, where PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) concentrations in sediments exceeded 1000 ng g-1 in 1990. By 1993, PAH concentrations in sediments declined to less than 100 ng g-1, and there were far fewer differences between oiled and control sites with respect to the abundance of dominant plant, invertebrate, and fish taxa. However, not all taxa had recovered fully.

  16. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  17. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on eelgrass communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska 1990-1995. Restoration project 95106. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jewett, S.C.; Dean, T.A.

    1997-05-01

    Injuries to the shallow subtidal eelgrass community were observed in the heavily oiled portions of Western Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. High PAH concentrations were associated with observed differences in communities at oiled vs. reference sites. Dominant taxa within the eelgrass community, including infaunal amphipods, infaunal bivalves, helmet crabs, and leather stars were less abundant at oiled than at reference sites in 1990. Other taxa, including several families of opportunistic or stress-tolerant infaunal polychaetes and gastropods, epifaunal polychaetes and mussels, and small cod, were more abundant at oiled sites. By 1995, there was apparent recovery of most community constituents. However, not all taxa had recovered fully. Some evidence of slight hydrocarbon contamination still existed at some sites, and three infaunal bivalves, two amphipods, a crab, and a sea star were still more abundant at reference sites than at oiled sites.

  18. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  20. Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning about the Prince William Sound Oil Spill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Friedman, Batya

    This study investigated children's moral and ecological conceptions and values about an actual, environmentally destructive accident, the large oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska in 1989. Sixty children from second, fifth, and eighth grades were interviewed on children's reasoning and understandings about the oil spill which…

  1. Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zoric, J P

    1989-02-01

    Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

  2. Intersection model for estimating sea otter mortality from the Exxon Valdez oil spill along the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-5. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The authors developed an analytical model (intersection model) to estimate the exposure of sea otters (Enhydra lutris), to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The authors applied estimated and assumed exposure dependent mortality rates to the Kenai Peninsula sea otter population to provide examples of the application of the model in estimating sea otter mortality. The intersection model requires three distinct types of data: (1) distribution, abundance, and movements of oil, (2) abundance and distribution of sea otters, and (3) sea otter mortality rates relative to oil exposure. Initial output of the model is an estimate of exposure of otters to oil. Exposure is measured in amount and duration of oil near an otter`s observed location (intersections). The authors provide two examples of the model using different assumptions about the relation between exposure and mortality. Because of an apparent non-linear relation between the degree of oiling and survival of otters from rehabilitation, output from the authors` examples are likely biased.

  3. Aerial Photographic Surveys Analyzed to Deduce Oil Spill Movement during the Decay and Breakup of Fast Ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Lissauer * Denise A. Baird U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center Avery Point Groton, Connecticut 06340 ’li 𔃾rl 5 0 SEPTEMBER 1982 FINAL REPORT...g Org On .zaon Code PRUDHOE BAY, ALASKA ___" . P,lorm ,q Ormi ng a, ,oon Retort No. 7. Aumo.s) I Ivan M. Lissauer and Denise A. Baird CGR&DC 21/82 9

  4. GREEN BEAST™ OIL SPILL & ODOR REMEDIATOR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent used in oil spill cleanups works best applied at high pressure, for treating hydrocarbons on beaches, rocks, and hard surfaces. Preferably applied over 3 consecutive days on heavy spills.

  5. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  6. Exceptions to the rules of oil-spill behavior: Case studies of major oil spills of the past twenty years

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of major oil spills over the past 20 yr have allowed an evolution of our understanding of how to respond to and remediate the environmental impacts from such spills. There have been a number of spills for which follow-up research has provided major turning points that allowed the development of certain rules of oil-spill behavior. For example, the spill of over 100,000 tons of crude oil by the tanker Urquiola on the coast of Spain in May 1976 demonstrated the importance of hydrodynamic energy level in natural cleanup processes. Research on the spill of over 200,000 tons of crude oil along the coast of France by the tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 allowed a better understanding of the long-term effects of spilled oil on exposed tidal flats and salt marshes. The oil spilled by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989 impacted many miles of gravel beaches, which were treated by a number of methods, including some innovative berm-relocation techniques. A thorough understanding of the coastal geomorphology and processes of the spill site was essential for the development of meaningful contingency and response plans. Research on the impacts of intertidal habitats of the coast of Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War spill of 1991 indicates that some previously held concepts on oil behavior and fate on shorelines must be revised. One of the best established rules of oil-spill behavior was that the depth of oil penetration on sand beaches and tidal flats increases with increasing sediment grain size. However, no such correlation was found on the Saudi Arabian coast, primarily due to the presence of secondary porosity (e.g., bubble sand, extensive burrows, and gypsum crystals). The oil penetrated to depths of tens of centimeters, even in fine sand, which has significantly slowed natural removal processes and weathering rates. These sediments remained heavily oiled with incipient asphalt pavements forming two years after the spill.

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  8. Alaska panel urges oil tanker changes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, S.

    1990-02-05

    A commission assigned by the state of Alaska to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill says the Coast Guard's regulation of oil transportation had grown slack over the decade preceding the 11 million-gallon spill. The vigilance over tanker traffic that was established in the early days of pipeline flow had given way to complacency and neglect, says the commission's report, which calls for a revamping of the U.S. oil transportation system. The review places the blame for the spill not only on the Coast Guard but on the oil industry's thirst for profits in the 1980s and blames the state itself for not living up to its obligation to manage and protect its own waters. The report offers 59 recommendations that cover tanker construction and crew training, spill prevention, strategies for responding to spills and cleanup technologies. The panel also wants to see more stringent tanker safety standards, strengthened enforcement of the new regulations and greater penalties levied against violators. The Coast Guard expects that it will be some time before revisions in its tanker monitoring operations are in place.

  9. SAR Image Texture Analysis of Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Yu

    Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they have serious affect on fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to implement an emergency in case of oil spills, it is necessary to monitor oil spill using remote sensing. Spaceborne SAR is considered a promising method to monitor oil spill, which causes attention from many researchers. However, research in SAR image texture analysis of oil spill is rarely reported. On 7 December 2007, a crane-carrying barge hit the Hong Kong-registered tanker "Hebei Spirit", which released an estimated 10,500 metric tons of crude oil into the sea. The texture features on this oil spill were acquired based on extracted GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) by using SAR as data source. The affected area was extracted successfully after evaluating capabilities of different texture features to monitor the oil spill. The results revealed that the texture is an important feature for oil spill monitoring. Key words: oil spill, texture analysis, SAR

  10. Biomarkers of damage to sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following potential exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Marine mammal study 6-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.

    1995-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate several biomarkers of genotoxic damage in sea otters that had potentially been exposed to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Thirteen adult male sea otters were captured in eastern (unoiled) Prince William Sound, and 14 in western (oiled) Prince William Sound in September and October 1991. Blood lymphocytes, sperm and testicular cells were collected from the otters for flow cytometric analyses to measure: (1) DNA content of lymphocytes, (2) nuclear chromatin structure of sperm, and (3) subpopulations of cell types in the testis. Additionally, sperm cells were examined by light microscopy for morphological abnormalities. The DNA content of blood lymphocytes from sea otters in the oiled vs. unoiled areas was not significantly different, although there was greater variation among samples from the oiled area. One measure of sperm cell quality was poorer for male sea otters from the unoiled area, and may have been associated with differences in the age and breeding status of the two groups sampled. Other measures of sperm and testicular cells did not differ between areas.

  11. Fire resistant oil spill barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.

    1986-08-12

    A fire-resistant, portable, barrier for the containment of marine oil spill, is described which consists of: (A) a continuous length of a fire-resistant fabric comprising interwoven yarns of heat-resistant material, coated with a liquid-impermeable film; the fabric being impermeable to a hydrocarbon petroleum oil; (B) buoyant bodies attached to the fabric in a quantity and at positions sufficient to buoy the length of fabric on a body of water; and (C) means for stabilizing the length of fabric when buoyed upon the body of water.

  12. Behavior and persistence of spilled oil on shoreline

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent oil spills have re-demonstrated the range of shoreline impacts that are possible from medium to large spills in the United States, i.e., the Exxon Valdez spill which significantly contaminated over 1000 km of shoreline in Alaska and the Mega Borg, which resulted in widely scattered tar balls over a small area. Immediate and total removal of stranded oil should not always be the primary objective. Instead, shoreline cleanup strategies developed for oil spills need to consider the persistence and short- to long-term persistence of stranded oil. There are several general guidelines on the persistence of stranded oil. High-energy shorelines are rapidly and effectively cleaned by natural processes, although there are micro-environments where oil tends to persist (wave shadows, supratidal zone, rock crevices, etc.). On sand and mixed sand and gravel beaches, oil tends to be buried below clean layers of sediment, but erosional/depositional cycles will result in oil removal, usually within one year. In sheltered environments (wetlands, tidal flats) oil will persist for long periods; therefore, oil removal is frequently required, though it is usually poorly implemented. Cobble/boulder beaches, while usually very complex, present a special problem. They can be found in a range of energy settings, with years between periods of storm activity. These beaches can hold large volumes of oil; they can be a source of long-term ({gt} one year) leaching and sheening; subsurface oil is very difficult to remove by surface treatment methods; and they have poorly understood sedimentation patterns, so it is difficult to predict rates of sediment reworking. Studies of recent oil spills have shown a need for shoreline-specific technologies for these types of beaches.

  13. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  14. Oil spills - increasing US dependence on oil imports heightens risks to environment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-17

    Calamitous oil spills in recent years have focused attention on the devastation the world`s leading energy source can wreak on the environment. In Alaska, the 1989 grounding of the supertanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound caused the worst U.S. oil spill ever and promoted Congress to pass stringent oil-pollution legislation. In the Persian Gulf, {open_quotes}eco-terroism{close_quotes} committed by Iraqi forces during the gulf war left hundreds of wells burning and oil free-flowing out of Kuwait`s refineries and oil-shipping terminals. With the United States and much of the global community increasingly dependent on petroleum moved by supertankers, oil spills will continue to threaten the environment for the foreseeable future.

  15. Kuwait oil spill studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  16. Oil, seabirds, and science: The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    When an environmental accident creates a potential conflict between science and environmental advocacy, science may suffer. When the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on the morning of 24 March 1989, it aroused widespread concern about possible environmental concern about possible environmental devastation. Within hours, some 41 million liters of crude oil were released into the marine ecosystem, making this spill the largest in US history. Eventually, oil was found more than 900 km from the spill site, and roughly 2100 km of shoreline were contaminated with oil (Neff et al. 1995). 46 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  18. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  19. Oil spill recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, H.A.; Meneghetti, L.M.

    1980-10-07

    The recovery of oil in an oil spill on water is achieved by a medium which not only absorbs the oil but causes it to become heavy and loose its buoyancy in relation to water so it can be made to sink, together with apparatus for effecting the deposit of the medium upon the oil in an oil spill and for collecting the sinking oil below the surface and before it attaches itself to the bottom surface so it can be removed to a place where the recovered oil may be extracted from the medium which sank the oil.

  20. Winter marine bird and sea otter abundance of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill from 1990-94. Restoration project 94159. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to determine population abundance of marine birds and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March 1994. We observed 45 bird and 8 mammal species in Prince William Sound, and we estimated that 320,470 + or - 63,640 marine birds were present. We estimated trends in the March population estimates from 1990-94 by determining whether estimates in the oiled zone changed at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we also examined the population trends from 1990-94 using regression analyses. We found significant positive trends for harlequin duck (Histrionicus), goldeneye, merganser, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and gull (Larus and Rissa spp.) populations. We also examined the relative abundance of marine bird species groups from 1972 to 1994. During March 1994, we estimated that the sea otter population was 7,746 + or - 2,073 otters. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1990-94, and there was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1990-94.

  1. Oil spill detection using hyperspectral infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Tang, Wei; Tang, Xin; Yue, Song; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2016-11-01

    Oil spill pollution is a severe environmental problem that persists in the marine environment and in inland water systems around the world. Remote sensing is an important part of oil spill response. The hyperspectral images can not only provide the space information but also the spectral information. Pixels of interests generally incorporate information from disparate component that requires quantitative decomposition of these pixels to extract desired information. Oil spill detection can be implemented by applying hyperspectral camera which can collect the hyperspectral data of the oil. By extracting desired spectral signature from hundreds of band information, one can detect and identify oil spill area in vast geographical regions. There are now numerous hyperspectral image processing algorithms developed for target detection. In this paper, we investigate several most widely used target detection algorithm for the identification of surface oil spills in ocean environment. In the experiments, we applied a hyperspectral camera to collect the real life oil spill. The experimental results shows the feasibility of oil spill detection using hyperspectral imaging and the performance of hyperspectral image processing algorithms were also validated.

  2. Recovery monitoring of pigeon guillemot populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Restoration project 94173. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    The population of pigeon guillemots in Prince William Sound decreased from about 15,000 (1970`s) to about 5,000 (present). Some local populations were affected by the U/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, but there is evidence suggesting the Sound-wide population was already declining. Predation was the cause of numerous nesting failures. Abandonment of eggs was also high. Changes in the relative proportions of benthic and schooling fish in the diet of guillemot chicks might represent a key change in the ecosystem that is affecting other species of marine birds and mammals in the Sound.

  3. Oil Spill Risk Analysis Model and Its Application to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Johnson, W. R.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) model plays an essential role in analyzing oil spill risks in the U.S. continental shelf for the U.S. federal government. The OSRA model is driven by analyzed sea surface winds and model-generated ocean surface currents. Instead of focusing on individual oil spill events, the OSRA model examines oil spill risks over long periods of time, ranging from 5 years to decades. The OSRA model calculates thousands of hypothetical oil spill trajectories over U.S. continental shelf and tabulates the frequencies with which the simulated oil spills contact the geographic boundaries of designated natural resources within a specified number of days after the simulated spill events. As a result of a three-year effort, the model was completely updated and improved to meet the new challenges in the oil spill risk analyses. The updated OSRA model is more efficient in terms of computational time, is capable of producing results that are consistent with our previous analyses, and is more user-friendly by incorporating GIS tools. The combination of code parallelization, code optimization, and I/O optimization has greatly improved the computational efficiency. Applying the model to the Gulf of Mexico using 15 years of ocean currents and winds, we find that the newly improved OSRA model can provide important information on the behavior of oil spills more accurately and efficiently. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is unique and unprecedented in the Gulf of Mexico. Approximated 4.9 million barrels of oil were spilled into the U.S. water. The statistical patterns and results from the OSRA model are being compared with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Findings from this study will help in assessing the oil spill risks in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Chemical comparison of weathered spilled oil and Exxon/Valdez hold oil from an occupational health standpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ho, Chen-h.; Guerin, M.R.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon/Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef located off the coast of Alaska, and 11 million gallons of Northslope Alaska crude oil were spilled into Prince William Sound. More than 11,000 workers and uncounted volunteers participated in the clean up operation. The exposure of cleanup workers to spilled oil over several months of cleanup operations suggests the need for an assessment of any unusual occupational health hazards. To address this issue, weathered spilled oil and hold oil were subjected to biodirected chemical fractionation and target chemical analyses. Potential inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact hazards were investigated. The characterization methods of the DOE/Office of Health and Environmental Research Synthetic Fuels Program were applied to samples related to the spill to permit inter-comparability with that data base. Two oil spills were obtained for characterization. Exxon/Valdez hold oil collected directly from the hold of the tanker was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Also provided was a 75-days old weathered spilled oil sampled on June 6, 1989, from a skimmer collecting oil washed off of Knight Island. Because 40 wt % of the weathered oil consisted of non-oil materials such as sand, entrapped water, and leaves, an oil fraction was prepared by suspending the oil benzene/chloroform drying with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtering, and removing the solvent by rotary evaporation. The tests conducted here suggest that there is no unusual human health hazard associated with the weathered Exxon/Valdez spilled oil in the context of other petroleum crude oils. Clearly, the volatile organics in the freshly spilled oil present a potential inhalation hazard, but such a threat is considerably mitigated by weathering. The polar neutral chemical class fraction increases notably during weathering, but does not appear to represent an increased genotoxic hazard. 20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  6. Oil recovery; Technology that tames large spills

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the threat of oil spills is growing with the increasing use of larger tankers, the expansion of offshore oil exploration, and-as was demonstrated recently in the Persian Gulf-the dangers of war and terrorism. Aware of the environmental havoc that massive spills can cause, engineers are working hard to devise effective methods of scooping oil from the water's surface and cleaning contaminated shorelines. Techniques are being developed, which combine mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to contain spills.

  7. Oil spill chemical dispersants: Research, experience and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of surfactants for the control of oil spills. Topics considered include laboratory toxicity effectiveness testing, the characteristics of spilled oil, salinity, water temperature, field effectiveness, dilution processes, remote sensing, oil spill fire hazards, the toxicity of oil spill dispersants to marine organisms, the effects of dispersed oil in marine sediments, dispersants for spill countermeasures on arctic beaches, contingency planning and guidelines, ecological considerations, and a multifaceted approach to applying dispersants.

  8. Evaluation of an Oil Spill Trajectory Model Using Satellite-tracked, Oil-Spill-Simulating Drifters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    remained on the ocean surface and ran predominantly downwind. Oil spills with higher wax and asphaltene content tend to persist on the sea surface as a...consolidated mass more than the oils with lower concentrations of wax and asphaltene . The drifters replicate the motion of oil spills persisting

  9. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Harlequin duck population recovery following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill: Progress, process and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck Histrionicus histrionicus populations during 1995 to 1998. We evaluated potential constraints on full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil; (2) food limitation; and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the 'Exxon Valdez' spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 yr after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998; (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995 to 1998; (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995 to 1997; and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery will also be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to

  11. The Great Oil Spill Cleanup Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Presents an exciting way to acquaint students with current methods to clean up oil spills. Students also have the freedom to create new clean-up methods as they think through the problem and experiment to find effective solutions. (PR)

  12. Development of the Alaska Heritage Stewardship Program for protection of cultural resources at increased risk due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Restoration study number 104a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, D.G.; Reger, D.

    1994-08-01

    The authors developed a stewardship program, based on functioning models in Arizona and Texas, to train interested local groups and individuals to protect cultural resources. The program was adapted to Alaska`s remoteness, sparse populations, and climate by giving Stewards greater flexibility to deal with local conditions. The State Office of History and Archaeology and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are attempting to implement Stewardship in areas expressing interest.

  13. Earth Observation Services (Oil Spill Mapping)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An EOCAP project led Research Planning, Inc. to the development of advanced techniques for "environmental sensitivity" oil spill mapping. The new method incorporates satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies and was utilized to assess the damage potential of the Gulf war oil spill. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the, use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  14. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  15. Medford, Mass. Company Settles with EPA for Oil Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Erickson Fuel Company, Inc., a Medford, Mass. oil distributor, has agreed to pay a penalty of $14,500 to settle EPA claims regarding a January 2014 oil spill, and Erickson's failure to prepare an oil spill prevention plan.

  16. A sustainable approach to controlling oil spills.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdul Aziz; Adebayo, Abdulrauf Rasheed; Hossain, M Enamul

    2012-12-30

    As a result of the huge economic and environmental destruction from oil spills, studies have been directed at improving and deploying natural sorbents which are not only the least expensive but also the safest means of spill control. This research reviews the limitations and environmental impact of existing cleanup methods. It also justifies the need for concerted research effort on oil spill control using natural and sustainable technology concepts. The article proposes future guidelines for the development of a sustainable cleanup technology. Finally, guidelines for the development of a new technology for the Middle East are proposed, which is the use of an abundant resource--date palm fibers--for such techniques.

  17. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. (Restoration study number 73). Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.J.; Lowry, L.F.

    1994-05-01

    In the weeks following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, swam through oil and inhaled aromatic hydrocarbons as they breathed at the air/water interface. Concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile clearly indicated that most seals from oiled areas had been exposed to hydrocarbons. Before the EVOS, harbor seals in Prince William Sound were declining at an average annual rate of 12% in both oiled and unoiled areas. Aerial surveys in 1989 indicated a 43% decline at oiled sites versus an 11% decline at unoiled sites. By 1992, there were still 34% fewer seals at oiled sites than before the spill.

  18. Oil spill prevention and response: How to comply with OPA and OSPRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.

    1995-12-31

    When there is a man-made catastrophic event that adversely affects environment or the health and safety of the public, the government steps in to make and enforce laws to help prevent the reoccurrence of such events. This is the case with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) which was signed into law by President Bush in August of 1990. According to the EPA, the federal government received 42,000 notifications of oil discharges during the years of 1988 through 1990. In 1989, 38 spills exceeded 100,000 gallons including the infamous Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska`s Prince William Sound. The Federal government has not been alone in its interest with oil spill prevention and response. Many states have also enacted laws with the intent of protecting the environment from damage due to oil spills. The state of Texas enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 which compliments and expands on OPA. The most significant requirement of both of these laws is that of the Facility Response Plan (FRP). Both Federal and State agencies encourage the development of one plan for spill response and prevention. The use of one plan makes sense because this eliminates the opportunity for discrepancies land simplifies response during an actual spill. The purpose of this paper is to aid the petroleum industry in determining whether it is required to have a FRP, and if it is, how to develop a plan that will comply with both OPA and OSPRA.

  19. Impact of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez on survival and growth of dolly varden and cutthroat trout in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Fish/shellfish study number 5 (restoration study number 90). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hepler, K.R.; Hansen, P.A.; Bernard, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    Five emigrating populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were intercepted in 1989-1991 during seaward migration to Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill; two into the spill area, three into non-spill areas. Study populations were comprised of tagged adults and subadults. Survival rates were estimated with log-linear models of capture histories of tagged fish. We used a two-stage simulation based on bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques to compare average survival rates in study populations that were and were not associated with spilled oil. Growth and survival rates were significantly lower in study populations associated with spilled oil. Results are consistent with the occurrence of a deleterious impact on growth and survival of emigrating species, although unable to be confirmed as results emanated from observation, not experiment.

  20. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  1. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  2. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  3. Estimating the impacts of oil spills on polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2000-01-01

    The polar bear is the apical predator and universal symbol of the Arctic. They occur throughout the Arctic marine environment wherever sea ice is prevalent. In the southern Beaufort Sea, polar bears are most common within the area of the outer continental shelf, where the hunt for seals along persistent leads and openings in the ice. Polar bears are a significant cultural and subsistence component of the lifestyles of indigenous people. They may also be one of the most important indicators of the health of the Arctic marine environment. Polar bears have a late age of maturation, a long inter0brth period, and small liter sizes. These life history features make polar bear populations susceptible to natural and human perturbations.Petroleum exploration and extraction have been in progress along the coast of northern Alaska for more than 25 years. Until recently, most activity has taken place on the mainland or at sites connected to the shore by a causeway. In 1999, BP Exploration-Alaska began constructing the first artificial production island designed to transport oil through sub-seafloor pipelines. Other similar projects have been proposed to begin in the next several years.The proximity of oil exploration and development to principal polar bear habitats raises concerns, and with the advent of true off-shore development projects, these concerns are compounded. Contact with oil and other industrial chemicals by polar bears, through grooming, consumption of tainted food, or direct consumption of chemicals, may be lethal. The active ice where polar bears hunt is also where spilled oil may be expected to concentrate during spring break-up and autumn freeze-up. Because of this, we could expect that an oil spill in the waters and ice of the continental shelf would have profound effects on polar bears. Assessments of the effects of spills, however, have not been done. This report described a promising method for estimating the effects of oil spills on polar bears in the

  4. Differences in faecal profiles of porphyrins among river otters exposed to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Blajeski, A; Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T

    1996-01-01

    Abstract River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989, showed significantly elevated levels of faecal porphyrin over those of otters from non-oiled areas (oiled mean = 48.2, andnon-oiled mean = 34.5 nmol g(-1) dry faeces). Profiles of uro-, hepta-, hexa-, penta-, copro-, andprotoporphyrin profiles were qualitatively characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings suggest that river otters may serve as a suitable indicator species in which porphyrin profiles can be used to monitor the effects of marine andfreshwater crude oil exposure. Also, this is the first model showing the effects of an oil spill on porphyrins on a free-ranging mammal using a non-lethal methodology. These effects were detectable 1 year after the spill andfollowing a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  5. Alternative interpretations of oil spill data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.

    1997-01-01

    In his article "Oil, Seabirds, and Science" (BioScience 46: 587-597), John Wiens attempted to review Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) damage assessment studies and the politics of EVOS science in one stroke. In my opinion, neither purpose was particularly well served.

  6. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  7. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  8. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage.

  9. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  10. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... renewal of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public advisory...

  11. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: October 3, 2013...-5011. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee was created...

  12. Oil Spill! Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Ihle, Stephanie

    Presented in this unit are three activities concerning the causes and effects of oil spills and methods used to clean up these spills in the oceans and Great Lakes. Students construct and interpret a graph showing oil pollution sources. The students create and try to clean up a small-scale oil spill in a pan, and they compare the water quality of…

  13. SILKFORCAST: a new tool for quantitative oil spill contingency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Poley, J. P.

    1980-07-01

    SILKFORCAST is a deterministic oil spill simulation program and a probabilistic oil spill simulator based on a Monte Carlo approach. Modules are included for pre-processing of weather data from various sources into a unified format. Tidal current and wind data are also considered. The model permits the forecasting of oil spill fates on a long- and short-term basis.

  14. Mutual Interest: Engaging Vietnam on Oil Spill Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling builds trust and improves their response capability. The Commission concluded that the...Surface recovery skimmers were 26 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and...Sea. Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. Report to

  15. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms.

  16. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  17. The economy of oil spills: direct and indirect costs as a function of spill size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2009-11-15

    As a rational basis for addressing both ecological and economic consequences of oil spills, a combination of simulating and estimating methods is proposed in this paper. An integration of the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with economic assessment method leads to realistic oil spill scenarios including their biological and economic impacts and the effort taken for combat as well as to an estimate for the total oil spill costs. In order to derive a simple function of total costs depending on few spill characteristics such as size, a number of hypothetical scenarios are simulated and evaluated for the German North Sea area. Results reveal that response costs of per unit oil spilled as well as integrated costs of oil released are simply characterized as two particular power-law functions of spill size. Such relationships can be straightforward transferred into decision making for efficient prevention and combat strategy in the study area.

  18. Modeling VOC emissions and air concentrations from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R. ); Drivas, P.J. )

    1993-03-01

    During the two-week period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evaporated from the surface of the oil spill and were transported and dispersed throughout the region. To estimate the air concentrations of these VOCs, emissions and dispersion modeling was conducted for each hour during the first two weeks of the spill. A multicomponent evaporative emissions model was developed and applied to the oil spill; the model considered the evaporation of 15 specific compounds, including benzene and toluene. Both mass transfer from the surface of the spill and diffusion through the oil layer were considered in the emissions model. Maximum emissions of toluene were calculated to equal about 20,000 kg/hr, or about 5 g/m[sup 2] hr, at a time of eight hours after the initial oil spill. Meteorological data were acquired from sources and used to estimate hourly-averaged wind velocity over the spill. Air concentrations of specific components were calculated using the ATDL area source diffusion model and the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were predicted not to exceed 10 ppmv for any compound. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on migrant shorebirds using rocky intertidal habitats of Prince William Sound, Alaska, during spring, 1989. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    A minimum of a few 10,000`s of surfbirds (Aphriza virgata) and black turnstones (Arenaria melanocephala) used rocky intertidal habitats of southwestern Prince William sound in spring 1989. Virtually all the shorebirds were found using shorelines, primarily on northern Montague Island, subjectively classified in the field as lightly oiled or unoiled. Surfbirds and black turnstones preyed mainly on herring eggs, blue mussels, and barnacles. Samples of these prey items from oiled areas contained petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, as did at some of the samples from the relatively clean portions of Montague Island. The results of chemical analysis of a small sample of shorebird liver tissues provided only limited support for the hypothesis that shorebirds had ingested significant quantities of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Surfbirds and black turnstones probably escaped significant population impacts as a result of the EVOs because shorelines which received heavy use by these species were largely spared contamination.

  20. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  1. Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.

    1984-11-01

    A Field Guide for Oil Spill Behavior was developed to provide the On-Scene Coordinator with the spill-behavior information needed to assess whether timely and adequate containment and removal actions are taken. The field guide describes arctic ice conditions, the physical properties of oil as it weathers, oil spill behavior in cold water and ice conditions, and spill retention potential for the Alaskan shore line. The guide then uses six spill scenarios to show the user how to apply spill behavior information to solve real-world problems.

  2. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning.

  3. A predictive ocean oil spill model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D.; Papodopoulos, P.; Schaudt, K.; Szabo, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

  4. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  5. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %).

  6. [Study of automatic marine oil spills detection using imaging spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Lian; Han, Liang; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To reduce artificial auxiliary works in oil spills detection process, an automatic oil spill detection method based on adaptive matched filter is presented. Firstly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of C-H bond in oil spill are analyzed. And an oil spill spectral signature extraction model is designed by using the spectral feature of C-H bond. It is then used to obtain the reference spectral signature for the following oil spill detection step. Secondly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of sea water, clouds, and oil spill are compared. The bands which have large difference in reflectance spectral signatures of the sea water, clouds, and oil spill are selected. By using these bands, the sea water pixels are segmented. And the background parameters are then calculated. Finally, the classical adaptive matched filter from target detection algorithms is improved and introduced for oil spill detection. The proposed method is applied to the real airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral image captured during the deepwater horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico for oil spill detection. The results show that the proposed method has, high efficiency, does not need artificial auxiliary work, and can be used for automatic detection of marine oil spill.

  7. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  8. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  9. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  10. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. Restoration study number 73. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) had a measurable impact on harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, in Prince William Sound (PWS) and adjacent areas. During the EVOS, harbor seals were exposed to oil both in the water and on land. The study was designed to investigate and quantify, as possible, the effects of oil and the disturbance associated with cleanup on distribution, abundance, and health of harbor seals in the affected area.

  11. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  12. Oil Spill Detection: Past and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Singha, Suman

    2016-08-01

    In the last 15 years, the detection of oil spills by satellite means has been moved from experimental to operational. Actually, what is really changed is the satellite image availability. From the late 1990's, in the age of "no data" we have moved forward 15 years to the age of "Sentinels" with an abundance of data. Either large accident related to offshore oil exploration and production activity or illegal discharges from tankers, oil on the sea surface is or can be now regularly monitored, over European Waters. National and transnational organizations (i.e. European Maritime Safety Agency's 'CleanSeaNet' Service) are routinely using SAR imagery to detect oil due to it's all weather, day and night imaging capability. However, all these years the scientific methodology on the detection remains relatively constant. From manual analysis to fully automatic detection methodologies, no significant contribution has been published in the last years and certainly none has dramatically changed the rules of the detection. On the contrary, although the overall accuracy of the methodology is questioned, the four main classification steps (dark area detection, features extraction, statistic database creation, and classification) are continuously improving. In recent years, researchers came up with the use of polarimetric SAR data for oil spill detection and characterizations, although utilization of Pol-SAR data for this purpose still remains questionable due to lack of verified dataset and low spatial coverage of Pol-SAR data. The present paper is trying to point out the drawbacks of the oil spill detection in the last years and focus on the bottlenecks of the oil spill detection methodologies. Also, solutions on the basis of data availability, management and analysis are proposed. Moreover, an ideal detection system is discussed regarding satellite image and in situ observations using different scales and sensors.

  13. Harlequin Duck population injury and recovery dynamics following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Samuel A; Esler, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill caused significant injury to wildlife populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were particularly vulnerable to the spill and have been studied extensively since, leading to one of the most thorough considerations of the consequences of a major oil spill ever undertaken. We compiled demographic and survey data collected since the spill to evaluate the timing and extent of mortality using a population model. During the immediate aftermath of the spill, we estimated a 25% decrease in Harlequin Duck numbers in oiled areas. Survival rates remained depressed in oiled areas 6-9 years after the spill and did not equal those from unoiled areas until at least 11-14 years later. Despite a high degree of site fidelity to wintering sites, immigration was important for recovery dynamics, as the relatively large number of birds from habitats outside the spill zone provided a pool of individuals to facilitate numerical increases. On the basis of these model inputs and assumptions about fecundity rates for the species, we projected a timeline to recovery of 24 years under the most-likely combination of variables, with a range of 16 to 32 years for the best-case and worst-case scenarios, respectively. Our results corroborate assertions from other studies that the effects of spilled oil on wildlife can be expressed over much longer time frames than previously assumed and that the cumulative mortality associated with chronic exposure to residual oil may actually exceed acute mortality, which has been the primary concern following most oil spills.

  14. Economic impacts of the S. S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill.

  15. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  16. Operational approach for oil spill monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, Gutemberg B.; Landau, Luiz; Tores, Audalio R., Jr.; Drumond, Jose A. L.; Fragoso, Mauricio R.; De Almeida, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Gerson G.; Pedroso, Enrico C.; Beisl, Carlos H.

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the methodological approach of the oil spill monitoring system that is being put into operation by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) in Brazil. The methodology is based on integrated analysis of multi-sensor data which includes satellites products, such as, GOES and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SeaWiFs chlorophyll concentration, QuikScat near sea surface wind field, GOES and AVHRR convective rain areas, and Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 satellite. The methodology is implemented by means of a system composed by four subsystems called, data reception (SAR, GOES, NOAA and QuikScat), Integrator, hydrodynamic model and database. The methodology was applied to the accidental oil spill caused by PETROBRAS oil rig P-36. A RADARSAT-1 image was acquired during accident period at 21:07 (GMT) on 22nd of March 2001 and used. The results are presented and discussed.

  17. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m{sup 2} to about 12,000 m{sup 2}. Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 1981 international directory of oil spill control products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This directory provides detailed information on oil spill control products in the following categories: booms, pumps, skimmers, spill control chemicals, and sorbents. The information was obtained directly from manufacturers. Prices are not included. (DMC)

  19. Comparison of two shoreline assessment programs conducted for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, E.J.; Gilfillan, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Two large shoreline assessment studies conducted in 1990 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill used different design strategies to determine the impact of oiling on shoreline biota. One of the studies, the Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment (CHIA) conducted for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Council, used matched pairs of sites, normal population distributions for biota, and meta-analysis. The power of the CHIA study to detect oiling impacts depends on being able to identify and select appropriate pairs of sites for comparison. The CHIA study also increased the oiling signal by focusing on moderate to heavily oiled sites. The Shoreline Ecology Program (SEP), conducted for Exxon, used a stratified-random-sampling study design, normal and non-normal population distributions and covariates. The SEP study was able to detect oiling impacts by using a sufficient number of sites and widely spaced transects.

  20. Estimate of oil persisting on the beaches of Prince William Sound 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Short, Jeffrey W; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Harris, Patricia M; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Rice, Stanley D

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the amount of oil remaining in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 12 yr after the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill to assess its importance as a long-term reservoir of toxic hydrocarbons. We found oil on 78 of 91 beaches randomly selected according to their oiling history. Surface oiling was recorded for randomly placed quadrats, which were then excavated and examined for subsurface oil. The cumulative area of beach contaminated by surface or subsurface oil was estimated at 11.3 ha. Surface oil varied little with tide height, but subsurface oil was more prevalent at the middle tide heights. The mass of remaining subsurface oil is conservatively estimated at 55 600 kg. Analysis of terpanes indicated that over 90% of the surface oil and all of the subsurface oil was from the Exxon Valdez and that Monterey Formation oil deposited after the 1964 Alaska earthquake accounted for the remaining surface oil. These results indicate that oil from the Exxon Valdez remains by far the largest reservoir of biologically available polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on beaches impacted by the spill and that biota dependent on these beaches risk continued exposure.

  1. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  2. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  3. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  4. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  5. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Movements of weanling and adult female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-12. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six adult female sea otters and 64 weanling sea otters were instrumented with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound during 1989-1990 and monitored until November, 1991. Observations of the movements of adult female and weanling sea otters in prince William Sound indicated no tendency for individuals to emigrate from, or immigrate to, the area affected by oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. This finding indicates that the study groups of sea otters categorized as `western Prince William Sound oil-spill treatment` otters and `eastern Prince William Sound control` otters are indeed distinct groups of individuals. No tendency was observed for recently weaned sea otters to exhibit a preference for habitat units based on the likelihood that they would encounter spilled oil therein. Finally, data reported suggest that the recovery of the sea otter population in the oil spill affected region of Prince William Sound will likely be a direct function of the rates of survival and reproduction of the sea otters in the affected habitat with little or no influence from emigration or immigration.

  6. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Mark G.; Larsen, Marie L.; Holland, Larry G.

    2015-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers) including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs) lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water). Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable. PMID:26332909

  7. Proceedings of the Workshop on Government Oil Spill Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Oil spill model users and modelers were brought together for the purpose of fostering joint communication and increasing understanding of mutual problems. The workshop concentrated on defining user needs, presentations on ongoing modeling programs, and discussions of supporting research for these modeling efforts. Specific user recommendations include the development of an oil spill model user library which identifies and describes available models. The development of models for the long-term fate and effect of spilled oil was examined.

  8. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  9. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  10. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill II: Analysis of caged mussels. Air/water study number 3. Subtidal study number 3a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were deployed at 22 locations inside Prince William Sound and 16 locations outside the Sound at depths of 1, 5 and 25 m for 2 to 8 weeks to determine the biological availability and persistence of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez Oil (EVO) spill. Four successive deployments were made in 1989, and two each in 1990 and 1991. Mussels were analyzed for 27 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. PAH concentrations derived from EVO in mussels decreased with depth, time, and distance from heavily oiled beaches. Hydrocarbon accumulation derived from EVO by deployed mussels indicates petroleum hydrocarbons were available to subsurface marine fauna the summer following the spill, which may be a route of oil ingestion exposure by fauna at high trophic levels.

  12. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.; Elashvili, I.; Valdes, J.J.; Kamely, D.; Chakrabarty, A.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30{degree}C and above.

  13. Enhanced removal of Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Elashvili, I; Valdes, J J; Kamely, D; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-03-01

    Remediation efforts for the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker in Alaska have focused on the use of pressurized water at high temperature to remove oil from the beaches. We have tested a biological surfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for its ability to remove oil from contaminated Alaskan gravel samples under various conditions, including concentration of the surfactant, time of contact, temperature of the wash, and presence or absence of xanthan gum. The results demonstrate the ability of the microbial surfactant to release oil to a significantly greater extent (2 to 3 times) than water alone, particularly at temperatures of 30 degrees C and above.

  14. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  15. 78 FR 47723 - Information Collection: Forms for Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Forms for Oil Spill Financial Responsibility..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016 through 1023 and BOEM... collection renewal of requirements for BOEM's Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) regulations under...

  16. Environment effects of oil spill combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.; Mulholland, G.; Gross, D.; Baum, H.; Saito, K.

    1988-09-01

    Experimentation and analysis were performed to quantify the combustion of crude oil on water. The burning behavior of three crude oils -- ALBERTA SWEET, LA ROSE, and MURBAN, were studied using 1.2-m-diameter pool burns; in 0.6-m-diameter pool fires using ALBERTA SWEET, combustion products were collected for extensive chemical analysis. The analysis showed that about 10% of the crude oil was converted to smoke in the combustion process. The CO concentration was a factor of 25 lower than the primary gaseous product CO/sub 2/, and the emission of NO and NOx were less than one thousandth the concentration of CO/sub 2/. The PAH content of the smoke was enriched in the larger molecular weight species in comparison with the original fuel. A methodology was developed with which the down-wind dispersal of smoke generated by one or more oil-spill fires in close proximity may be predicted.

  17. Review of oil spill remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.F.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    Remote-sensors for application to oil spills are reviewed. The capability of sensors to detect oil and to discriminate oil from background targets is the most important assessment criterion. A common sensor is an infrared camera or an IR/UV system. This sensor class can detect oil under a variety of conditions, discriminate oil from some backgrounds and has the lowest cost of any sensor. The inherent weaknesses include the inability to discriminate oil on beaches, among weeds or debris and under certain lighting conditions oil is not detected. The laser fluorosensor is recommended because of its unique capability to identify oil on most backgrounds. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large area searches and foul weather remote sensing. Radar is costly and requires a dedicated aircraft. Radar is prone to many interferences. Equipment operating in the visible spectrum, such as a camera or scanner, is useful for documentation or providing a basis for the overlay of other data. It is not useful beyond this, because oil shows no spectral characteristics in the visible region.

  18. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  19. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  20. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  2. Fluorescence characteristics of oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, P. G.; Conmy, R. N.; Wood, M.; Lee, K.; Kepkay, P.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Emergency responders, agencies and researchers have tracked oil spilled during the Deepwater Horizon event using a number of techniques, including fluorescence, particle size and chemical analyses. Even though current protocols call for the use of in situ fluorometers to detect the presence of oil throughout the water column, these fluorometers have not been designed to yield information on changes in oil optical properties as it weathers and is chemically and/or physically dispersed. Multi-wavelength (Excitation Emission Matrix or multiple fixed wavelength) fluorometers and particle size analyzers are required to accurately monitor these changing properties in situ and in samples containing the oil suspended as droplets in seawater. Findings reported by the Unified Command Joint Analysis Group on fluorescence, particle size (by LISST) and chemical analysis data will be used to delineate changing oil properties and the results obtained from laboratory experiments using suspensions of Deepwater Horizon source oil will be compared to the environmental data (including information collected via ROV at the well head). The Deepwater Horizon spill was unprecedented in terms of magnitude, depth of the spill and subsurface dispersant application. The work presented here will improve current protocols by highlighting the critical fluorescence wavelengths needed to accurately track oil through marine systems.

  3. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  4. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  5. MICROBIAL POPULATION CHANGES DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil-spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil + nutrients, and oil + nutrients + an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In-situ microbial community str...

  6. Proximate composition and fatty acid signatures of selected forage fish species in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project 95121. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Worth, G.A.J.; Miculka, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    The proximate composition and fatty acid signatures of several prey species, which are important for sea birds and marine mammals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, were determined. Fish were collected as part of the SEA cruises in the fall of 1995 and were frozen immediately and then shipped to Galveston for analysis. Fatty acid signatures of herring, pollock, and tomcod were consistent with previously reported data, Three different species of sole (English, rock, and flathead) were also consistent with previously reported data for yellowfin sole. Detailed analyses of individual rock fish suggest that this species may exhibit trends in some specific fatty acids (20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3) which differ from herring or pollock.

  7. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-02

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production.

  8. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  9. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  10. Common murre abundance, phenology, and productivity on the Barren Islands, Alaska: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Boersma, P.D.; Parrish, J.K.; Kettle, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Principally because of the paucity of prespill data on the Barren Islands murre population size and reproductive success, it is impossible to quantify any effect on the spill on these populations. Available prespill data (1976--1978) on the East Amatuli murre population size ranges from 19,000 to 61,000 birds. These data are not systematic, replicated counts but rather are estimates indicating a broad range within which the true attendance figure probably resided. The postspill attendance counts range from 31,041 to 37,128 (1990--1992). Comparisons between matched historical and 1990s photographs showed nearly identical attendance patterns, although there were significantly more murres in the 1990s photographs. Postspill attendance data from multiply censused areas suggest a recovery may have been taking place because of greater than expected annual increases (+25% from 1990 to 1991). Prespill data on reproductive activity of the murres nesting in the Barren Islands were collected from a single 5 x 5-m plot located in a dense, flat section of the East Amatuli Light Rock colony. Comparisons with similarly collected postspill data suggest that phenology, egg production, and chick production are extremely variable among years, although chicks were fledged in all years. Egg and chick production were highest in 1977 and 1991 and lowest in 1992. 72 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  12. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  13. Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Radović, Jagoš R; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Jimenez, Núria; Reddy, Christopher M; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2014-02-15

    Understanding weathering processes plays a critical role in oil spill forensics, which is based on the comparison of the distributions of selected compounds assumed to be recalcitrant and/or have consistent weathering transformations. Yet, these assumptions are based on limited laboratory and oil-spill studies. With access to additional sites that have been oiled by different types of oils and exposures, there is a great opportunity to expand on our knowledge about these transformations. Here, we demonstrate the effects of photooxidation on the overall composition of spilled oils caused by natural and simulated sunlight, and particularly on the often used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the biomarker triaromatic steranes (TAS). Both laboratory and field data from oil released from the Macondo well oil following the Deepwater Horizon disaster (2010), and heavy fuel-oil from the Prestige tanker spill (2002) have been obtained to improve the data interpretation of the typical fingerprinting methodology.

  14. Cessation of oil exposure in harlequin ducks after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Cytochrome P4501A biomarker evidence.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Dickson, Rian D; Henderson, John D

    2016-10-20

    The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22-25 yr following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). Average EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. The present study replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 demonstrating that harlequin ducks using areas oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post spill. In the present study, it was found that average EROD activity during March 2011 was significantly higher in wintering harlequin ducks captured in oiled areas relative to unoiled areas, which the authors interpret to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 22 yr after the original spill. However, the 2011 results also indicated reductions in exposure relative to previous years. Average EROD activity in birds from oiled areas was approximately 2 times that in birds from unoiled areas in 2011, compared with observations from 2005 to 2009, in which EROD activity was 3 to 5 times higher in oiled areas. It was also found that average EROD activity during March 2013 and March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks from oiled areas. The authors interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 yr after the original spill. The present study finalizes a timeline of exposure, extending over 2 decades, for a bird species thought to be particularly vulnerable to oil contamination in marine environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-7. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  16. Ecological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Bogota, Columbia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in US History, with nearly 800 million liters spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities, protected species, over 1600 km o...

  17. Aerial photographic surveys analyzed to deduce oil spill movement during the decay and breakup of fast ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, I.M.; Baird, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    During the summers of 1979 and 1980 aerial photographs of the land fast ice north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were taken. These photographs, covering two-week periods, highlight the decay and break-up of the land fast ice sheet. During the period of photography, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, and tidal height measurements were recorded continuously. Several larger ice floes were 'tagged' with colored plywood markers during 1979. Both these marked flows and other distinctively shaped floes were tracked on the photographic surveys to determine the effect the wind had on their movement. Within the barrier islands, average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed exceeded the 3.5% figure 'normally' found in the literature. North of these islands average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed were less than the 3.5% value. In addition to the flow drift calculations the photographs provide information on melt pool formation and a comparison of the decay and breakup processes between the 1979 and 1980 seasons. The decay and breakup process appears to be triggered by strong wind events in early July.

  18. Long-term ecosystem repsonse to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C.H.; Rice, S.D.; Short, J.W.; Esler, Daniel; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Irons, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts.

  19. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Rice, Stanley D; Short, Jeffrey W; Esler, Daniel; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda E; Irons, David B

    2003-12-19

    The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows that current practices for assessing ecological risks of oil in the oceans and, by extension, other toxic sources should be changed. Previously, it was assumed that impacts to populations derive almost exclusively from acute mortality. However, in the Alaskan coastal ecosystem, unexpected persistence of toxic subsurface oil and chronic exposures, even at sublethal levels, have continued to affect wildlife. Delayed population reductions and cascades of indirect effects postponed recovery. Development of ecosystem-based toxicology is required to understand and ultimately predict chronic, delayed, and indirect long-term risks and impacts.

  20. K-ras oncogene DNA sequences in pink salmon in streams impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill: no evidence of oil-induced heritable mutations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Dunina, Yelena; Baker, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no fish from the area impacted by the oil spill were analyzed. We assessed K-ras exon 1 and exon 2 DNA sequences in pink salmon from five streams that were oiled and five streams that were not oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, and two streams with natural oil seeps and one stream without seeps on the Alaska Peninsula. Of the 79 fish analyzed for exon 1 and the 89 fish analyzed for exon 2, none had the nucleotide substitutions representing the mutations induced in the laboratory study. Other variable nucleotides occurred in similar proportions in oiled and non-oiled streams and probably represent natural allelic variation. These data do not support the hypothesis that heritable mutations in the K-ras gene were induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill or oil seeps.

  1. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  2. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  3. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  4. Fate of the oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.; Hameedi, M.J. ); Galt, J.A.; Watabayashi, G. ); Short, J.; O'Claire, C.; Rice, S. ); Michel, J. ); Payne, J.R. ); Braddock, J. )

    1994-12-01

    Just after midnight on March 24, 1989, the 987-foot tank vessel Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, releasing approximately 10.8 million gallons of North Slope crude oil into the Sound. The energetic environmental conditions in PWS and the extensive cleanup activities led to wide dispersion of the Exxon Valdez oil, which simultaneously underwent biodegradation and photooxidation. Although some more refractory residuals of the petroleum (e.g., high molecular weight PAH, resins, and asphaltenes) persist, many of these constituents are not readily distinguishable from other petroleum sources and naturally occurring hydrocarbon residues. We estimate that approximately 20% of the spilled oil evaporated and underwent photolysis in the atmosphere; approximately 50% biodegraded either in-situ on beaches or in the water column; approximately 14% was recovered or disposed; < 1% remained in the water column (except as biodegradation products); approximately 2% remained on intertidal shorelines; and approximately 13% remained in subtidal sediments, mostly in the GOA and again mostly as highly weathered residuals. 60 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Exxon Valdez oil spill environmental restoration series. Irregular report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdex ran aground on a well-marked reef in Prince William Sound. Within a few hours 10.8 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil had leaked into one of the most bountiful and diverse marine ecosystems in the world. This environmental disaster resulted in a court settlement that included $900 million to be administered by the joint state and federal Exxon Valdex Oil Spill Trustee council for damage assessment and restoration. The National Technical Information Service is making these studies available to the public as they are released by the Trustee Council. Of particular interest to oil companies, environmental groups, education institutions and large public libraries, this peer-reviewed collection will include about 70 damage assessment reports followed by 40 to 50 restoration study documents each year through the year 2001. The initial damage assessment papers are due for release in May 1995. NTIS is offering the material both on demand when each study is released and also as a standing order. By choosing the standing order plan, customers save handling cost and ensure automatic shipping of the entire series as soon as each report is available.

  6. Detection and monitoring of oil spills using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Glenda; Roper, William E.; Gomez, Richard B.

    2003-08-01

    Oil pollution is a very important aspect in the environmental field. Oil pollution is an important subject due to its capacity to adversely affect animals, aquatic life, vegetation and drinking water. The movement of open water oil spills can be affected by mind, waves and tides. Land based oil spills are often affected by rain and temperature. It is important to have an accurate management of the cleanup. Remote sensing and in particular hyper-spectral capabilities, are being use to identify oil spills and prevent worse problems. In addition to this capability, this technology can be used for federal and state compliance of petroleum related companies. There are several hyper-spectral sensors used in the identification of oil spills. One commonly use sensor is the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (AISA). The main concern associated with the use of these sensors is the potential for false identification of oil spills. The use of AISA to identify an oil spill over the Patuxent River is an example of how this tool can assist with investigating an oil pipeline accident, and its potential to affect the surrounding environment. A scenario like this also serves as a good test of the accuracy with which spills may be identified using new airborne sensors.

  7. Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) for the Upstream (Oil Exploration and Production) Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The SPCC rule requires facilities to develop, maintain, and implement an oil spill prevention plan, called an SPCC Plan. These plans help facilities prevent oil spill, as well as control a spill should one occur.

  8. Extent and frequency of vessel oil spills in US marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Tracey; Jin, Di

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about how marine protected areas (MPAs) may be vulnerable to vessel oil spills in the United States. This study investigated individual size, frequency, and total amount of vessel oil spilled in US MPAs, and how characteristics of MPAs and individual spill events influenced spills. Vessel oil spills in US waters (2002-06) and MPA boundaries were mapped. Total number and volume of oil spills inside and outside MPAs were computed. Results show that the presence of a MPA does not seem to prevent vessel oil spills or reduce the amount of oil spilled, and that a variety of MPA attributes (e.g., scale of protection, fishing restrictions, and others) and spill event characteristics (e.g., vessel type, year of spill, and others) affect oil spills inside and outside MPAs. These results can be used to develop MPA rules and marine transportation policies that reduce the vulnerability of sensitive resources to oil spills.

  9. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  10. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  11. Model of spills and fires from LNG and oil tankers.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2003-01-31

    A comprehensive model for predicting the dynamics of spills from LNG and oil product tankers is constructed from fluid mechanics principles and empirical properties of oil and LNG spills on water. The analysis utilizes the significant tanker hold and discharge flow area dimensions to specify the cargo liquid outflow history and the ensuing pool characteristics, including the establishment of a pool fire. The pool fire area, duration, and heat release rate are determined as functions of the tanker cargo variables. Examples of an LNG and gasoline spill show that for likely discharge flow areas these spills may be regarded as instantaneous, simplifying the evaluation of risk consequences.

  12. Marbled murrelet abundance and breeding activity at Naked Island, Prince William Sound, and Kachemak Bay, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 6. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The author compared pre- and post-spill abundance and breeding activity of murrelets near the Naked Island group in central Prince William Sound, and in Kachemak Bay in lower Cook Inlet. Murrelet numbers at Naked Island were lower in 1989 than in 1978-1980 but not in 1990-1992. At Kachemak Bay, where oiling was minimal, murrelet densities did not change between 1988 and 1989. The results suggest that the murrelet population at Kachemak Bay, further removed temporally and spatially from the spill epicenter, was not affected as the Naked Island populations in 1989. Murrelet numbers were negatively correlated to numbers of boats at both study sites, and cleanup activities likely contributed to disruption in 1989.

  13. Oil-and-gas resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is a short information circular on the history of oil-and-gas development in Alaska. It discusses the past discoveries and the future prospects and the estimated reserve base of the state. It also briefly discusses the oil-and-gas leasing program and exploration activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. A map of Alaska showing oil-and-gas fields, reserves, and lease boundaries is also provided.

  14. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  15. Active contour segmentation for hyperspectral oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-ping; Chang, Ming; An, Ju-bai; Huang, Jian; Lin, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Oil spills could occur in many conditions, which results in pollution of the natural resources, marine environment and economic health of the area. Whenever we need to identify oil spill, confirm the location or get the shape and acreage of oil spill, we have to get the edge information of oil slick images firstly. Hyperspectral remote sensing imaging is now widely used to detect oil spill. Active Contour Models (ACMs) is a widely used image segmentation method that utilizes the geometric information of objects within images. Region based models are less sensitive to noise and give good performance for images with weak edges or without edges. One of the popular Region based ACMs, active contours without edges Models, is implemented by Chan-Vese. The model has the property of global segmentation to segment all the objects within an image irrespective of the initial contour. In this paper, we propose an improved CV model, which can perform well in the oil spill hyper-spectral image segmentation. The energy function embeds spectral and spatial information, introduces the vector edge stopping function, and constructs a novel length term. Results of the improved model on airborne hyperspectral oil spill images show that it improves the ability of distinguishing between oil spills and sea water, as well as the capability of noise reduction.

  16. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y. L.; Tang, Z. Y.; Li, X. F.

    2014-03-01

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images.

  17. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  18. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Carls, M G; Babcock, M M; Harris, P M; Irvine, G V; Cusick, J A; Rice, S D

    2001-03-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from < 60 micrograms/g in reference beds to 62,258 micrograms/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 523 micrograms/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 micrograms/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  19. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Irvine, G.V.; Cusick, J.A.; Rice, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from <60 mg/g in reference beds to 62,258 mg/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 253 mg/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 mg/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  20. Are sea otters being exposed to subsurface intertidal oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill?

    PubMed

    Boehm, P D; Page, D S; Neff, J M; Brown, J S

    2011-03-01

    Twenty years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, scattered patches of subsurface oil residues (SSOR) can still be found in intertidal sediments at a small number of shoreline locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Some scientists hypothesize that sea otters continue to be exposed to SSOR by direct contact when otters dig pits in search of clams. This hypothesis is examined through site-specific examinations where SSOR and otter-dug pits co-occur. Surveys documented the exact sediment characteristics and locations on the shore at the only three subdivisions where both SSOR and otter pits were found after 2000. Shoreline characteristics and tidal heights where SSOR have persisted are not suitable habitat for sea otters to dig pits during foraging. There is clear separation between areas containing SSOR and otter foraging pits. The evidence allows us to reject the hypothesis that sea otters encounter and are being exposed by direct contact to SSOR.

  1. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  2. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota.

  3. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Decision support framework for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Octavio, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the state of oil spill response planning and an interpretation of the administrative, procedural and political climate surrounding response in general and in the Venezuelan case in particular reveals critical areas where things go wrong, affecting speed and appropriateness of response. Generic issues faced by any region preparing contingency plans are identified and techniques for resolving them and the appropriate institutional setting are suggested. The first reported design of an integrated interactive graphic microcomputer based decision Support System for operational oil spill response is presented. The integrated DSS with its status display and log entries provides a formal mechanism for recording activities, and their justifications at the time of occurrence so that activities and their consequences can be reviewed to improve procedures and priorities. There is an identifiable dearth of realistic training exercises meant to hone decision making skills under the pressures of an ongoing major spill event. The design of an operational oil spill response training system based directly on the framework of an interactive, graphics oriented Decision Support System for operational response to oil spills is presented. This training framework not only develops skills needed by new spill response coordinators in devising and carrying out action plans, it also identified flaws or gaps in managerial or institutional arrangements before the response system is tested by an actual spill. The underlying concepts of both the DSS and the training exercise are general and can be readily applied to any region concerned with organizing oil spill response.

  5. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  6. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  7. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again.

  8. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  9. The Role of Hydrology in the Persistence of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufadel, M.; Li, H.; Sharifi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated around 800 kilometers of shoreline in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Despite extensive cleanup efforts and nearly 20 years of natural weathering, subsurface oil residues persist in patches in some beaches. The hydrogeological mechanism causing the oil persistence was not fully understood due to the complex surface and groundwater interactions in the intertidal zone including tides, inland freshwater recharge, sediment heterogeneity, seawater density-effect and beach landforms. Based on field data and numerical simulations, we show that the persistence of oil is due to the two-layered structure (a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability layer) in conjunction with a small freshwater recharge. The surface layer probably provided the oil a temporary storage for its slow, continuous filling of the lower layer whenever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers due to small freshwater recharge from inland. The oil did not seem to have penetrated the lower layer at locations where the freshwater recharge was large. The persistence seems to be due to the lack of oxygen resulting from the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. This was not considered in prior studies dealing with the spill. This study has implications on locating and bioremediating spilled oil on tidal gravel beaches widely distributed around the world, especially in mid- and high-latitude regions.

  10. Oil spill fishery impact assessment model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry

    1985-01-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to assess the sensitivity of probable impact on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the impact on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. Impacts on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected cases. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest impact with cod being the most heavily impacted followed by haddock and herring. In all cases, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton impacted by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.

  11. Large-scale oil spill simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method, validation on the Lebanon oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Aljaž; Panjan, Jože; Žagar, Dušan

    2014-07-15

    This paper tests the adequacy of using the lattice Boltzmann method in large-scale oil spill modelling, such as the Lebanon oil spill. Several numerical experiments were performed in order to select the most appropriate lattice and to decide between the single- and two-relaxation time models. Large-scale oil spills require simulations with short computational times. In order to speed up the computation and preserve adequate accuracy of the model, five different flux limiting interpolation techniques were compared and evaluated. The model was validated on the Lebanon oil spill with regard to the oil-slick position and concentrations in the sea, and the beaching area on the coast. Good agreement with satellite images of the slick and field data on beaching was achieved. The main advantages of the applied method are the capability of simulating very low oil concentrations and computational times that are by an order of magnitude shorter compared to similar models.

  12. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  13. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  15. Application of ecological risk assessment principles to evaluation of oil spill impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Neff, J.M.; Pearson, W.H.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Maki, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    Ecological risk assessments are often used prospectively to predict the consequences of human activities on the environment. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the ecological impacts to commercial fishery resources resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Using the ecorisk paradigm, each of the studies correlated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in different environmental compartments with observed biological effects in local populations of herring and pink salmon. Hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column of the Sound were elevated for a short time after the spill, but 99.7% of the samples remained below the Alaska water quality standard and returned to background levels within a few months. PAH concentrations in sediments and eggs correlated with a very low degree of injury to early life stages of herring and salmon. Overall, effects of the spill on populations of herring and pink salmon were minimal and post-spill harvests of the year classes at greater risk of spill injury in the two years following the spill were at or near record levels. The program underscores the utility and strength of the risk assessment paradigm to identify contaminant related injury while considering effects attributable to natural ecosystem variability.

  16. Nearshore transport of hydrocarbons and sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 3b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, D.M.; Gibeaut, J.C.; Short, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sediment traps were deployed in nearshore subtidal areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) to monitor particulate chemistry and mineralogy. Complemented by benthic sediment chemistry and core sample stratigraphy at the study sites, results were compared to historical trends and data from other Exxon Valdez studies. These results clearly indicate the transport of oil-laden sediments from oiled shorelines to adjacent subtidal sediments. The composition of hydrocarbons adsorbed to settling particulates at sites adjacent to oiled shorelines matched the PAH pattern of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil.

  17. Supplemental information concerning a survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The EXXON Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. The spreading of spilled oil raised concerns of native Alaskans that their subsistence seafoods (fish, marine mammals, and invertebrate organisms) were contaminated by the spilled petroleum. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs).

  18. Oil Spill Dectection by Imaging Radars: Challenges and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpers, Werner; Zeng, Kan; Tang, DanLing

    2016-08-01

    Criteria for discriminating between radar signatures of oil films and oil-spill look-alikes visible on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the sea surface are critically reviewed. The main challenge in oil spill detection using SAR is to discriminate between mineral oil films and biogenic slicks originating from secretions (exudations) of biota in the water column. The claim that oil spill detection algorithms based on measuring 1) the reduction of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS), 2) the differences in the geometry and shape of the surface films, and 3) the differences in texture have a high success rate is questioned. Furthermore, it is questioned that polarimetric SAR data are of great help for discriminating between mineral oil films and biogenic slicks. However, differences in the statistical behavior of the radar backscattering is expected due to the fact that, other than monomolecular biogenic surface films, mineral oil films can form multi-layers.

  19. Technical report: Marine mammals study number 6. Mortality of sea otter weanlings in eastern and western Prince William Sound, Alaska during the winter of 1990-91. Marine mammal study 6-18. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rotterman, L.M.; Monnett, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sixty-four dependent sea otters Eastern Prince William Sound (EPWS): n = 24; Western Prince William Sound (WPWS), the oil spill area: n = 401 were captured, examined, instrumented with radio-transmitters, and monitored in Prince William Sound between September 1990 and July 15, 1991. While the absolute timing of instrumentation was similar for pups in EPWS and the oil spill area, pups in the oil spill area weighed significantly less at the time of capture than their counterparts in EPWS. Most pups in EPWS became independent of their mothers in October, whereas mother-pup separation typically occurred in November and December in the oil spill area. Most mortality in EPWS occurred during November and December of 1990, whereas most mortality in the oil spill area occurred during January 1991. Survival rates of weanlings over their first winter (analyses consider data until May 1, 1991) were significantly higher in EPWS (the control) than in the oil spill region.

  20. Planning for the human dimensions of oil spills and spill response.

    PubMed

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  1. Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W. ); Faro, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 showed elevated levels of blood haptoglobins, and interleukin-6 ir, as well as elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase in summer 1991. Stepwise logistic regression, using a subset of these and other blood proteins and enzyme activities as potential independent variables, correctly classified 86.4% of 22 otters as inhabiting oiled or nonoiled areas. River otters abandoned latrine sites (an index to their abundance) over three times more often in oiled than in nonoiled areas, suggesting there may have been a delayed response in river otter populations to exposure to crude oil. This is the first clear model for the long-term effects of an oil spill on blood parameters of a free-ranging mammal using a nonlethal methodology. These effects occurred two years after the spill and following a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  2. Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Palinkas, L.A.; Petterson, J.S.; Russell, J.; Downs, M.A. )

    1993-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts and the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms in 13 Alaska communities. METHOD: A community survey of 599 men and women was conducted approximately 1 year after the spill occurred. Questions from the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule were used to assess symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to assess levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The post-spill (i.e., 1-year) prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD for the study communities with all degrees of exposure was 20.2% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of respondents with CES-D Scale scores above 16 and 18 was 16.6% and 14.2%, respectively. When compared with the unexposed group, members of the high-exposure group were 3.6 times as likely to have generalized anxiety disorder, 2.9 times as likely to have PTSD, 1.8 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 16 and above, and 2.1 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 18 and above. Women exposed to this event were particularly vulnerable to these conditions, and Alaska Natives were particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms after the oil spill. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the oil spill's impact on the psychosocial environment was as significant as its impact on the physical environment. The Exxon Valdez experience suggests a number of implications for the mental health needs of disaster victims, particularly in primary care settings.

  3. 2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Oey, Leo; Xu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Hung-Fu; Fujisaki, Ayumi

    2011-06-01

    An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill trajectories based on multi-year ensemble analyses of simulated surface and subsurface ( z = -800 m) drifters released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill. The simulation compares well with satellite images of the actual oil spill which show that the surface spread of oil was mainly confined to the northern shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico, with some (more limited) spreading over the north/northeastern face of the Loop Current, as well as northwestward toward the Louisiana-Texas shelf. At subsurface, the ensemble projection shows drifters spreading south/southwestward, and this tendency agrees well with ADCP current measurements near the spill site during the months of May-July, which also show southward mean currents. An additional model analysis during the spill period (Apr-Jul/2010) confirms the above ensemble projection. The 2010 analysis confirms that the reason for the surface oil spread to be predominantly confined to the northern Gulf shelf and slope is because the 2010 wind was more southerly compared to climatology and also because a cyclone existed north of the Loop Current which moreover was positioned to the south of the spilled site.

  4. Deepwater Horizon – BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information and materials on EPA’s enforcement response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, including settlements with some of the defendants, as well as links to other related websites for additional information.

  5. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... spill and develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated...

  6. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    PubMed

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  7. The distribution of lingering subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, Jacqueline; Nixon, Zachary; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    This study used field data and a suite of geospatial models to identify areas where subsurface oil is likely to still be present on the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, as well as the factors related to continued presence of such oil. The goal was to identify factors and accompanying models that could serve as screening tools to prioritize shorelines for different remediation methods. The models were based on data collected at 314 shoreline segments surveyed between 2001 and 2007. These field data allowed us to identify a number of geomorphologic and hydrologic factors that have contributed to the persistence of subsurface oil within PWS and GOA two decades after the spill. Because synoptic data layers for describing each of these factors at all locations were not available, the models developed used existing data sets as surrogates to represent these factors, such as distance to a stream mouth or shoreline convexity. While the linkages between the data used and the physical phenomena that drive persistence are not clearly understood in all cases, the performance of these models was remarkably good. The models simultaneously evaluate all identified variables to predict the presence of different types of subsurface oiling in a rigorous, unbiased manner. The refined model results suggest there are a limited but significant number of as-yet unsurveyed locations in the study area that are likely to contain subsurface oil. Furthermore, the model results may be used to quantitatively prioritize shoreline for investigation with known uncertainty.

  8. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  9. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  10. THE OHIO RIVER OIL SPILL: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spill of diesel oil fuel from an Ashland Oil storage tank in January 1988 on the Monongahela River raised a number of technical, legislative, and administrative issues. These include as assessing long- and short-term environmental damage, evaluating regulations regarding oil ...

  11. The oil spill in ageing Bruch membrane

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A; Johnson, Mark; Rudolf, Martin; Huang, Jiahn-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is the largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and soft drusen and basal linear deposits are lipid-rich extracellular lesions specific to AMD. Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. Decades after these seminal observations, a natural history of neutral lipid deposition has been articulated and a biochemical model proposed. Results obtained with multiple biochemical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods, and supported indirectly by epidemiology, suggest that the RPE secretes apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein particles of unusual composition into BrM, where they accumulate with age eventually forming a lipid wall, a precursor of basal linear deposit. The authors propose that constituents of these lesions interact with reactive oxygen species to form pro-inflammatory peroxidised lipids that elicit neovascularisation. Here, the authors summarise key evidence supporting both accumulation of BrM lipoproteins leading to lesion formation and lipoprotein production by the RPE. The authors update their model with genetic associations between AMD and genes historically associated with plasma HDL metabolism, and suggest future directions for research and therapeutic strategies based on an oil-spill analogy. PMID:21890786

  12. Introduction to coastal habitats and biological resources for oil-spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.; Hoff, R.; Michel, J.; Scholz, D.; Shigenaka, G.

    1992-04-01

    The report discusses the physical, geological, and biological considerations relevant to oil behavior and oil spill response and cleanup. The intent is to contribute to an informed and effective oil spill response in coastal waters.

  13. Oil spill cleanup from sea water by carbon nanotube sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ke; Shang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng-Zhan; Li, Zhen; Li, Xin-Ming; Wei, Jin-Quan; Wang, Kun-Lin; Wu, De-Hai; Cao, An-Yuan; Zhu, Hong-Wei

    2013-06-01

    Oil spills in the sea have caused many serious environmental problems worldwide. In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges were used to cleanup oil slicks on sea waters. This method was compared with two traditional representative sorbents, including polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt. The CNT sponges had a larger oil sorption capacity than the other two sorbents. The maximum oil sorption capacity ( Q m) of the CNT sponge was 92.30 g/g, which was 12 to 13.5 times larger than the Q m of the other two sorbents (the Q m of the polypropylene fiber fabric and woolen felt were 7.45 and 6.74 g/g, respectively). In addition, unlike the other two sorbents, the CNT sponge was superhydrophobic and did not adsorb any water during oil spill cleanup. CNT sponges are potentially very useful for cleaning up oil spills from sea water.

  14. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  15. The Gladstone (Australia) oil spill - impacts on intertidal areas: baseline and six months post-spill.

    PubMed

    Melville, Felicity; Andersen, Leonie E; Jolley, Dianne F

    2009-02-01

    In January 2006, 25 tonnes of heavy fuel oil spilled into the Port of Gladstone in Queensland, Australia, from the breached hull of a bulk carrier ship. While approximately 18 tonnes of the oil was recovered, a certain amount of oil was deposited in the intertidal areas of Port Curtis leaving a highly visible, viscous residue. The objectives of this research were to assess the short-term (one month post-spill) and medium-term (six months post-spill) impacts on the intertidal habitat. Sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal concentrations, mangrove communities and intertidal macroinvertebrates were assessed at oil impacted sites, adjacent sites which were not visibly impacted and reference sites which were located outside the recorded distribution of the oil spill. At one month post-spill, highest PAH concentrations were found at the impacted sites, with concentrations of some PAHs exceeding Australian and New Zealand sediment quality guidelines (SQG) [ANZECC/ARMCANZ, 2000. Sediment Quality Guidelines. Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand]. However, by six months post-spill PAH concentrations had significantly decreased. PAH concentrations tended to be higher in the back (upper) intertidal zone than at the front of the mangrove stand, and sediment cores indicated that PAH contaminants had remained in the top 4cm of the sediment. These results indicate that the overall decreased PAH concentrations are likely to be due to evaporation, photoxidation and tidal flushing of the residual oil in these impacted sites. During the initial survey, the impact site contained very few or no crabholes in the high intertidal area, indicating a low crab density in comparison to reference sites. However, at six months post-spill mangrove crab communities appeared to be fully recovered with crabhole densities in impact sites similar to reference sites. While little

  16. Guidance for use of the oil spill liability trust fund

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This guidance document has been prepared to assist On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) and financial management personnel in accessing and using the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF) in orders to conduct oil pollution removal actions under Section 311(c) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Section 1012 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), and fully accounting for OSLTF funds. This document details the requirments and procedures for use of the OSLTF that are described in the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard for use of the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (MOU).

  17. DOE's Portal to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. The explosion and fire killed and injured workers on the oil rig, and caused major releases of oil and gas into the Gulf for several months. The Department of Energy, in keeping with the Obama Administrations ongoing commitment to transparency, provided online access to data and information related to the response to the BP oil spill. Included are schematics, pressure tests, diagnostic results, video clips, and other data. There are also links to the Restore the Gulf website, to the trajectory forecasts from NOAA, and oil spill information from the Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Coping with technological disaster: an application of the conservation of resources model to the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Arata, C M; Picou, J S; Johnson, G D; McNally, T S

    2000-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five commercial fishers in Cordova, Alaska, completed a mailed survey regarding current mental health functioning 6 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Economic and social impacts of the oil spill and coping and psychological functioning (modified Coping Strategies Scales, Symptom Checklist 90-R) were measured. Multiple regression was used to test the utility of the Conservation of Resources stress model for explaining observed psychological symptoms. Current symptoms of depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were associated with conditions resource loss and avoidant coping strategies. The Conservation of Resources model provided a framework for explaining psychological impacts of the oil spill. Future research is needed to identify factors related to recovery.

  19. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea.

  20. Tracking the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Hu, Chuanmin; Zheng, Lianyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be known about the oil and the dispersants beneath the surface, including their trajectories and effects on marine life. A system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth, was needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance. Such a system was implemented immediately after the spill by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities [e.g., Weisberg et al., 2009]. Analyzing this system's various strengths and weaknesses can help further improve similar systems designed for other emergency responses.

  1. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events.

  2. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick.

  3. Carbon isotopic comparisons of oil products used in the developmental history of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Warden, A.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the fate of oil released into Prince William Sound, AK, as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, have led to an unexpected discovery. In addition to oil-like residues attributed to the spill, the ubiquitous presence of flattened tar balls, the carbon isotopic compositions of which fall within a surprisingly narrow range [??13C(PDB) = -23.7 ?? 0.3??? (n = 65)], were observed on the shorelines of the northern and western parts of the sound. These compositions are similar to those of some oil products [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 35)] that were shipped from California and used in Alaska for fuel, lubrication, construction, and paving before ~ 1970. These products include fuel oil, asphalt, and lubricants [-23.8 ?? 0.5??? (n = 11)], caulking, sealants, and roofing tar [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 16)], and road pavements and airport runways [-23.5 ?? 0.9??? (n = 8)]. Fuel oil and asphalt [-23.5 ?? 0.1??? (n = 3)], stored at the old Valdez town site and spilled during the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, appear to be the source of most of the beached tar balls. Oil products with lighter carbon isotopic compositions, between -25 and -30??? (n = 18), appear to have been used more recently in Alaska, that is, after ~ 1970. The source of some of the products used for modern pavement and runways [-29.3 ?? 0.2??? (n = 6)] is likely Alaskan North Slope crude oil, an example of which was spilled in the 1989 oil spill [-29.2??? (n = 1)].

  4. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  5. Oil and Hazardous Materials Spill Response Technology Development, Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    intermediate fuel oil and marine diesel from the dry bulk carrier SELENDANG AYU. (U.S. Coat Guard Pollution Incidents In and Around U.S. Waters A...similar analysis of prevention efforts should be carried out in the future. 17. Key Words oil , hazardous material, oil spill, pollution ...the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 introduced major changes in tanker design and significantly increased the liability for spillers. At the same time

  6. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  7. Evidence for recovery of body mass and haptoglobin values of river otters following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B

    1994-07-01

    Levels of blood haptoglobin (Hp) and interleukin-6 immunoreactive protein (IL-6 ir) were significantly elevated in river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. By May and June 1992, however, such differences were not apparent. Mean body mass of otters, adjusted for sex, age-class, and total length with analysis of covariance, differed between oiled and non-oiled areas from 1990 to 1992, but were nearly identical by May and June 1992. We propose that river otters may be recovering from chronic effects that we observed in 1990 and 1991 following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, but further research is necessary to test this hypothesis.

  8. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  9. Simulating Surface Oil Transport During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Experiments with the BioCast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-25

    Virtual Special Issue Gulf of Mexico Modelling – Lessons from the spill Simulating surface oil transport during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill ...ocean surface materials. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provided a test case for the Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system...addition of explicit sources and sinks of surface oil concentrations provides a framework for increasingly complex oil spill modeling efforts that extend

  10. Disutility analysis of oil spills: graphs and trends.

    PubMed

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Sotiropoulos, Foivos S

    2014-04-15

    This paper reports the results of an analysis of oil spill cost data assembled from a worldwide pollution database that mainly includes data from the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. The purpose of the study is to analyze the conditions of marine pollution accidents and the factors that impact the costs of oil spills worldwide. The accidents are classified into categories based on their characteristics, and the cases are compared using charts to show how the costs are affected under all conditions. This study can be used as a helpful reference for developing a detailed statistical model that is capable of reliably and realistically estimating the total costs of oil spills. To illustrate the differences identified by this statistical analysis, the results are compared with the results of previous studies, and the findings are discussed.

  11. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed.

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbons in near-surface seawater of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill I: Chemical sampling and analysis. Air/water study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Short, J.W.; Harris, P.M.

    1996-04-01

    We sampled 32 locations during each of three sampling periods between 31 March through 8 May 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, for hydrocarbons in seawater at depths of 1-m and 5-m following the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez on 24 March 1989. Samples were analyzed for 22 alkane and 43 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analytes. The results show that Exxon Valdez crude oil PAHs were available to subsurface marine fauna the first few weeks following grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, especially in near-shore, near-surface waters that are biologically productive. Measured PAH concentrations, however, were well below those acutely toxic to marine fauna.

  13. Effects of the Oil Spill on Alaskan Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    Oil-industry-produced revenues, help finance Alaskan state and local governmental services including education. Capital losses incurred by the Exxon Corporation and by commerical fisheries as a consequence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill caused an economic recession, the result being diminished financing for a number of governmental programs and…

  14. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to Part 300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part...

  19. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Iverson, Samuel A; Lewis, Tyler L; Rizzolo, Daniel J; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Miles, A Keith; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  20. A Field Guide for Arctic Oil Spill Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    are called ice is easily deformed. As movement cracks, leads or polynyas depending decreases in the shorefast Ice, so 1-9 I does rafting, but In an...Ocean Resources Engineering, January 1980. 11. Peterson, Hanne K., Fate and Effect of Bunker C Oil Spilled by the USNS Potomac In Melville Bay, Greenland...with using any conventional it is likely to be streaming out spill response methods. As a result, Into polynyas and leads. This probably even so much as

  1. Detection of sea otters in boat-based surveys of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-19. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Costa, D.P.

    1995-05-01

    Boat-based surveys were used to monitor the Prince William Sound sea otter population before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Population and loss estimates could be obtained from these surveys by direct expansion from the counts in the surveyed transects under the assumption that all otters in those transects were observed. The authors conducted a pilot study using ground-based observers in conjunction with the August 1990 survey of marine mammals and birds to investigate the validity of this assumption. The proportion of otters detected by boat crews was estimated by comparing boat and ground-based observations on 22 segments of shoreline transects. Overall, the authors estimated that only 70% of the otters in surveyed shoreline transects were detected by the boat crews. These results suggest that unadjusted expansions of boat survey transect counts will underestimate sea otter population size and that loss estimates based on comparisons of unadjusted population estimates will be biased.

  2. Numerical simulation study on drift and diffusion of Dalian Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guosong; Xu, Shanshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Song

    2017-01-01

    Marine oil spill has long-term harmful impact on both marine ecosystem and economics. Recently as the increase in China’s rapid economic growth, the demand for energy is increasing, leading to the high risk of marine oil spill pollution. So it is essential that we improve emergency response capacity in marine oil spill pollution and develop oil spill prediction and early warning in China. In this study, based on Lagrange tracking approach, we have developed an oil spill model. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and hydrodynamic model, the oil spill model was applied to predict the drift and diffusion processes of Dalian oil spill. The predicted results are well agreed with the analyzed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image, and provided effective oil spill behaviour prediction to Shandong Maritime Safety Administration.

  3. Synergistic use of an oil drift model and remote sensing observations for oil spill monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Padova, Diana; Mossa, Michele; Adamo, Maria; De Carolis, Giacomo; Pasquariello, Guido

    2017-02-01

    In case of oil spills due to disasters, one of the environmental concerns is the oil trajectories and spatial distribution. To meet these new challenges, spill response plans need to be upgraded. An important component of such a plan would be models able to simulate the behaviour of oil in terms of trajectories and spatial distribution, if accidentally released, in deep water. All these models need to be calibrated with independent observations. The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate that significant support to oil slick monitoring can be obtained by the synergistic use of oil drift models and remote sensing observations. Based on transport properties and weathering processes, oil drift models can indeed predict the fate of spilled oil under the action of water current velocity and wind in terms of oil position, concentration and thickness distribution. The oil spill event that occurred on 31 May 2003 in the Baltic Sea offshore the Swedish and Danish coasts is considered a case study with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. The High-Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) is used for atmospheric forcing. The results of the numerical modelling of current speed and water surface elevation data are validated by measurements carried out in Kalmarsund, Simrishamn and Kungsholmsfort stations over a period of 18 days and 17 h. The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model. Near-infrared (NIR) satellite images were compared with numerical simulations. The simulation was able to predict both the oil spill trajectories of the observed slick and thickness distribution. Therefore, this work shows how oil drift modelling and remotely sensed data can provide the right synergy to reproduce the timing and transport of the oil and to get reliable estimates of thicknesses of spilled oil to prepare an emergency plan and to assess the magnitude of risk involved in case of oil spills due

  4. Long-term persistence of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in two-layer beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2010-02-01

    Oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez in 1989 (refs 1, 2) persists in the subsurface of gravel beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The contamination includes considerable amounts of chemicals that are harmful to the local fauna. However, remediation of the beaches was stopped in 1992, because it was assumed that the disappearance rate of oil was large enough to ensure a complete removal of oil within a few years. Here we present field data and numerical simulations of a two-layered beach with a small freshwater recharge in the contaminated area, where a high-permeability upper layer is underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. We find that the upper layer temporarily stored the oil, while it slowly and continuously filled the lower layer wherever the water table dropped below the interface of the two layers, as a result of low freshwater recharge from the land. Once the oil entered the lower layer, it became entrapped by capillary forces and persisted there in nearly anoxic conditions that are a result of the tidal hydraulics in the two-layered beaches. We suggest that similar dynamics could operate on tidal gravel beaches around the world, which are particularly common in mid- and high-latitude regions, with implications for locating spilled oil and for its biological remediation.

  5. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar utilized to track oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Maurizio; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Brown, Carl E.; Holt, Benjamin; Li, Xiaofeng; Pichel, William; Shimada, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    The continued demand for crude oil and related petroleum products along with the resulting upward spiral of the market price of oil have forced oil exploration and production companies to seek out new reserves farther offshore and in deeper waters. The United States is among the top five nations globally in terms of estimated offshore oil reserves and petroleum production. Yet deepwater drilling to extract these reserves is a major engineering challenge for oil companies. Moreover, such drilling activity also comes with a significant environmental risk, and the extremely high pressures associated with deepwater oil wells mean that the mitigation of accidental releases from a deepwater spill is truly a challenging endeavor.

  6. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  7. Oil spill response capabilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Westermeyer, W.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The Exxon Valdez incident has been a catalyst for the US to reexamine its technology and policies for fighting oil spills. Many organizations are now at work on the problems highlighted by this sill, including federal and state agencies and the oil industry. It is hoped that the attention generated by the Exxon Valdez will result in fewer spills and a greatly improved capability to fight the ones that will still occur. Cleaning up a discharge of millions of gallons of oil at sea under even moderate environmental conditions is an extraordinary problem. Current national capabilities to respond effectively to such an accident are marginal at best. Response technologies must and will improve, but in addition and perhaps more importantly, many improvements can be made in the way the country has organized itself to fight major spills. Nonetheless, prevention is still the best medicine.

  8. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    PubMed

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  9. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Neff, Jerry M; Johnson, Charles B

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince William Sound, Alaska more than 17 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Forty-three shoreline segments, whose oiling history has been documented by prior surveys, were surveyed. These included all shoreline segments reported by a 2003 NOAA random site survey to contain SSO residues in NKI. Sites were surveyed for the presence and location of otter foraging pits. Only one of 29 SSO sites surveyed was identified as an otter foraging site. Most buried SSO residues are confined to tide elevations above +0.8 m above mean lower low water (MLLW), above the range of intertidal clam habitat. More than 99% of documented intertidal otter pits at all sites surveyed are in the lower intertidal zone (-0.2 to +0.8 m above MLLW), the zone of highest clam abundance. The spatial separation of the otter pits from the locations of SSO residues, both with regard to tidal elevation and lateral separation on the study sites, coupled with the lack of evidence of intertidal otter foraging at SSO sites indicates a low likelihood of exposure of foraging otters to SSO on the shores of the NKI area.

  10. Automatic Calculation of Oil Slick Area from Multiple SAR Acquisitions for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoğlu, B.; Özkan, C.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band), Envisat ASAR (C-band) and Alos-PALSAR (L-band) sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days) allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  11. Prolonged recovery of sea otters from the Exxon Valdez oil spill? A re-examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Garshelis, David L; Johnson, Charles B

    2013-06-15

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) suffered major mortality after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1989. We evaluate the contention that their recovery spanned over two decades. A model based on the otter age-at-death distribution suggested a large, spill-related population sink, but this has never been found, and other model predictions failed to match empirical data. Studies focused on a previously-oiled area where otter numbers (~80) stagnated post-spill; nevertheless, post-spill abundance exceeded the most recent pre-spill count, and population trends paralleled an adjacent, unoiled-lightly-oiled area. Some investigators posited that otters suffered chronic effects by digging up buried oil residues while foraging, but an ecological risk assessment indicated that exposure levels via this pathway were well below thresholds for toxicological effects. Significant confounding factors, including killer whale predation, subsistence harvests, human disturbances, and environmental regime shifts made it impossible to judge recovery at such a small scale.

  12. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  15. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  16. Movement of spilled oil as predicted by estuarine nontidal drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomos, T.J.

    1975-01-01

    Information on water movement obtained from bimonthly releases of surface and seabed drifters in the San Francisco Bay and adjacent Pacific Ocean is used to understand major processes controlling dispersal of oil after a spill of 3,200 m3 of Bunker C in the bay in January 1971. River-induced nontidal estuarine circulation was the dominant factor controlling net movement of the oil spilled at the entrance of the bay system, reinforcing ebbing tidal currents and causing the seaward movement of floating oil, which followed paths taken by surface drifters released 3 weeks before the spill. In contrast, some oil formed globules which sank to the near-bottom waters, had the same relative buoyancy as seabed drifters, and moved similarly, beaching in eastern San Pablo Bay after being transported landward in the near-bottom waters. No oil or surface drifters floated into the south bay because surface waters were drifting seaward, away from the south bay. Notable seasonally modulated phenomena which must be considered in predicting surface and near-bottom oil drifts of future spills include a summer (low-river discharge period) diminution of the estuarine circulation mechanism in the north and central bayadjacent ocean region and a seasonal reversal in two-layer drift in the south bay.

  17. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: November 8, 2010,...

  18. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28645] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill... Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the....OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: December 2, 2010, 9 a.m.-5 p.m., and December 3, 2010, 9 a.m.-4...

  19. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  20. 76 FR 37141 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of... Interior, Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: July 26, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee...

  1. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE... oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  3. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ..., Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR part 253, ``Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for... CFR 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: MMS-1016, MMS-1017,...

  4. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  5. 77 FR 33763 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee... to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. Public Advisory Committee members will be selected...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  8. 75 FR 79961 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... discharge of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, which was thereafter declared a ``Spill of...

  9. 77 FR 38729 - Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 126 RIN 1625-AB82 Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response... Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, for oil spill response vessels, which are properly... operators of offshore supply vessels that may result in an increase in oil spill response capacity...

  10. 75 FR 9426 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss various issues to improve oil spill prevention and...

  11. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee...), following the recommendation and approval of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, and in consultation... the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court...

  12. 76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration... from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource trustee agencies (Trustees... resources and services injured or lost as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on...

  13. 75 FR 18524 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on oil spill prevention...

  14. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from...

  15. 78 FR 25472 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. DATES: Submit written... CFR Part 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities. Forms: BOEM-1016, 1017,...

  16. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  17. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  18. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting for the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: Wednesday, August...

  19. 75 FR 14622 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 19, 2010, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  20. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: Wednesday,...

  1. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Related Requirements for Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a)...

  3. 75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... Charter of the Commission can be found at: http://www.OilSpillCommission.gov . DATES: Monday, September...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  5. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Order 13543 of May 21, 2010 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the ``Commission''). Sec... against, and mitigating the impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling, taking...

  6. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...; 2050-AG63 Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of National Significance (SONS) Response AGENCIES: Coast Guard, DHS, and Environmental... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) temporary interim rule will suspend oil spill response time...

  7. 78 FR 33431 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for a... state natural resource trustees for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Trustees) intend to prepare a PEIS... discharges from the rig and from the wellhead on the seabed. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the...

  8. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice is hereby given that ] the Federal and State... the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico....

  9. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  10. 76 FR 15332 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: April 13, 2011, at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council Office,...

  11. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  12. The detection and prediction for oil spill on the sea based on the infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Liu, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Detection for oil pollution is an important part of the marine environment protection in maritime security. In order to realize all-weather, rapid and accurate oil spill area detection, infrared images of oil spill on the sea is processed on account of infrared thermal imaging's visual capacity in darkness and frog. The detection for oil spill is realized and the location as well as the area of oil spill is calculated. The prediction integrated model of oil spill spreading is established and the prediction simulation for oil spill area is realized by changing the oil varieties, environmental factors and time, etc. The results show that this simulation is accurate, fast, intuitive and simple. It has certain significance for realizing the early warning of oil spill area detection automatically, intelligently and quickly.

  13. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  14. Injury to crabs outside Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study number 22. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, J.L.; O`Clair, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    Commercial Dungeness crab fisheries exist near Kodiak Island and the eastern Alaska Peninsula. Both areas lie within the trajectory of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Thirty nine sites in the region were sampled in 1989 and 1990 to assess petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of crab tissues and benthic sediments with which crabs were associated. Female crabs were found in small numbers at 15 sites. Eight of these sites exhibited low levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments. Only two of the eight sites showed oil contamination that could be linked convincingly to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. None of the crab tissue samples showed evidence of contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  15. A drift experiment to assess the influence of wind on recovery of oiled seabirds on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We used wooden blocks to estimate the proportion of oiled seabird carcasses that were likely to be recovered on beaches of St Paul Island, Alaska following a near-shore oil spill. We released a total of 302 blocks 6 km north of the island in 1997 at the site of a 17 II 1996 oil spill. We used a paired design and released half the blocks when the winds were onshore and released the second half when the winds were offshore. We systematically searched beaches after the second release to recover blocks. We recovered 93 of 152 (61%) blocks released when winds were onshore but only 1 of 150 (0.7%) blocks released when winds were offshore. Given that winds following the 1996 spill were offshore, we conclude that most birds killed at sea following the 1996 spill were likely not recovered on beaches.

  16. A conceptual framework for understanding the mental health impacts of oil spills: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a conceptual framework for understanding and responding to the currently unfolding social and psychological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Drawing from the concept of corrosive communities and its relationship to theories of conservation of resources, cognitive activation, and risk and resilience, the conceptual model identifies three levels or tiers of impacts: biopsychosocial impacts that are direct consequences of the contamination of the physical environment; interpersonal impacts that are direct consequences of the biopsychosocial impacts; and intrapersonal or psychological impacts that are consequences of both the biopsychosocial and the interpersonal impacts. The model is then evaluated in light of research conducted in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill as well as studies of other manmade disasters, and offers a set of testable hypotheses that predict likely impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The conceptual framework may be used to identify strategies to develop community resilience and target specific services to prevent and mitigate these adverse effects.

  17. Bioremediation effects on steranes: Examples from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Moldowan, J.M.; Ekuan, A.; Dahl, J.

    1996-10-01

    Six samples of severely biodegraded oil residues were selected from a survey of 91 oil residues and tars in the area of Prince William Sound, Alaska. These samples were collected over a period from 1990 to 1994 following the 1989 spill of North Slope crude oil from the supertanker Exxon Valdez (EV). The six samples were among 28 that were shown to have been residues of the EV spill by carbon isotopes and biomarkers. These samples had correlating trends in the depletion of their C{sub 27} steranes, diasteranes and monoaromatic steroids compared with the sum of C{sub 27} + C{sub 28} + C{sub 29} homologues of these steroids, respectively. They also showed relative depletion of C{sub 26} triaromatic steroids compared with the C{sub 27} + C{sub 28} homologues. Losses of diasteranes, monoaromatic and triaromatic steroids prior to extensive depletion of the entire suite of steranes and hopanes have not been observed in reservoired biodegraded oils or seep oils, but have been observed in the analysis of land-farmed refinery wastes. These data suggest an operative mechanism during bioremediation at the surface, in which the sterane side-chain structure is the primary factor influencing relative steroid biodegradation rates, rather than the structure of the steroid ring system.

  18. Oil spill recovery: Oil booms and skimmers. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning booms, skimmers and skimming techniques used for oil spill recovery. Patents covering oil absorbent materials, dispersants, floating booms, methods and equipment for oil spill containment and collection, marine barriers, cryogenic beach cleaners, microbial materials, and ultrasonic oil removal are included. Citations concerning oil/water separation for non-oil spill recovery applications are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 177 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Pollution risk assessment of oil spill accidents in Garorim Bay of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2015-11-15

    This study presents a model to assess the oil spill risk in Garorim Bay in Korea, where large-scale oil spill accidents frequently occur. The oil spill risk assessment is carried out by using two factors: 1) The impact probability of the oil spill, and 2) the first impact time of the oil that has been spilt. The risk assessment is conducted for environmentally sensitive areas, such as the coastline and aquaculture farms in the Garorim Bay area. Finally, Garorim Bay is divided into six subareas, and the risks of each subarea are compared with one another to identify the subarea that is most vulnerable to an oil spill accident. These results represent an objective and comprehensive oil spill risk level for a specific region. The prediction of the oil spill spread is based on real-time sea conditions and can be improved by integrating our results, especially when sea conditions are rapidly changing.

  20. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  1. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION ON COASTAL SHORELINES: A CRITIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is not to provide an extensive review of the literature on oil spill bioremediation. For that, the reader is referred to Swannell et al. (1996), who have conducted the most exhaustive review I have yet to come across. Other reviews are also av...

  2. NASA DEVELOP Students Rev Up Response to Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    After the April 20th explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico, the world witnessed one of the worst oil spill catastrophes in global history. In an effort to mitigate the disaster, the U.S. government moved quickly to establish a unified command for responding to the spill. Some of the command's most immediate needs were to track the movement of the surface oil slick, establish a baseline measurement of pre-oil coastal ecosystem conditions, and assess potential air quality and water hazards related to the spill. To help address these needs and assist the Federal response to the disaster, NASA deployed several of its airborne and satellite research sensors to collect an unprecedented amount of remotely-sensed data over the Gulf of Mexico region. Although some of these data were shared with the public via the media, much of the NASA data on the disaster was not well known to the Gulf Coast community. The need existed to inform the general public about these datasets and help improve understanding about how NASA's science research was contributing to oil spill response and recovery. With its extensive experience conducting community-oriented remote sensing projects and close ties to organizations around Gulf of Mexico, the NASA DEVELOP National Program stood in a unique position to meet this need.

  3. A STRATEGY FOR PROTECTING CIRCULATING SEAWATER SYSTEMS FROM OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The double grounding of the freighter New Carissa, and resultant oil spills, on the central Oregon coast in spring of 1999 caused great concern regarding possible petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination of Coos Bay, Alsea Bay, and Yaquina Bay estuaries. Among these concerns wa...

  4. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and workers…

  5. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  6. Do oil and gold mix in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.V.

    1985-04-01

    Excellent potential for sea-floor-placer heavy mineral deposits exists locally along the coast of Alaska within lands owned by the state. Aspen Exploration first applied for precious metal offshore prospecting permits (OPPs) from the state in 1980 for certain lands in Cook Inlet, including lands that are prospective for oil and gas production. Exploration to date has included geologic mapping, beach sampling at many locations, and a 6400 mile low-level aeromagnetic survey. More than 20,000 ft of sediments underlie areas that appear most prospective for placer gold deposits, thereby facilitating geophysical interpretation of sea-floor magnetic anomalies. Work to date, now suspended, suggests large, linear, offshore heavy mineral concentrations, which likely include gold. Obtaining permits in Alaska is difficult, frustrating, and expensive. After 5 years of effort, no permits have been issues to Aspen. Primary opposition has come from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, which has taken the position that insufficient biological resource information is available in the prospect areas. These same offshore areas, however, are held under oil and gas leases from the state by various companies. The difficulties encountered by smaller oil companies in attempting to carry out exploration in Alaska, which have forced virtually all of them to abandon their efforts in this state, are compared with difficulties hard-mineral companies are encountering. It is important to recognize that income to the state of Alaska from oil royalties and taxes is of such magnitude, that needed support for hard-mineral exploration and mining is being suppressed by a hostile bureaucracy and by preservationists.

  7. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  8. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-12-31

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques.

  9. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions.

  10. The management in response to marine oil spill from ships in China: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangao; Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Wan, Jun; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-07-15

    Historical trends about marine ship-source oil spill incidents from 1990 to 2010 in China were analyzed, and it provided an overview of the status quo of China's management in response to marine oil spill from ships. The Chinese government has issued a series of laws on marine environmental protection since 1982, and promulgated many regulations to prevent and tackle ship-source oil spill. At present, the oil spill emergency response system established in China has five levels: the national level, sea level, provincial level, port level, and ship level. China has demonstrated its ability to control and remove small-scale oil spill from ships in port area and near-shore coastal waters, and also paid attention to related research and development projects. Although China has made significant progress in managing shipping oil spill, challenges still exist, including strengthening oil spill emergency cooperation, enhancing China's response capability, and improving relevant research and development projects.

  11. Three dimensional simulation of transport and fate of oil spill under wave induced circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Peter Sheng, Y

    2014-03-15

    An oil spill model is developed and coupled to a current-wave model to simulate oil spill transport in aquatic environments where waves are present. The oil spill model incorporates physical-chemical processes of oil spill, and simulates oil slick transport by a circulation-driven Lagrangian Parcel model. Using the coupled oil spill model and the current-wave model CH3D-SWAN, a laboratory observed wave induced circulation and oil slick evolution are successfully simulated, while different current-wave coupling schemes generate different flow patterns and oil slick evolution. The modeling system is also shown to simulate Langmuir circulation and resulting oil slicks. Hypothetical scenarios of oil spill near Virginia coast during Hurricane Isabel and Irene are simulated using the oil spill model and the CH3D-Storm Surge Modeling System to assess the role of storm waves during oil spill. The spill area is significantly larger when storm waves are considered, implying waves significantly increase oil spill dispersion.

  12. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches.

  13. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  14. A numerical oil spill model based on a hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Guo, W J; Wang, Y X

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is the development of a hybrid particle tracking/Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the simulation of spilled oil in coastal areas. Oil discharge from the source is modeled by the release of particles. When the oil slick thickness or the oil concentration reaches a critical value, particles are mapped on slick thickness or node concentrations, and the calculations proceed in the Eulerian-Lagrangian mode. To acquire accurate environment information, the model is coupled with the 3-D free-surface hydrodynamics model (POM) and the third-generation wave model (SWAN). By simulating the oil processes of spreading, advection, turbulent diffusion, evaporation, emulsification, dissolution and shoreline deposition, it has the ability to predict the horizontal movement of surface oil slick, the vertical distribution of oil particles, the concentration in the water column and the mass balance of spilled oil. An accidental oil release near Dalian coastal waters is simulated to validate the developed model. Compared with the satellite images of oil slicks on the surface, the numerical results indicate that the model has a reasonable accuracy.

  15. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  16. Biggest oil spill tackled in gulf amid war, soft market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Industry is scrambling to cope with history's biggest oil spill against the backdrop of a Persian Gulf war and a softening oil market. U.S. and Saudi Arabian officials accused Iraq of unleashing an oil spill of about 11 million bbl into the Persian Gulf off Kuwait last week by releasing crude from the giant Sea Island tanker loading terminal at Mina al Ahmadi. Smart bombs delivered by U.S. aircraft hit two onshore tank farm manifold stations, cutting off the terminal's source of oil flow Jan. 26. A small volume of oil was still leaking from 13 mile feeder pipelines to the terminal at presstime. Press reports quoted U.S. military and Saudi officials as estimating the slick at 35 miles long and 10 miles wide but breaking up in some areas late last week. Meantime, Iraq reportedly opened the valves at its Mina al Bakr marine terminal at Fao to spill crude into the northern gulf. BBC reported significant volumes of crude in the water off Fao 24 hr after the terminal valves were opened. Mina al Bakr is a considerably smaller terminal than Sea Island, suggesting that the resulting flow of oil would be smaller than that at Sea Island.

  17. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  18. Mid-Term Probabilistic Forecast of Oil Spill Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanedo, S.; Abascal, A. J.; Cardenas, M.; Medina, R.; Guanche, Y.; Mendez, F. J.; Camus, P.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the threat posed by oil spills to the coastal environment. This is reflected in the promulgation of various national and international standards among which are those that require companies whose activities involves oil spill risk, to have oil pollution emergency plans or similar arrangements for responding promptly and effectively to oil pollution incidents. Operational oceanography systems (OOS) that provide decision makers with oil spill trajectory forecasting, have demonstrated their usefulness in recent accidents (Castanedo et al., 2006). In recent years, many national and regional OOS have been setup focusing on short-term oil spill forecast (up to 5 days). However, recent accidental marine oil spills (Prestige in Spain, Deep Horizon in Gulf of Mexico) have revealed the importance of having larger prediction horizons (up to 15 days) in regional-scale areas. In this work, we have developed a methodology to provide probabilistic oil spill forecast based on numerical modelling and statistical methods. The main components of this approach are: (1) Use of high resolution long-term (1948-2009) historical hourly data bases of wind, wind-induced currents and astronomical tide currents obtained using state-of-the-art numerical models; (2) classification of representative wind field patterns (n=100) using clustering techniques based on PCA and K-means algorithms (Camus et al., 2011); (3) determination of the cluster occurrence probability and the stochastic matrix (matrix of transition of probability or Markov matrix), p_ij, (probability of moving from a cluster "i" to a cluster "j" in one time step); (4) Initial state for mid-term simulations is obtained from available wind forecast using nearest-neighbors analog method; (5) 15-days Stochastic Markov Chain simulations (m=1000) are launched; (6) Corresponding oil spill trajectories are carried out by TESEO Lagrangian transport model (Abascal et al., 2009); (7) probability maps are

  19. Oil spills in the Caribbean: a matter of time

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Hurricanes increase the risk of oil spills in the Caribbean region, a situation which the United Nations and affected islands recognize as requiring cooperative efforts to prevent and control. As shipping activity increases in the Caribbean, the threat is intensified by the small size and poverty of the area's islands, which depend heavily on tourist and fishing industries. The annual 250 million tons of crude oil shipped to or through the Caribbean can be expected to average 21 spills of 1000 tons within 50 miles of land and pose serious ecological and economic threats. A contingency plan based on cooperation and shared resources to deal with spills would not be expensive because the liability laws and compensation rights are clearly defined. The technologies available to combat oil spills range from biological agents to sweeping equipment. Response can be prompt, but the political and economic aspects are more delicate. A regional plan formulated by the islands and countries involved still needs to have formal intergovernmental agreements signed. (DCK)

  20. Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Trannum, Hilde C; Bakke, Torgeir; Hodson, Peter V; Collier, Tracy K

    2016-09-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill constituted an ecosystem-level injury in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Much oil spread at 1100-1300m depth, contaminating and affecting deepwater habitats. Factors such as oil-biodegradation, ocean currents and response measures (dispersants, burning) reduced coastal oiling. Still, >2100km of shoreline and many coastal habitats were affected. Research demonstrates that oiling caused a wide range of biological effects, although worst-case impact scenarios did not materialize. Biomarkers in individual organisms were more informative about oiling stress than population and community indices. Salt marshes and seabird populations were hard hit, but were also quite resilient to oiling effects. Monitoring demonstrated little contamination of seafood. Certain impacts are still understudied, such as effects on seagrass communities. Concerns of long-term impacts remain for large fish species, deep-sea corals, sea turtles and cetaceans. These species and their habitats should continue to receive attention (monitoring and research) for years to come.

  1. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota.

    PubMed

    Brussaard, Corina P D; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-04-04

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m(3) of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning.

  2. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    PubMed Central

    Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Peperzak, Louis; Beggah, Siham; Wick, Lukas Y.; Wuerz, Birgit; Weber, Jan; Samuel Arey, J.; van der Burg, Bart; Jonas, Arjen; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment of oil-spill effects, we performed two independent supervised full sea releases of 5 m3 of crude oil, complemented by on-board mesocosm studies and sampling of accidentally encountered slicks. Using rapid on-board biological assays, we detect high bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and dispersed oil within 24 h after the spills, occurring fairly deep (8 m) below the slicks. Selective decline of marine plankton is observed, equally relevant for early stages of larger spills. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to common thinking, even small spills have immediate adverse biological effects and their recurrent nature is likely to affect marine ecosystem functioning. PMID:27041738

  3. Derivation of shellfish harvest reopening criteria following the New Carissa oil spill in Coos Bay, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, D J

    2000-07-14

    Oil spills in Alaska, California, Maine, and other states have raised concerns regarding potential contamination of fish and shellfish, and have led to temporary closures of seafood harvests while health risks are assessed. Lacking standardized protocols, these assessments are generally ad hoc, site-specific efforts, with significant differences in risk evaluation criteria. This article describes the response of a state health agency to shellfish contamination following an oil spill on the Oregon coast, and discusses some of the factors that can complicate the evaluation of potential health risks from consumption of oil-contaminated shellfish. On 4 February 1999, the Japanese-owned cargo ship M/V New Carissa, carrying an estimated 400,000 gallons of light diesel and heavy fuel oil, ran aground 2 miles north of Coos Bay, Oregon. Damage to the ship's hull from the grounding and pounding surf caused the release of an estimated 25,000 to 70,000 gallons of oil. Concern for potential contamination of local recreational shellfish and commercial oyster beds prompted the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) to close shellfish harvesting in Coos and Douglas counties. ODA requested assistance from the Oregon Health Division in the derivation of risk-based criteria for reopening the shellfish harvest. Criteria were developed for the primary contaminants of concern, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) expressed as total benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) equivalents. "Safe" (<10 microg/kg) and "unsafe" (>45 microg/kg) BaP equivalent levels were derived based on upper end (32.5 g/d) and average (7.5 g/d) estimates of shellfish consumption, respectively. Composite samples of oysters, clams, and mussels (15-20 per composite) were collected from target areas and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Carcinogenic PAHs were converted to total BaP equivalents (wet weight) and compared with criteria. Two oyster samples, collected from a slough off of Coos Bay

  4. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long- term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  5. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-06

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  6. Thresholds in marsh resilience to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, Brian R.; Dixon, Philip M.; Wobus, Cameron; He, Qiang; Daleo, Pedro; Hughes, Brent B.; Rissing, Matthew; Willis, Jonathan M.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-09-01

    Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). Our analyses revealed a threshold for oil impacts on marsh edge erosion, with higher erosion rates occurring for ~1–2 years after the spill at sites with the highest amounts of plant stem oiling (90–100%). These results provide compelling evidence showing large-scale ecosystem loss following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. More broadly, these findings provide rare empirical evidence identifying a geomorphologic threshold in the resistance of an ecosystem to increasing intensity of human-induced disturbance.

  7. Thresholds in marsh resilience to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Dixon, Philip M.; Wobus, Cameron; He, Qiang; Daleo, Pedro; Hughes, Brent B.; Rissing, Matthew; Willis, Jonathan M.; Hester, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). Our analyses revealed a threshold for oil impacts on marsh edge erosion, with higher erosion rates occurring for ~1–2 years after the spill at sites with the highest amounts of plant stem oiling (90–100%). These results provide compelling evidence showing large-scale ecosystem loss following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. More broadly, these findings provide rare empirical evidence identifying a geomorphologic threshold in the resistance of an ecosystem to increasing intensity of human-induced disturbance. PMID:27679956

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to Prince William Sound spot shrimp. Subtidal study number 5. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Since the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill on March 24, 1989, four surveys have been conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to assess possible damage done by the oil spill to spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros. The surveys were conducted November 1989, March 1990, and November 1990 as Fish/Shellfish Study 15, then November 1991 as Subtidal Study 5. The report incorporates results of all surveys, but emphasizes November surveys and their analysis.

  9. A high-level synthesis of oil spill response equipment and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Vergetis, Emmanouil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N; Triantafyllou, George

    2004-02-27

    This paper presents an operational synthesis of major oil spill response methods (mechanical, chemical, etc.) and the corresponding oil response equipment for sea context (booms, skimmers, etc.). We focus on important features of oil spill response, in order to formulate a decision-based database, capable of supporting the development of a complete oil spill response operation. Moreover, we classify these findings and introduce simple formatting and standards to supply predictive tools for oil spill models. The actual goal of this paper is to come up with a decision-driven process, which can provide for a realistic choice of oil spill response equipment in the design of the primary oil response phase. This is intended to lead to a prompt, logical, and well-prepared oil spill response operation satisfying time and cost criteria and protecting the marine environment.

  10. Oil Spill Map for Indian Sea Region based on Bhuvan- Geographic Information System using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya kumar, L. J.; Kishore, J. K.; Kesava Rao, P.; Annadurai, M.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Hanumantha Rao, K.; Sasamal, S. K.; Arulraj, M.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Satyanarayana, S. N.; Shenoy, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    Oil spills in the ocean are a serious marine disaster that needs regular monitoring for environmental risk assessment and mitigation. Recent use of Polarimetric SAR imagery in near real time oil spill detection systems is associated with attempts towards automatic and unambiguous oil spill detection based on decomposition methods. Such systems integrate remote sensing technology, geo information, communication system, hardware and software systems to provide key information for analysis and decision making. Geographic information systems (GIS) like BHUVAN can significantly contribute to oil spill management based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. India has long coast line from Gujarat to Bengal and hundreds of ports. The increase in shipping also increases the risk of oil spills in our maritime zone. The availability of RISAT-1 SAR images enhances the scope to monitor oil spills and develop GIS on Bhuvan which can be accessed by all the users, such as ships, coast guard, environmentalists etc., The GIS enables realization of oil spill maps based on integration of the geographical, remote sensing, oil & gas production/infrastructure data and slick signatures detected by SAR. SAR and GIS technologies can significantly improve the realization of oil spill footprint distribution maps. Preliminary assessment shows that the Bhuvan promises to be an ideal solution to understand spatial, temporal occurrence of oil spills in the marine atlas of India. The oil spill maps on Bhuvan based GIS facility will help the ONGC and Coast Guard organization.

  11. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  12. Biodegradability Of Lingering Crude Oil 19 Years After The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 and 2003, geospatial surveys of lingering oil were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) resulting in a prediction of significant acreage being contaminated with substantial subsurface oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). In 2007, other researchers d...

  13. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  14. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  15. Consistency of PAH concentrations in fish, mussels, and water following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was undertaken to determine whether elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the tissues of pink salmon fry (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill were consistent with direct measurements of PAHs in water samples. This was accomplished by using published, laboratory derived bioconcentration (BCF) equations to estimate time-integrated PAH concentrations of the water in which the organisms lived. The resulting estimates of water PAHs compare within a factor of 2 to 5 with actual water measurements and show similar trends with time. Estimates based on salmon tissue agreed most closely with direct water measurements. The fish appear to accumulate PAH from the dissolved phase. For unoiled areas, water estimates based on mussel tissue agree with direct water measurements. However, for the spill path, water estimates based on mussel tissue are higher than direct water measurements. This is thought to result from the accumulation of small oil droplets or oiled sediment particles by filter-feeding mussels, something not done by the fish. Results of this study may be useful to mussel watch monitoring programs and ecological risk assessments.

  16. An empirical analysis of IOPCF oil spill cost data.

    PubMed

    Kontovas, Christos A; Psaraftis, Harilaos N; Ventikos, Nikolaos P

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on recent analysis of oil spill cost data assembled by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPCF). Regression analyses of clean-up costs and total costs have been carried out, after taking care to convert to current prices and remove outliers. In the first place, the results of this analysis have been useful in the context of the ongoing discussion within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on environmental risk evaluation criteria. Furthermore, these results can be useful in estimating the benefit of regulations that deal with the protection of marine environment and oil pollution prevention.

  17. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    PubMed

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme.

  18. Abundance quantification by independent component analysis of hyperspectral imagery for oil spill coverage calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hande

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of oil spill coverage is an important part of monitoring of oil spills at sea. The spatial resolution of images collected by airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing limits both the detection of oil spills and the accuracy of estimates of their size. We consider at-sea oil spills with zonal distribution in this paper and improve the traditional independent component analysis algorithm. For each independent component we added two constraint conditions: non-negativity and constant sum. We use priority weighting by higher-order statistics, and then the spectral angle match method to overcome the order nondeterminacy. By these steps, endmembers can be extracted and abundance quantified simultaneously. To examine the coverage of a real oil spill and correct our estimate, a simulation experiment and a real experiment were designed using the algorithm described above. The result indicated that, for the simulation data, the abundance estimation error is 2.52% and minimum root mean square error of the reconstructed image is 0.030 6. We estimated the oil spill rate and area based on eight hyper-spectral remote sensing images collected by an airborne survey of Shandong Changdao in 2011. The total oil spill area was 0.224 km2, and the oil spill rate was 22.89%. The method we demonstrate in this paper can be used for the automatic monitoring of oil spill coverage rates. It also allows the accurate estimation of the oil spill area.

  19. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, J.W.; Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Maselko, J.M.; Pella, J.J.; Lindeberg, M.R.; Payne, J.R.; Driskell, W.B.; Rice, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from ∼68% yr-1 prior to 1992 to ∼4% yr-1 after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil (“oil mousse”), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samples from the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change.

  20. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years.

    PubMed

    Short, Jeffrey W; Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Rice, Stanley D

    2007-02-15

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from approximately 68% yr(-1) prior to 1992 to approximately 4% yr(-1) after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil ("oil mousse"), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samplesfrom the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change.

  1. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  2. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  3. VLCC ’METULA’ Oil Spill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    strated in some of the color slides taken during the trip. The second band consisted of a light brown mousse, veiy similar to milk chocolate...inches. Many of these would be coated with oil on the ttp very similar to milk chocolate icing on a cupcake. Oil would also be found...STRAITS OF MAGELLAN 17 Assuming the oil/water ratios of five percent in the dark mousse and twenty-five percant in the milk chocolate mousse, it was

  4. Segmented floating fireproof oil spill containment boom

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, R. E.

    1985-03-26

    A floatable, fire-resistant spill containment boom that is easily deployable on the surface of a body of water is comprised of a series of fire-resistant planar main panels having flotation devices attached thereto to maintain the main panels in a substantially upright position when deployed. A portion of each panel is submerged and a portion is above the water to form a continuous barrier to contaminants spilled on the water surface. A first group of the main panels have flotation devices mounted directly on the faces of the panels, while a second group of panels has the flotation devices mounted thereon in outrigger fashion on arms pivotally attached to the main panel to carry the flotation devices between a deployed position spaced from the panel and a stowed position closely adjacent the panel. The main panels are connected by a semirigid coupling panel interposed between each pair of adjacent main panels and rigidly attached to said adjacent main panels. Preferably, the flotation devices are comprised of masses of closed-cell glass foam enclosed in a container of fireproof material, such as metal.

  5. Hydrophobic meshes for oil spill recovery devices.

    PubMed

    Deng, Da; Prendergast, Daniel P; MacFarlane, John; Bagatin, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Gschwend, Philip M

    2013-02-01

    Widespread use of petrochemicals often leads to accidental releases in aquatic environments, occasionally with disastrous results. We have developed a hydrophobic and oleophilic mesh that separates oil from water continuously in situ via capillary action, providing a means of recovering spilt oil from surface waters. Steel mesh is dip-coated in a xylene solution of low-density polyethylene, creating a hydrophobic surface with tunable roughness and opening size. The hydrophobic mesh allows oil to pass through the openings while preventing the concomitant passage of water. A bench-top prototype demonstrated the efficacy of such an oil recovery device and allowed us to quantify the factors governing the ability of the mesh to separate oil and water. Preliminary data analysis suggested that the oleophilic openings behave somewhat like capillary tubes: the oil flux is inversely proportional to oil viscosity, and directly proportional to the size of the mesh openings. An unpinned meniscus model was found to predict the water intrusion pressure successfully, which increased as the opening size decreased. The trade-off between water intrusion and oil flow rate suggests an optimal pore size for given oil properties and sea conditions.

  6. Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Hazen, Terry C

    2011-08-15

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills.

  7. An application of a vulnerability index to oil spill modeling in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBelle, R.P.; Rainey, Gail; Lanfear, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was made of the relative impact to the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico from proposed Federal Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas leasing activity. An oil spill trajectory model was coupled with a land segment vulnerability characterization to predict the risks to the shoreline. Such a technique allows spatial and temporal variability in oil spill sensitivity to be represented and combined with the likelihood of oil spill contact to specific coastal segments in the study area. Predicted relative impact was greatest along the coastlines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Useful information is provided for environmental impact analysis, as well as oil spill response planning.

  8. Investigating Montara platform oil spill accident by implementing RST-OIL approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, Valeria; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Oil Spills represent one of the most harmful events to marine ecosystems and their timely detection is crucial for their mitigation and management. The potential of satellite data for their detection and monitoring has been largely investigated. Traditional satellite techniques usually identify oil spill presence applying a fixed threshold scheme only after the occurrence of an event, which make them not well suited for their prompt identification. The Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach, in its oil spill detection version (RST-OIL), being based on the comparison of the latest satellite acquisition with its historical value, previously identified, allows the automatic and near real-time detection of events. Such a technique has been already successfully applied on data from different sources (AVHRR-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) showing excellent performance in detecting oil spills both during day- and night-time conditions, with an high level of sensitivity (detection also of low intensity events) and reliability (no false alarm on scene). In this paper, RST-OIL has been implemented on MODIS thermal infrared data for the analysis of the Montara Platform (Timor Sea - Australia) oil spill disaster occurred in August 2009. Preliminary achievements are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  10. NASA Earth Observations Track the Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jason B.; Childs, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program created the Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI) in 2007 "to enhance the region s ability to recover from the devastating hurricanes of 2005 and to address its coastal management issues going into the future." The GOMI utilizes NASA Earth science assets to address regional priorities defined by the Gulf of Mexico Alliance, a partnership formed by the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, along with 13 federal agencies and 4 regional organizations to promote regional collaboration and enhance the ecological and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. NASA's GOMI is managed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center and has awarded over $18 million in Gulf of Mexico research since 2008. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, GOMI personnel assisted members of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance with obtaining NASA remote sensing data for use in their oil spill response efforts.

  11. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, S. A.; Duncan, M. E.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a graduate student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas, to survey the damage. The purpose of these surveys was to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup.

  12. Tanker spills: Prevention by design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The study, prompted by the March 1989 grounding of the EXXON VALDEZ in Prince William Sound, Alaska, focused on how alternative tank vessel (tanker and barge) designs might influence the safety of personnel, property, and the environment, and at what cost. In selecting designs to be considered, the committee included certain operational options that might minimize the oil spilled in an accident. The study did not consider means of averting accidents, altering the form of cargo, or responding to oil spills.

  13. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-16. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound during the Exxon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. Concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in fat samples were an order of magnitude higher than in other tissues. The patterns of distribution of these hydrocarbons suggested crude oil as the source of contamination. However, there was variation among oiled otters in the concentrations of individual hydrocarbons, which may be due to differing proximate causes of mortality and varying lengths of time and sea otters survived following oil exposure. The concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the tissues of the ten oiled sea otters generally were higher than in tissues from 7 sea otters with no external oiling that were collected from prince William Sound in 1989 and 1990, or from 12 sea otters collected from an area in southeast Alaska which had not experienced an oil spill.

  14. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill.

  15. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed action analyzed in this final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is to restore, insofar as possible, the injured natural resources and thereby the services they provide that were affected by the Exxon Valdex oil spill (EVOS). The purpose of this document is to analyze the effects of proposed uses of the remaining funds (approximately $620 million as of February 1994, after final reimbursements) in accomplishing the mission of the Trustee Council.

  16. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. Remote Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring Beneath Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Adam; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang; Hwang, Byongjun (Phil); Hagan, Bernard; Stothard, David J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The spillage of oil in Polar Regions is particularly serious due to the threat to the environment and the difficulties in detecting and tracking the full extent of the oil seepage beneath the sea ice. Development of fast and reliable sensing techniques is highly desirable. In this paper hyperspectral imaging combined with signal processing and classification techniques are proposed as a potential tool to detect the presence of oil beneath the sea ice. A small sample, lab based experiment, serving as a proof of concept, resulted in the successful identification of oil presence beneath the thin ice layer as opposed to the other sample with ice only. The paper demonstrates the results of this experiment that granted a financial support to execute full feasibility study of this technology for oil spill detection beneath the sea ice.

  18. Advanced Sorbents for Oil-Spill Cleanup: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Huang, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Oil sorbents play a very important part in the remediation processes of oil spills. To enhance the oil-sorption properties and simplify the oil-recovery process, various advanced oil sorbents and oil-collecting devices based on them have been proposed recently. Here, we firstly discuss the design considerations for the fabrication of oil sorbents and describe recently developed oil sorbents based on modification strategy. Then, recent advances regarding oil sorbents mainly based on carbon materials and swellable oleophilic polymers are also presented. Subsequently, some additional properties are emphasized, which are required by oil sorbents to cope with oil spills under extreme conditions or to facilitate the oil-collection processes. Furthermore, some oil-collection devices based on oil sorbents that have been developed recently are shown. Finally, an outlook and challenges for the next generation of oil-spill-remediation technology based on oil-sorbents materials are given.

  19. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  20. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach.

  1. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of crude oils after Dalian oil spill, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; He, Shijie; Zhao, Mingming

    2013-06-15

    In an attempt to analyze the chemical characterization of oil residues and examine the suitability of chemical fingerprinting methods in oil spill investigations, multiple parameters sensitive to both sources and degree of weathering were used to characterize oil residues from "7-16" Dalian oil spill, China. Oil residues collected 90 days to 120 days after the spill showed a weathering pattern where significant amounts of light to middle molecular weight normal alkanes were depleted with pristane and phytane as dominant peaks. Diagnostic ratios developed from n-alkane and selected isoprenoids (e.g. Pr/Ph, n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, carbon preference index, LMW/HMW-alkanes ratio), all display obvious changes over weathering time, indicating that these ratios are not valid for oil source identification. Furthermore, the biomarker ratios of hopanes and steranes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.88-4.08% were useful for source identification even for severely weathered oil residues. In addition, RSD of δ(13)C values of individual n-alkanes in oil residue varied from 0.07% to 0.20%, which suggest that stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can also be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill.

  2. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  3. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed.

  4. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Lewis, Tyler L.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miles, A. Keith; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Henderson, John D.; Wilson, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  5. 76 FR 77128 - Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 126 RIN 1625-AB82 Alternate Tonnage Threshold for Oil Spill Response... International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, for Oil Spill Response Vessels (OSRVs), which... owners and operators of offshore supply vessels (OSVs) that may result in an increase in oil...

  6. 78 FR 66763 - Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore... requirements for 30 CFR 553, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities, as well as the revised... review by OMB. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 1010-0106. Title: 30 CFR 553, Oil...

  7. 75 FR 57900 - FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Economic Development Administration FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill Supplemental Federal Funding Opportunity AGENCY... (2010), EDA announces general policies and application procedures for the FY 2010 Gulf Oil Spill.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For additional information regarding the FY 2010 Gulf Oil...

  8. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  9. 30 CFR 250.219 - What oil and hazardous substance spills information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What oil and hazardous substance spills..., REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE... spills of oil (see definition under 30 CFR 254.6) and hazardous substances (see definition under 40...

  10. Material and methods for oil spill control and cleanup and extinguishing petroleum fires

    SciTech Connect

    States, J. B.

    1981-02-03

    A dispersal medium is described for cleaning of oil spills and the like and extinguishing petroleum fires. Its major quantitative part consists of a household liquid detergent and also contains eucalyptus oil, bovine urine, alfalfa and vitamin b-6. Methods of oil spill clean-up and fire extinguishing are also described.

  11. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Stubblefield, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Using tolerance intervals to assess recovery of mussel beds impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joel H; Braman, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been measured in mussel tissues in early spring and summer since 1993 throughout Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Season-specific thresholds were established at reference sites to identify 'above background' total PAH levels. Thresholds were estimated using one-sided 99% tolerance limits. Thresholds were similar across reference sites but differed by an order of magnitude across seasons. Trends in total PAH since 1998 were assessed for sites impacted by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill or the Alyeska Marine Terminal. Summer samples exhibited no trends; early spring samples declined. In early spring, all sites were judged 'recovered' by 2004; in summer, one site in western Prince William Sound and two in the western GOA exceeded thresholds by 11ng/g dry weight or less. Robust estimation methods prevented bias from observations affected by unknown releases or laboratory errors.

  13. Method for ranking biological habitats in oil spill response planning and impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.K.; Benkert, K.A.; Keller, C.; White, R.

    1984-08-01

    The report describes a method that enables oil spill response planners to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills by determining protection priorites for biological habitats. The objective of the method is to allow persons responding to an oil spill to quickly identify areas that should be protected first, second, and on to the extent that personnel and equipment are available. The first part of the report describes the rationale and general components of the method. The last part presents an application of the method to the Louisana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) spill response planning area. 28 references, 9 tables.

  14. Application of an oil spill fates model to environmental management on Georges Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.L.; Spaulding, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A general discussion of the construction of an oil spill fates model and its application in environmental management for risk assessment, spill forecasting and impact assessment decision making is presented. An overview of the ASA-URI oil spill fates model which includes drifting, spreading, evaporation, dispersion, and subsurface transport is given, taking particular note of the requirements for environmental data defining the current and wind fields in the study area. A series of simulations of oil spills using three crude oils (Statfjord Norway, Venezuelan, and Nigerian) over four seasons and two spill locations within the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area are performed and discussed in detail. Two representative spill events are modelled: a 68 million gallon well blowout of thirty days duration, and 20 million gallon tanker spill of five days duration. Oil types are defined by seven fractional partitions and specific gravity. Model output consists of the temporal and spatial distribution of surface spillets and subsurface concentrations as well as a time dependent mass balance of the oil in key environmental areas; sea surface, atmosphere, and water column. The simulations suggest that the time of spill inception is the most critical parameter in determining the spatial distributions of spilled oil, while oil type is the most important parameter in defining the partitioning of oil mass in the environment.

  15. Immediate impact of the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill on marine birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Lensink, Calvin J.; Butler, William; Kendziorek, Marshal

    1990-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker 'Exxon Valdez' spilled 260,000 barrels of crude oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Oil eventually drifted over $30,000\\ {\\rm km}^{2}$ of coastal and offshore waters occupied by approximately one million marine birds. More than 30,000 dead birds of 90 species were retrieved from polluted areas by 1 August 1989. Of those identified, murres (74%), other alcids (7.0%), and sea ducks (5.3%) suffered the highest mortality from oil, and most (88%) birds were killed outside of Prince William Sound. A colony of 129,000 murres at the Barren Islands was probably devastated. Another 7,000 birds were retrieved between 1 August and 13 October, but most of those birds appeared to have died from natural causes. This later die-off was composed largely of shearwaters and other procellariids (51%), gulls (22%), and puffins (14%). Based on aerial and ship-based surveys for populations at risk, and extrapolating from the number of dead birds recovered, we estimate that the total kill from oil pollution was from 100,000 to 300,000 birds.

  16. In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.

    PubMed

    Burgherr, Peter

    2007-02-09

    This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry.

  17. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Characterization of upland habitat of the marbled murrelet in the Exxon Valdez oil spill area. Restoration project 93051b (forest service component). Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeVelice, R.L.; Hubbard, C.; Potkin, M.; Boucher, T.; Davidson, D.

    1995-04-01

    This study documents ecological characteristics of areas in the Exxon Valdez oil spill area in southcentral Alaska with contrasting marbled murelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) detection levels. A total of 73 vegetation and 41 physical site variables were evaluated. Marbled murrelet activity level (number of detections) and the frequency of occupied behavior (behaviors indicative of nesting) increased with increasing area of coniferous forest. There was a positive relationship between activity level and the number of mossy platforms in trees. Significant correlations with an index of incoming solar radiation are interpreted as indicating a preference of marbled murrelets for sites sheltered from high winds and severe cold during the nesting period.

  1. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  2. Towards a common oil spill risk assessment framework – Adapting ISO 31000 and addressing uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio; Janeiro, Joao; Samaras, Achilleas; Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela

    2015-08-15

    Oil spills are a transnational problem, and establishing a common standard methodology for Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) is thus paramount in order to protect marine environments and coastal communities. In this study we firstly identified the strengths and weaknesses of the OSRAs carried out in various parts of the globe. We then searched for a generic and recognized standard, i.e. ISO 31000, in order to design a method to perform OSRAs in a scientific and standard way. The new framework was tested for the Lebanon oil spill that occurred in 2006 employing ensemble oil spill modeling to quantify the risks and uncertainties due to unknown spill characteristics. The application of the framework generated valuable visual instruments for the transparent communication of the risks, replacing the use of risk tolerance levels, and thus highlighting the priority areas to protect in case of an oil spill.

  3. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  4. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Short, Jeffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  5. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Maksimova, Ekaterina V; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2016-07-05

    We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.

  6. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    PubMed

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur.

  7. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  8. Overview of studies to determine injury caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughlin, Thomas R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Wright, B.A.; Rice, S.D.; Spies, R.B.; Wolfe, D.A.; Wright, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Marine mammal damage assessment studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill concentrated on sea otters, harbor seals, Steller sea lions, killer whales, and humpback whales. Sea otter and harbor seals were the most affected marine mammal; it was estimated that several thousand otters and several hundred harbor seals died within months of the spill. Steller sea lion, harbor seal, and sea otter numbers were monitored using aerial surveys. Studies of humpback whales and killer whales used photoidentification techniques to determine changes in abundance, distribution, mortality, and natality. Tissues from animals found dead in spill and control areas were analyzed for hydrocarbon levels. Sea otters, sea lions and harbor seals had elevated hydrocarbon levels, but only sea otters and harbor seals showed population declines associated with the spill. Humpback whales were not severely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Killer whale numbers in the resident AB pod declined after the spill. Coincidental evidence supports the oil spill as the causative agent.

  9. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A; Russell, J; Downs, M A; Petterson, J S

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed levels of depressive symptomatology in a household probability sample of Alaskan Native (N = 188) and Euro-American (N = 371) residents of 13 communities in Alaska. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in both the association between depressive symptomatology and exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts, and in the role of family support as a moderator of exposure to this technological disaster. Level of exposure was significantly associated with mean Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores in both Natives (p less than .05) and Euro-Americans (p less than .01). Both ethnic groups also reported significant declines in traditional relations with increasing levels of exposure (p less than .001). However, Natives had a significantly higher mean Exposure Index score than Euro-Americans and were more likely to report working on cleanup activities, damage to commercial fisheries, and effects of the spill on subsistence activities. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reported participation in cleanup activities and other forms of contact with the oil in Natives, and reported damage to commercial fisheries, use of affected areas, and residence in a community in geographic proximity to the spill in Euro-Americans. Perceived family support was not directly associated with depressive symptoms in either ethnic group, but did serve to buffer the effects of exposure on depressive symptoms in Euro-Americans. The results suggest that cultural differences play an important role in determining the psychosocial impacts of a technological disaster, particularly with respect to exposure, appraisal of an event as stressful, perceived family support as a moderator of stress, and expression of depressive symptomatology.

  10. Mortality and reproduction of female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-13. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six female sea otters were instrumeted with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989-1990. Females in eastern Prince William Sound exhibited a lower survival rate than those in western Prince William Sound. No differences were observed between rates of pupping or between rates of survival of dependent pups for sea otters in the two areas.

  11. Initial Results from the UAVSAR Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Minchew, B. M.; Holt, B.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    In June 2010, the UAVSAR platform was deployed to the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in order to collect fully-polarimetric L-band radar data over the open water and along Gulf coastlines. The data from the 2-day campaign is now being used to study the extent and impact of the oil spill, both in the open water and within the coastal ecosystems. The UAVSAR campaign was initiated with three primary goals: (1) Develop and validate algorithms for improved discrimination of oil slicks on water and identification of oil properties from radar backscatter; (2) study the use of radar for determining the extent of oil penetration into sensitive coastal ecological zones, in particular, to map the spread of oil from the coastline into coastal wetlands; and (3) study the use of radar in identifying and monitoring the recovery of vegetation affected by oil. In addition, we intend for the information from this study to inform and enable use of high-resolution radar imagery in future emergency response efforts. A second flight in October 2010 is planned to repeat the collection of marshland and coastal data for the impact and recovery studies. The first deployment occurred while oil was still leaking from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. UAVSAR data was collected over the ocean along 22-km wide swaths covering the rig site and the area around it. Additional data was collected over the gulf extending ocean data extending east from the rig site to an area south of Pensacola, Florida; over the Franklin Eddy in the east-central Gulf of Mexico, and directly east of the Florida Keys. The processed data has a resolution of 7 m x 7 m. We are now using this data to study oil identification and characterization using polarimetric decomposition techniques. The UAVSAR instrument has a noise floor (noise-equivalent σ0) of ~-50 dB, at least 20 dB below that of most radars imaging the oil spill. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument is allowing us to

  12. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  13. Extent and Degree of Shoreline Oiling: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H.; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P. Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill. PMID:23776444

  14. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  15. Uncertainty quantification and reliability assessment in operational oil spill forecast modeling system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xianlong; Hodges, Ben R; Feng, Dongyu; Liu, Qixiao

    2017-03-15

    As oil transport increasing in the Texas bays, greater risks of ship collisions will become a challenge, yielding oil spill accidents as a consequence. To minimize the ecological damage and optimize rapid response, emergency managers need to be informed with how fast and where oil will spread as soon as possible after a spill. The state-of-the-art operational oil spill forecast modeling system improves the oil spill response into a new stage. However uncertainty due to predicted data inputs often elicits compromise on the reliability of the forecast result, leading to misdirection in contingency planning. Thus understanding the forecast uncertainty and reliability become significant. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is implemented to provide parameters to generate forecast probability maps. The oil spill forecast uncertainty is thus quantified by comparing the forecast probability map and the associated hindcast simulation. A HyosPy-based simple statistic model is developed to assess the reliability of an oil spill forecast in term of belief degree. The technologies developed in this study create a prototype for uncertainty and reliability analysis in numerical oil spill forecast modeling system, providing emergency managers to improve the capability of real time operational oil spill response and impact assessment.

  16. Detection of oil spills using a 13.3-GHz radar scatterometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single-polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico (test site 128) off the Mississippi delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles (25 to 50 deg) decreased by 5-10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to the damping by oil of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer-acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected with high-frequency radar systems.

  17. Detection of oil spills using 13.3 GHz radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analysis of 13.3-GHz single polarized scatterometer data collected during NASA/MSC Mission 135, flown on March 16, 1970 are reported. Data were gathered over a crude oil spill on the Gulf of Mexico off the Mississippi Delta. With the aid of RC-8 camera photographs, the scattering cross section was correlated with the extent of the oil spill. The scattering cross section at higher incidence angles decreased by 5 db to 10 db in the presence of the oil spill. This was attributed to oil's damping of small gravity and capillary waves. The composite scattering theory and the scatterometer acquired data were used to obtain an expression of radar scattering over ocean surfaces with oil spills. The study demonstrates that the presence and extent of oil spills can be detected using high frequency radar systems.

  18. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils.

  19. Video systems for real-time oil-spill detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.; Woolever, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Three airborne television systems are being developed to evaluate techniques for oil-spill surveillance. These include a conventional TV camera, two cameras operating in a subtractive mode, and a field-sequential camera. False-color enhancement and wavelength and polarization filtering are also employed. The first of a series of flight tests indicates that an appropriately filtered conventional TV camera is a relatively inexpensive method of improving contrast between oil and water. False-color enhancement improves the contrast, but the problem caused by sun glint now limits the application to overcast days. Future effort will be aimed toward a one-camera system. Solving the sun-glint problem and developing the field-sequential camera into an operable system offers potential for color 'flagging' oil on water.

  20. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Database management. Fish/shellfish study number 30

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of damage and injury to natural resources as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the following types of data would need to be synthesized and carefully managed: (1) historical baseline data to establish conditions prior to the spill; (2) data generated by damage assessment projects to establish damage and extent of injury; and (3) data generated by ongoing monitoring projects to determine the effectiveness of restoration programs. The project was implemented to facilitate access to historical datasets maintained by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and to address the need to preserve the raw data generated by selected damage assessment projects associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  1. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M.; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil. PMID:26923622

  2. Autonomous Graphene Vessel for Suctioning and Storing Liquid Body of Spilled Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Geonhui; Seo, Dong Kyun; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Oh, Seung M.; Kang, Tae June; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-02-01

    Despite remarkable strides in science and technology, the strategy for spilled oil collection has remained almost the same since the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill. The graphene vessel devised here can bring about an important yet basic change in the strategy for spilled oil collection. When it is placed on the oil-covered seawater, the graphene vessel selectively separates the oil, then collects and stores the collected oil in the vessel all by itself without any external power inputs. Capillarity and gravity work together to fill this proto-type graphene vessel with the spilled oil at a rate that is higher than 20,000 liters per square meter per hour (LMH) with oil purity better than 99.9%, and allow the vessel to withstand a water head of 0.5 m. The vessel also has a superb chemical stability and recyclability. An expanded oil contact area, considerably greater than the thickness of the oil layer, forms at the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) foam interface upon contact with the spilled oil. This expanded contact area does not change much even when the oil layer thins out. As a result, the high oil collection rate is maintained throughout the recovery of spilled oil.

  3. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  4. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains a minimum of 79 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Biodeterioration of oil spills. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation, bioremediation, and bioreclamation of oil spills. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill control on lands, on water surface, and underwater are discussed. Topics include in-situ bioremediation, dispersants, gasoline spills from underground storage tanks, beach and harbor clean-up, groundwater pollution, and soil pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-07-27

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  8. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas—organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface—a highly oxygenated environment—is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re

  9. Oil spill monitoring via microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Affinito, Antonio; Bertolla, Luciana; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Oil spill detection and monitoring deserve huge attention in environmental protection as well as for timely planning maintenance actions, with the final aim to mitigate soil pollution. In this frame, the requirement for detailed subsurface diagnostics, while performing non-invasive surveys, motivates the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems and their continuous development in order to improve the achievable performance. Moving in this direction, this paper aims at investigating the reconstruction capabilities of a full 3D microwave tomography approach as a tool for pollution characterization and imaging. The microwave tomography approach exploits a Born Approximation based model of the electromagnetic scattering phenomenon and is capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave-material interaction. The reconstruction capabilities are assessed against experimental data referred to oil spill in dry and water saturated sand soils, gathered in laboratory controlled conditions at the Department of Geophysics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The provided results state that the full 3D microwave tomography approach is able to gain accurate images of the surveyed scenarios allowing to acquire information on the oil diffusion process in both the considered soils.

  10. Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on bald eagles. Bird study number 4. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Schempf, P.F.; Bernatowicz, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    We estimated that about 8000 bald eagles (Halieetus leucocephalus) inhabited the area affected by the spill at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conducted a 3-year study to determine effects of the spill on the bald eagle population and reproduction and survival of adults and fledglings. The greatest injuries to bald eagles occurred in 1989 and were manifested by direct mortality of bald eagles throughout the spill area and significantly reduced reproduction in PWS. We could not discern negative effects on the population or reproduction of eagles after 1989.

  11. Decision support system for emergency management of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Cretì, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Marra, Palmalisa; Palermo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an innovative web-based decision support system to facilitate emergency management in the case of oil spill accidents, called WITOIL (Where Is The Oil). The system can be applied to create a forecast of oil spill events, evaluate uncertainty of the predictions, and calculate hazards based on historical meteo-oceanographic datasets. To compute the oil transport and transformation, WITOIL uses the MEDSLIK-II oil spill model forced by operational meteo-oceanographic services. Results of the modeling are visualized through Google Maps. A special application for Android is designed to provide mobile access for competent authorities, technical and scientific institutions, and citizens.

  12. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification.

  13. Onshore transport of an oil spill by internal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, A.L.

    1987-03-06

    Internal waves generated by tidal currents concentrated and transported an oil spill (liquid asphalt) onshore. Plankton net samples were collected in front of and behind a set of internal waves as well as in the convergence and divergence zones over the waves. Tar balls were most abundant (greater than 30-fold) in the samples from the convergence zone. Comparison of the abundance of tar balls in front of and behind the set of waves suggested that the internal waves caught about 68% of the asphalt encountered and concentrated and swept shoreward tar balls from almost 8 kilometers of ocean.

  14. 75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office..., 2010, of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75...

  15. 75 FR 73116 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on...

  16. 77 FR 32978 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the..., Office of the Secretary is announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public...

  17. 50 CFR 622.14 - Area closures related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm. (b) Gulf EEZ area closure related... the Gulf EEZ identified in the map shown on the NMFS Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater... shown on the NMFS Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm....

  18. Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Dean, Thomas A; Woodin, Bruce R; Hoberg, Max K; Stegeman, John J

    2002-01-01

    Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7-10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally oiled, in comparison to fish from unoiled sites. In 1998, endothelial CYP1A in masked greenling from sites that were heavily oiled in 1989 was significantly higher than in fish collected outside the spill trajectory. In 1999, fishes collected from sites adjacent to intertidal mussel beds containing lingering Exxon Valdez oil had elevated endothelial CYP1A and EROD, and high concentrations of biliary FACs. Fishes from sites near unoiled mussel beds, but within the original spill trajectory, also showed evidence of hydrocarbon exposure, although there were no correlations between sediment petroleum hydrocarbon and any of the biomarkers. Our data show that 10 years after the spill, nearshore fishes within the original spill zone were still exposed to residual EVOS hydrocarbons.

  19. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  20. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  2. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  3. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 86 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. 30 CFR 553.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 553.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  6. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  7. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR)...

  8. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered, and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill...

  10. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a)...

  11. 77 FR 7174 - Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early... Addressing Injuries Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource... natural resources and services injured or lost as a result ] of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill,...

  12. Oil spill removal: Dispersants, absorbents, booms, and skimmers. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the techniques available for the removal of oil following major spills. Chemical dispersants, gelling agents, foam plastics, booms, skimmers, and burning are discussed. Specific oil spills are considered and the environmental impacts of oil spills are noted. (Contains a minimum of 207 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  14. 30 CFR 253.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 253.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To calculate the...

  15. 3 CFR 13543 - Executive Order 13543 of May 21, 2010. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling 13543 Order 13543 Presidential... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Establishment. There is established the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and...

  16. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  17. 46 CFR 126.225 - Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil spill response vessel certification. 126.225 Section 126.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 126.225 Alternate tonnage for offshore supply vessels seeking oil spill response vessel... also be certificated as an oil spill response vessel....

  18. 30 CFR 553.14 - How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine the worst case oil-spill... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Applicability and Amount of OSFR § 553.14 How do I determine the worst case oil-spill discharge volume? (a) To...

  19. Combustive management of oil spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  20. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  1. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  2. An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ezra; Pereira, Joao F; Retana, Gabriel; Baker, Andy; Lopez, John; McCorquodale, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP's 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick's proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks' location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information.

  3. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  4. Long term monitoring for oil in the Exxon Valdez spill region.

    PubMed

    Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Short, Jeffrey W; Larsen, Marie L

    2008-12-01

    In the aftermath of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, a Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program (LTEMP) has been regularly sampling mussels (and some sediments) for polycyclic aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons (PAH and SHC) at sites in Port Valdez, Prince William Sound, and the nearby Gulf of Alaska region. After 1999, a decreasing trend appears in total PAH (TPAH) in tissues at all sites with current values below 100 ng/g dry weight (many below 50 ng/g). Currently, most samples reflect a predominantly dissolved-phase signal. This new low in TPAH likely represents ambient background levels. Synchrony in TPAH time-series and similarities in the hydrocarbon signatures portray regional-scale dynamics. The five inner Prince William Sound sites show similar composition and fluctuations that are different from the three Gulf of Alaska sites. The two Port Valdez sites represent a unique third region primarily influenced by the treated ballast water discharge from the Alyeska Marine Terminal. Prince William Sound has reverted to a stable environment of extremely low level contamination in which local perturbations are easily detected.

  5. Food limitation and the recovery of sea otters following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, Thomas A.; Bodkin, James L.; Fukuyama, A.K.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Monson, Daniel H.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the potential role of food limitation in constraining the recovery of sea otters Enhydra lutris in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill. The spill resulted in the removal of a large number of sea otters in 1989, and as of 1998, the portion of the population in the heavily oiled northern Knight Island region had not fully recovered. Between 1996 and 1998, prey consumption rate was higher and the condition of sea otters was better at northern Knight Island than in an unoiled area of the sound (Montague Island). Estimates of prey energy available per unit mass of sea otter were about 4 times higher at Knight than Montague Island, albeit not significantly different between the 2 areas. Over this same period, the number of sea otters remained constant at northern Knight Island but increased at Montague Island. These data suggest that food was at least as abundant at Knight than at Montague Island, and that recovery of sea otters via intrinsic population growth was limited by factors other than food. However, the availability of food, the prey consumption rate, and the condition of sea otters were all much lower at both Knight and Montague Islands than in areas newly occupied by sea otters where the population growth rate was near the theoretical maximum. It is possible that the relatively short supply of food (compared to areas where sea otter population growth rate was high) may have inhibited immigration or interacted with other factors (e.g. oil-induced mortality or predation) to restrict sea otter population growth. Nonetheless, these data suggest that impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on large, often food-limited vertebrate predators can persist in spite of the availability of food resources that are sufficient for intrinsic population growth.

  6. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. An otter tragedy. [Environmental effects of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-03-27

    Otters appear to be the most vulnerable of all marine mammals to oil; oil reduces the insulating value of their fur by as much as 70% and otters are extremely vulnerable to oil poisoning through inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes, ingestion of petroleum, and absorption through the skin. After the Exxon Valdez accident in Alaska's Prince William Sound, dramatic efforts were made to rescue and rehabilitate otters and other sea animals. One hundred ninety seven of the treated otters were released back into the wild. However, soon after the release, wildlife biologist Lisa Rotterman reported an unprecidented die-off of never-oiled otters. Many of the treated otters may have carried a potentially novel herpesvirus, but whether this caused the die-off is controversial. It is also hard to separate symptoms of sickness, stress, and fear from oil toxicity. Overall the findings suggest a generic regimen for all oiled otters: antibiotics, vitamin and mineral supplements, and prompt administration of fluids. Assessing which animals need care is an urgent need. Strict quarantine, short captivity time, and protected handling of oiled animals are further suggestions.

  8. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km2, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  9. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    PubMed

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea.

  10. Oil spill fluorosensing lidar for inclined onshore or shipboard operation.

    PubMed

    Karpicz, Renata; Dementjev, Andrej; Kuprionis, Zenonas; Pakalnis, Saulius; Westphal, Rainer; Reuter, Rainer; Gulbinas, Vidmantas

    2006-09-01

    An oil spill detection fluorosensing lidar for onshore or shipboard operation is described. Some difficulties for its operation arise from the inclined path of rays. This is due to the increased reflection of the laser beam at the air-water interface, the decreased fluorescence signal, and the increased background light when compared with other instruments having a close-to-nadir measuring geometry. The analysis of these problems shows that they significantly reduce the detection distance in the presence of a flat water surface. However, waves on the water surface weaken the influence of the laser beam reflections but at the same time cause a variable fluorescence signal, which makes specific signal processing necessary for increased detection ranges. A fluorescence data processing method is proposed that efficiently eliminates the background water column fluorescence from signals such as yellow substance. This enables oil fluorescence to be distinguished from variable natural water fluorescence.

  11. Oil spill fluorosensing lidar for inclined onshore or shipboard operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpicz, Renata; Dementjev, Andrej; Kuprionis, Zenonas; Pakalnis, Saulius; Westphal, Rainer; Reuter, Rainer; Gulbinas, Vidmantas

    2006-09-01

    An oil spill detection fluorosensing lidar for onshore or shipboard operation is described. Some difficulties for its operation arise from the inclined path of rays. This is due to the increased reflection of the laser beam at the air-water interface, the decreased fluorescence signal, and the increased background light when compared with other instruments having a close-to-nadir measuring geometry. The analysis of these problems shows that they significantly reduce the detection distance in the presence of a flat water surface. However, waves on the water surface weaken the influence of the laser beam reflections but at the same time cause a variable fluorescence signal, which makes specific signal processing necessary for increased detection ranges. A fluorescence data processing method is proposed that efficiently eliminates the background water column fluorescence from signals such as yellow substance. This enables oil fluorescence to be distinguished from variable natural water fluorescence.

  12. Oil spill detection from SAR image using SVM based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Hajeb, M.; Azarakhsh, Z.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the potential of fully polarimetric L-band SAR data for detecting sea oil spills is investigated using polarimetric decompositions and texture analysis based on SVM classifier. First, power and magnitude measurements of HH and VV polarization modes and, Pauli, Freeman and Krogager decompositions are computed and applied in SVM classifier. Texture analysis is used for identification using SVM method. The texture features i.e. Mean, Variance, Contrast and Dissimilarity from them are then extracted. Experiments are conducted on full polarimetric SAR data acquired from PALSAR sensor of ALOS satellite on August 25, 2006. An accuracy assessment indicated overall accuracy of 78.92% and 96.46% for the power measurement of the VV polarization and the Krogager decomposition respectively in first step. But by use of texture analysis the results are improved to 96.44% and 96.65% quality for mean of power and magnitude measurements of HH and VV polarizations and the Krogager decomposition. Results show that the Krogager polarimetric decomposition method has the satisfying result for detection of sea oil spill on the sea surface and the texture analysis presents the good results.

  13. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing.

  14. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  15. Novel pathways for injury from offshore oil spills: direct, sublethal and indirect effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on pelagic Sargassum communities.

    PubMed

    Powers, Sean P; Hernandez, Frank J; Condon, Robert H; Drymon, J Marcus; Free, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico's floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum - the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures.

  16. Novel Pathways for Injury from Offshore Oil Spills: Direct, Sublethal and Indirect Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Pelagic Sargassum Communities

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Sean P.; Hernandez, Frank J.; Condon, Robert H.; Drymon, J. Marcus; Free, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The pelagic brown alga Sargassum forms an oasis of biodiversity and productivity in an otherwise featureless ocean surface. The vast pool of oil resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill came into contact with a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico’s floating Sargassum mats. Aerial surveys performed during and after the oil spill show compelling evidence of loss and subsequent recovery of Sargassum. Expanding on the trends observed in the aerial surveys, we conducted a series of mesocosm experiments to test the effect of oil and dispersants on the vertical position and weight of the Sargassum complex (Sargassum natans and S. fluitans), as well as on the dissolved oxygen concentrations surrounding the algae. Dispersant and dispersed-oil had significant effects on the vertical position of both species of Sargassum over a period of 72 hours. Similarly, dissolved oxygen concentrations were lowest in dispersant and dispersed-oil treatments, respectively. Cumulatively, our findings suggest three pathways for oil-spill related injury: (1) Sargassum accumulated oil on the surface exposing animals to high concentrations of contaminants; (2) application of dispersant sank Sargassum, thus removing the habitat and potentially transporting oil and dispersant vertically; and (3) low oxygen surrounded the habitat potentially stressing animals that reside in the alga. These pathways represent direct, sublethal, and indirect effects of oil and dispersant release that minimize the ecosystem services provided by floating Sargassum – the latter two effects are rarely considered in assessing impacts of oil spills or response procedures. PMID:24086378

  17. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  18. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B; Bolten, Alan B; Tucker, Anton D; Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J; Addison, David S; Mansfield, Katherine L; Phillips, Katrina F; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  19. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  20. Manual of practice - chemical treating agents in oil spill control. Final report Sep 77-Dec 80

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, R.W.; Foget, C.R.; Schrier, E.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide the On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) with a systematic methodology consistent with national policy that can be used to assess the case-by-case acceptability of oil spill treatment using chemicals, and to determine appropriate application procedures. It contains guidelines for evaluating spill safety, determination of relevant spill characteristics, prediction of treated and non-treated spill movement, and criteria for comparison of probable impacts with and without treatment. Dispersion of oil at sea, dispersion on the shoreline, and the use of surface collecting agents are considered. The manual additionally describes general chemical agent application procedures and dosage regulation.