Science.gov

Sample records for alaska pacific salmon

  1. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off Alaska. The FMP establishes two management areas: the East Area is the EEZ... economic and social benefits to the Nation over time, (5) protect wild stocks and fully utilize...

  2. Variation in responses to spawning Pacific salmon among three south-eastern Alaska streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaloner, D.T.; Lamberti, G.A.; Merritt, R.W.; Mitchell, N.L.; Ostrom, P.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    1. Pacific salmon are thought to stimulate the productivity of the fresh waters in which they spawn by fertilising them with marine-derived nutrients (MDN). We compared the influence of salmon spawners on surface streamwater chemistry and benthic biota among three southeastern Alaska streams. Within each stream, reaches up- and downstream of barriers to salmon migration were sampled during or soon after spawners entered the streams. 2. Within streams, concentrations of dissolved ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), abundance of epilithon (chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) and biomass of chironomids were significantly higher in reaches with salmon spawners. In contrast, biomass of the mayflies Epeorus spp. and Rhithrogena spp. was significantly higher in reaches lacking spawners. 3. Among streams, significant differences were found in concentrations of dissolved ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate and SRP, abundance of epilithon, and the biomass of chironomids and Rhithrogena. These differences did not appear to reflect differences among streams in spawner density, nor the changes in water chemistry resulting from salmon spawners. 4. Our results suggest that the 'enrichment' effect of salmon spawners (e.g. increased streamwater nutrient concentrations) was balanced by other concurrent effects of spawners on streams (e.g. sediment disturbance). Furthermore, the collective effect of spawners on lotic ecosystems is likely to be constrained by conditions unique to individual streams, such as temperature, background water chemistry and light attenuation.

  3. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  4. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  5. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C.; Litzow, Michael A.; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures—before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  6. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  7. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ..., fishing communities affected by the FMP, and safety of human life at sea. The fishery impact statement..., stream, or watershed. Given salmon's particular life history attributes, the Council's preferred...

  8. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... escapement-based management. Escapement-based management takes into consideration the unique life history of... sockeye, which utilize lakes as part of their life cycle. Every over-escapement event results in (1) lost.... The biology of salmon is such that escapement is the point in the species life history best suited...

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity in Shallow Streambed Water Temperatures, Copper River Delta, Alaska: Implications for Understanding Landscape-Scale Climate Change Impacts to Pacific Salmon Egg Incubation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelfio, L. A.; Wondzell, S. M.; Reeves, G. H.; Mantua, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow streambed water temperature is a driving factor for Pacific salmon egg incubation. Small (1 to 2 oC) increases in incubation period water temperature may accelerate embryo development. We collected year-round water temperature data at 14 salmon spawning areas on the Copper River Delta (CRD), a 100 km wide coastal foreland in Southcentral Alaska. Our data show considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity in shallow streambed water temperatures. Different water sources (precipitation vs. groundwater) and a spectrum of hydraulic conductivity and pressure head conditions were also observed. Landscape-scale patterns were not adequately characterized by typical watershed metrics including elevation, area, and slope. We found that catchment- and reach- scale geomorphology and surficial geology govern the surface-groundwater interactions that determine shallow streambed water temperature. The observed differences indicate that, across the CRD landscape, shallow streambed water temperature will not respond equally to projected climatic changes. Water temperature sensitivity to atmospheric conditions also varied by season, suggesting that year-round water temperature data are valuable for assessing potential climate change impacts to Pacific salmon in catchments where incubation period air temperatures are projected to exceed the freezing point with increasing frequency.

  10. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region. PMID:26645380

  11. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wobus, Cameron; Prucha, Robert; Albert, David; Woll, Christine; Loinaz, Maria; Jones, Russell; Travers, Constance

    2015-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.

  12. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  13. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  14. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  15. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  16. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  17. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  18. Impacts of Climatic Change and Fishing on Pacific Salmon Abundance Over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Sweetman, Jon; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2000-10-01

    The effects of climate variability on Pacific salmon abundance are uncertain because historical records are short and are complicated by commercial harvesting and habitat alteration. We use lake sediment records of δ15N and biological indicators to reconstruct sockeye salmon abundance in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years. Marked shifts in populations occurred over decades during this period, and some pronounced changes appear to be related to climatic change. Variations in salmon returns due to climate or harvesting can have strong impacts on sockeye nursery lake productivity in systems where adult salmon carcasses are important nutrient sources.

  19. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  20. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  1. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  2. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  3. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  4. SCIENCE, POLICY, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  5. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, and socially divisive. Past restoration efforts have been largely unsuccessful. Society's failure to reverse the continuing decline of wild salmon has the characteristics of a pol...

  6. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  7. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    PubMed

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    We use relationships between modern Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) escapement (migrating adults counted at weirs or dams) and riparian tree-ring growth to reconstruct the abundance of stream-spawning salmon over 150-350 years. After examining nine sites, we produced reconstructions for five mid-order rivers and four salmon species over a large geographic range in the Pacific Northwest: chinook (O. tschwatcha) in the Umpqua River, Oregon, USA; sockeye (O. nerka) in Drinkwater Creek, British Columbia, Canada; pink (O. gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; chum (O. keta) in Disappearance Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; and pink and chum in the Kadashan River, southeastern Alaska, USA. We first derived stand-level, non-climatic growth chronologies from riparian trees using standard dendroecology methods and differencing. When the chronologies were compared to 18-55 years of adult salmon escapement we detected positive, significant correlations at five of the nine sites. Regression models relating escapement to tree-ring growth at the five sites were applied to the differenced chronologies to reconstruct salmon abundance. Each reconstruction contains unique patterns characteristic of the site and salmon species. Reconstructions were validated by comparison to local histories (e.g., construction of dams and salmon canneries) and regional fisheries data such as salmon landings and aerial surveys and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate index. The reconstructions capture lower-frequency cycles better than extremes and are most useful for determination and comparison of relative abundance, cycles, and the effects of interventions. Reconstructions show lower population cycle maxima in both Umpqua River chinook and Sashin Creek pink salmon in recent decades. The Drinkwater Creek reconstruction suggests that sockeye abundance since the mid-1990s has been 15-25% higher than at any time since 1850, while no long-term deviations from natural cycles are

  8. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... industry fee system to repay a $23,476,500 loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery... Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn.: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon...

  9. Genetic analysis of paramyxovirus isolates from pacific salmon reveals two independently co-circulating lineages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Falk, K.; Winton, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Viruses with the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the family Paramyxoviridae (paramyxoviruses) have been isolated from adult salmon returning to rivers along the Pacific coast of North America since 1982. These Pacific salmon paramyxoviruses (PSPV), which have mainly been isolated from Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, grow slowly in established fish cell lines and have not been associated with disease. Genetic analysis of a 505-base-pair region of the polymerase gene from 47 PsPV isolates produced 17 nucleotide sequence types that could be grouped into two major sublineages, designated A and B. The two independently co-circulating sublineages differed by 12.1-13.9% at the nucleotide level but by only 1.2% at the amino acid level. Isolates of PSPV from adult Pacific salmon returning to rivers from Alaska to California over a 25-year period showed little evidence of geographic or temporal grouping. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these paramyxoviruses of Pacific salmon were most closely related to the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV) from Norway, having a maximum nucleotide diversity of 26.1 % and an amino acid diversity of 19.0%. When compared with homologous sequences of other paramyxoviruses, PSPV and ASPV were sufficiently distinct to suggest that they are not clearly members of any of the established genera in the family Paramyxoviridae. in the course of this study, a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that can be used for confirmatory identification of PSPV. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Spatio-temporal covariability in coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) survival, from California to southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Botsford, Louis W.; Hastings, Alan

    2009-12-01

    One of the motivations of the GLOBEC Northeast Pacific program is to understand the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon catches in the Gulf of Alaska and concurrent declines in the California Current System (CCS). We therefore used coded wire tag (CWT) data to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of covariability in the survival of hatchery coho salmon along the coast from California to southeast Alaska between release years 1980 and 2004. There is substantial covariability in coho salmon survival between neighboring regions along the coast, and there is clear evidence for increased covariability within two main groups - a northern and southern group. The dividing line between the groups lies approximately at the north end of Vancouver Island. However, CWT survivals do not support inverse covariability in hatchery coho salmon survival between southeast Alaska and the CCS over this 25 year time span. Instead, the hatchery coho survival in southeast Alaska is relatively uncorrelated with coho survival in the California Current System on inter-annual time scales. The 50% correlation and e-folding scales (distances at which magnitude of correlations decreases to 50% and e -1 (32.8%), respectively) of pairwise correlations between individual hatcheries were 150 and 217 km, which are smaller than that reported for sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. The 50% correlation scale of coho salmon is also substantially smaller than those reported for upwelling indices and sea surface temperature. There are also periods of 5-10 years with high covariability between adjacent regions on the scale of hundreds of km, which may be of biological and physical significance.

  11. 75 FR 14135 - Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC16 Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund AGENCY... Salmon Recovery Funding (PCSRF), as authorized in the Northern Boundary and Transboundary Rivers... development of Federal-state-tribal-local partnerships in salmon recovery and conservation by providing...

  12. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  13. Genetic stock identification of sockeye and chum salmon from Bristol Bay, alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.; Gellman, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    To study the Pacific salmon that may be affected by oil and gas development in the North Aleutian Basin, Alaska, electrophoretic methods of protein separation were used to genetically characterize stocks. In 1987, tissue samples were collected from eleven populations of sockeye salmon and four populations of chum salmon from Bristol Bay drainages. In the laboratory, 50 gene loci from each collection were analyzed to establish genetic baseline data. In comparisons to sockeye salmon sampled from the same drainages in previous years, no significant differences in allele frequencies were found. The genetic identities (Nei) amoung Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations are high. Few loci are variable, and only 2% of the total genetic variation is due to differences between populations. Bristol Bay chum salmon sampled have genetic identities of 0.97 or more. Divergence between chum stocks, at 4%, is twice that of sockeye salmon sampled. Computer simuations with maximum-likelihood statistics and re-sampling procedures were used to estimate the composition of artificial mixed stocks made up from baseline data.

  14. POLICY CONUNDRUM: RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the Pacific Northwest region of North America, many runs of wild (in contrast to hatchery-bred) salmon have declined and some have been extirpated. Restoring wild salmon runs to the Pacific Northwest is technically challenging, politically nasty, socially divisive, and ...

  15. PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES OF THE WORLD: STATUS, PROSPECTS, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific have declined significantly from historic levels, but not as dramatically as have Atlantic salmon. Hatchery production has been used to maintain some runs in the southern region of the range (e.g., Japan, Kor...

  16. Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet. PMID:19523283

  17. Diphyllobothriasis associated with eating raw pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.

  18. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum to approve the reduction loan repayment fees of $13... Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  19. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  20. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W. Stewart; Brenner, Richard E.; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  1. RESTORING SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: LEGACIES, CHOICES, AND TRAJECTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general policy goal of protecting and restoring runs of wild Pacific salmon enjoys wide public support. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild salmon in the western contiguous United States. Of the Earth's fou...

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: IN SEARCH OF A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds...

  3. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: THE MOST LIKELY FUTURE AND SOME ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of...

  4. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: FORECASTING THEIR STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  5. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: CHASING AN ILLUSION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon "stocks" (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population) have declined and some have been e...

  6. FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest (northern California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and the Columbia Basin portion of British Columbia), many wild salmon stocks (a group of interbreeding individuals that is roughly equivalent to a "population") have declined and some have disappear...

  7. Predation by fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) on Pacific salmon eggs in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Nack, C.C.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) are the largest native cyprinid in the northeastern United States and are the most abundant native species in the Salmon River, New York. The Salmon River is a high-quality spawning and nursery river for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migrating from Lake Ontario. Because of the large number of Pacific salmon spawning in the river in the fall extensive redd superimposition occurs resulting in salmonid eggs being available on the substrate. We examined the fall diet of 647 fallfish in 2007 and 2008 to determine the extent of predation on Pacific salmon eggs. The contribution of eggs in the diet significantly increased once fallfish attained a size of 100 mm total length. The largest size category of fallfish examined (≥150 mm) had the highest proportion (86.1%) of salmon eggs in their diet. The contribution of Zooplankton and chironomids in the diet of fallfish decreased with fish size. Except for the two largest groups of fallfish examined (i.e., 100–149 mm and ≥150 mm) diet overlap among size groups was low. The high contribution in the diet during the fall and high caloric value of Pacific salmon eggs could increase growth and survival of this species in the Salmon River.

  8. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Off Alaska; Chinook ] Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  9. The importance of genetic verification for determination of Atlantic salmon in north Pacific waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Williams, I.; Sage, G.K.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of two unknown but putative Atlantic salmon Salmo salar captured in the Copper River drainage, Alaska, demonstrated the need for validation of morphologically unusual fishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region and cytochrome b) and data from two nuclear genes [first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence and growth hormone (GH1) amplification product] indicated that the fish caught in fresh water on the Martin River was a coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, while the other fish caught in the intertidal zone of the Copper River delta near Grass Island was an Atlantic salmon. Determination of unusual or cryptic fish based on limited physical characteristics and expected seasonal spawning run timing will add to the controversy over farmed Atlantic salmon and their potential effects on native Pacific species. It is clear that determination of all putative collections of Atlantic salmon found in Pacific waters requires validation. Due to uncertainty of fish identification in the field using plastic morphometric characters, it is recommended that genetic analyses be part of the validation process. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  11. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  12. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  13. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  14. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  15. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA671 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific...

  16. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  17. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  18. 77 FR 19004 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National... Salmon Fishery. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before 5 p.m. EST April 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send... Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (see FOR FURTHER...

  19. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for.... standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to... the standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon that was submitted by Yardarm Knot Fisheries,...

  20. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  1. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  2. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18.94 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and...

  3. Setting the stage for a sustainable Pacific salmon fisheries strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Steward, Cleveland R.; Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    Salmon and steelhead Oncorhynchus spp., have been keystone species for ecosystems and human cultures of the North American Pacific coast for cons. Yet, in the past century, many populations have been greatly diminished and some are now extinct-the result of a combination of factors, including habitat loss and degradation, overfishing, natural variability in salmon production, negative effects of artificial propagation, and weaknesses in institutional and regulatory structures. We argue that a major shift is required, from the egocentric environmental approach (wherein each part of the ecosystem is managed as a unit) to the ecocentric ecosystem approach (wherein all parts are integrated for management). A management framework is proposed that contains-for each management unit such as a watershed-four elements: management goals; management objectives, ecosystem indicators; and a coordinated action plan. We also describe the Sustainable Fisheries Strategy, a consultative process for developing an ecosystem-based approach toward achieving sustainable Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and fisheries. This book is one of three important underpinnings of the Strategy; the other two are the Strategy itself and a manual being developed to guide community-based programs embracing the principles of sustainable fisheries. This book contains important historical perspectives as well as numerous innovative ideas for moving toward ecosystem-oriented, sustainable management of Pacific salmon and steelhead.

  4. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  5. 78 FR 34093 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY... the revised draft document titled, ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of... potential impacts of large-scale mining on these resources. DATES: The public comment period began on...

  6. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    of assessment used to implement the ESA. The loss or endangerment of an ESU is considered significant to the evolutionary persistence of a species ...Sound Species Assessment1 1992 2002 Chinook salmon Total 29 27 Critical 4 5 Depressed 8 14 Healthy 10 4 Unknown 7 3 Not Rated 0 1 Extinct 0...Critical 1 1 Depressed 14 19 Healthy 16 8 Unknown 29 31 Not Rated 0 1 Extinct 0 0 Species Assessment1 1992 2002 Table 2 continued/ Within Puget

  7. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  8. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Pess, George R; Beechie, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history. PMID:25567626

  9. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    .... Both Alaska Department of Fish and Game daily fish tickets and the State of Alaska's Commercial... salmon resource by dissipating rents, driving variable operating costs up, and imposing economic.... These requirements and their associated response times are: Completing and filing a fish ticket...

  10. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  11. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  12. A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Jacob J.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Molly V.; Fergusson, Emily A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2009-12-01

    Coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital component in the southeast Alaska marine ecosystem and are an important regional fishery resource; consequently, understanding mechanisms affecting their year-class strength is necessary from both scientific and management perspectives. We examined correlations among juvenile coho salmon indices, associated biophysical variables, and adult coho salmon harvest data from southeast Alaska over the years 1997-2006. We found no relationship between summer indices of juvenile coho salmon growth, condition, or abundance with subsequent harvest of adult coho salmon in the region. However, using stepwise regression, we found that variation in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance (67%) and zooplankton abundance (24%). To determine if high juvenile pink salmon abundance indicates favorable "bottom-up" lower trophic level environmental conditions for juvenile coho salmon, we plotted abundance of juvenile pink salmon against growth and condition of juvenile coho salmon. No change in growth or condition of juvenile coho salmon was observed in relation to the abundance index for juvenile pink salmon. Therefore, we hypothesize that coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska is influenced by a "top-down" predator control mechanism that results from more abundant juvenile pink salmon, which serve as a predator buffer during early marine residency.

  13. The Lummi Indians and the Canadian/American Pacific Salmon Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxberger, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the probable impact of the 1985 international Pacific Salmon Treaty on the Lummi tribe's catch of Fraser River salmon and economic well-being. Discusses the 1974 Boldt Decision, which allocated half of Washington State's salmon catch to treaty tribes, and contradictions in the federal government's conception of international treaties. (SV)

  14. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  15. Managing Pacific salmon escapements: The gaps between theory and reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, Cleveland R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Williams, Jack E.; Reiser, Dudley W.

    1999-01-01

    There are myriad challenges to estimating intrinsic production capacity for Pacific salmon populations that are heavily exploited and/or suffering from habitat alteration. Likewise, it is difficult to determine whether perceived decreases in production are due to harvest, habitat, or hatchery influences, natural variation, or some combination of all four. There are dramatic gaps between the true nature of the salmon spawner/recruit relationship and the theoretical basis for describing and understanding the relationship. Importantly, there are also extensive practical difficulties associated with gathering and interpreting accurate escapement and run-size information and applying it to population management. Paradoxically, certain aspects of salmon management may well be contributing to losses in abundance and biodiversity, including harvesting salmon in mixed population fisheries, grouping populations into management units subject to a common harvest rate, and fully exploiting all available hatchery fish at the expense of wild fish escapements. Information on U.S. Pacific salmon escapement goal-setting methods, escapement data collection methods and estimation types, and the degree to which stocks are subjected to mixed stock fisheries was summarized and categorized for 1,025 known management units consisting of 9,430 known populations. Using criteria developed in this study, only 1% of U.S. escapement goals are by methods rated as excellent. Escapement goals for 16% of management units were rated as good. Over 60% of escapement goals have been set by methods rated as either fair or poor and 22% of management units have no escapement goals at all. Of the 9,430 populations for which any information was available, 6,614 (70%) had sufficient information to categorize the method by which escapement data are collected. Of those, data collection methods were rated as excellent for 1%, good for 1%, fair for 2%, and poor for 52%. Escapement estimates are not made for 44

  16. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest), Chum Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    harvests in Washington State during (Figure 3). The total commercial the 1930’s and 1940’s (J. Ames, pers. salmon catch north of Bristol Bay , comm...white tips on pelvic and and Korea (Bakkala 1970; Hart 1973). anal fins, which distinguish them from The major rivers of the Pacific sockeye salmon ...Figure 3. Average percentages of the streams. Pacific Coast State and Province commercial harvest of chum salmon , THE FISHERY 1920-79 (modification

  18. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L−1 suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L−1) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  19. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  20. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of...

  1. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of...

  2. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of...

  3. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of...

  4. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  5. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  6. Stable isotope analysis of Pacific salmon: insight into trophic status and oceanographic conditions over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterfield, Franklin R.; Finney, Bruce P.

    Food web interactions and the response of Pacific salmon to physical processes in the North Pacific Ocean over interannual and interdecadal timescales are explored using naturally occurring stable isotope ratios of carbon ( 13C/ 12C) and nitrogen ( 15N/ 14N). Stable isotope analyses of five species of sexually mature North Pacific salmon from Alaska ( Oncorhynchus spp.) cluster into three groups: chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha) have the highest values, followed by coho ( O. kisutch), with chum ( O. keta), sockeye ( O. nerka), and pink ( O. gorbuscha) together having the lowest values. Although detailed isotopic data on salmon prey are lacking, there are limited data on relevant prey items from areas in which they are found in high abundance. These data suggest that the characteristics of the sockeye, pink and chum we have analyzed are compatible with their diets including open ocean squid and zooplankton, which are in general agreement with stomach content analyses. Isotope relationships between muscle and scale show consistent relationships for both δ13C ( R2=0.98) and δ 15N ( R2=0.90). Thus, scales, which have been routinely archived for many systems, can be used for retrospective analyses. Archived sockeye salmon scales spanning 1966-1999 from Red Lake, Kodiak Island, Alaska were analyzed for their stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The δ15N record displays a decreasing trend of ~3‰ from 1969-1982 and an increasing trend of ~3‰ from 1982-1992, while the variations in δ13C are relatively minor. These trends may result from factors such as shifts in trophic level of feeding and/or feeding location, or may originate at the base of the food web via changes in processes such as nutrient cycling or primary productivity. Detailed studies on prey isotopic variability and its controls are needed to distinguish between these factors, and thus to improve the use of stable isotope analysis as a tool to learn more about present and past ecosystem change

  7. 75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW73 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop for Industry Review of Data Forms AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  8. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... salmon that may be caught incidentally with an incentive plan agreement and performance standard designed... Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/regs/summary.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... be caught incidentally with an incentive plan agreement and performance standard designed to...

  9. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bristol Bay watershed in southwestern Alaska supports the largest sockeye salmon fishery in the world, is home to 25 federally recognized tribal governments, and contains large mineral resources. The potential for large-scale mining activities in the watershed has raised conc...

  10. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  11. Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Azumaya, T.; Fukuwaka, M.; Davis, N.

    2002-10-01

    Variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and mean body size was examined for pink, chum and sockeye salmon collected with research gillnets in the central Bering Sea in July from 1972 to 2000. The CPUEs for all three species showed significant increasing trends, but with large interannual variability. The CPUE of pink salmon was higher in odd years than in even years, and abruptly increased in the odd years post-1989. Chum salmon also showed odd/even year fluctuations, which were out-of-phase with those of pink salmon. Sockeye salmon showed no biennial such fluctuations. The CPUEs of chum and sockeye salmon were higher during 1979-1984 and 1992-1998, but lower during 1985-1991, especially for younger age group such as ocean age 2 and 3. Data for sea surface temperature (SST) and abundances of chum and sockeye salmon during four periods (1972-1976, 1977-1984, 1985-1990, and 1991-2000) indicated a portion of chum and sockeye salmon were distributed in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 1985-1990, when SST in the Gulf of Alaska was low. However, the fish were more abundant in the Bering Sea in 1977-1984 and 1991-2000 when SST was relatively high in the Gulf of Alaska. Body size of pink salmon showed a significant decreasing trend. Chum and sockeye salmon also showed significant decreasing trends in body size at ocean age 3 and older ages, but not at ocean age 2. Significant negative relationships between CPUE and body size were found within species. No significant correlations were found between an Aleutian low pressure index (ALPI) with CPUE and body size, but the increases in CPUE around the late 1970s and early 1990s may be partly be the result of shifts in the distributions of chum and sockeye salmon caused by SST changes related to the regime shift in 1977 and 1989 identified by the ALPI.

  12. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Stage 1. King Salmon Airport , King Salmon, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-29

    Salmon Age Distribution 11-6 2-2 Surface Water Flow Data 11-12 2-3 Climatic Data for King Salmon Air Force Station 11-21 3-1 Number of Analyses by...stock of migratory and resident sport and commercial game fish. The Naknek River drainage supports one of the largest sockeye salmon runs in the world...Between 1977 and 1981, the Naknek River system received an average annual return of 1.4 million sockeye salmon . Drain- age from the King Salmon

  14. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Effects of loqqinq on the habitat behavioral ecology of juvenile coho of coho salmon and cutthroat trout salmon in stream channels. J. Fish. in coastal...SEnvironmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and UT! CW Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) EET SCOHO SALMON E CE 2Y -N o SCoastal Ecology Group SFish and...organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance. The profiles are designed to provide coastal managers, engineers, and

  15. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  16. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... discuss and review proposed changes to analytical methods used in salmon management. Potential topics for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC233 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY: National Marine...

  17. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western...

  18. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod... to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Western...

  19. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  20. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  1. 76 FR 9693 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  2. 76 FR 5718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod... allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore...

  3. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for... catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  4. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Waiver of Moratorium on Taking and Importation of Individual Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, the moratorium on the hunting and killing of...

  5. Interactions between brown bears and chum salmon at McNeil River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on returning runs of adult salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can have a large influence on their spawning success. At McNeil River State Game Sanctuary (MRSGS), Alaska, brown bears (Ursus arctos) congregate in high numbers annually along the lower McNeil River to prey upon returning adult chum salmon (O. keta). Low chum salmon escapements into McNeil River since the late 1990s have been proposed as a potential factor contributing to concurrent declines in bear numbers. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of bear predation on chum salmon in McNeil River, especially on pre-spawning fish, and use those data to adjust the escapement goal for the river. In 2005 and 2006, 105 chum salmon were radiotagged at the river mouth and tracked to determine cause and location of death. Below the falls, predators consumed 99% of tagged fish, killing 59% of them before they spawned. Subsequently, the escapement goal was nearly doubled to account for this pre-spawning mortality and to ensure enough salmon to sustain both predators and prey. This approach to integrated fish and wildlife management at MRSGS can serve as a model for other systems where current salmon escapement goals may not account for pre-spawning mortality.

  6. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; ,; Gillikin, Daniel; ,

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  7. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  8. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    rivers represent irnPdssdble bdrriers. 2 %- .. •ny that enter the Sacramento River chum salmon (0. ketd) and sockeye should be regdrded as strays...1986. Effects of logging on McGill University, Montreal , Quebec. winter habitat of juvenile salmonids 101 pp. in Alaska streams. N. Am. J. Fish. Manaqe

  10. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  11. Ecological risk assessment for Pacific salmon exposed to dimethoate in California.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa; Breton, Roger L; Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Wooding, Katie L; Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Reiss, Rick; Whatling, Paul

    2017-02-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment of the potential direct and indirect effects of acute dimethoate exposure to salmon populations of concern was conducted for 3 evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Pacific salmon in California. These ESUs were the Sacramento River winter-run chinook, the California Central Valley spring-run chinook, and the California Central Valley steelhead. Refined acute exposures were estimated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a river basin-scale model developed to quantify the impact of land-management practices in large, complex watersheds. Both direct effects (i.e., inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity) and indirect effects (i.e., altered availability of aquatic invertebrate prey) were assessed. Risk to salmon and their aquatic invertebrate prey items was determined to be de minimis. Therefore, dimethoate is not expected to have direct or indirect adverse effects on Pacific salmon in these 3 ESUs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:532-543. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  13. Pesticides in urban streams and prespawn mortality of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Hearsey, James W

    2013-10-01

    The listing of several runs of Pacific salmon as threatened or endangered and associated federal, state, and local efforts to restore/enhance salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest make it imperative that the factors associated with these population declines are understood. Prespawn mortality (PSM) has been documented in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) within urban streams in western Washington since the late 1990s and is characterized by a suite of neurological and respiratory symptoms with mortality occurring shortly thereafter. Mortality rates in returning adults have ranged between 17 and 100%. The cause of PSM is not known, but the presence of pesticide residues within urban streams led to a hypothesis that PSM in coho salmon and pesticides in urban streams were linked. We exposed pairs of "green" (unripe) prespawn male and female coho salmon to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Longevity, ripening in female salmon, and brain acetylcholinesterase were not significantly affected by continuous exposure to the maximum reported concentrations of the pesticides. Fertilization, hatching success, and growth of fry were also not affected when green adults were exposed to these concentrations for 96 h. The absence of effects suggests it is unlikely that pesticides within stormwater are singularly responsible for PSM in coho salmon or that they impair the reproductive capability of exposed adults.

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  15. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Buckley, Raymond M.

    2005-07-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8 °C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6 °C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts

  16. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  17. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw.

  18. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw. PMID:28098540

  19. 77 FR 76425 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska... projected unused amount of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to vessels using pot gear and... catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective December 26, 2012, through 2400 hrs, Alaska...

  20. 76 FR 81872 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 83; Correction AGENCY... pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of... FR 74670) that revises several sections of regulations that pertain to the management of Pacific...

  1. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 83 AGENCY: National... the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) to NMFS for review. If approved, Amendment 83 would establish Pacific cod... apportionments thereof. This action also would limit access to the Pacific cod parallel fishery for...

  2. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  3. 75 FR 554 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...NMFS issues regulations creating a limited access system for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in these areas. NMFS......

  4. 75 FR 1595 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Access System for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska. Potential eligible applicants are notified of... sport fishery for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory...

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1983-01-01

    The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is native to the northern Pacific Ocean, spawning and rearing in streams from Monterey Bay, California, to Point Hope, Alaska, and southward along the Asiatic coast to Japan. Its center of abundance in North America is from Oregon to Alaska (Briggs 1953; Godfrey 1965; Hart 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973). Coho salmon have been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes and reservoirs and lakes throughout the United States to provide put-and-grow sport fishing (Scott and Crossman 1973; Wigglesworth and Rawson 1974). No subspecies of coho salmon have been described (Godfrey 1965).

  6. What`s at stake in the Pacific Northwest salmon debate? Jobs, hydropower, agriculture, fish harvests...species survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This article highlights the debate about the pacific salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The population levels of all salmonid species are down precipitously, with some listed as endangered, but no one has come up with a salmon restoration plan that is perceived to be both effective and painless to all the human parties with a vested interest. The Salmon issue touches everyone in the region directly or indirectly. Discussed are the following general topics: devising a plan for the salmon and the politics of planning and the problem of how the four fundamental areas, hydropower, habitat, hatcheries, and harvest, need to be prioritized.

  7. Predictability of Bristol Bay, Alaska, sockeye salmon returns one to four years in the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, Milo D.; Peterson, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, forecast error for returns of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to Bristol Bay, Alaska, has been large. Using cross-validation forecast error as our criterion, we selected forecast models for each of the nine principal Bristol Bay drainages. Competing forecast models included stock-recruitment relationships, environmental variables, prior returns of siblings, or combinations of these predictors. For most stocks, we found prior returns of siblings to be the best single predictor of returns; however, forecast accuracy was low even when multiple predictors were considered. For a typical drainage, an 80% confidence interval ranged from one half to double the point forecast. These confidence intervals appeared to be appropriately wide.

  8. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  9. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  10. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF...

  11. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Sockeye Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Bristol Bay sockeye spawning in them at Pick Creek and found egg concentrations 6-9 inches below the gravel surface. Spawning occurs between August...nursery lakes approach 4 to 7 ’C in sockeye fishery, and non- Bristol Bay stocks were found 6 to have a similar distribution in areas of the...will lead to method for Bristol Bay , Alaska, salmon and the nonlinear increases in both marine survival and an earlier age of method is recommended

  12. Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2013-10-01

    We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

  13. Characteristics of fall chum salmon spawning habitat on a mainstem river in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are the most abundant species of salmon spawning in the Yukon River drainage system, and they support important personal use, subsistence, and commercial fisheries. Chum salmon returning to the Tanana River in Interior Alaska are a significant contribution to the overall abundance of Yukon River chum salmon and an improved understanding of habitat use is needed to improve conservation of this important resource. We characterized spawning habitat of chum salmon using the mainstem Tanana River as part of a larger study to document spawning distributions and habitat use in this river. Areas of spawning activity were located using radiotelemetry and aerial helicopter surveys. At 11 spawning sites in the mainstem Tanana River, we recorded inter-gravel and surface-water temperatures and vertical hydraulic gradient (an indication of the direction of water flux) in substrate adjacent to salmon redds. At all locations, vertical hydraulic gradient adjacent to redds was positive, indicating that water was upwelling through the gravel. Inter-gravel temperatures adjacent to redds generally were warmer than surface water at most locations and were more stable than surface-water temperature. Inter-gravel water temperature adjacent to redds ranged from 2.6 to 5.8 degrees Celsius, whereas surface-water temperature ranged from greater than 0 to 5.5 degrees Celsius. Some sites were affected more by extremes in air temperature than others. At these sites, inter-gravel water temperature profiles were variable (with ranges similar to those observed in surface water), suggesting that even though upwelling habitats provide a stable thermal incubation environment, eggs and embryos still may be affected by extremes in air temperature. Fine sand and silt covered redds at multiple sites and were evidence of increased river flow during the winter months, which may be a potential source of increased mortality during egg-to-fry development. This study provides

  14. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., thereby undermining the conservation and management objectives of the FMP. The AA further finds, pursuant... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Correction... Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery published on August 30, 2010. These corrections amend...

  15. Assessment of the phototoxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to juvenile pink salmon.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Carls, Mark G; Short, Jeffrey W; Rice, Stanley D; Heintz, Ron A; Rau, Michelle; Di Giulio, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Petroleum products are known to have greater toxicity to the translucent embryos and larvae of aquatic organisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) compared to toxicity determined in tests performed under standard laboratory lighting with minimal UV. This study assessed the acute phototoxicity of the water accommodated fractions of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANS) to juvenile pink salmon, which are a heavily pigmented life stage. Fish in the highest ANS treatments exhibited melanosis, less mobility, reduced startle response, erratic swimming, and loss of equilibrium. Gills from fish exposed to ANS had elevated levels of hydroperoxides in oil-only, UV-only, and oil+UV treatments compared to control fish, which was indicative of increased lipid peroxidation in gill tissue. Under the test conditions of moderate salinity, low UV and high short-term oil exposure there were no indications of photoenhanced toxicity as assessed by elevation of mortality, behavioral impairment, or gill lipid peroxidation in oil+UV treatments. The results of this study suggest that pink salmon may be at less risk from photoenhanced toxicity compared to the translucent early-life stages of several other Alaska species.

  16. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat Management based on natural variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  17. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  18. Detection and identification of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids from wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, J; Murata, R; Sadamasu, K; Araki, J

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the risk of diphyllobothriasis from ingestion of wild Pacific salmon in Japan by surveying Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in 182 salmon samples obtained from Japan. The plerocercoids were not detected in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) (0/26), called Akizake in Japan, caught between September and November. However, the detection rate of plerocercoids in chum salmon, called Tokishirazu in Japan, caught between early April and June, was 51.1% (24/47) with an average of two plerocercoid larvae per fish. The detection rates of cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were 12.2% (10/82) and 18.5% (5/27), respectively, and the average number of plerocercoids per fish was 0.45 (37 larvae/82 fishes) and 0.22 larvae (6 larvae/27 fishes), respectively. Plerocercoids isolated from O. keta and O. masou were identified as Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense on the basis of molecular analysis of the cox1 and nad3 genes. Moreover, four tapeworms (three from O. keta and one from O. masou) were obtained by infecting golden hamsters with plerocercoids. The morphological features of these tapeworms were similar to those of D. nihonkaiense isolated from humans. Therefore, we think that O. keta and not O. masou is the most important source of plerocercoid infections in Japan.

  19. Salmon and Wetland Influences on Streamwater Mercury Fluxes in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorski, S. A.; Hood, E.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Aiken, G.

    2007-12-01

    Limited data indicate that mercury contamination in southeast Alaska is of growing concern due to the combination of rising Hg atmospheric imports from Asia, contributions of marine-derived mercury from spawning salmon, and the abundance of wetlands covering the region. Wetlands are prevalent (comprising 29% of the land area of the Tongass National Forest) and DOC concentrations are high (10-30 mg/L) in many southeast Alaskan brownwater streams. We investigated the Hg distribution in three watersheds with the goals of 1) obtaining original data on the concentrations of total and methyl Hg in regional catchments; 2) examining the extent to which the extensive areas of coastal wetlands may be facilitating the methylation of Hg, and 3) evaluating the influence of spawning salmon on Hg and nutrient export in streamwater. We measured Hg, nutrients, and ancillary water quality parameters and characterized dissolved organic carbon using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques in streams draining three watersheds with varying wetland coverage. We also sampled tributary streams within the watersheds that drained individual landscape units across a gradient of vegetation types including upland, bog, and forested wetland to evaluate their contributions to streamwater Hg loads. Each stream was sampled before (June), during (August), and after (October) salmon spawning. Our initial results indicate that concentrations of total Hg in both mainstem and tributary streams were highly correlated with concentrations of bulk DOC and the percentage of DOC composed of hydrophobic acids, both of which were elevated in wetland-dominated sites. These results suggest that wetland landscapes are contributing disproportionately to riverine mercury export in southeastern Alaska.

  20. ECOLOGICAL AND WATER QUALITY CONSEQUENCES OF NUTRIENT ADDITION FOR SALMON RESTORATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon runs have declined over the past two centuries in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Reduced inputs of salmon-derived organic matter and nutrients (SDN) may limit freshwater production and thus establish a negative feedback loop affecting future generations of...

  1. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  2. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  3. Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), using models on three scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Kerim Y.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; King, Jacquelynne R.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2005-03-01

    Three independent modeling methods—a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model (NEMURO), a food web model (Ecopath/Ecosim), and a bioenergetics model for pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)—were linked to examine the relationship between seasonal zooplankton dynamics and annual food web productive potential for Pacific salmon feeding and growing in the Alaskan subarctic gyre ecosystem. The linked approach shows the importance of seasonal and ontogenetic prey switching for zooplanktivorous pink salmon, and illustrates the critical role played by lipid-rich forage species, especially the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus, in connecting zooplankton to upper trophic level production in the subarctic North Pacific. The results highlight the need to uncover natural mechanisms responsible for accelerated late winter and early spring growth of salmon, especially with respect to climate change and zooplankton bloom timing. Our results indicate that the best match between modeled and observed high-seas pink salmon growth requires the inclusion of two factors into bioenergetics models: (1) decreasing energetic foraging costs for salmon as zooplankton are concentrated by the spring shallowing of pelagic mixed-layer depth and (2) the ontogenetic switch of salmon diets from zooplankton to squid. Finally, we varied the timing and input levels of coastal salmon production to examine effects of density-dependent coastal processes on ocean feeding; coastal processes that place relatively minor limitations on salmon growth may delay the seasonal timing of ontogenetic diet shifts and thus have a magnified effect on overall salmon growth rates.

  4. FACTS, FANTASIES, AND FORECASTS: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years, but there have been decades when the numbers increased. Overall...

  5. Nonnative Pacific salmon alter hot spots of sediment nitrification in Great Lakes tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Peter S.; Tank, Jennifer L.

    2013-06-01

    Biogeochemical transformations may represent an important pathway influencing the fate of nutrient subsidies in stream ecosystems. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provide an ammonium (NH4+) subsidy to streams during their annual spawning runs, which may be transformed to nitrate (NO3-) via sediment nitrification. Increases in either forms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen may have ecosystem effects both at the reach and watershed scales, including the fertilization of algal biofilms and elevated export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. In the nonnative range of salmon, where spawning runs are a relatively new phenomenon, few studies have explored the effect of introduced salmon on ecosystem processes. To assess the effect of nonnative salmon on dissolved inorganic nitrogen dynamics in Great Lakes tributaries, we quantified sediment nitrification in five streams before, during, and after the spawning run in 2009. Overall, sediment nitrification rates were higher in the channel thalweg (mean ± SE = 1.9 ± 0.1 mg N/gAFDM/d) compared to channel margins (mean ± SE = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg N/gAFDM/d). In the two streams with the largest salmon runs, nitrification was highest in the channel thalweg prior to salmon, but margin sediments had higher nitrification during the run. Among all streams, variation in nitrification rates was habitat specific, predicted by exchangeable NH4+ in sediments from the thalweg and predicted by salmon biomass for sediments in the channel margin. Nonnative salmon provide a pulsed source of inorganic nitrogen to Great Lakes tributaries, yet dissimilatory biogeochemical transformations such as nitrification may alter the form of the NH4+ subsidy and potentially influence downstream lakes via export of both NH4+ and NO3-.

  6. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  7. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  8. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecquerie, Laure; Johnson, Leah R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and marine) during their life cycle. Here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts development, growth and reproduction of a Pacific salmon in a dynamic environment, from an egg to a reproducing female, and that links female state to egg traits. This model uses Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to predict how life history traits vary among five species of Pacific salmon: Pink, Sockeye, Coho, Chum and Chinook. Supplemented with a limited number of assumptions on anadromy and semelparity and external signals for migrations, the model reproduces the qualitative patterns in egg size, fry size and fecundity both at the inter- and intra-species levels. Our results highlight how modeling all life stages within a single framework enables us to better understand complex life-history patterns. Additionally we show that body size scaling relationships implied by DEB theory provide a simple way to transfer model parameters among Pacific salmon species, thus providing a generic approach to study the impact of environmental conditions on the life cycle of Pacific salmon.

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  10. Pesticides and PCBs in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, S.M.; West, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife initiated a long-term study to monitor levels of contaminants in two species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) and other marine fishes of Puget Sound. The study is one component of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency effort to assess the environmental health of Puget Sound. Here the authors summarize results from their ongoing study of O. tshawytscha and O. kisutch. Samples of muscle tissue were collected for chemical analyses from adult salmon that were purchased from licensed fish buyers or treaty tribal fisherman. From 1992 through 1994, both salmon species were sampled at seven fishing areas in marine waters and river mouths of Puget Sound. 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDD, metabolites of the pesticide DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) were consistently detected in both species and were consistently higher in O. tshawytscha. Low to moderate concentrations of DDT metabolites (3 to 59 ug/kg wet weight) were detected in the salmon samples but were seldom detected in other fish species sampled by PSAMP. Total PCBs concentrations (Arochlor 1254 + 1260) ranged from 10 to 211 ug/kg wet weight in 0. tshawytscha, with many samples containing PCBs concentrations similar to those detected in benthic flatfish, (Pleuronectes vetulus), sampled from urbanized embayments. A stepwise linear regression model was used to identify parameters correlated with accumulation of PCBs and DDT metabolites in salmon. In addition to species differences, factors such as fish age, percent lipids and sampling location may affect the accumulation of these contaminants. Results of this study are contrasted with contaminant levels previously reported for Canadian and Alaskan Pacific salmon. Possible sources of contaminants are outlined.

  11. 75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level Fishery... entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary... participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

  12. 77 FR 54838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska... projected unused amount of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to vessels using jig gear in... the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective September 1,...

  13. 78 FR 9327 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of Pacific cod from vessels using jig gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3... Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective February 5, 2013, through 2400 hours, Alaska local time...

  14. 77 FR 8176 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of Pacific cod from vessels using jig gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3... Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective February 8, 2012, through 2400 hrs, Alaska local time...

  15. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch...

  16. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod...

  17. 78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska... projected unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher/processors to catcher vessels using hook-and- line... necessary to allow the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  18. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time...

  19. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod...

  20. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod...

  1. 77 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified...

  2. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific...

  3. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2013 Pacific cod...

  4. 75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; prohibition of retention. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...

  5. 78 FR 39631 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA....

  6. 75 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  7. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  8. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high

  9. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

    2005-01-01

    An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July

  10. A Modeled Comparison of Direct and Food Web-Mediated Impacts of Common Pesticides on Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Macneale, Kate H.; Spromberg, Julann A.; Baldwin, David H.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2014-01-01

    In the western United States, pesticides used in agricultural and urban areas are often detected in streams and rivers that support threatened and endangered Pacific salmon. Although concentrations are rarely high enough to cause direct salmon mortality, they can reach levels sufficient to impair juvenile feeding behavior and limit macroinvertebrate prey abundance. This raises the possibility of direct adverse effects on juvenile salmon health in tandem with indirect effects on salmon growth as a consequence of reduced prey abundance. We modeled the growth of ocean-type Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the individual and population scales, investigating insecticides that differ in how long they impair salmon feeding behavior and in how toxic they are to salmon compared to macroinvertebrates. The relative importance of these direct vs. indirect effects depends both on how quickly salmon can recover and on the relative toxicity of an insecticide to salmon and their prey. Model simulations indicate that when exposed to a long-acting organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic to salmon and invertebrates (e.g., chlorpyrifos), the long-lasting effect on salmon feeding behavior drives the reduction in salmon population growth with reductions in prey abundance having little additional impact. When exposed to short-acting carbamate insecticides at concentrations that salmon recover from quickly but are lethal to invertebrates (e.g., carbaryl), the impacts on salmon populations are due primarily to reductions in their prey. For pesticides like carbaryl, prey sensitivity and how quickly the prey community can recover are particularly important in determining the magnitude of impact on their predators. In considering both indirect and direct effects, we develop a better understanding of potential impacts of a chemical stressor on an endangered species and identify data gaps (e.g., prey recovery rates) that contribute uncertainty to these assessments. PMID

  11. Diphyllobothriasis nihonkaiense: possibly acquired in Switzerland from imported Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kawakatsu, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tsunehiro; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Uchikawa, Ryuichi; Arizono, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    A 5-year-old Japanese boy passed tapeworm strobila while he was living in Switzerland. During a short visit to Japan, he was successfully treated with a single dose of praziquantel. DNA sequences of ITS1, cox1 and nd3 genes from the tapeworm were compatible with those of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense rather than Diphyllobothrium latum, which is prevalent in Europe. The patient consumed imported salmon in Switzerland. This case highlights the globalization of D. nihonkaiense, which was once restricted to the Far East, and reflects the worldwide demand for seafood.

  12. Putative Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense acquired from a Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) eaten in France; genomic identification and case report.

    PubMed

    Yera, Hélène; Estran, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Gari-Toussaint, Martine; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Marty, Pierre

    2006-03-01

    We report here a likely case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense contracted in France through the consumption of a Pacific salmon imported from Canada. The species diagnosis was made by molecular analysis of two mitochondrial genes (COI & ND3). This case is rather unusual in that D. nihonkaiense has never been reported along the Pacific coast of North America.

  13. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Burek, Kathy A; Hammond, John A

    2009-06-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.

  14. 75 FR 38758 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission... (75 FR 13024). IPHC regulations affecting sport fishing for halibut and charter vessels in IPHC...

  15. 78 FR 18896 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 meters) Length Overall... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall...

  16. 76 FR 12606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using jig or...

  17. Salmon escapement estimates into the Togiak River using sonar, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1987, 1988, and 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irving, David B.; Finn, James E.; Larson, James P.

    1995-01-01

    We began a three year study in 1987 to test the feasibility of using sonar in the Togiak River to estimate salmon escapements. Current methods rely on periodic aerial surveys and a counting tower at river kilometer 97. Escapement estimates are not available until 10 to 14 days after the salmon enter the river. Water depth and turbidity preclude relocating the tower to the lower river and affect the reliability of aerial surveys. To determine whether an alternative method could be developed to improve the timeliness and accuracy of current escapement monitoring, Bendix sonar units were operated during 1987, 1988, and 1990. Two sonar stations were set up opposite each other at river kilometer 30 and were operated 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Catches from gill nets with 12, 14, and 20 cm stretch mesh, a beach seine, and visual observations were used to estimate species composition. Length and sex data were collected from salmon caught in the nets to assess sampling bias.In 1987, sonar was used to select optimal sites and enumerate coho salmon. In 1988 and 1990, the sites identified in 1987 were used to estimate the escapement of five salmon species. Sockeye salmon escapement was estimated at 512,581 and 589,321, chinook at 7,698 and 15,098, chum at 246,144 and 134,958, coho at 78,588 and 28,290, and pink at 96,167 and 131,484. Sonar estimates of sockeye salmon were two to three times the Alaska Department of Fish and Game's escapement estimate based on aerial surveys and tower counts. The source of error was probably a combination of over-estimating the total number of targets counted by the sonar and by incorrectly estimating species composition.Total salmon escapement estimates using sonar may be feasible but several more years of development are needed. Because of the overlapped salmon run timing, estimating species composition appears the most difficult aspect of using sonar for management. Possible improvements include using a larger beach seine or

  18. [On the infecstation of musculature in the Pacific salmons from Okhotsk Sea at early sea stage of their life].

    PubMed

    Nomokonova, L A

    2009-01-01

    Data on the infection of the musculature of juvenile salmons Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792) and O. keta (Walbaum, 1792) with the nematode Anisakis sp. l. and cestode Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp. l. in Okhotsk Sea and adjacent Pacific waters are given. Probable regions where the infestation of juvenile salmons may take place are established. Interspecific differences in the levels of infestation, as well as differences in the invasion of fishes during their migration to ocean are revealed.

  19. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, Milo D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  20. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  1. 75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  2. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in...

  3. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  4. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for...

  5. Effect of ice formation and streamflow on salmon incubation habitat in the lower Bradley River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A minimum flow of 40 cubic feet per second is required in the lower Bradley River, near Homer, Alaska, from November 2 to April 30 to ensure adequate salmon egg incubation habitat. The study that determined this minimum flow did not account for the effects of ice formation on habitat. An investigation was made during periods of ice formation. Hydraulic properties and field water-quality data were measured in winter only from March 1993 to April 1995 at six transects in the lower Bradley River. Discharge in the lower Bradley River ranged from 42.6 to 73.0 cubic feet per second (average 57 cubic feet per second) with ice conditions ranging from near ice free to 100 percent ice cover. Stream water velocity and depth were adequate for habitat protection for all ice conditions and discharges. No relation was found between percent ice cover and mean velocity and depth for any given discharge and no trends were found with changes in discharge for a given ice condition. Velocity distribution within each transect varied significantly from one sampling period to the next. Mean depth and velocity at flows of 40 cubic feet per second or less could not be predicted. No consistent relation was found between the amount of wetted perimeter and percent ice cover. Intragravel-water temperature was slightly warmer than surface-water temperature. Surface and intragravel-water dissolved-oxygen levels were adequate for all flows and ice conditions. No apparent relation was found between dissolved-oxygen levels and streamflow or ice conditions. Excellent oxygen exchange was indicated throughout the study reach. Stranding potential of salmon fry was found to be low throughout the study reach. The limiting factors for determining the minimal acceptable flow limit appear to be stream-water velocity and depth, although specific limits could not be estimated because of the high flows that occurred during this study.

  6. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...NMFS issues regulations to implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport (charter) and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). This catch sharing plan replaces the Guideline Harvest Level program, defines an annual process for allocating halibut between the......

  7. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher...

  8. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA....

  9. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery; Amendment 93 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council has submitted Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf...

  10. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Ford, Michael J; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-22

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species.

  11. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G.; Ford, Michael J.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species. PMID:20610428

  12. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  13. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  14. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  15. Distribution, persistence, and hydrologic characteristics of salmon spawning habitats in clearwater side channels of the Matanuska River, southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.; McTeague, Monica L.; Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbid, glacially influenced rivers are often considered to be poor salmon spawning and rearing habitats and, consequently, little is known about salmon habitats that do occur within rivers of this type. To better understand salmon spawning habitats in the Matanuska River of southcentral Alaska, the distribution and characteristics of clearwater side-channel spawning habitats were determined and compared to spawning habitats in tributaries. More than 100 kilometers of clearwater side channels within the braided mainstem of the Matanuska River were mapped for 2006 from aerial images and ground-based surveys. In reaches selected for historical analysis, side channel locations shifted appreciably between 1949 and 2006, but the relative abundance of clearwater side channels was fairly stable during the same period. Geospatial analysis of side channel distribution shows side channels typically positioned along abandoned bars at the braid plain margin rather than on bars between mainstem channels, and shows a strong correlation of channel abundance with braid plain width. Physical and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and chemical character of the water measured at 19 side channel sites, 6 tributary sites, 4 spring sites, and 5 mainstem channel sites showed conditions suitable for salmon spawning in side channels and tributaries, and a correlation of side channel characteristics with the respective tributary or groundwater source water. Autumn-through-spring monitoring of intergravel water temperatures adjacent to salmon redds (nests) in three side channels and two tributaries indicate adequate accumulated thermal units for incubation and emergence of salmon in side channels and relatively low accumulated thermal units in tributaries.

  16. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  17. Life history and evolutionary adaptation of Pacific salmon and its application in management

    SciTech Connect

    Wevers, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to understanding and managing anadromous salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) based on life history and evolutionary adaptive capacities of species and stocks is presented. Species, stocks, and local populations are viewed as systems that are continuously adapting to changing environmental conditions. They have the potential capacity to evolve in different ways in different environments through both life history and evolutionary adaptation. Habitat organization forms a template for genus, species, stock, and local population life history organization. Harvesting, habitat alteration resulting from land use practices and other human activities can alter the organization and adaptive capacities of species and stocks, and thus their long term persistence. The adaptive capacity of Oncorhynchus relative to its habitat and management environment is examined at the species, stock, and local population levels. Life history characteristics of representative stocks and local populations are analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA). Fresh water migration distance and latitude are used to [open quotes]explain[close quotes] ordination patterns of Oncorhynchus species in the North Pacific Basin. Fresh water migration difficulty and mean annual runoff as used to interpret life history patterns of Columbia Basin chinook salmon stocks. Upstream migration difficulty and fall water temperatures are used to explain the ordination patterns of local populations of Willamette spring chinook salmon. Fishery management practices are examined in terms of their impacts on the organization and adaptive capacity of species, stocks, and local populations of Oncorhynchus. Management generalizations and guidelines derived from the life history theory are applied to management of Willamette spring chinook salmon.

  18. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations amending the limited access program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific... 13024). IPHC regulations affecting sport fishing for halibut and charter vessels in IPHC Areas 2C and...

  19. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA...

  20. 77 FR 11412 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  1. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by... 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  2. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the B season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA...

  3. 77 FR 53152 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amounts of Pacific cod from vessels using jig gear, catcher vessels greater than 60 feet (18.3... Islands management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific...

  4. 77 FR 72243 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amounts of Pacific cod from catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet length overall (LOA.... This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested....

  5. 78 FR 23683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory... of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using trawl gear in the...

  6. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season apportionment of the 2010 Pacific cod...

  7. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the Parallel Fishery in the Bering Sea and... access of Federally permitted pot and hook-and-line catcher/processors (C/Ps) to the Pacific cod fishery... fishery for Pacific cod in the BSAI. This rule limits access by Federally permitted vessels to...

  8. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  9. 78 FR 18528 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  10. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  11. 77 FR 20571 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the Western... allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using hook-and-line gear in...

  12. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and... allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to catcher/processors using...

  13. 78 FR 25004 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the Western... allowance of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using hook-and-line gear in...

  14. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher vessels to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod established for trawl catcher vessels to be harvested. DATES:...

  15. 78 FR 69592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amounts of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using jig gear, catcher vessels greater than 60 feet... allow the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective November 15,...

  16. 78 FR 11790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  17. 77 FR 21683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory... of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using trawl gear in the...

  18. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for AFA trawl catcher/processors in the...

  19. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season apportionment of the 2013 Pacific cod...

  20. 77 FR 65837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... unused amounts of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to American Fisheries Act trawl... area. This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be...

  1. 78 FR 4346 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed fishing closure of Pacific cod for...

  2. 78 FR 44920 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska; Extension of Comment... for the guided sport and commercial fisheries for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific... would implement a catch sharing plan for the guided sport and commercial fisheries for Pacific...

  3. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  4. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  5. 76 FR 65972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  6. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the Eastern...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels participating in.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  7. 77 FR 39440 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  8. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  9. 76 FR 39793 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific...

  10. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  11. 75 FR 68726 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  12. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific...

  13. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  14. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific...

  15. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  16. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific...

  17. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  18. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  19. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective...

  20. 77 FR 9589 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory... of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using trawl gear in the...

  1. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  2. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  3. 78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Western... allowance of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using hook-and-line gear in...

  4. 77 FR 19564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  5. 77 FR 11776 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Central... allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using hook-and-line gear in...

  6. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  7. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  8. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  9. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  10. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Conception. (c) Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) EFH includes all streams, estuaries, marine waters, and other water bodies occupied or historically accessible to pink salmon within Washington State,...

  11. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  12. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  13. Evaluations of alternative methods for monitoring and estimating responses of salmon productivity in the North Pacific to future climatic change and other processes: A simulation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of the relative influence of climate change, compared to other human activities, on dynamics of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations can help management agencies take appropriate management actions. We used empirically based simulation modelling of 48 sockeye...

  14. Role of lake regulation on glacier fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: The Cook Inlet watershed south central Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation. Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat. Copyright ?? 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet

  15. 75 FR 5251 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  16. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  17. 76 FR 4081 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  18. 77 FR 3157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  19. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Dau, Christian P.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Sedinger, James S.; Anderson, Betty A.; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  20. Predation on juvenile pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. in downstream migrant traps in prairie creek, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, W.G.; Bjorkstedt, E.P.; Ellings, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Downstream migrant traps are a widely applied fishery management tool for sampling anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss smolts along theWest Coast of North America and elsewhere, yet predation on juvenile salmonids in traps has not been studied quantitatively.We assessed the frequency of occurrence and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the stomachs of coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii, coho salmon O. kisutch, steelhead, and prickly sculpin Cottus asper (>70 mm fork length) captured in traps and in nearby stream habitats. All four predator species took juvenile salmonids with much greater frequency in traps than in stream habitats. Among free-swimming predators, only coastal cutthroat trout were observed with salmonid fry in their stomachs, but they took fewer salmonid prey and appeared to rely more heavily on insect prey than did coastal cutthroat trout captured in traps. Predators consumed up to 25% of the available prey over a broad range of prey abundances. Over the course of the study, predators consumed 2.5% of all salmonid fry captured in traps, but this fraction ranged from less than 1% to more than 10% in any given year. The number of prey taken in traps increased with predator length and with prey abundance in traps, and predation in traps peaked during the period of most intense downstream migration by salmon fry. In contrast, live-box design and trap location had little or no effect on the total number of prey taken by individual predators.We estimated that the predation mortality of juvenile salmon increased by 0.5-1.0% due to in-trap predation (i.e., a 9-10% relative increase over natural predation rates). We found no evidence that predators selected for prey on the basis of species. These results should motivate additional research on methods that reduce or eliminate predation in trap live-boxes and protocols for efficiently measuring predation associated with the trapping of downstream migrants. ?? American

  1. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of... Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  2. 75 FR 38936 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the...

  3. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago

    PubMed Central

    Halffman, Carrin M.; Potter, Ben A.; McKinney, Holly J.; Finney, Bruce P.; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Yang, Dongya Y.; Kemp, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America. PMID:26392548

  4. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago.

    PubMed

    Halffman, Carrin M; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Finney, Bruce P; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Yang, Dongya Y; Kemp, Brian M

    2015-10-06

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America.

  5. The response of stream periphyton to Pacific salmon: using a model to understand the role of environmental context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Fremier, Alexander K.; Mejia, Francine; Newsom, Michael

    2014-01-01

    1. In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed that the magnitude and direction of the response to salmon varies from one location to the next. Salmon appear to increase periphyton biomass and/or production in some contexts (a positive response), but decrease them in others (a negative response). 2. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we constructed a system dynamics model that links periphyton biomass and production to salmon spawning. We used this model to explore how environmental conditions influence the periphyton response to salmon. 3. Our simulations suggest that the periphyton response to salmon is strongly mediated by both background nutrient concentrations and the proportion of the stream bed suitable for spawning. Positive periphyton responses occurred when both background nutrient concentrations were low (nutrient limiting conditions) and when little of the stream bed was suitable for spawning (because the substratum is too coarse). In contrast, negative responses occurred when nutrient concentrations were higher or a larger proportion of the bed was suitable for spawning. 4. Although periphyton biomass generally remained above or below background conditions for several months following spawning, periphyton production returned quickly to background values shortly afterwards. As a result, based upon our simulations, salmon did not greatly increase or decrease overall annual periphyton production. This suggests that any increase in production by fish or invertebrates in response to returning salmon is more likely to occur via direct consumption of salmon carcasses and/or eggs, rather than the indirect effects of greater periphyton production. 5

  6. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  7. Positive Darwinian Selection in the Piston That Powers Proton Pumps in Complex I of the Mitochondria of Pacific Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R.; Bielawski, Joseph P.; Gharrett, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm. PMID:21969854

  8. The utilization of a Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by three populations of charr Salvelinus spp.

    PubMed

    Denton, K P; Rich, H B; Moore, J W; Quinn, T P

    2010-09-01

    The L(F) -at-age trajectories differentiated two populations of Dolly Varden charr Salvelinus malma and a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from the eastern end of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Salvelinus malma from the Pedro Bay ponds were the smallest for a given age, followed by Salvelinus alpinus from the lake, and S. malma from the Iliamna River were much larger. The utilization of a large sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by the three Salvelinus spp. populations was then investigated by comparing diet data and mixing model (MixSIR) outputs based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Stomach contents indicated that both S. malma populations fed on O. nerka products, especially eggs and larval Diptera that had scavenged O. nerka carcasses, whereas S. alpinus fed on a variety of prey items such as three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and snails. Stable-isotope analysis corroborated the diet data; the two S. malma populations incorporated more O. nerka-derived nutrients into their tissues than did S. alpinus from the lake, although all populations showed substantial utilization of O. nerka-derived resources. Salvelinus alpinus also seemed to be much more omnivorous, as shown by stable-isotope mixing models, than the S. malma populations. The dramatic differences in growth rate between the two S. malma populations, despite similar trophic patterns, indicate that other important genetic or environmental factors affect their life history, including proximate temperature controls and ultimate predation pressures.

  9. Genetic stock identification of chum salmon in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean using mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Shogo; Sato, Shunpei; Azumaya, Tomonori; Suzuki, Osamu; Urawa, Shigehiko; Urano, Akihisa; Abe, Syuiti

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed DNA microarray was applied to identify mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes of more than 2200 chum salmon in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean in September 2002 and also 2003, when the majority of maturing fish were migrating toward their natal river. The distribution of haplotypes occurring in Asian and North American fish in the surveyed area was similar in the 2 years. A conditional maximum likelihood method for estimation of stock compositions indicated that the Japanese stocks were distributed mainly in the north central Bering Sea, whereas the Russian stocks were mainly in the western Bering Sea. The North American stocks were abundant in the North Pacific Ocean around the Aleutian Islands. These results indicate that the Asian and North American stocks of chum salmon are nonrandomly distributed in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, and further the oligonuleotide DNA microarray developed by us has a high potential for identification of stocks among mixed ocean aggregates of high-seas chum salmon.

  10. THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not ...

  11. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot... use the 2011 total allowable catch of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet...

  12. 77 FR 19147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  13. 75 FR 3874 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery... access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to vessels participating...

  14. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in...

  15. 76 FR 29671 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2011 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be...

  16. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI... Act requires that conservation and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011...

  17. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using jig or...

  18. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200...

  19. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  20. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  1. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  2. 78 FR 54592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory... total allowable catch apportioned to C/ Ps using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  3. 76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of... Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in...

  4. 76 FR 46207 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of... Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in...

  5. Ecological relationship between freshwater sculpins (Genus cottus) and beach-spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Iliamna Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between two sculpin species, Cottus cognatus and Cottus aleuticus, and island beach spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was examined in Iliamna Lake, Alaska. We conclude that sculpins actively move to specific spawning beaches and that the initiation of their movements precedes the start of spawning. Sculpin predation on sockeye eggs is positively dependent on sculpin size and on the state of the eggs (fresh versus water hardened), with the largest sculpins able to consume nearly 50 fresh eggs at a single feeding and 130 over a 7-day period. The number of sculpins in sockeye nests is greatest at the beginning of the spawning run, lowest in the middle, and high again at the end, with peak numbers of over 100 sculpins per nest (1 m2). We discuss the results in terms of energy flow of marine-derived nutrients into an oligotrophic system and in terms of the coevolution of sockeye spawning behavior and the predatory behavior of sculpins.

  6. Columbium-, rare-earth-element-, and thorium-bearing veins near Salmon Bay, Southeastern Alaska. Open file report

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985 the Bureau of Mines investigated radioactive carbonate veins near Salmon Bay, southeastern Alaska, for concentrations of columbium and associated metals. The veins cut units of graywacke, conglomerate, argillite, and limestone and range in width from less than an inch to greater than 10 ft and have a length ranging from less than a hundred to greater than 1,000 ft. Mineralogy of the veins is complex, and includes thorite, the rare-earth-element minerals monazite, parisite, and bastnaesite, and a columbium mineral that is speculated to be columbite. Gangue minerals include ankerite, dolomite, siderite, quartz and albite. More than seventy veins were sampled but only three contain elevated metal concentrations along a significant strike length. These resources are small compared to columbium, REE, and thorium resources elsewhere in the world.

  7. Alaska pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spoilage and ethanol incidence in the canned product.

    PubMed

    Chantarachoti, Jiraporn; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Himelbloom, Brian H; Crapo, Charles A; McLachlan, David G

    2007-04-04

    Ethanol was quantified in canned salmon produced from whole fish showing different stages of decomposition due to storage at 1 and 14 degrees C for up to 3 and 16 days, respectively. Ethanol incidence in the canned salmon was correlated to results from skin aerobic plate counts and sensory evaluations of the whole fish and with sensory evaluations of the canned product. Panelists rejected whole salmon after 3 and 12 days of storage at 14 and 1 degrees C, respectively. Skin aerobic plate counts reached 4.8 log CFU/cm2 when fish were rejected, regardless of storage temperature. Panelists rejected canned salmon produced with fish stored for a maximum of 2 and 16 days at 14 and 1 degrees C, respectively. Ethanol concentrations in the cans produced with fish stored at 14 degrees C correlated well with sensory evaluation results; however, ethanol concentrations in the cans produced with salmon stored at 1 degrees C did not agree with sensory results. A correlation could not be established between ethanol concentration in the canned product and microbial content of whole salmon.

  8. Geodetic Constraints on the Tectonics of Alaska and the North Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most tectonically active areas in the world, hosting a combination of subduction, arc volcanism, continental terrane collision and accretion, and large-scale deformation of the continental lithosphere. The general outline of Alaska tectonics was sketched extremely well by George Plafker and others by the 1980s, but many important details, and particularly rates of motion, are now known primarily through modern space geodetic measurements. In addition to steady tectonic deformation of the continent, the observed crustal deformation includes significant components due to earthquake cycle deformation, both steady and transient postseismic, volcanic inflation and eruption, and glacial isostatic adjustment. Geodetic data and the combination of plate configuration and geography have allowed us to study a wide variety of problems in the kinematics and dynamics of the lithosphere in one single area. Most of the crust in Alaska and the surrounding area is moving relative to the North American plate, and the location of the edge of the geologically stable North American continent in the region is not yet clearly defined. Even the Arctic coast of Alaska appears to move relative to the North American plate, although quite slowly. Typical permanent crustal motions are of the order of a few to several mm/yr, and GPS observations across the region define a broad plate boundary zone that comprises not only Alaska, but also most or all of the Pacific coast of Canada. Likewise, there is no well-defined boundary between Alaska and northeast Asia. It is better to think of the entire north Pacific region as a broad plate boundary zone between the North American, Pacific, and Eurasian plates; a collage of tectonic blocks of various sizes that forms a single, large, diffuse deforming belt. These large-scale tectonic motions are overprinted by deformation related to earthquake cycle processes, which often cause ground deformation that is larger than the long-term and

  9. Native Alaska's Floating Factoryship--She Plies the Pacific Ocean for Native Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassaja, The Indian Historian, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the history of the Al-Ind-Esk-A Sea, a floating fish processing factory representing a major hope for the economic independence of Alaska Natives residing outside the state. Discusses employment practices in effect on the ship. Notes interesting facts about the ship's engines and fittings. (SB)

  10. Gene expression in caged juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchys kisutch) exposed to the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A P; Oris, J T; Stubblefield, W A

    2006-11-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. The current study, conducted in 2004, sought to use juvenile Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in situ to determine whether biomarker induction differed at sites where the adjacent shoreline contained buried residues from the 1989 oil spill compared to sites that were never oiled. Juvenile Coho salmon were caged at five sites; three oiled during the 1989 EVOS and two that were not oiled. Tissue samples were collected from organisms caged at each site as well as a control group housed onboard the research vessel. Analysis of CYP1A, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPO) gene expression was conducted using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Statistically significant levels of CYP1A expression were observed at some sites indicating increased hydrocarbon exposure. No patterns were observed regarding sites that were originally oiled or not oiled by the 1989 EVOS, indicating that sources of PAHs other than EVOS oil occur in PWS.

  11. Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon…

  12. Anisakis simplex (s.s.) larvae in wild Alaska salmon: no indication of post-mortem migration from viscera into flesh.

    PubMed

    Karl, Horst; Baumann, Florian; Ostermeyer, Ute; Kuhn, Thomas; Klimpel, Sven

    2011-05-09

    The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water.

  13. A microassay for gill sodium, potassium-activated ATPase in juvenile Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrock, Robin M.; Beeman, John W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Haner, Philip V.

    1994-01-01

    A microassay well-plate method is described for determining Na+,K+-ATPase activities of small gill sections from juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. The method differs from the established macromethod by detecting inorganic phosphate in nanomole rather than micromole concentrations. This permits the use of much smaller tissue samples, which makes it possible to release fish after sampling. Use of sonication during enzyme extraction and elimination of the need to deproteinize samples before ATPase analysis further simplify the assay. Application of the microwell-plate technique for both Na+,K+-ATPase activity and protein analysis permits rapid processing of many samples. It also produces results equivalent to those of the macroassay; no significant differences occurred between sample duplicates run by the two methods with the same enzyme extract (P > 0.05). The coefficient of variation (100·SD/mean) for microassay samples containing enzyme activities of at least 10 umol inorganic phosphate per milligram protein per hour was 12% or less for between-plate comparisons and 5% or less for same-plate comparisons. Monitoring of gill-clipped fish during migration indicated that small gill clips did not cause mortality or alter migration behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged with passive integrated transponders. These are important considerations in programs for monitoring species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

  14. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  15. Centennial-scale fluctuations and regional complexity characterize Pacific salmon population dynamics over the past five centuries

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lauren A.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Lisi, Peter J.; Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Bunting, Lynda; Finney, Bruce P.; Selbie, Daniel T.; Chen, Guangjie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lisac, Mark J.; Walsh, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational data from the past century have highlighted the importance of interdecadal modes of variability in fish population dynamics, but how these patterns of variation fit into a broader temporal and spatial context remains largely unknown. We analyzed time series of stable nitrogen isotopes from the sediments of 20 sockeye salmon nursery lakes across western Alaska to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in salmon abundance over the past ∼500 y. Although some stocks varied on interdecadal time scales (30- to 80-y cycles), centennial-scale variation, undetectable in modern-day catch records and survey data, has dominated salmon population dynamics over the past 500 y. Before 1900, variation in abundance was clearly not synchronous among stocks, and the only temporal signal common to lake sediment records from this region was the onset of commercial fishing in the late 1800s. Thus, historical changes in climate did not synchronize stock dynamics over centennial time scales, emphasizing that ecosystem complexity can produce a diversity of ecological responses to regional climate forcing. Our results show that marine fish populations may alternate between naturally driven periods of high and low abundance over time scales of decades to centuries and suggest that management models that assume time-invariant productivity or carrying capacity parameters may be poor representations of the biological reality in these systems. PMID:23322737

  16. Centennial-scale fluctuations and regional complexity characterize Pacific salmon population dynamics over the past five centuries.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lauren A; Schindler, Daniel E; Lisi, Peter J; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Leavitt, Peter R; Bunting, Lynda; Finney, Bruce P; Selbie, Daniel T; Chen, Guangjie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Lisac, Mark J; Walsh, Patrick B

    2013-01-29

    Observational data from the past century have highlighted the importance of interdecadal modes of variability in fish population dynamics, but how these patterns of variation fit into a broader temporal and spatial context remains largely unknown. We analyzed time series of stable nitrogen isotopes from the sediments of 20 sockeye salmon nursery lakes across western Alaska to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in salmon abundance over the past ∼500 y. Although some stocks varied on interdecadal time scales (30- to 80-y cycles), centennial-scale variation, undetectable in modern-day catch records and survey data, has dominated salmon population dynamics over the past 500 y. Before 1900, variation in abundance was clearly not synchronous among stocks, and the only temporal signal common to lake sediment records from this region was the onset of commercial fishing in the late 1800s. Thus, historical changes in climate did not synchronize stock dynamics over centennial time scales, emphasizing that ecosystem complexity can produce a diversity of ecological responses to regional climate forcing. Our results show that marine fish populations may alternate between naturally driven periods of high and low abundance over time scales of decades to centuries and suggest that management models that assume time-invariant productivity or carrying capacity parameters may be poor representations of the biological reality in these systems.

  17. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  18. Survival of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Flint, P.L.; Moran, Christine L.; Powell, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding in Alaska, USA, have declined markedly over the past 40 years. We studied survival of adult female Pacific common eiders using capture—recapture of nesting hens at 3 sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska from 1994 to 2004. We used data consisting of 268 recapture events from 361 uniquely marked individuals to investigate temporal, geographic, and environmental variation in adult female survival. Our results suggest apparent annual survival of adult eiders from the YKD was high (0.892, SE = 0.022) and spatially and temporally invariant (σ2 = 0.005), a pattern consistent with other long-lived marine birds. Moreover, our results suggest adult survival may be functionally fixed for Pacific common eiders, and at the present, adult survival may be relatively unresponsive to environmental or management perturbations. Our data did not support hypothesized variation in survival relative to mortality factors such as predation on breeding grounds, physiologic costs of reproduction, and wintering conditions. Although changes in adult survival likely have a large potential effect on prospective population growth, our results suggest viable management actions aimed at increasing survival may be extremely limited.

  19. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-06

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem.

  20. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

  1. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  2. The Riverscape Analysis Project: Using Remote Sensing to Leverage Salmon Science and Management Applications Around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, S.; Maumenee, N.; Lucotch, J.; Whited, D.; Bansack, T.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Salmonid Rivers Observatory Network (SaRON) is an intensive field research project which aims to describe the relation between salmon productivion and diversity in relation to environmental drivers and physical complexity of riverine shifting habitat mosaics. The Riverscape Analysis Project (RAP) is a spatially explicit remote sensing database which quantifies and ranks different combinations of physical landscape metrics around the Pacific Rim, displaying results through a publically accessible web based decision support framework designed to empower regional management and conservation efforts for wild salmon. The objective of our research is to explicitly describe and relate different habitat types and their potential fish production at a variety of scales and throughout the range of Pacific salmon, leveraging our field research through available satellite remote sensing and geospatial analysis. We find that rivers exhibit a range of physical, chemical, and biotic conditions consistent with the shifting habitat mosaic (SHM) concept. Landscape physical variables derived from global Landsat imagery and SRTM-DEM information explain 93.2% of observed variability in over 1500 watersheds across the Pacific Rim. We expect that it is these coarse scale differences in river typologies which are responsible for the fine scale differences in habitat conditions and juvenile salmon production. Therefore, we ranked rivers using landscape scale physical variables to prioritize them for management actions based on potential productivity. For example, the Kvichak River of Bristol Bay is highly ranked, 8th, based on its physical landscape structure as well as current human impacts. Currently, the Bristol Bay fishery is extremely productive. Habitat structure can be used not only to define reference conditions and management targets for how many fish we would expect a river to produce based on its potential habitat capacity, but it also provides new analytical tools to

  3. Overview of current marine juvenile salmon research by the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helle, John H.; Eisner, L.B.; Farley, Edward V.; Martinson, Ellen C.; Martinson, Angela; Moss, Jamal H.; Murphy, James M.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Mollly V.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Wing, Bruce L.; Brodeur, R.D.; Emmett, Robert; Bucher, Cynthia; MacFarlane, Bruce; Harding, Jeff; Ammann, Arnold; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2007-01-01

    A history of juvenile salmon research on Pacific salmon in coastal areas conducted by the United States (U.S.) was published by Brodeur et al. (2003). Presently, juvenile Pacific salmon research in the U.S. occurs in the coastal areas of all of the Pacific states: California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska (Fig. 1). Major objectives of this research are to understand how dynamics in marine ecosystems influence migration, distribution, growth, and survival of juvenile salmon during their early ocean residence. Several large-scale studies in coastal areas from California to Alaska are currently being conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with university and state scientists. Studies off California are operated by the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Santa Cruz Laboratory in Santa Cruz, California and University of California Santa Cruz. Studies off Oregon and Washington are operated by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport Laboratory and Oregon State University in Newport, Oregon. Studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and in the seaward migration corridors in the coastal waters of southeastern Alaska are operated by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Auke Bay Laboratory in Juneau, Alaska, in collaboration with Alaska Department of Fish and Game, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association, and Yukon River Drainage Fishermen’s Association. In addition to these large studies, smaller estuarine studies on juvenile salmon occur in northwestern Alaska in Kuskokwim Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey (Anchorage) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (Juneau), and, in Norton Sound by LGL Alaska Research Associates and Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation both headquartered in Anchorage (Fig. 1). The estuarine studies on juvenile salmon in Alaska operate in shallow water and a variety of gear is used to capture salmon. A small trawl

  4. The southwestern alaska mercury belt and its relationship to the circum-pacific metallogenic mercury province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Gent, C.A.; Snee, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    A belt of small but numerous mercury deposits extends for about 500 km in the Kuskokwim River region of southwestern Alaska. The southwestern Alaska mercury belt is part of widespread mercury deposits of the circumPacific region that are similar to other mercury deposits throughout the world because they are epithermal with formation temperatures of about 200??C, the ore is dominantly cinnabar with Hg-Sb-As??Au geochemistry, and mineralized forms include vein, vein breccias, stockworks, replacements, and disseminations. The southwestern Alaska mercury belt has produced about 1,400 t of mercury, which is small on an international scale. However, additional mercury deposits are likely to be discovered because the terrain is topographically low with significant vegetation cover. Anomalous concentrations of gold in cinnabar ore suggest that gold deposits are possible in higher temperature environments below some of the Alaska mercury deposits. We correlate mineralization of the southwestern Alaska mercury deposits with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous activity. Our 40Ar/39Ar ages of 70??3 Ma from hydrothermal sericites in the mercury deposits indicate a temporal association of igneous activity and mineralization. Furthermore, we suggest that our geological and geochemical data from the mercury deposits indicate that ore fluids were generated primarily in surrounding sedimentary wall rocks when they were cut by Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary intrusions. In our ore genesis model, igneous activity provided the heat to initiate dehydration reactions and expel fluids from hydrous minerals and formational waters in the surrounding sedimentary wall rocks, causing thermal convection and hydrothermal fluid flow through permeable rocks and along fractures and faults. Our isotopic data from sulfide and alteration minerals of the mercury deposits indicate that ore fluids were derived from multiple sources, with most ore fluids originating from the sedimentary wall

  5. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors.

  6. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In western North America, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to protect or restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. Each appro...

  8. DETECTING PERSISTENT CHANGE IN THE HABITAT OF SALMON-BEARING STREAMS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the northwestern United States, there is considerable interest in the recovery of salmon populations listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. A critical component of any salmon recovery effort is the improvement of stream habitat that supports vario...

  9. THe Pacific Northwest in 2010: An alternative futures perspective on salmon recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  10. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Role of lake regulation on glacier-fed rivers in enhancing salmon productivity: the Cook Inlet watershed, south-central Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Milner, Alexander M.

    2000-10-01

    Rivers fed by glaciers constitute a major part of the freshwater runoff into the Cook Inlet basin of south-central Alaska. This basin is very important to the economy of the State of Alaska because it is home to more than half of the population and it supports multi-million dollar commercial, subsistence and sport fisheries. Hence an understanding of how glacial runoff influences biological productivity is important for managing rivers that drain into Cook Inlet. This paper examines the ways in which the regulation of glacier-fed rivers by proglacial lakes affects salmon productivity, with particular reference to the Kenai River. Salmon escapement per unit channel length on the Kenai River is between two and ten times that found for rain-and-snowmelt dominated rivers and glacier-fed rivers lacking lake regulation.Lakes are shown to influence biological processes in glacier-fed rivers by attenuating peak flows, sustaining high flows throughout the summer, supplementing winter low flows, settling suspended sediment, and increasing river temperatures. Downstream from large lakes, glacier-fed rivers are less disturbed, channels are relatively stable and have well-developed salmonid habitats. The positive influences are indicated by the high diversity and abundances of benthic macroinvertebrates, which are important food resources for juvenile salmonids. High summer flows allow access for up-river salmon runs and lakes also provide both overwintering and rearing habitat.

  12. Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

  13. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  14. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  15. 77 FR 10400 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall... less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the...

  16. 78 FR 9328 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length Overall... less than 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the...

  17. 76 FR 40628 - Groundfish Fisheries of the EEZ Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut Fisheries; CDQ Program; Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Coonstripe 864 Humpy 963 Northern (pink) 961 Sidestripe 962 Spot 965 Snails 890 Urchin, green sea 893 Urchin... EEZ Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut Fisheries; CDQ Program; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP). With Federal oversight, the State of...

  18. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow the B season apportionment of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC)...

  19. 77 FR 67579 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska management area. This action is necessary to allow the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES:...

  20. 77 FR 22753 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... deployment system for observers in North Pacific groundfish and halibut fisheries via Amendment 86 to the...) and Amendment 76 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA FMP). The... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail: Address written comments to Glenn Merrill,...

  1. 78 FR 17884 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... vessels (CVs) greater than or equal to 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using...

  2. 76 FR 66195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA791 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  3. 75 FR 59157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XZ27 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  4. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA176 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  5. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA955 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  6. 75 FR 41999 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level... vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of... perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in the...

  7. Habitat Utilization by Juvenile Pink and Chum Salmon in Upper Resurrection Bay, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Shell- fish Migration." The Technical Monitors for the study were Dr. John Bushman, Mr. David P. Buelow, and Mr. David Mathis of HQUSACE. This report was...Mr. Edward J. Pullen, Chief, Coastal Ecology Group; Dr. Conrad J. Kirby, Chief, Environmental Resources Division; and Dr. John Harrison, Chief...at the Heads of Boca de Quadra and Wilson Arm/ Smeaton Bay During 1981," Quartz Hill Molybdenum Project, Southeast Alaska, prepared for United States

  8. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1985-10-01

    FY 1985 was the seventh year of an eight-year study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1985 as planned. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of September 30, 1985 are 85,222. This return is already larger than three of the past five years. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1983 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1983. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .41, .34, .07, 0, and .17 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brook fish caught are .05, .63, .30, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined are 2.7 and 3.6 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Four years (1980 to 1983) are included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and three years (1981 to 1983) for the 1970 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery has the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.3 and 12.8 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution is followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.5, 4.2, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 8.4, 6.7 and 4.7 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities have contributions per 1000 releases of approximately 2 or less. These contributions are minimums since all possible fisheries and catch years are not yet included.

  9. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jasper, James R; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D; Grant, W Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982) with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010) and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  10. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  11. Trophic pathways supporting juvenile Chinook and Coho salmon in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska: patterns of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial resource use across a seasonally dynamic habitat mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, Kristin M.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Schoen, Erik R.; Nightengale, Timothy L.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream–downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river.

  12. Evidence for Pacific Climate Regime Shifts as Preserved in a Southeast Alaska Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Thompson, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate modes emanating from the Pacific sector have far-reaching effects across the globe. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) reflects anomalies in the sea surface temperature and pressure fields over the tropical Pacific, but climate implications from these anomalies extend to monsoon regions of Asia to North America and even Europe. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific sector and influences the long-term behavior of the ENSO cycle as well as the storm track over North America expressed as the Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA). The impacts of both climate change and drastically reduced Arctic sea ice cover on these teleconnection patterns are poorly understood, and with little knowledge about their past behavior, predicting the changes in these climate modes is extremely difficult. An ice core from the col between Mt. Bona and Mt. Churchill in southeast Alaska provides an opportunity to examine the PDO prior to both the start of instrumental records and the more recent effects of anthropogenic climate change. The Bona-Churchill records of isotopic, dust, and chemical composition are compared to nearby meteorological station and 20th century reanalysis data to evaluate their strength as climate recorders. Climate indices such as the PDO and PNA, along with indices created to describe the strength and position of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High, are incorporated into the analysis to determine if proxy relationships are altered under different climate regimes. Satellite records of sea ice extent within the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, when compared to the Bona-Churchill data, show a distinct change in behavior in the mid-1990s possibly in response to the temporary negative shift in the PDO. This behavioral shift is explored and placed into a broader climate context to determine whether similar events have occurred in the past or if this shift is unique to a rapidly warming Arctic.

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. King Salmon, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-10

    1 .2 - i 121 1b 15 o -- 9 2.4 z 2 22 2 2 2fi 2 13 1ee (X) I me. O.. N.. o Nof " . Tom .eet W .. I T 0 F s 32P IN 67 P 3 FNP -93 P T...I w e Or ulb t...CLIMATOLOGY BRANCHT 2 AkETAHRSRVC/A PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY2 I ETE EVC /A 7 3260_ KING SALMON AFS AK 73-82 JAN STAT.Oft STATION NWAI villOAN *PAGE ? 1890...T,,.) .. ." " " , . - . . 1 i. . , ’. . ; : ; .-. A f;: ’ ,- ;. * GLr rA E LMTL~ T AC? PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYT2 FAH- EVC /A 7 3267 XING SALM4ON AFS

  15. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1984-12-01

    The distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River was determined. Total returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities in 1984 were 74,401. This was the second smallest return over the past five years. Returns to Bonneville, Spring Creek, Little White Salmon, Klickitat and Klaskanine hatcheries were smaller than any previous year during this study. However, returns to Priest Rapids and Sea Resources hatcheries were greater than in previous years. Final estimated catch values are available through 1982 for British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and Columbia River fisheries. Fall chinook from the Columbia River hatcheries are predominately recovered in these fisheries. The percentages of the 1978-brood fish caught in these fisheries was 40.3, 35.0, 7.5 and 17.2 respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined were 2.6 and 3.0 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Three years (1980 to 1982) were included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and two years (1981 and 1982) for the 1979 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery had the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.2 and 12.7 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979-broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution was followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.3, 4.1, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 7.4, 6.2 and 3.9 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities had contributions per 1000 releases of less than 2. These contributions are minimums since all possible catch years are not included. 2 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1 µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined.

  17. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  18. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Muradian, Melissa L; Branch, Trevor A; Moffitt, Steven D; Hulson, Peter-John F

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  19. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Steven D.; Hulson, Peter-John F.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150–31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status. PMID:28222151

  20. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Donaldson, Michael R; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Crossin, Glenn T; Raby, Graham D; Jeffries, Ken M; Lapointe, Mike; Miller, Kristi; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P

    2012-06-19

    Despite growing interest in conservation physiology, practical examples of how physiology has helped to understand or to solve conservation problems remain scarce. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary research team has used a conservation physiology approach to address topical conservation concerns for Pacific salmon. Here, we review how novel applications of tools such as physiological telemetry, functional genomics and laboratory experiments on cardiorespiratory physiology have shed light on the effect of fisheries capture and release, disease and individual condition, and stock-specific consequences of warming river temperatures, respectively, and discuss how these findings have or have not benefited Pacific salmon management. Overall, physiological tools have provided remarkable insights into the effects of fisheries capture and have helped to enhance techniques for facilitating recovery from fisheries capture. Stock-specific cardiorespiratory thresholds for thermal tolerances have been identified for sockeye salmon and can be used by managers to better predict migration success, representing a rare example that links a physiological scope to fitness in the wild population. Functional genomics approaches have identified physiological signatures predictive of individual migration mortality. Although fisheries managers are primarily concerned with population-level processes, understanding the causes of en route mortality provides a mechanistic explanation and can be used to refine management models. We discuss the challenges that we have overcome, as well as those that we continue to face, in making conservation physiology relevant to managers of Pacific salmon.

  1. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Clark, Timothy D.; Eliason, Erika J.; Crossin, Glenn T.; Raby, Graham D.; Jeffries, Ken M.; Lapointe, Mike; Miller, Kristi; Patterson, David A.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conservation physiology, practical examples of how physiology has helped to understand or to solve conservation problems remain scarce. Over the past decade, an interdisciplinary research team has used a conservation physiology approach to address topical conservation concerns for Pacific salmon. Here, we review how novel applications of tools such as physiological telemetry, functional genomics and laboratory experiments on cardiorespiratory physiology have shed light on the effect of fisheries capture and release, disease and individual condition, and stock-specific consequences of warming river temperatures, respectively, and discuss how these findings have or have not benefited Pacific salmon management. Overall, physiological tools have provided remarkable insights into the effects of fisheries capture and have helped to enhance techniques for facilitating recovery from fisheries capture. Stock-specific cardiorespiratory thresholds for thermal tolerances have been identified for sockeye salmon and can be used by managers to better predict migration success, representing a rare example that links a physiological scope to fitness in the wild population. Functional genomics approaches have identified physiological signatures predictive of individual migration mortality. Although fisheries managers are primarily concerned with population-level processes, understanding the causes of en route mortality provides a mechanistic explanation and can be used to refine management models. We discuss the challenges that we have overcome, as well as those that we continue to face, in making conservation physiology relevant to managers of Pacific salmon. PMID:22566681

  2. A SALMON-CENTRIC VIEW OF THE 21ST CENTURY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years and, although there have been decades when the numbers increased,...

  3. Development of a Method to Produce Freeze-Dried Cubes from 3 Pacific Salmon Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeze-dried boneless skinless cubes of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon were prepared and physical properties evaluated. To minimize freeze-drying time, the kinetics of dehydration and processing yields were investigated. The physical ...

  4. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) Pink Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    velocity, water depth, can be adversely affected when exposed and densities of fish can influence to some high intertidal salinities. substrate ...Dissolved Oxygen. .. ..... ....... ....... ......... 11 Substrate . .. .. ....... ....... ....... ......... 11 Water Depth...to force water down on the gravel in freshwater close to the sea or in to remove fine sediments (Wickett the intertidal zones. Pink salmon are 1959a

  5. Effects of Jet Entry at High Flow Outfalls on Juvenile Pacific Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Heisey, Paul G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.

    2003-05-01

    We conducted field studies and laboratory experiments to document relationships between injury/mortality rates of juvenile salmon and jet entry velocities characteristic of high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfalls. During field tests the range of calculated mean entry velocities was 9.3-13.7 m/s for two high flow outfall discharges (28.3 and ~70.2 m3/s) and two tailwater elevations. Mortality of balloon-tagged hatchery spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) juveniles in the field tests was <1% at entry velocities of 9.3 m/s and 13.7 m/s. Injury rates during both field tests were also less than 1%. At a high velocity flume in a laboratory, small (87-100 mm FL) and large (135-150 mm FL) hatchery fall chinook salmon were exposed to velocities ranging from 0.0 to 24.4 m/s in a fast-fish-to-slow-water scenario. Jet entry velocities up to 15.2 m/s provided benign passage conditions for all sizes of juvenile salmonids tested. Based on our results, we concluded that a jet entry velocity up to 15.2 m/s should safely pass juvenile salmon at high flow outfalls, contingent upon site-specific, post-construction verification studies.

  6. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  7. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  8. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  9. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  10. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  11. Investigating flight response of Pacific brant to helicopters at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska by using logistic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Nick, Todd G.; Ward, David H.; Peck, Roxy; Haugh, Larry D.; Goodman, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    Izembek Lagoon, an estuary in Alaska, is a very important staging area for Pacific brant, a small migratory goose. Each fall, nearly the entire Pacific Flyway population of 130,000 brant flies to Izembek Lagoon and feeds on eelgrass to accumulate fat reserves for nonstop transoceanic migration to wintering areas as distant as Mexico. In the past 10 years, offshore drilling activities in this area have increased, and, as a result, the air traffic in and out of the nearby Cold Bay airport has also increased. There has been a concern that this increased air traffic could affect the brant by disturbing them from their feeding and resting activities, which in turn could result in reduced energy intake and buildup. This may increase the mortality rates during their migratory journey. Because of these concerns, a study was conducted to investigate the flight response of brant to overflights of large helicopters. Response was measured on flocks during experimental overflights of large helicopters flown at varying altitudes and lateral (perpendicular) distances from the flocks. Logistic regression models were developed for predicting probability of flight response as a function of these distance variables. Results of this study may be used in the development of new FAA guidelines for aircraft near Izembek Lagoon.

  12. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.; March, Rod S.; Kennedy, Ben W.

    2007-10-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  13. Glacier mass-balance fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Bidlake, W.R.; March, R.S.; Kennedy, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    The more than 40 year record of net and seasonal mass-balance records from measurements made by the United States Geological Survey on South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, shows annual and interannual fluctuations that reflect changes in the controlling climatic conditions at regional and global scales. As the mass-balance record grows in length, it is revealing significant changes in previously described glacier mass-balance behavior, and both inter-glacier and glacier-climate relationships. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Their net balances have generally been controlled by winter accumulation, with fluctuations that are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Recently, warm dry summers have begun to dominate the net balance of the two maritime glaciers, with a weakening of the correlation between the winter balance fluctuations and the PDO. Non-synchronous periods of positive and negative net balance for each glacier prior to 1989 were followed by a 1989-2004 period of synchronous and almost exclusively negative net balances that averaged -0.8 m for the three glaciers.

  14. Mercury and water-quality data from Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, November 2009-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, Sonia A.; Neal, Edward G.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP), Alaska, like many pristine high latitude areas, is exposed to atmospherically deposited contaminants such as mercury (Hg). Although the harmful effects of Hg are well established, information on this contaminant in southeast Alaska is scarce. Here, we assess the level of this contaminant in several aquatic components (water, sediments, and biological tissue) in three adjacent, small streams in GBNPP that drain contrasting landscapes but receive similar atmospheric inputs: Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River. Twenty water samples were collected from 2009 to 2011 and processed and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury (filtered and particulate), and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality. Ancillary stream water parameters (discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature) were measured at the time of sampling. Major cations, anions, and nutrients were measured four times. In addition, total mercury was analyzed in streambed sediment in 2010 and in juvenile coho salmon and several taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates in the early summer of 2010 and 2011.

  15. Mass-Balance Fluctuations of Glaciers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josberger, E. G.; Bidlake, W. R.; March, R. S.; Kennedy, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    The mass balance of mid-latitude glaciers of the Pacific Northwest and southern Alaska fluctuates in response to changes in the regional and global atmospheric climate. More than 40 years of net and seasonal mass balance records by the U.S. Geological Survey for South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, show annual and inter-annual fluctuations that reflect the controlling climatic conditions. South Cascade and Wolverine Glaciers are strongly affected by the warm and wet maritime climate of the Northeast Pacific Ocean, and the winter balances are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Gulkana Glacier is more isolated from maritime influences and the net balance variation is more closely linked to the summer balance. By the late 1970's, mass-balance records for the three were long enough to reflect the 1976-77 shift in PDO from negative to positive. Both maritime glaciers responded, with net balance of South Cascade Glacier becoming consistently negative and that of Wolverine Glacier becoming predominantly positive. The overall trend of negative mass balance continued through 2004 for South Cascade Glacier, where the 1977 to 2004 cumulative net balance was about -22 meters water equivalent (mweq). After a gain of about 7 mweq, the trend of positive net balance for Wolverine Glacier ended in 1989. Beginning in 1989, the net balance trend for Wolverine Glacier became predominantly negative and the cumulative net balance for 1989 to 2004 was about -14 mweq. Net balance of Gulkana Glacier did not respond appreciably to the 1976-77 PDO shift. The cumulative net balance for Gulkana Glacier from the beginning of the record (1966) through 1988 was about -3 mweq. The major change in trend of mass balance occurred in 1989, when net balance became almost exclusively negative. The cumulative net balance during 1989 through 2004 was about 13 mweq. As a result trends in net balance had become strongly negative for more

  16. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1980. Part 4. Waterways and Harbors, Pacific Coast, Alaska and Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    by U.S. Army Engineer Districts .... ...... ..................... 1 Los Angeles, Calif ........... ...... ...................................... 3 ...Mississippi River System, and Antilles Part 3 . Great Lakes Part 4. Pacific Coast. Alaska, and Hawaii Part 5. Waterborne Commerce of tle United States...least 3 feet more than the draft of a vessel at dock is required where vessels mt be operated at slow speed. Channel depth of 5 feet more than the

  17. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; McPhee, Megan V.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations—providing crucial insights for conservation.

  18. Strontium isotopes delineate fine-scale natal origins and migration histories of Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sean R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; McPhee, Megan V.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Highly migratory organisms present major challenges to conservation efforts. This is especially true for exploited anadromous fish species, which exhibit long-range dispersals from natal sites, complex population structures, and extensive mixing of distinct populations during exploitation. By tracing the migratory histories of individual Chinook salmon caught in fisheries using strontium isotopes, we determined the relative production of natal habitats at fine spatial scales and different life histories. Although strontium isotopes have been widely used in provenance research, we present a new robust framework to simultaneously assess natal sources and migrations of individuals within fishery harvests through time. Our results pave the way for investigating how fine-scale habitat production and life histories of salmon respond to perturbations—providing crucial insights for conservation. PMID:26601173

  19. Incidence of Clostridium botulinum Type E in Salmon and Other Marine Fish in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Craig, James M.; Hayes, Sidney; Pilcher, K. S.

    1968-01-01

    Salmon, sole, cod, oysters, clams, and crabs from ocean waters along the coast of Oregon and Washington were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type E. The organism was detected by identification of the type E toxin in enrichment cultures of the viscera of individual fish. Of 369 salmon specimens, 48 yielded cultures containing toxin lethal to mice, and almost half of the toxic cultures were shown to contain botulinal toxin, chiefly type E. Eighteen of 113 sole and cod specimens, 4 of 22 Dungeness crab specimens, 5 of 16 oyster specimens, and 27 of 115 clam specimens gave rise to cultures containing botulinal toxin which was usually type E, although types A and B were occasionally encountered. PMID:4869616

  20. 76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... opportunity to count the number of salmon and to collect scientific data or biological samples from the salmon... This proposed rule would apply to owners and operators of catcher vessels, catcher/processors, and inshore processors participating in the pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fisheries in the Central...

  1. [Ultrastructure of chloride cell of gill epithelium and body ionic composition of the fry of two species of Pacific salmon during migration to the sea].

    PubMed

    Maksimovich, A A

    2010-01-01

    Pacific salmon fry were collected in 2001-2002 in the rivers of Southern Sakhalin on the way of their migration to the sea. The comparison of the data on ionic content of chum salmon fry carcass, received in 2002, with those obtained in 2001, has shown that the dispersion of ion concentration values in 2002 samples was significantly smaller than in 2001. Similar results were obtained when the mass of smolts was compared. The significant decrease of Na+ concentration in chum salmon fry during migration to the sea supports the idea on an imperative stimulus formation by means of change of Na+ concentration in migrating fish. The analysis of gill chloride cell (CC) structure in chum salmon and masu salmon fry in fresh and salty water has shown, that in fishes from fresh water CC were located mainly in primary lamellae, at the basis of secondary lamellae. As a rule, CC are large, have a large nucleus with an active chromatin and a light cytoplasm with numerous elongated mitochondria containing dense matrix. Secondary lamellae are short, 1-3 cells thick and practically contain no CC. In some fishes secondary lamellae were more numerous and longer. Some part of secondary lamellae contained large CC; in this place their width was approximately 2 times greater. As a whole, CC number in these fishes was increased. Analyzing all the material received during 2 years, with respect to CC cell structure and functions, a conclusion was drawn that freshwater fry of two salmon species, both chum salmon and masu salmon, caught at the same time and practically in the same reservoirs, could be divided into 3 groups. Masu salmon underyearlings are characterized, as a rule, by a thickened secondary lamellae epithelium, which, however contained few CC. In the chum salmon smolts, on the contrary, epithelium was thin, but contained numerous CC, which demonstrate active structure in the beginning of migration to the sea. But as they approached the sea (and migration duration increased), CC

  2. Palaeoenvironmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska (NE Pacific) during the Mid Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; Romero, O. E.; McClymont, E.; Stein, R. H.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) constitutes a fundamental shift in Earth's climate system from a 41 ka to a 100 ka periodicity in glacial oscillations. The exact timing and mechanism(s) that caused this change from a low- to high-amplitude glacial variability are still under debate and only recently Pena & Goldstein (2014) suggested that a disruption of the thermohaline circulation at about 900 ka BP and a subsequent change in ocean circulation might have acted as a trigger for the onset of 100 ka glacial-interglacial cycles. Most studies targeting the MPT are based on Atlantic sediment records whereas only few data sets are available from the North Pacific (see e.g. Clark et al., 2006 and McClymont et al., 2013 for reviews). IODP Expedition 341 distal deep-water site U1417 in the Gulf of Alaska (subpolar NE Pacific) now provided a continuous sediment record for reconstructing Miocene to Late Pleistocene changes in the sea surface conditions and how these relate to orbital and millennial scale climate variability. Here we present organic geochemical biomarker data covering the 1.5 Ma to 0.1 Ma time interval with special focus on the MPT. Alkenone, sterol, n-alkane and C25 highly branched isoprenoid data are used to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, primary productivity and terrigenous organic matter input (via sea ice, icebergs, meltwater discharge or aeolian transport). In addition, the diatom concentration and the species composition of the diatom assemblage deliver information on changes in palaeoproductivity and nutrient (silicate) availability. A major change in the environmental setting between 1.2 and 0.8 Ma is recorded by the biomarkers. This shift seems to be associated with a significant cooling of the surface waters in the Gulf of Alaska. Matching this shift, a significant change in the main components of the diatom community occurred between 1.2 and 0.8 Ma. References Clark, P.U., Archer, D., Pollard, D., Blum, J.D., Rial, J.A., Brovkin, V

  3. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution.

  4. Distribution of the Pacific/North America motion in the Queen Charlotte Islands-S. Alaska plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, Stéphane; Hyndman, Roy D.; Flück, Paul; Smith, Alex J.; Schmidt, Michael

    2003-07-01

    We present GPS data that constrain the distribution of the relative Pacific/North America motion across the Queen Charlotte Islands-Alaska Panhandle margin (NW North America). Velocities from a network of 22 campaign and permanent sites indicate that the Pacific/North America transpressive motion is mostly accommodated along the locked Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault. A significant portion (6-7 mm/yr) of the relative plate motion is taken up by distributed dextral shear across a ~200 km wide region of the margin. Two models have been proposed to describe how the Pacific/North America convergence is accommodated off the Queen Charlotte Islands: Internal shortening vs. underthrusting of the Pacific plate. Although the GPS data cannot discriminate between the models, they provide strong constraints on the convergence distribution. The significant non-transient motion of GPS sites along the central British Columbia-southern Alaska margin has implications for seismic hazard and tectonic evolution models of the Canadian Cordillera.

  5. Linking the pacific decadal oscillation to seasonal stream discharge patterns in Southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, E.G.; Todd, Walter M.; Coffeen, C.

    2002-01-01

    This study identified and examined differences in Southeast Alaskan streamflow patterns between the two most recent modes of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). Identifying relationships between the PDO and specific regional phenomena is important for understanding climate variability, interpreting historical hydrological variability, and improving water-resources forecasting. Stream discharge data from six watersheds in Southeast Alaska were divided into cold-PDO (1947-1976) and warm-PDO (1977-1998) subsets. For all watersheds, the average annual streamflows during cold-PDO years were not significantly different from warm-PDO years. Monthly and seasonal discharges, however, did differ significantly between the two subsets, with the warm-PDO winter flows being typically higher than the cold-PDO winter flows and the warm-PDO summer flows being typically lower than the cold-PDO flows. These results were consistent with and driven by observed temperature and snowfall patterns for the region. During warm-PDO winters, precipitation fell as rain and ran-off immediately, causing higher than normal winter streamflow. During cold-PDO winters, precipitation was stored as snow and ran off during the summer snowmelt, creating greater summer streamflows. The Mendenhall River was unique in that it experienced higher flows for all seasons during the warm-PDO relative to the cold-PDO. The large amount of Mendenhall River discharge caused by glacial melt during warm-PDO summers offset any flow reduction caused by lack of snow accumulation during warm-PDO winters. The effect of the PDO on Southeast Alaskan watersheds differs from other regions of the Pacific Coast of North America in that monthly/seasonal discharge patterns changed dramatically with the switch in PDO modes but annual discharge did not. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  7. Maturation, fecundity, and intertidal spawning of Pacific sand lance in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Rose, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, showed no sexual dimorphism in length-to-weight (gonad-free) ratio or length-at-age relationship. Most matured in their second year, males earlier in the season than females, but females (31%) attained a higher gonadosomatic index than males (21%). Sand lance spawned intertidally once each year in late September and October on fine gravel or sandy beaches soon after the seasonal peak in water temperatures. Sand lance in Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound displayed similar maturation schedules. Schools were dominated 2: 1 by males as they approached the intertidal zone at a site where spawning has taken place for decades. Sand lance spawned vigorously in dense formations, leaving scoured pits in beach sediments. Fecundity of females (93–199 mm) was proportional to length, ranging from 1468 to 16 081 ova per female. About half of the overall spawning school fecundity was derived from age group 1 females (55% of the school by number). Spawned eggs were 1·02 mm in diameter, demersal, slightly adhesive, and deposited in the intertidal just below the waterline. Sand lance embryos developed over 67 days through periods of intertidal exposure and sub-freezing air temperatures.

  8. An inherited magnetic map guides ocean navigation in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Scanlan, Michelle M; Billman, Eric J; O'Neil, Joseph P; Couture, Ryan B; Quinn, Thomas P; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-02-17

    Migratory marine animals exploit resources in different oceanic regions at different life stages, but how they navigate to specific oceanic areas is poorly understood. A particular challenge is explaining how juvenile animals with no prior migratory experience are able to locate specific oceanic feeding habitats that are hundreds or thousands of kilometers from their natal sites. Although adults reproducing in the vicinity of favorable ocean currents can facilitate transport of their offspring to these habitats, variation in ocean circulation makes passive transport unreliable, and young animals probably take an active role in controlling their migratory trajectories. Here we experimentally demonstrate that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) respond to magnetic fields like those at the latitudinal extremes of their ocean range by orienting in directions that would, in each case, lead toward their marine feeding grounds. We further show that fish use the combination of magnetic intensity and inclination angle to assess their geographic location. The "magnetic map" of salmon appears to be inherited, as the fish had no prior migratory experience. These results, paired with findings in sea turtles, imply that magnetic maps are phylogenetically widespread and likely explain the extraordinary navigational abilities evident in many long-distance underwater migrants.

  9. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  10. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  11. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  12. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  13. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  14. Investigating the 'Iron Hypothesis' in the North Pacific: Trans-Pacific Dust and Methanesulfonate (MSA) in the Denali Ice Core, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic deposition of Asian-sourced, Iron-rich dust particulate has been linked to enhanced phytoplankton productivity in regions of the Pacific Ocean. High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean regions, such as the North Pacific, are hypothesized to play a significant role in changing atmospheric CO­2 concentrations on glacial-interglacial timescales. Phytoplankton blooms generate methanesulfonate (MSA), an atmospheric oxidation product of dimethylsulfide (DMS) that is readily aerosolized and deposited in nearby glacial ice. In the summer of 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000 year-long parallel ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940° N, 151.088° W, 3912 m elevation). The Mt. Hunter ice core site is well situated to record changes in trans-Pacific dust flux and MSA emissions in the North Pacific. Here we investigate the history of dust flux to Denali over the last millennium using major and trace element chemistry and microparticle concentration and size distribution data from the Mt. Hunter cores. We evaluate potential controlling mechanisms on Denali dust flux including conditions at Asian dust sources (storminess, wind speed, precipitation), the strength of the Aleutian Low, and large-scale climate modes such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We also evaluate the Mt. Hunter record for relationships between dust flux and MSA concentrations to investigate whether dust fertilization enhanced North Pacific phytoplankton production over the past 1000 years. Future work will create a composite North Pacific dust record using new and existing Mt. Logan ice core records to evaluate these relationships over the entire Holocene.

  15. Human influence on the spatial structure of threatened Pacific salmon metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Aimee H; Lindley, Steven T; Pess, George R; Feist, Blake E; Steel, E Ashley; McElhany, Paul

    2011-10-01

    To remain viable, populations must be resilient to both natural and human-caused environmental changes. We evaluated anthropogenic effects on spatial connections among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) (designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act) in the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers. For several anthropogenic-effects scenarios, we used graph theory to characterize the spatial relation among populations. We plotted variance in population size against connectivity among populations. In our scenarios, reduced habitat quality decreased the size of populations and hydropower dams on rivers led to the extirpation of several populations, both of which decreased connectivity. Operation of fish hatcheries increased connectivity among populations and led to patchy or panmictic populations. On the basis of our results, we believe recolonization of the upper Cowlitz River by fall and spring Chinook and winter steelhead would best restore metapopulation structure to near-historical conditions. Extant populations that would best conserve connectivity would be those inhabiting the Molalla (spring Chinook), lower Cowlitz, or Clackamas (fall Chinook) rivers and the south Santiam (winter steelhead) and north fork Lewis rivers (summer steelhead). Populations in these rivers were putative sources; however, they were not always the most abundant or centrally located populations. This result would not have been obvious if we had not considered relations among populations in a metapopulation context. Our results suggest that dispersal rate strongly controls interactions among the populations that comprise salmon metapopulations. Thus, monitoring efforts could lead to understanding of the true rates at which wild and hatchery fish disperse. Our application of graph theory allowed us to visualize how metapopulation structure might respond to human activity. The method could be easily extended to evaluations of

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Chinook Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    GRAY#A~ii~ HARDA %,PUGETSOUNDGre R W. IA-I L~ MILES 0 50 too 0 so 100 KILOME TE RS SMaJor ocean distributionWI PACIFIC OCEAN HUMBOLDT CALIFORNIA...ECOLOGICAL ROLE ring, rockfish, other fish, crab mega- lops, and squid . Euphausids and squid , Juvenile chinook are characterized and later, herring

  17. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  18. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  20. Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Status of Salmon Stocks in Pacific Northwest Watersheds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    census.gov/cgi-bin/gazetter. (June 1997). US Department of Agriculture - Forest Service - Pacific Northwest Region. 1988. National forests of the...land and lack of forest area correctly classified 71% of fall Chinook stocks. Indian tribal land, human population and number of dams correctly...by categorizing watersheds as to their relative amount of urban population and subdivision development, agricultural and forest type land

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Chinook Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    N Environmental Requirements of Coastal FishesN and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) N4 Coastal Ecology Group A, Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways...For Coastal Ecology Group Waterways Experiment Station U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg, MS 39180 and Accesion For National Coastal Ecosystems...pI~i~ PREFACE This species profile is one of a series on coastal aquatic organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance

  2. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1982. Part 4. Waterways and Harbors, Pacific Coast, Alaska and Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES CALENDAR YEAR 1/2 1982 PART 4 WRTERM..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT BELVOIR VA MATER RESOURCES...8217’. ,’’’. .. ’" ." " - .". -"."-".". ."’.",.- -. ’’-. " ’’..:’..,’",_ ’’,. _’ - -".- -"-" ,-"- . - . ,.. . . . . 𔃺 N° WATERBORNE COMMERCE 1 OF THE UNITED STATES Q PART 4 WATERWAYS AND HARBORS PACIFIC COAST, ALASKA AND HAWAII DTIC>- I ~ELE.CTEI I - .4 C..2...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3.

  3. Long-term Variability in Pacific Decadal Oscillation Teleconnections to Climate in Alaska: From "In a Relationship" to "It's Complicated"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckler, S.; McAfee, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Pacific Decadal Oscillation's (PDO) identification in 1997, it has been widely used as a seasonal-forecasting and decision-making tool in Alaska. Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperatures have oscillated every few decades between warmer (positive PDO) and colder (negative PDO). In the historical record, there are two negative phases and two positive phases, but since 2000, the PDO has vacillated between warm and cold states annually. Recent inconsistencies in the phase of the PDO as well as its influence on climate have warranted further study of this climate phenomenon. Previous work found that strength and importance of the PDO teleconnections to temperature and precipitation varied widely over time in the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (v2) data and in CRU TS3.2.1. In light of the inherent problems with reanalyses and with gridded products in data-poor areas, it is necessary to examine individual station data to further understand the relationship of the PDO with climate in Alaska. This study examines temperature and precipitation data for individual stations across Alaska to determine the stability of PDO teleconnections. Individual station data were downloaded from the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information GHCN-D database. For the months of January, February and March, stations with at least 90% complete data for all three months were selected. Using stations grouped according to the recently developed Alaska climate divisions, the stability of PDO teleconnections was analyzed in terms of station anomalies from the PRISM climatology. In many parts of the state, the relationship between the PDO and local climate was not as stable as expected. Even at individual stations, the strength and influence of the PDO was often inconsistent over time.

  4. Using Grizzly Bears to Assess Harvest-Ecosystem Tradeoffs in Salmon Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    MacDuffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for “salmon ecosystem” function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable

  5. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  6. Maternal and environmental influences on egg size and juvenile life-history traits in Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Douglas C; Patterson, David A; Reynolds, John D

    2013-01-01

    Life-history traits such as fecundity and offspring size are shaped by investment trade-offs faced by mothers and mediated by environmental conditions. We use a 21-year time series for three populations of wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to test predictions for such trade-offs and responses to conditions faced by females during migration, and offspring during incubation. In years when their 1100 km upstream migration was challenged by high water discharges, females that reached spawning streams had invested less in gonads by producing smaller but not fewer eggs. These smaller eggs produced lighter juveniles, and this effect was further amplified in years when the incubation water was warm. This latter result suggests that there should be selection for larger eggs to compensate in populations that consistently experience warm incubation temperatures. A comparison among 16 populations, with matching migration and rearing environments but different incubation environments (i.e., separate spawning streams), confirmed this prediction; smaller females produced larger eggs for their size in warmer creeks. Taken together, these results reveal how maternal phenotype and environmental conditions can shape patterns of reproductive investment and consequently juvenile fitness-related traits within and among populations. PMID:23789081

  7. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Macroinvertebrates in Spawning and Non-Spawning Habitats during a Salmon Run in Southeast Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Emily Y.; Merritt, Richard W.; Cummins, Kenneth W.; Benbow, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Spawning salmon create patches of disturbance through redd digging which can reduce macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass in spawning habitat. We asked whether displaced invertebrates use non-spawning habitats as refugia in streams. Our study explored how the spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrates changed during a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawning run and compared macroinvertebrates in spawning (riffle) and non-spawning (refugia) habitats in an Alaskan stream. Potential refugia included: pools, stream margins and the hyporheic zone, and we also sampled invertebrate drift. We predicted that macroinvertebrates would decline in riffles and increase in drift and refugia habitats during salmon spawning. We observed a reduction in the density, biomass and taxonomic richness of macroinvertebrates in riffles during spawning. There was no change in pool and margin invertebrate communities, except insect biomass declined in pools during the spawning period. Macroinvertebrate density was greater in the hyporheic zone and macroinvertebrate density and richness increased in the drift during spawning. We observed significant invertebrate declines within spawning habitat; however in non-spawning habitat, there were less pronounced changes in invertebrate density and richness. The results observed may be due to spawning-related disturbances, insect phenology, or other variables. We propose that certain in-stream habitats could be important for the persistence of macroinvertebrates during salmon spawning in a Southeast Alaskan stream. PMID:22745724

  9. Identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolated from Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Prince William Sound Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Sullivan, J.; Emmenegger, E.; Follett, J.; Short, S.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Ulcerative slun tissues from 2 Pacific cod Gadus rnacrocephalus caught in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, were examined for virus by Fish Pathology staff within the F.R.E.D. Division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Six days after inoculation of Epitheliorna papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at 14"C, diffuse rounding and lifting of cells from the monolayers suggestive of cytopathlc effect became visible in the lower sample dilutions. Ultrastructural examinations of affected EPC cells showed rhabdovirus particles within cytoplasmic vacuoles and on the cell surface membranes. Virus isolates from both cod were subsequently confirmed as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by serum neutralizabon and immunoblot assay. This is the first VHSV isolated from Pacific cod, which represents a new host species for the virus. Histologically, cod skin ulcers appeared to be caused by a foreign-body-type inflammatory response to foci of protozoa resembling X cells that also had plasmodial stages. Whether the rhabdovirus was incidental to the slun lesion or played a role in its etiology remains to be determined. The possible relationship between thls virus and the recent occurrences of VHSV in anadromous salmoruds from Washington State, USA, is discussed.

  10. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  11. Influence of breeding habitat on bear predation and age at maturity and sexual dimorphism of sockeye salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.

  12. Distribution, diet, and energetic condition of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Zaleski, Marilyn F.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2016-10-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are commercially and ecologically important species in Alaska waters. Little is known about their ecology after transitioning from larvae to free swimming fish until settlement to nursery habitats in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Differences in the distribution, diet, body size, and energetic status between the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska were investigated during summer months to better understand regional and interspecific differences in life history and ecology. The composition of zooplankton prey in the diets of walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting shelf waters was more varied relative to those inhabiting the slope and basin. Body condition and total energy content of Pacific cod was greater than walleye pollock, however total energy content increased with length at a similar rate for both species. Walleye pollock inhabiting continental slope waters had higher energy stores relative to those inhabiting the continental shelf and basin, indicating an energetic advantage for individuals remaining off the shelf during summer months or potentially the advection of fish with higher energy reserves off of the shelf. Previous studies have documented the importance of energy stores for surviving winter and future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms influencing lipid storage and somatic growth for walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska.

  13. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000–2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths

  14. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental.

  15. Population ecology of breeding Pacific common eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Flint, Paul L.; Powell, Abby N.; Grand, J. Barry; Moral, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska declined by 50–90% from 1957 to 1992 and then stabilized at reduced numbers from the early 1990s to the present. We investigated the underlying processes affecting their population dynamics by collection and analysis of demographic data from Pacific common eiders at 3 sites on the YKD (1991–2004) for 29 site-years. We examined variation in components of reproduction, tested hypotheses about the influence of specific ecological factors on life-history variables, and investigated their relative contributions to local population dynamics. Reproductive output was low and variable, both within and among individuals, whereas apparent survival of adult females was high and relatively invariant (0.89 ± 0.005). All reproductive parameters varied across study sites and years. Clutch initiation dates ranged from 4 May to 28 June, with peak (modal) initiation occurring on 26 May. Females at an island study site consistently initiated clutches 3–5 days earlier in each year than those on 2 mainland sites. Population variance in nest initiation date was negatively related to the peak, suggesting increased synchrony in years of delayed initiation. On average, total clutch size (laid) ranged from 4.8 to 6.6 eggs, and declined with date of nest initiation. After accounting for partial predation and non-viability of eggs, average clutch size at hatch ranged from 2.0 to 5.8 eggs. Within seasons, daily survival probability (DSP) of nests was lowest during egg-laying and late-initiation dates. Estimated nest survival varied considerably across sites and years (mean = 0.55, range: 0.06–0.92), but process variance in nest survival was relatively low (0.02, CI: 0.01–0.05), indicating that most variance was likely attributed to sampling error. We found evidence that observer effects may have reduced overall nest survival by 0.0–0.36 across site

  16. 75 FR 14015 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... rule applies to owners and operators of catcher vessels, catcher/processors, motherships, inshore processors, and the six Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program groups participating in the... identifying the vessels and processors eligible to participate in the fishery and allocating pollock...

  17. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... This final rule applies to owners and operators of catcher vessels, catcher/processors, motherships, inshore processors, and the six Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program groups... note), which ``rationalized'' the pollock fishery by identifying the vessels and processors eligible...

  18. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Bristol Bay, <span class=Alaska Draft Assessment Report"> [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public comment...

  19. 76 FR 77209 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Halibut and Sablefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... locations Within Port Group--Bering Sea: Adak, Akutan, Akutan Bay, Atka, Bristol Bay, Chefornak, Dillingham, Captains Bay, Dutch Harbor, Egegik, Ikatan Bay, Hooper Bay, King Cove, King Salmon, Kipnuk, Mekoryuk, Naknek, Nome, Quinhagak, Savoonga, St. George, St. Lawrence, St. Paul, Togiak, Toksook Bay,...

  20. 75 FR 76957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Halibut and Sablefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ..., Akutan Bay, Atka, Bristol Bay, Chefornak, Dillingham, Captains Bay, Dutch Harbor, Egegik, Ikatan Bay, Hooper Bay, King Cove, King Salmon, Kipnuk, Mekoryuk, Naknek, Nome, Quinhagak, Savoonga, St. George, St. Lawrence, St. Paul, Togiak, Toksook Bay, Tununak, Beaver Inlet, Ugadaga Bay, Unalaska. \\2\\...

  1. The impact of temperature stress and pesticide exposure on mortality and disease susceptibility of endangered Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Joseph P; Van Gaest, Ahna L; Strickland, Stacy A; Arkoosh, Mary R

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic stressors, including chemical contamination and temperature stress, may contribute to increased disease susceptibility in aquatic animals. Specifically, the organophosphate pesticide malathion has been detected in surface waters inhabited by threatened and endangered salmon. In the presence of increasing water temperatures, malathion may increase susceptibility to disease and ultimately threaten salmon survival. This work examines the effect of acute and sublethal exposures to malathion on ocean-type subyearling Chinook salmon held under two temperature regimes. Chinook salmon were exposed to malathion at optimal (11 °C) or elevated (19 and 20 °C) temperatures. The influence of temperature on the acute toxicity of malathion was determined by generating 96-h lethal concentration (LC) curves. A disease challenge assay was also used to assess the effects of sublethal malathion exposure. The malathion concentration that resulted in 50% mortality (LC50; 274.1 μg L(-1)) of the Chinook salmon at 19 °C was significantly less than the LC50 at 11 °C (364.2 μg L(-1)). Mortality increased 11.2% in Chinook salmon exposed to malathion at the elevated temperature and challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida compared to fish held at the optimal temperature and exposed to malathion or the carrier control. No difference in disease challenge mortality was observed among malathion-exposed and unexposed fish at the optimal temperature. The interaction of co-occurring stressors may have a greater impact on salmon than if they occur in isolation. Ecological risk assessments considering the effects of an individual stressor on threatened and endangered salmon may underestimate risk when additional stressors are present in the environment.

  2. 77 FR 33213 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska-Peer Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... fisheries biology and wildlife ecology. Dr. Gordon Reeves, USDA Pacific NW Research Station--Expertise in... ecology and ecotoxicology. Dr. Paul Whitney--Expertise in wildlife ecology and ecotoxicology. The...

  3. Atmospheric moisture transport and its impact on the water cycle over Alaska and Hawaii: The roles of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borries, Cecilia J.

    Precipitation over the North Pacific can fluctuate under climate patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In order to better understand the role which these climatic patterns play in the North Pacific water budgets and pathways, we employed the Community Atmosphere Model 5.0 (CAM) and conducted sensitivity experiments to examine how atmospheric moisture convergence and moisture transport respond to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the PDO and ENSO phase transitions. We have found that changes in transient moisture transport, as the PDO phase shifts from cool to warm, are due to increases in specific humidity and decreases in wind speeds over Alaska and the North Pacific. Additionally, increases in moisture convergence, specific humidity, and wind speeds and decreases in transient moisture transport are seen over the North Pacific during El Nino events compared to La Nina events.

  4. Introduction to the North Pacific Research Board Gulf of Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (GOAIERP): Volume I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Danielle M. S.; Baker, Matthew R.

    2016-10-01

    The North Pacific Research Board (NPRB) supports research to address pressing fishery management and ecosystem information needs in the marine waters of Alaska. Understanding dynamics at the scale of ecosystems requires integrated approaches that explore underlying mechanistic processes and interactions. It also requires analytic approaches that investigate the influence, cause, effect, and relative importance of various phenomena and drivers in determining ecosystem structure, processes and biophysical interactions. To address ecosystem-level hypotheses and questions at this scale, NPRB developed the Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (IERP). These programs employ multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional approaches to investigating ecosystem processes. The aim is to provide a basis for understanding core processes and to provide information and products that have targeted application to management priorities.

  5. From the Pacific to the Arctic: Paleoclimatic History of the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Davies, M. H.; Praetorius, S.; Cook, M. S.; Prahl, F. G.; Schmittner, A.; Asahi, H.; Belanger, C. L.; Stoner, J. S.; St-Onge, G.; Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Gateway to the Arctic, ranging from the high North Pacific through the Bering Sea and Bering Strait, remains among the poorest known components of the global climate system; its paleoclimate record is undersampled, misunderstood, and filled with controversy. We know relatively little about the history of Cordilleran ice beyond the last deglaciation; there are vigorous disagreements about the sign, let alone the magnitude, of sea-surface temperate changes and sea-ice cover. The causes of subsurface ocean change and linkages to surface climate are debated, and various models disagree on many aspects. This region is a sensitive part of the climate system, potentially poised near a threshold and with the power to influence North American and global heat and moisture transports through its influence on westerly winds and planetary waves. Little deep or intermediate water forms here today due to excess freshwater input relative to evaporation, but this may have changed in the past, with major consequences for oceanic heat transports, chemical budgets, and the global carbon cycle. Here we compare the records from the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea from the sea surface to the abyss. The Gulf of Alaska, recently drilled by IODP Expedition 341, is dominated by massive input of terrigenous sediments, freshwater flows off the continent that fuels a vigorous coastal current, and boundary downwelling adjacent to the iron-limited subpolar gyre. This region offers a high-resolution view of dynamic advances and retreats of the seaward outlets of Cordilleran Ice Sheet; isostatic responses of the shelf to ice loading reduces the local influence of global sealevel sealevel. In contrast, the Bering Sea, drilled in 2009 by IODP Expedition 323, is a relatively isolated basin, highly biogenic in character, and displays a response to global sealevel change relative to its mostly unglaciated shelf and intermittent subaerial exposure of Beringia, with more frequent intervals

  6. Effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus on Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from 1989 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Elston, Ralph A; Meyers, Theodore R

    2009-02-25

    We critically review the role of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in the 1992-1993 collapse of the Prince William Sound (PWS) herring fishery. VHSV was detected in samples of moribund Pacific herring from PWS in spring 1993 when about 63% of the expected fish failed to appear. A low prevalence and severity of VHSV were observed in adult pre-spawning PWS herring in most of the years from 1994 to 2002. The North American strain of VHSV became established about 500 yr ago in many northeast Pacific marine fish species, including herring. In Alaska, the typical annual prevalence of VHSV in pre-spawning herring ranges from 0 to 17%. New threshold analysis of a 9 yr study indicates that only about half of the virus-infected adult fish in PWS were clinically affected; ulcers formerly attributed to VHS have been overestimated by a factor of about 3. We conclude that VHSV was not a primary causative factor in the PWS herring population collapse or in its failure to recover. Because older age classes of herring were not disproportionately missing in 1993, the protozoan Ichthyophonus hoferi was also not a likely cause of losses. The 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill occurred in PWS, Alaska, U.S.A., in 1989. Evidence for interaction of oil and VHSV expression is also evaluated. A study exposing herring to varying concentrations of weathered crude oil showed increasing prevalences of VHSV correlated with oil concentration; however, repeated experiments with juvenile and adult fish failed to corroborate these results or link oil to VHSV infection in herring.

  7. Strain and stress partitioning of the Pacific/North America interaction along the Queen Charlotte Islands-Alaska Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Hyndman, R. D.; Bustin, A.

    2003-12-01

    Along the western margin of central British Columbia and southern Alaska, the Queen Charlotte (QC) and Fairweather faults accommodate most of the predominantly transform motion (~50 mm/yr) between the Pacific and North American plates. This fault system is ~1000 km long and was the locus of M=7-8 earthquakes in the last century. Off the Queen Charlotte Islands, the relative Pacific/North America motion also has a 10-15 mm/yr convergence component. New GPS data acquired over the last 5 years allow us to estimate the distribution of transient and permanent strain along this plate boundary. We show that the Queen Charlotte-Alaska Panhandle margin is affected by both transient and long-term dextral shear strain, respectively in response to the interseismic locking of the QC-Fairweather Fault and a 6-7 mm/yr NNE migration of the continental margin. The impact of postseismic deformation following the 1949 M=8.1 QC earthquake is likely not significant. The stress pattern derived from earthquake focal mechanisms is consistent, to a first order, with the GPS kinematic model. Earthquake mechanisms indicate a partitioning between strike-slip and compression on the oceanic side (QC Fault and Terrace). The continental margin (northern QC Islands and Hecate Strait) is affected by a N to NE maximum compression associated with dextral shear of the crust. Long-term dextral shear and shortening of the continental margin is also supported the tectonic inversion of the Miocene normal faults that form the QC Basin. Several kilometers of shortening and strike-slip deformation have been identified on these structures that affect Upper Miocene and Pliostocene deposits.

  8. Protectiveness of water quality criteria for copper in western United States waters relative to predicted olfactory responses in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    DeForest, David K; Gensemer, Robert W; Van Genderen, Eric J; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2011-07-01

    Copper (Cu) can impair olfaction in juvenile Pacific salmon (as well as other fishes), thus potentially inhibiting the ability of juveniles to avoid predators or to find food. Because Cu is commonly elevated in stormwater runoff in urban environments, storm events may result in elevated Cu concentrations in salmon-bearing streams. Accordingly, there is concern that existing Cu criteria, which were not derived using data for olfactory-related endpoints, may not be adequately protective of juvenile salmon. However, a modification of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM) for deriving site-specific Cu criteria was recently proposed, which accounted for the sensitivity of olfactory endpoints. The modification was based on olfactory inhibition in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to Cu in various combinations of pH, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. We used that olfactory-based BLM to derive 20% inhibition concentrations (IC20) values for Cu for 133 stream locations in the western United States. The olfactory BLM-based IC20 values were compared to the existing hardness-based Cu criteria and the USEPA's BLM-based Cu criteria for these representative natural waters of the western United States. Of the 133 sampling locations, mean hardness-dependent acute and chronic Cu criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 value in 122 (92%) and 129 (97%) of the waters, respectively (i.e., <20% olfactory impairment would have been predicted at the mean hardness-based Cu criteria concentrations). Waters characterized by a combination of high hardness and very low DOC were most likely to have hardness-based Cu criteria that were higher than the olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, because DOC strongly influences Cu bioavailability in the BLM. In all waters, the USEPA's current BLM-based criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, indicating that the USEPA's BLM

  9. Long-Term Studies of the Effects of Salmon Spawners on Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloner, D. T.; Lamberti, G. A.; Cak, A. D.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-05-01

    To determine the ecological effects of salmon-derived nutrients (SDN) transported into fresh waters by spawning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), we monitored several ecological parameters in Fish Creek, Southeast Alaska from 2000 to 2004. Pink and chum salmon spawn in the lower reach of Fish Creek, but cannot move further upstream because of a waterfall, 4 km from saltwater. We estimated spawner densities and measured dissolved nutrient concentrations and epilithon abundance before, during, and after the salmon run, in reaches above and below the waterfall barrier. Salmon spawners increased streamwater concentrations of ammonium (2.3 - 148x) and soluble reactive phosphorus (0.4 - 17x), and epilithon chlorophyll a (14 - 29x) and ash-free dry mass (1.4 - 4x) in lower reaches. However, the duration and magnitude of these effects varied widely among years, and did not appear to vary solely with spawner densities. Our results suggest that although SDN can stimulate primary production through increased nutrient concentrations, other environmental factors, such as temperature, irradiance, and discharge, can modulate the influence of salmon spawners on stream ecosystems. To better assess the ecological influence of SDN, future studies should consider the influence of key environmental factors and their temporal and spatial dynamics.

  10. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  11. Oil spill impact on Pacific salmon (g. Oncorhynchus) of northwestern Sakhalin (Tengi River Basin as a pattern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander N.; Tarasov, Nikolay N.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

    2001-01-01

    Northern Sakhalin is a region of the intensive oil and gas transportation by oil-pipe lines. In July 2, 1997, the oil spill has happened at the oil-pipe line 'Okha-Komsomolsk-on- Amur.' Oil pollution spread over the basin of Tengi Rive (Amur estuary). The Tengi River is a spawning area for endemic and important commercial fish. There is a reserve on the river. Genus Oncorhynchus (pink and chum salmon) prevail in ichthyofauna. A satellite data analysis (NOAA-12, NOAA-14) was a success to accurate the oil distribution over the Amur estuary. As a result of the accident, more than 120 t of oil have been spilled. 26.3 km of the river area, more than 60 km of the Amur estuary coast and about 850 km2 of its water area were polluted. In the basin of Tengi River about 58000 m2 of spawning area were lost. The main damage (89%) was caused to the fry feeding near the coast. The loss of fish production has constituted about 1800 t. By species the damage was as follows: 53% -- pink salmon, 29% -- chum salmon, 11% -- masu salmon and 7% -- coho salmon.

  12. 76 FR 19708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: This interpretation clarifies regulations that apply to vessels operating in the guided sport... its limited access program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery, codified at 50 CFR...

  13. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  14. 77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea'' (Convention), was signed in... will be removed from the NMFS QS database. The pounds of annual IFQ represented by the revoked QS...

  15. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Fisheries in Alaska; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 141 / Friday, July 22, 2011... Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central Gulf of Alaska). If approved, this catch sharing plan...

  16. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management... available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site ( http://www.pcouncil.org/ ). FOR...

  17. Recreational anglers' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to catch-and-release practices of Pacific salmon in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Rudd, Murray A; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-10-15

    The fate of captured and released fish in recreational fisheries depends in large part on fisher handling and behavior. As such, there is a need for promoting adoption of responsible fishing practices. We interviewed recreational sockeye salmon anglers in the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, to assess their awareness of responsible fishing practices and identify gaps where improved education could promote conservation-oriented behaviors. Based on our interview data, we developed three latent class models of salmon angler typologies based on: 1) anglers' fishing behaviors and preferences, 2) anglers' perceived risks to salmon survival due to post-capture live release, and 3) anglers' level of support for education programs. In the first model, we identified salmon-only anglers (33% of sample), lake-species specialists (46%), and all-around anglers (21%). These classes were differentiated primarily by non-salmon fishing activities (e.g., other target species). In the second model, we found four classes of anglers who differed with regards to key factors they thought affected post-release survival: air exposure (39% of sample); water temperature (24%); hook location (22%); and revival effort (15%). In the third model, we found anglers were either supporters (73%) or non-supporters (27%) of angler education programs. Heterogeneity existed among anglers but we found no correlations in angler classes across models, nor any significant demographic or experiential predictors of class membership. Respondents generally had high awareness and application of catch-and-release best practices, with lake-species specialists rating a higher awareness and usage of recommended catch-and-release technique, and were significantly more likely to cut the line on deeply hooked fish than other groups. Our findings provide resource managers with important insight into the attitudes and behaviors of sockeye salmon anglers in the important lower Fraser River recreational fishery. Our

  18. 78 FR 73842 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... immediately available from the processor's data entry into eLandings. The intent of the North Pacific Fishery... Program (Observer Program). This notice is intended to provide information to vessel owners, processors... invoices to processors and registered buyers subject to the fee by January 15, 2015. Fees are due to...

  19. Oxygen isotope and salinity relationships from SE Alaska track freshwater sources in the NE Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Prahl, F. G.; Bruce, F.

    2006-12-01

    Water column d18O and salinity data (n=330) from hydrocasts at 31 sites occupied off southeast Alaska in August and September of 2004 constrain regional freshwater sources to the ocean. At open-ocean sites, d18O at the zero-salinity intercept (DF) decreases systematically from near the Canadian border (55 degN, DF = -14 permil VSMOW) to Hinchinbrook Entrance (~61 degN, DF = -18 permil VSMOW), and closely tracks estimates of d18O of local precipitation at sealevel (based on the OICP database, perhaps with significant contributions from the Copper River in the north). A similar result is obtained for fjord sites, suggesting relatively little contribution of melting glacier ice. This finding includes sites where floating ice is clearly melting, such as Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays (~60 degN). Here, DF is -18 permil VSMOW, consistent with regional sealevel precipitation (-17 to -18 permil, OICP database), and not consistent with substantial contributions from ice (melting bergs, likely from Hubbard Glacier were measured with d18O of -25.7 permil VSMOW). An implication is that the freshwater budget in the marine system off SE Alaska is dominated today by local precipitation, rather than melting ice, and that regional paleoceanographic estimates of paleosalinity based on stable isotope data will primarily reflect this process.

  20. Association of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus with epizootic hemorrhages of the skin in Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, T.R.; Short, S.; Lipson, K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Wilcock, J.; Brown, E.

    1994-01-01

    Only one-third of the Pacific hernng Clupea harengus pallasi expected to spawn in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in sprlng 1993 were observed. Of these herring, 15 to 43 '% had external ulcers or subdermal hemorrhages of the skln and fins. A rhabdovirus identified as the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from affected herring and 1 Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus with skin lesions from PWS, and from herring with similar lesions collected near Kodiak Island. No other pathogens were detected in the herring examined. Although VHSV may have been responsible for the skin lesions, there was no confirmed mass herring mortality observed in PWS; hence the actual cause of the reduced herring numbers is still unknown. The same strain of VHSV was subsequently isolated from captive juvenile herring collected from Auke Bay, Alaska, near Juneau, from herring in British Columbia, Canada, and from Puget Sound, Washington, USA. These findings suggest the virus is an opportunistic pathogen that is widely indigenous to Pacific herring populations in the Pacific Northwest and that herring are a significant marine reservoir for North American VHSV.

  1. Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim

    1993-06-01

    The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

  2. Environmental covariates of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific ocean perch (Sebastes alutus) recruitment in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Brendan; Mueter, Franz

    2016-10-01

    The sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific ocean perch (POP; Sebastes alutus) fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) are both highly lucrative and variable. Determining environmental factors that drive variability in their recruitment may improve our understanding of forces affecting their early life survival, which may be helpful when evaluating management strategies. Here we examine relationships between sablefish and POP recruitment and multiple environmental indices associated with circulation in the GOA. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to determine spatially and seasonally relevant scales for analyzing these relationships. We then used structural equation modeling to examine sequential relationships between large-scale climate variables, regional (eastern and western GOA) environmental variables, and recruitment using both hypothesis-testing and exploratory approaches. Exploratory analyses revealed that sablefish recruitment was positively related to July upwelling-favorable winds and negatively related to late winter freshwater discharge in the eastern GOA during age 1. POP recruitment was negatively related to June upwelling-favorable winds in both regions during ages 0 and 1 and positively related to late spring freshwater discharge throughout the GOA during age 1. These results suggest that upwelling-favorable winds and freshwater discharge may affect recruitment of both species through productivity-related mechanisms, and may additionally affect POP recruitment through advection-related mechanisms. Targeted studies at the appropriate scales are needed to provide greater certainty in the potential mechanisms behind these relationships.

  3. Response of Pacific walruses to disturbances from capture and handling activities at a haul-out in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Olson, Tamara L.; Garner, G.W.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Observations were made on hems of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) to study their response during the capturing and handling of adult males in summer 1995 at a haul-out at Cape Peirce in southwestern Alaska. Three behaviors (alertness, displacement, and dispersal) were quantified from 16 capture sessions. Herd sizes ranged from 622 to 5,289 walruses. Handling of an immobilized walrus consisted of attempts to attach telemetry devices to the tusks and collect various biological samples. Handling activities resulted in an average of about 10-fold or greater levels of behavior in alertness, displacement, and dispersal than during precapture and darting periods. High levels of behavior usually occurred within the first 45 min of handling. In 8 of 10 capture sessions, walruses returned to predisturbance levels of behavior within 40 min of cessation of the handling disturbance. Alertness and displacement were moderately and negatively correlated with herd size during the handling period, which may reflect an effect of a threshold distance from the point of disturbance to responding individuals. Observations of walruses tagged with VHF radio transmitters indicated that the activities from a given capture session did not preclude tagged walruses from using the haul-out over a subsequent 11-wk monitoring period. Moreover, non-tagged walruses continued to extensively use the haul-out during and after the period in which capture sessions were conducted.

  4. Limnology and fish ecology of sockeye salmon nursery lakes of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.; Burgner, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Many important, recently glaciated oligotrophic lakes that lie in coastal regions around the northern rim of the Pacific Ocean produce anadromous populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. This paper describes the limnology and fish ecology of two such lakes in British Columbia, five in Alaska, and one in Kamchatka. Then we discuss the following general topics: the biogenic eutrophication of nursery lakes from the nutrients released from salmon carcasses wherein during years of highest numbers of spawners, lake phosphate balances in Lakes Babine, Iliamna, and Dalnee are significantly affected; the use of nursery lakes by young sockeye that reveals five patterns related to size and configuration of lake basins and the distribution of spawning areas; the interactions between various life history stages of sockeye salmon and such resident predators, competitors, and prey as Arctic char, lake trout, Dolly Varden, cutthroat trout, lake whitefish, pygmy whitefish, pond smelt, sticklebacks, and sculpins; the self-regulation of sockeye salmon abundance in these nursery lakes as controlled by density-dependent processes; the interrelations between young sockeye salmon biomass and growth rates, and zooplankton abundance in Babine Lake; and finally, the diel, vertical, pelagial migratory behavior of young sockeye in Babine Lake and the new hypothesis dealing with bioenergetic conservation.

  5. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  6. Fishing for Effective Conservation: Context and Biotic Variation are Keys to Understanding the Survival of Pacific Salmon after Catch-and-Release.

    PubMed

    Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Cook, Katrina V; Teffer, Amy; Bass, Arthur L; Miller, Kristina M; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    Acute stressors are commonly experienced by wild animals but their effects on fitness rarely are studied in the natural environment. Billions of fish are captured and released annually around the globe across all fishing sectors (e.g., recreational, commercial, subsistence). Whatever the motivation, release often occurs under the assumption of post-release survival. Yet, capture by fisheries (hereafter "fisheries-capture") is likely the most severe acute stressor experienced in the animal's lifetime, which makes the problem of physiological recovery and survival of relevance to biology and conservation. Indeed, fisheries managers require accurate estimates of mortality to better account for total mortality from fishing, while fishers desire guidance on strategies for reducing mortality and maintaining the welfare of released fish, to maximize current and future opportunities for fishing. In partnership with stakeholders, our team has extensively studied the effects of catch-and-release on Pacific salmon in both marine and freshwater environments, using biotelemetry and physiological assessments in a combined laboratory-based and field-based approach. The emergent theme is that post-release rates of mortality are consistently context-specific and can be affected by a suite of interacting biotic and abiotic factors. The fishing gear used, location of a fishery, water temperature, and handling techniques employed by fishers each can dramatically affect survival of the salmon they release. Variation among individuals, co-migrating populations, and between sexes all seem to play a role in the response of fish to capture and in their subsequent survival, potentially driven by pre-capture pathogen-load, maturation states, and inter-individual variation in responsiveness to stress. Although some of these findings are fascinating from a biological perspective, they all create unresolved challenges for managers. We summarize our findings by highlighting the patterns that

  7. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  8. Identification of the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B; DeKoning, J; Morasch, M R; Park, L K; Devlin, R H

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a probe to the male-specific GH-Y (growth hormone pseudogene) was used to identify the Y chromosome in the karyotypes of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The sex chromosome pair is a small acrocentric chromosome pair in chum salmon and the smallest metacentric chromosome pair in pink salmon. Both of these chromosome pairs are morphologically different from the sex chromosome pairs in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The 5S rRNA genes are on multiple chromosome pairs including the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon, but at the centromeres of two autosomal metacentric pairs in pink salmon. The sex chromosome pairs and the chromosomal locations of the 5S rDNA appear to be different in all five of the North American Pacific salmon species and rainbow trout. The implications of these results for evolution of sex chromosomes in salmonids are discussed.

  9. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  10. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  11. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  12. Miocene fluvial-tidal sedimentation in a residual forearc basin of the Northeastern Pacific Rim: Cook Inlet, Alaska case study

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Cook Inlet in southern Alaska represents a Cenozoic residual forearc basin in a convergent continental margin, where the Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the North American Plate. This basin accumulated the >6,700-m-thick, mainly nonmarine, Eocene-Pliocene Kenai Group. These rocks contain biogenic coal-bed methane estimated to be as high as 245 TCF. Lignites to subbituminous coals with subsurface R[sub o] ranging from 0.38 to 0.73 percent and the stage of clay-mineral diagenesis and expandibility indicate a thermally [open quotes]cool[close quotes] basin. Miocene Tyonek and Beluga Formations compose 65 percent (>4,300 m thick) of the Kenai Group. The Tyonek includes conglomeratic sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, coals, and carbonaceous shales, interpreted as braided- stream deposits. These fluvial deposits are interbecided with burrowed, lenticular, and flaser-bedded sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones, interpreted as tidal deposits. Tyonek framework conglomerates formed in wet alluvial fans incised on paleovalleys of the Chugach terrane. Coal-forming mires are well developed on abandoned braided-stream deposits. Tyonek drainages formed in high-gradient alluvial plains inundated by tides similar to environments in the modern upper Cook Inlet. The upper Miocene Beluga consists of sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, carbonaceous shales, and coals deposited in meandering (low sinuosity) and anastomosed fluvial systems. These fluvial deposits alternated vertically with deposits of coal-forming mires. The Beluga drainages formed in low-gradient alluvial plains. The high-gradient Tyonek alluvial plain was probably controlled by provenance uplift and eustatic change, whereas the low-gradient Beluga alluvial plain was influenced by subdued provenance uplift and rapid basin subsidence. Rapid sedimentation on both these low- and high-gradient alluvial plains, which kept up with subsidence, produced a thermally [open quotes]cool[close quotes] basin.

  13. Miocene fluvial-tidal sedimentation in a residual forearc basin of the Northeastern Pacific Rim: Cook Inlet, Alaska case study

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Cook Inlet in southern Alaska represents a Cenozoic residual forearc basin in a convergent continental margin, where the Pacific Plate is being subducted beneath the North American Plate. This basin accumulated the >6,700-m-thick, mainly nonmarine, Eocene-Pliocene Kenai Group. These rocks contain biogenic coal-bed methane estimated to be as high as 245 TCF. Lignites to subbituminous coals with subsurface R{sub o} ranging from 0.38 to 0.73 percent and the stage of clay-mineral diagenesis and expandibility indicate a thermally {open_quotes}cool{close_quotes} basin. Miocene Tyonek and Beluga Formations compose 65 percent (>4,300 m thick) of the Kenai Group. The Tyonek includes conglomeratic sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, coals, and carbonaceous shales, interpreted as braided- stream deposits. These fluvial deposits are interbecided with burrowed, lenticular, and flaser-bedded sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones, interpreted as tidal deposits. Tyonek framework conglomerates formed in wet alluvial fans incised on paleovalleys of the Chugach terrane. Coal-forming mires are well developed on abandoned braided-stream deposits. Tyonek drainages formed in high-gradient alluvial plains inundated by tides similar to environments in the modern upper Cook Inlet. The upper Miocene Beluga consists of sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, carbonaceous shales, and coals deposited in meandering (low sinuosity) and anastomosed fluvial systems. These fluvial deposits alternated vertically with deposits of coal-forming mires. The Beluga drainages formed in low-gradient alluvial plains. The high-gradient Tyonek alluvial plain was probably controlled by provenance uplift and eustatic change, whereas the low-gradient Beluga alluvial plain was influenced by subdued provenance uplift and rapid basin subsidence. Rapid sedimentation on both these low- and high-gradient alluvial plains, which kept up with subsidence, produced a thermally {open_quotes}cool{close_quotes} basin.

  14. Satellite-measured seasonal and inter-annual chlorophyll variability in the Northeast Pacific and Coastal Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickley, Peter J.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    Four years (September 1997-August 2001) of SeaWiFS ocean-color satellite data are used to present the first synoptic quantification of chlorophyll variability on seasonal and interannual timescales over the Northeast Pacific and Coastal Gulf of Alaska. Low light levels and/or cloud during November-January prevent examination of winter patterns. The climatological seasonal patterns show shelf-intensified chlorophyll (by a factor of 3 or more) around the entire basin, extending up to 300 m beyond the shelfbreak along the eastern margin and south of Kodiak Island, with peaks in May and again but weaker in August-September. Over the central basin, concentrations are minimum in February (<0.4 mg m -3), have no spring peak, and increase steadily over the season to a maximum (˜0.7 mg m -3) in September-October. The dominant mode (27% of total variance) of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition of the monthly image time series shows interannual variability is strongest during the spring peak around the periphery of the basin with minima in 1998 and 2001. The second and third modes (8% and 7%) capture additional spring interannual variability in patterns strongly related to the shelfbreak west of Kayak Island (144°W) and in more diffuse mesoscale patterns in the eastern GOA. Cross-shelf chlorophyll variability (0-400 km offshore) at three locations contrasts strong seasonality and spring bloom development offshore, over the shelf break, in the northern GOA (off Seward) with weaker seasonality over the shelf off the Queen Charlotte Islands. The shelf between Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island consistently develops a spring along-shelf gradient in chlorophyll, maximum over the western end of the shelf. Comparisons to wind and surface temperature anomalies suggest that interannual differences in the strength of the spring bloom are more strongly related to wind forcing the previous winter than temperature anomalies associated with the 1997/98 El Nino.

  15. Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow data from 35 stations in and near Alaska were analyzed for changes between the cool phase (1947-1976) and the warm phase (1977-2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Winter, spring, and summer flow changes and maximum annual flow changes were different for glaciated basins (more than 10% glacier-covered area) than for nonglaciated basins, showing the influence of glaciers on historical streamflowchanges. Mean February flows, for example, increased for the median of available stations by 45% for glaciated basins and by 17% for nonglaciated ones.

  16. Individual variation in staging and timing of spring migration of Pacific common eiders in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    Timing of migration and characterization of migration patterns of birds are usually based on dates of peak migration to and from staging, wintering, and breeding areas used by the bulk of a species. For Pacific common eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum), as well as other species, the timing of migration into and through the Beaufort Sea is based on counts of birds past land or ice-based sites and radar observations, and arrival dates to colonies determined by influxes of birds seen by ground observers. With the continued and proposed development of nearshore and offshore waters of the Beaufort Sea, there is an expanding need to manage local populations. Observations of individual Pacific common eiders can provide a more complete understanding of local populations as well as variability among populations. This study was designed to determine factors influencing migration patterns of individuals nesting in the western Beaufort Sea from their wintering locations along the Chukotka Peninsula, through the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas, until their arrival to their nesting area. The Simpson Lagoon/Maguire Island nesting colonies are 1300-1400 km from the primary winter area. Eiders enter the Beaufort Sea at Point Barrow then move east 300-350 km to their nesting colonies. Nesting adult females were marked with satellite transmitters during summer then followed the next spring and early summer. Transmitters were programmed to provide location data every 3 days (2001, n = 12) or daily (2002 and 2004, n = 7 and 18, respectively) beginning 15 April. I expected the dates of arrival to the colony to vary with weather during migration (Point. Barrow to the colony) and general conditions in spring (early or late year based on differences in temperatures from the long term norm for April, May, and June). All individuals returned to the colony area they were marked the previous year. Data were consistent with other “short” distance migrants. There were no

  17. Ichthyophoniasis: An emerging disease of Chinook salmon in the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Winton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Before 1985, Ichthyophonus was unreported among Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. from the Yukon River; now it infects more than 40% of returning adult Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha. Overall infection prevalence reached about 45% in the Yukon River and about 30% in the Tanana River between 1999 and 2003. Mean infection prevalence was greater in females than males in the main-stem Yukon River during each of the 5 years of the study, but the infection prevalence in males increased each year until the difference was no longer significant. Clinical signs of ichthyophoniasis (presence of visible punctate white lesions in internal organs) were least at the mouth of the Yukon River (∼10%) but increased to 29% when fish reached the middle Yukon River and was 22% at the upper Tanana River. However, clinical signs increased each year from 7% in 1999 to 27% in 2003 at the mouth of the river. As fish approached the upper reaches of the Yukon River (Canada) and the spawning areas of the Chena and Salcha rivers (Alaska), infection prevalence dropped significantly to less than 15% in females on the Yukon River and less than 10% for both sexes in the Chena and Salcha rivers, presumably because of mortality among infected prespawn fish. Age was not a factor in infection prevalence, nor was the position of fish within the run. The source of infection was not determined, but Ichthyophonus was not found in 400 Pacific herring Clupea pallasi from the Bering Sea or in 120 outmigrating juvenile Chinook salmon from two drainages in Alaska and Canada. Freshwater burbot Lota lota from the middle Yukon River were subclinically infected with Ichthyophonus, but the origin and relationship of this agent to the Chinook salmon isolate is unknown.

  18. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags: A method to investigate the migration and behavior of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, Andrew C; Wilson, Derek; Norcross, Brenda L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags provide a fisheries-independent method of collecting environmental preference data (depth and ambient water temperature) and migration distance. In this study, we evaluate the use of pop-up archival transmitting tags as a method to investigate demersal fish. We report the results from eight pop-up archival transmitting tagged Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis (from 107 to 165 cm FL) that were released in and around Resurrection Bay, Alaska. Commercial fishermen recovered three tags, while five tags transmitted data to Argos satellites. Horizontal migration was not consistent among fish as four Pacific halibut remained in the vicinity of release while the other four traveled up to 358 km from the release site. Vertical movement was not consistent among fish or over time; however, they spent most of their time at depths of 150 to 350 m. The minimum and maximum depths reached by any of the Pacific halibut were 2 m and 502 m, respectively. The fish preferred water temperatures of approximately 6°C, but experienced temperatures between 4.3 and 12.2°C. Light attenuation with depth prevented geolocation software and light sensing hardware from accurately estimating geoposition for the majority of days. The methods, adapted from investigations on large pelagic fish, proved to be effective for studying Pacific halibut in the northern Gulf of Alaska. PAT tags allowed us to obtain high accuracy locations of the fish at the end of the tag deployments as well as preliminary data to identify approximate seasonal locations and to characterize their depth and temperature characteristics. By using PAT tags, we will be able to ensure tag returns during the winter season (which is closed to fishing) and gain valuable biological information even if fish migrate large distances or to unexpected locations.

  19. Atmospheric 14CO2 Over the mid Pacific Ocean and at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA From 2002 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Trumbore, S.; Ajie, H.; Tyler, S.; Randerson, J.; Krakauer, N.

    2004-12-01

    , while data from a mid-continental site at Niwot Ridge, CO (41° N, 105° W) were significantly higher during the same period (83.7±1.7‰ ). The time series of atmospheric 14CO2 at a coastal site at Point Barrow, Alaska (71° N, 157° W) from July 12, 2003 to August 18, 2004 shows a general decreasing trend with time. The average Δ 14C of this time series was 66.6‰ with a range of about 11‰ , showing a hint of a seasonal cycle and lower 14C values at high northern latitudes. Low Δ 14C values in Pt. Barrow air correlate with wind direction, indicating that part of the temporal variation may be caused by the advection of low 14C air from lower latitudes. Our results confirm large-scale patterns in atmospheric 14C predicted using carbon cycle models coupled with models of atmospheric transport. We plan to continue measuring radiocarbon in CO2 in the mid-Pacific and at the surface US stations in different seasons for the next several years for a fuller picture of seasonal and latitudinal variation in atmospheric Δ 14C.

  20. SALMON RECOVERY: DEFENDING REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  1. Recovery of sockeye salmon in the Elwha River, Washington, after dam removal: Dependence of smolt production on the resumption of anadromy by landlocked kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Adam G.; Gardner, Jennifer R.; Beauchamp, David A.; Paradis, Rebecca; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are adept at colonizing habitat that has been reopened to anadromous passage. Sockeye Salmon O. nerka are unique in that most populations require lakes to fulfill their life history. Thus, for Sockeye Salmon to colonize a system, projects like dam removals must provide access to lakes. However, if the lakes contain landlocked kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon), the recovery of Sockeye Salmon could be mediated by interactions between the two life history forms and the processes associated with the resumption of anadromy. Our objective was to evaluate the extent to which estimates of Sockeye Salmon smolt production and recovery are sensitive to the resumption of anadromy by kokanee after dam removal. We informed the analysis based on the abiotic and biotic features of Lake Sutherland, which was recently opened to passage after dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington. We first developed maximum expectations for the smolt-producing capacity of Lake Sutherland by using two predictive models developed from Sockeye Salmon populations in Alaska and British Columbia: one model was based on the mean seasonal biomass of macrozooplankton, and the other was based on the euphotic zone volume of the lake. We then constructed a bioenergetics-based simulation model to evaluate how the capacity of Lake Sutherland to rear yearling smolts could change with varying degrees of anadromy among O. nerka fry. We demonstrated that (1) the smolt-producing capacity of a nursery lake for juvenile Sockeye Salmon changes in nonlinear ways with changes in smolt growth, mortality, and the extent to which kokanee resume anadromy after dam removal; (2) kokanee populations may be robust to changes in abundance after dam removal, particularly if lakes are located higher in the watershed on tributaries separate from where dams were removed; and (3) the productivity of newly establishing Sockeye Salmon can vary considerably depending on whether the population becomes

  2. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...

  3. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho salmon. [Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Laufle, J.C.; Pauley, G.B.; Shepard, M.F.

    1986-04-01

    The coho is anadromous, swimming upstream from the ocean in fall to spawn. The fry hatch in the spring and outmigrate 1 to 2 years later. They usually spend two growing seasons at sea. They require clear, cold, well-oxygenated (<4 mg/l) stream water (1 m/sec) for spawning and rearing, with a gravel substrate, adequate cover, and a food supply of insects, crustaceans, and fishes for the young. All populations of coho salmon are limited by the amount of suitable rearing area available. They are sought after in both sport and commercial fisheries, and are very sensitive, especially the early life stages in streams, to such human-made impacts as siltation, pollution, removal of cover, and barriers to migration. Current management objectives of the State of Washington are toward MSH (maximum susstained harvest), with the treaty Indian tribes under the Boldt Decision (United States vs State of Washington) having a legal right to 50% of the catchable allocation.

  4. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  5. Post-breeding season distribution of black-footed and Laysan albatrosses satellite-tagged in Alaska: Inter-specific differences in spatial overlap with North Pacific fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, K.N.; Suryan, R.M.; Roby, D.D.; Balogh, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    We integrated satellite-tracking data from black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 7) and Laysan albatrosses captured in Alaska (Phoebastria immutabilis; n = 18) with data on fishing effort and distribution from commercial fisheries in the North Pacific in order to assess potential risk from bycatch. Albatrosses were satellite-tagged at-sea in the Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and tracked during the post-breeding season, July-October 2005 and 2006. In Alaskan waters, fishing effort occurred almost exclusively within continental shelf and slope waters. Potential fishery interaction for black-footed albatrosses, which most often frequented shelf-slope waters, was greatest with sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) longline and pot fisheries and with the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) longline fishery. In contrast, Laysan albatrosses spent as much time over oceanic waters beyond the continental shelf and slope, thereby overlapping less with fisheries in Alaska than black-footed albatrosses. Regionally, Laysan albatrosses had the greatest potential fishery interaction with the Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) trawl fishery in the Western Aleutian Islands and the sablefish pot fishery in the Central Aleutian Islands. Black-footed albatrosses ranged further beyond Alaskan waters than Laysan albatrosses, overlapping west coast Canada fisheries and pelagic longline fisheries in the subarctic transition domain; Laysan albatrosses remained north of these pelagic fisheries. Due to inter-specific differences in oceanic distribution and habitat use, the overlap of fisheries with the post-breeding distribution of black-footed albatrosses is greater than that for Laysan albatrosses, highlighting inter-specific differences in potential vulnerability to bycatch and risk of population-level impacts from fisheries. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0–8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological

  7. 76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Pacific cod TACs among gear and operation type, based primarily on historical dependency and catch history... Central GOA Pacific cod fisheries, based primarily on historical catches, as well as conservation, catch... allocations are based on historical dependency, each sector's retained catch history of the Pacific...

  8. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached... 679. The 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA is 2,102 metric..., NMFS (Regional Administrator), has determined that the 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the...

  9. 75 FR 53608 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA... CFR part 679. The 2010 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA is 2,004... Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator), has determined that the 2010 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in...

  10. 77 FR 39649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA... CFR part 679. The 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA is 2,102... Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator), has determined that the 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in...

  11. 75 FR 42338 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA has been reached... CFR part 679. The 2010 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA is 2,895... Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator), has determined that the 2010 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in...

  12. 77 FR 42439 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA... CFR part 679. The 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the GOA is 1,692... Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator), has determined that the 2012 TAC of Pacific ocean perch in...

  13. Aniakchak sockeye salmon investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, Troy R.; Pavey, Scott A.; Miller, Joe L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve provides unusual and dramatic landscapes shaped by numerous volcanic eruptions, a massive flood, enormous landslides, and ongoing geological change. The focal point of the monument is Aniakchak Caldera, a restless volcano that embodies the instability of the Alaska Peninsula. This geological instability creates a dynamic and challenging environment for the biological occupants of Aniakchak and unparalleled opportunities for scientists to measure the adaptability of organisms and ecosystems to change. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is one member of the Aniakchak ecosystem that has managed to adapt to geologic upheaval and is now thriving in the park. Aside from just surviving in the harsh environment, these salmon are also noteworthy for providing essential marinederived nutrients to plants and animals and as a source of food for historic and present day people in the region.

  14. Stabilizing Smoked Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Tissue after Extraction of Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are prized by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Discarded salmon tissues were preserved using a combination of smoke-processing and acid...

  15. Stabilizing PUFA-rich oils from salmon heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alaska, discarded salmon heads represent a food-grade source of valuable long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, these highly unsaturated marine oils are susceptible to oxidation. This research explored smoke-processing as a technology to reduce oxidation of salmon oil during...

  16. Preserving Salmon Byproducts through Smoke-Processing Prior to Ensilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmon is an important fishery in Alaska and accounts for about 9% of the annual catch. Processing these fish results in valuable byproducts that contain oils with high concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Previous research demonstrated that when discarded salmon head...

  17. Stable Isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) Analysis and Satellite Telemetry Depict the Complexity of Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Diets in Southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, A.; Watts, D. E.; Cohn, B. R.; Spencer, P.; Mangipane, B.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Alaska, gray wolves (Canis lupus) are a top predator of large ungulates. While they primarily rely on ungulates such as moose (Alces alces) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) as food, they are opportunistic and use alternative resources. The variation and supplemental protein sources in wolf diet has not been studied extensively on live animals currently using the landscape. With large seasonal influxes of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) into Alaska, terrestrial carnivore use of marine species is of particular interest. Using stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) analysis of wolf guard hair and blood, this study aims to determine the proportion of marine derived nutrients (MDN) in the diet of wolf packs within and surrounding Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges in Southwest Alaska. Satellite telemetry from the animals sampled facilitates quantification of landscape use patterns in correspondence with isotopic traits. Wolf pack territories within and surrounding the Lake Clark region appear to vary in spatial extent and in availability of MDN, such as salmon. Initial analysis shows that two packs with smaller home ranges, centrally located around areas with greater salmon availability, have enriched δ15N values compared to packs that have larger home ranges not centralized around salmon spawning waters. This pattern of isotopic enrichment is found in red blood cells, blood serum and hair, representing diets over different time scales. The enrichment in both blood and hair indicates a sustained use of MDN over the previous six to nine months. In the Lake Clark region, simple mixing model estimates suggest that up to 30% of wolf pack diets may be from marine sources. In contrast, packs with larger home ranges and less access to salmon have stable isotope values representative of a terrestrial diet.

  18. Sushi Lovers, Beware: Tapeworm Now Found in U.S. Salmon

    MedlinePlus

    ... confirmed that the tapeworm is present in wild pink salmon from the Alaskan Pacific. The findings are ... species, caught off the Alaskan coast. Samples of pink salmon were found to harbor Japanese broad tapeworm ...

  19. Growth and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the northeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechter, Melissa E.; Beckman, Brian R.; Andrews, Alexander G., III; Beaudreau, Anne H.; McPhee, Megan V.

    2017-01-01

    As the Arctic continues to warm, abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the northern Bering Sea are expected to increase. However, information regarding the growth and condition of juvenile salmon in these waters is limited. The first objective of this study was to describe relationships between size, growth, and condition of juvenile chum (O. keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon and environmental conditions using data collected in the northeastern Bering Sea (NEBS) from 2003-2007 and 2009-2012. Salmon collected at stations with greater bottom depths and cooler sea-surface temperature (SST) were longer, reflecting their movement further offshore out of the warmer Alaska Coastal Water mass, as the season progressed. Energy density, after accounting for fish length, followed similar relationships with SST and bottom depth while greater condition (weight-length residuals) was associated with warm SST and shallower stations. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found fish exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009, although these differences were not clearly attributable to environmental conditions. Our second objective was to compare size and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the NEBS between warm and cool spring thermal regimes of the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS). This comparison was based on a hypothesis informed by the strong role of sea-ice retreat in the spring for production dynamics in the SEBS and prevailing northward currents, suggesting that feeding conditions in the NEBS may be influenced by production in the SEBS. We found greater length (both species) and condition (pink salmon) in years with warm thermal regimes; however, both of these responses changed more rapidly with day of year in years with cool springs. Finally, we compared indicators of energy allocation between even and odd brood

  20. Fifty-Year Record of Glacier Change Reveals Shifting Climate in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research on glacier change shows recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in three climatic regions of the United States. These long periods of record provide clues to the climate shifts that may be driving glacier change. The USGS Benchmark Glacier Program began in 1957 as a result of research efforts during the International Geophysical Year (Meier and others, 1971). Annual data collection occurs at three glaciers that represent three climatic regions in the United States: South Cascade Glacier in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State; Wolverine Glacier on the Kenai Peninsula near Anchorage, Alaska; and Gulkana Glacier in the interior of Alaska (fig. 1).

  1. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... 2010 Pacific cod directed fishing allowance for AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI has been...) allocated to AFA trawl catcher processors in the BSAI is 3,467 metric tons (mt) as established by the...

  2. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC allocated to AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 2,600 metric tons (mt) as...

  3. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher... exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for AFA trawl... cod TAC specified for AFA trawl catcher-processors in the BSAI is 4,021 metric tons as established...

  4. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  5. 76 FR 13331 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...'' fishery. The parallel fishery occurs off the coast of Alaska, within 3 nautical miles of shore and is... Aleutian Islands Subarea (AI). Federal groundfish fisheries in the EEZ from 3 to 200 nm off the coast of... Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  6. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... to the public interest as it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA543 Fisheries of the Exclusive... Trawl Fishery in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...

  7. 77 FR 3956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    .../ Processors Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels operating as catcher/ processors using pot gear in the Western... as catcher/processors using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  8. 77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    .../ processors (C/Ps) to vessels using pot gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska management... from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation... avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet as well as processors. NMFS was unable to publish...

  9. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... June 28, 2013 Part III Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR... / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts... Commercial Fisheries in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  10. 77 FR 12814 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...; Status of Salmon Chum Bycatch, review of actions on Bering Sea (BS) Chinook, review of actions on GOA Chinook, review of pending actions on BS chum salmon bycatch; Status of GOA Pacific cod (discussion...

  11. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  12. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  13. 75 FR 13444 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Pacific cod from the A season jig gear apportionment to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters...

  14. Directional selection by fisheries and the timing of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) migrations.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Hodgson, Sayre; Flynn, Lucy; Hilborn, Ray; Rogers, Donald E

    2007-04-01

    The timing of migration from feeding to breeding areas is a critical link between the growth and survival of adult animals, their reproduction, and the fitness of their progeny. Commercial fisheries often catch a large fraction of the migrants (e.g., salmon), and exploitation rates can vary systematically over the fishing season. We examined daily records of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Egegik and Ugashik management districts in Bristol Bay, Alaska (USA), for evidence of such temporally selective fishing. In recent years, the early migrants have experienced lower fishing rates than later migrants, especially in the Egegik district, and the median migration date of the fish escaping the fisheries has been getting progressively earlier in both districts. Moreover, the overall runs (catch and escapement) in the Egegik district and, to a lesser extent the Ugashik district, have been getting earlier, as predicted in response to the selection on timing. The trends in timing were not correlated with sea surface temperature in the region of the North Pacific Ocean where the salmon tend to concentrate, but the trends in the two districts were correlated with each other, indicating that there may be some common environmental influence in addition to the effect of selection. Despite the selection, both groups of salmon have remained productive. We hypothesize that this resilience may result from representation of all component populations among the early and late migrants, so that the fisheries have not eliminated entire populations, and from density-dependent processes that may have helped maintain the productivity of these salmon populations.

  15. [The variation in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) mitochondrial DNA and its connection with the paleogeographic events in the Northwest Pacific].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, N E; Semina, A V; Brykov, V A

    2006-10-01

    The results of examining mtDNA variation in populations of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from the rivers of the basins of the seas of Japan and Okhotsk and in the chum salmon seasonal races of the Amur River are presented. A significant level of polymorphism between the majority of the populations studied was detected. The groups of chum salmon from the Japan and Okhotsk Seas displayed the most pronounced differences. Analysis of genetic variation demonstrated that periodic paleontologic and climatic changes in the past of this region were the most probable factor that caused the divergence of these populations. The advances and retreats of glaciers and the accompanying regressions and transgressions of the ocean level caused isolation of chum salmon in the refugia belonging hypothetically to the paleo-Suifun and paleo-Amur regions. These population groups diverged presumably 350-450 thousand years ago. Differences between the seasonal races of the Amur chum salmon are insignificant, and their emergence dates back to the period of the last Wisconsin glaciation. Probably, the main isolation factor now is the genetically determined time of spawning.

  16. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  17. Intra-annual variations in atmospheric dust and tritium in the North Pacific region detected from an ice core from Mount Wrangell, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Kanamori, Syosaku; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Koji; Benson, Carl S.; Hondoh, Takeo

    2007-05-01

    The North Pacific is subject to various seasonal climate phenomena and material circulations. Therefore intra-annual ice core data are necessary for an assessment of the climate variations. To assess past variations, a 50-m ice core was drilled at the summit of Mount Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. The dust number, tritium concentrations, and stable hydrogen isotope were analyzed. The period covered was from 1992 to 2002. We found that the concentrations of both fine dust (0.52-1.00 μm), an indicator of long-range transport, and coarse dust (1.00-8.00 μm) increased together every spring. Moreover, their concentrations increased drastically after 2000, corresponding to the recent increase in Asian dust outbreaks in spring. Additionally, an increase in the spring of 2001 corresponded to the largest dust storm recorded in east Asia since 1979. Therefore our findings imply that Asian dust strongly polluted Mount Wrangell every spring. The stratospheric tracer, tritium, had late spring maxima almost every year, and we found this useful for ice core dating to identify late spring in the North Pacific region. We also found that a high positive annual correlation existed between the calculated tritium and fine dust fluxes from late spring to summer. We propose that an annual relationship between the stratosphere-troposphere exchange and Asian dust storm are most closely connected in late spring because their activities are weak in summer. The Mount Wrangell ice core is important and useful for assessing the dust and tritium circulation in the distant past around the North Pacific with probable intra-annual timescale information.

  18. Variation in the population structure of Yukon River chum and coho salmon: Evaluating the potential impact of localized habitat degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, J.B.; Spearman, William J.; Sage, G.K.; Miller, S.J.; Flannery, B.G.; Wenburg, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA-RFLP) analyses to test the hypothesis that chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and coho salmon O. kisutch in the Yukon River, Alaska, exhibit population structure at differing spatial scales. If the hypothesis is true, then the risk of losing genetic diversity because of habitat degradation from a gold mine near a Yukon River tributary could differ between the two species. For each species, collections were made from two tributaries in both the Innoko and Tanana rivers, which are tributaries to the lower and middle Yukon River. The results revealed a large difference in the degree and spatial distribution of population structure between the two species. For chum salmon, the microsatellite loci (F-statistic [FST] = 0.021) and mtDNA (F ST = -0.008) revealed a low degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively large geographic scale. This large-scale population structure should minimize, although not eliminate, the risk of genetic diversity loss due to localized habitat degradation. For coho salmon, the microsatellites (FST = 0.091) and mtDNA (FST = 0.586) revealed a high degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively small geographic scale. This small-scale population structure suggests that coho salmon are at a relatively high risk of losing genetic diversity due to lo-calized habitat degradation. Our study underscores the importance of a multispecies approach for evaluating the potential impact of land-use activities on the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon.

  19. Reproductive Ecology and Habitat Use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) Nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra. americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long-term population decline without obvious cause (s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001–2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. components of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years. Primarily, nests were among dense vegetation in shrub edge habitat, predominantly dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and Alaska spiraea (Spiraea beauverdiana), an average of 58 m from water. Females initiated nests from 11 June and 17 July across years. Clutch size averaged 7.5 eggs and did not vary annually. Nest success was highly variable among years and ranged from 0.01 to 0.37. Duckling survival to 30 days old varied among years, and ranged from 0.09 – 0.35. Nest success was poor in three of four years, likely due to predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). Black Scoters appear to have low but variable productivity, consistent with life-history patterns of other sea duck species. Information gained will direct future demographic research on Black Scoters, and highlights knowledge gaps impeding management strategies needed for population recovery.

  20. Morphological changes in the retina in Pacific ocean salmon Oncorhynchus masou fry in response to neutralization of the geomagnetic field in conditions of normal illumination.

    PubMed

    Maksimovich, A A; Kondrashev, S L; Gnyubkina, V P

    2008-10-01

    The studies reported here provide the first demonstration that retinal responses in both the fry of the migratory salmon trout Oncorhynchus masou and the dwarf form of this species changed in conditions of experimental neutralization of the geomagnetic field (GMF); migratory salmon trout fry and dwarves showed different changes. The responses of different types of retinal photoreceptor in migratory salmon trout fry to neutralization of the GMF differed: while rods and double cones perceived neutralization of the GMF as the onset of darkness (the scotopic reaction), single (generally blue-sensitive) cones responded to neutralization of the GMF both as presentation of blue light or (very rarely) ultraviolet irradiation. The retina of dwarf male salmon trout responded to neutralization of the GMF with a double response: rods showed a light (photopic) response, while double (red/green-sensitive) cones produced dark (scotopic) responses. Single (blue-sensitive) cones responded to neutralization of the GMF as bright blue light. Thus, the morphological picture of the retina in dwarf male salmon trout in these experimental conditions corresponds to the perception of blue light. The initial conditions were different--normal diffuse daylight with a brightness of about 7.5 Lx. It is likely that neutralization of the magnetic field had no effect on rods, while double, red-green, cones responded as to darkness, i.e., the fish did not perceive red or green light in the visible spectrum, but perceived only blue and, possibly, ultraviolet light by means of central blue-sensitive and accessory cones. Thus, these experiments demonstrated that in conditions of normal daylight illumination, retinal photoreceptors in salmon fry respond to changes in the earth's magnetic field, i.e., objectively function as magnetoreceptors.

  1. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Myers, Mark S.; Peck, Karen A.; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound. PMID:26345607

  2. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; Myers, Mark S; Peck, Karen A; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-08

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound.

  3. Salmon Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the web application to assist pesticide users' with an understanding of the spatial extent of certain pesticide use limitations to protect endangered or threatened salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington.

  4. [Patterns of genetic diversity in population complexes of Pacific chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum, from Asia and Northern America, inferred from allozyme polymorphism data].

    PubMed

    Savin, V A; Varnavskaia, N V; Shaporev, R A

    2009-06-01

    Based on the data of Russian and foreign researchers, a database, consisting of 100 allozyme-coding loci examined in 288 chum salmon populations from Asia and Northern America, was constructed. Using G-test, genetic heterogeneity of Asian population samples of chum salmon was evaluated. Correlations between the frequencies of major alleles and geographic latitude of the mouths of native rivers were estimated. Using the methods of Nei and Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, for different local chum salmon stock groups the genetic distances at the number of polymorphic enzyme loci were determined. Analysis of these distances made it possible to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity in regional population groups from the Russian Far East, Japan, and North America. The proportions of genetic variation at each hierarchical level, identified in accordance with the geographical positions of the populations, were estimated through partitioning of variation in Asian populations into within and between-population components. It was demonstrated that intraspecific genetic structure of chum salmon corresponded geographic subdivision into regional population groups.

  5. Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate variability in the North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, A.; Kawamura, K.; Seki, O.; Ono, K.; Matoba, S.; Shiraiwa, T.

    2015-12-01

    180 m long ice core (ca. 343 years old) was drilled in the saddle of the Aurora Peak of Alaska, which is located southeast of Fairbanks (63.52°N; 146.54°W, elevation: 2,825 m). Samples were directly transported to the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University and have been analyzed for monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers using gas chromatograph (GC; HP 6890) and mass spectrometry system (GC/MS; Agilent). Ice core collected from mountain glacier has not been explored for SOA yet. We found significantly high concentrations of these tracers (e.g., pinic, pinonic, and 2-methylglyceric acids, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylrythritol), which show historical trends with good correlation with each other since 1665-2008. They show positive correlations with sugar compounds (e.g., mannitol, glucose, fructose, inositol, and sucrose), and anti-correlations with diacids (e.g., C9), w-oxocarboxylic (wC4-wC9), a-dicarbonyls and low molecular weight fatty acids (LFAs) (e.g., C18:1). LFAs show strong correlations with MSA- and nss-SO42- in the same ice core. These results suggest source regions of SOA tracers and ice core chemistry of Alaska. Concentrations of C5-alkene triols (e.g., 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, cis-2-methyl 1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene and trans-2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) have increased in the ice core after the Great Pacific Climate Shift (late 1970's). They show positive correlations with a-dicarbonyls and LFAs (e.g., C18:1) in the ice core, suggesting that enhanced oceanic emissions of biogenic organic compounds through the surface microlayer are recorded in the ice core. Photochemical oxidation processes for these monoterpene- and isoprene-/sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are suggested to be linked with the periodicity of multi-decadal climate oscillations (e.g., North Pacific Index) and we can look at a whole range of environmental parameters in parallel with the robust reconstructed temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. 76 FR 39791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of Pacific ocean perch... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XA542 Fisheries of the Exclusive...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  7. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... available data and finds that the ITAC for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea needs to be... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the apportionment of the non-specified reserves of... plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet and...

  8. 76 FR 76903 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... gear sectors to American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl catcher/ processors and catcher/processors using... apportionment for AFA trawl catcher/processors apportionment and 750 mt to the B season apportionment for catcher/ processors using hook-and-line gear. The C season apportionment of the 2011 Pacific cod...

  9. Pulmonary Mast Cell Tumor and Possible Paraganglioma in a Free-ranging Pacific Walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus divergens), Barrow, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Howerth, Elizabeth; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2016-04-28

    We describe a pulmonary mast cell tumor in a subsistence-harvested free-ranging Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Neoplastic cells effacing a focal area of pulmonary parenchyma were characterized by rare metachromatic granules and positive staining for C-kit. We also report co-occurrence of a peribronchial mass with a morphologic and immunohistochemical profile compatible with paraganglioma.

  10. 75 FR 15626 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot...

  11. 75 FR 72735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using...

  12. 75 FR 28502 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot...

  13. 75 FR 70614 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...) Length Overall Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC) specified for pot catcher vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3...

  14. 76 FR 13098 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to catcher vessels less than 60 feet LOA using hook-and-line or pot...

  15. 76 FR 54137 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Pacific cod from trawl catcher vessels to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) LOA using...

  16. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  17. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 120424023-1023-01] RIN 0648-XA921 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  18. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC438 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  19. Multi-proxy approach provides new data on land-ocean coupling mechanisms in the Gulf of Alaska (NE Pacific) during the Mid Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Juliane; Romero, Oscar; Cowan, Ellen; McClymont, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The exact timing and mechanism(s) that caused a change from a low- to high-amplitude glacial variability during the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) - a fundamental shift in Earth's climate system - are still under debate. Most studies targeting the MPT are based on Atlantic sediment records whereas only few data sets are available from the North Pacific (see Clark et al., 2006 and McClymont et al., 2013 for reviews). IODP Expedition 341 distal deep-water site U1417 in the Gulf of Alaska (subpolar NE Pacific) now provides a continuous sediment record for reconstructing Miocene to Late Pleistocene changes in the sea surface conditions and their linkage to ice-sheet fluctuations on land. Here we present organic geochemical biomarker data covering the 1.5 Ma to 0.1 Ma time interval with special focus on the MPT. Alkenone, sterol, n-alkane and C25 highly branched isoprenoid data are used to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, primary productivity and terrigenous organic matter input (via sea ice, icebergs, meltwater discharge or aeolian transport). In addition, the diatom concentration and the species composition of the diatom assemblage allow estimates of palaeoproductivity and nutrient (silicate) availability. Information about ice-sheet dynamics (and associated iceberg calving) and sea ice coverage is derived from ice rafted detritus (IRD) data. A key observation is a significant SST cooling at about 1 Ma, which is in close agreement with other Northern Hemisphere SST records. We further observe that short-term maxima in the diatom abundances coincide with peak deposition of terrigenous biomarkers and IRD minima. References Clark, P.U. et al. 2006. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25 (23-24): 3150-3184. McClymont, E.L. et al. 2013. Earth-Science Reviews 123: 173-193.

  20. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring