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Sample records for alaska petroleum development

  1. Caribou and petroleum development in arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intensive development of oil deposits in Alaska's northern slope (SKA) is not always being conducted with consideration of the characteristics of the caribou which inhabit the region. Although to date the losses of the customary pastures as a result of the change in the conditions in them has had only a local nature and has not negatively affected the productivity of the heart, uncontrolled and incorrectly planned operations by oil companies in the future may lead to a substantial limitation in the habitation of the caribou and may produce serious losses for all the herds in Alaska. The agencies which control the federal lands and the state lands must understand the situation which is taking shape here with respect to the activity of the oil companies and must adhere to a conservation policy in issuing exploration licenses and in developing the deposits.

  2. Natural resource protection and petroleum development in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, P.T.; Hemming, J.E.; Morsell, J.W.; Morehouse, T.A.; Leask, L.E.; Harrison, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    General impacts of petroleum development in Alaska are described. Noise may cause animals to avoid areas while activity is in progress. Land surface alteration has eliminated critical habitat, particularly nest sites of shorebirds, which have been displaced in large numbers with adverse effects on their reproductive potential. Shorebird nesting densities have been reduced as a result of the road effect - a combination of noise, activity, and dust (dust shadow) that extends the area of disturbance and habitat alteration beyond the actual road. Use of cleared areas (roads, rights-of-way, etc.) may increase for some species due to the presence of preferred food, increased edge, and easier travel routes. Improper garbage handling and feeding by workers have attracted bears and other scavengers, which have subsequently shown signs of behavior alteration, including loss of fear of humans. Fuel, oil, and mud spills reduce habitat by destroying vegetation. Fuel spills are especially destructive. Water pollution is more serious than land pollution and may cause injury or death of wildlife.

  3. Technology and economics assessment of developing an Arctic offshore petroleum area in Alaska (Chukchi Sea)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This assessment begins with three lines of investigation: petroleum geology, environmental conditions affecting engineering and siting, and available technologies for Arctic offshore oil and gas development. These results were integrated for economic analysis into scenarios that reflect reasonable variations in operators' strategies. Construction costs and schedules are estimated, and then examined using an economic model (a basic discounted cash flow scheme yielding internal real rates of return (ROR) and disaggregated equivalent amortized costs). The scenarios are realistic, but optimistic for oil and gas development. The harsh arctic environment specific to this OCS planning area was evaluated for engineering and cost estimating: multi-year sea ice, storms, short open-water season, 15-40 meter (50-120 foot) water depths, seafloor materials, harborless coastline, low seismicity, biological and social considerations. Sea ice is the dominating design parameter, impacting the surface facilities and gouging the seafloor. Offshore production concepts evaluated were gravel islands, cassion-retained islands, monocones and APLA (Artic production and loading atoll). Oil transportation systems were nearly equivalent in costs. Shipping requires dedicated ice-breaking tankers serving a transshipment terminal. Pipeline connects across the North Slope to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The decision between these might hinge more on political and environmental issues than on economics. Natural gas is decidedly uneconomic based on this analysis. Transportation of natural gas from the Chukchi Sea area would be via ice-breaking LNG tankers; it is primarily the LNG transport system that pushes gas economics beyond viability.

  4. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  5. Maps showing sedimentary basins, surface thermal maturity, and indications of petroleum in the Central Alaska Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, Sandra M.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This publication includes two maps (at 1:2,500,000 scale) and a pamphlet that describe sedimentary basins, surface thermal maturity, and 95 reported occurrences of petroleum in natural seeps, wells, and rock outcrops in central Alaska. No commercial petroleum production has been obtained from central Alaska, in contrast to the prolific deposits of oil and gas that have been found and developed in northern Alaska and the Cook Inlet region. Nevertheless, confirmed indications of petroleum in central Alaska include (1) natural seeps of methane gas on the Yukon Delta; (2) occurrences of methane gas in wells in the Bethel, Kotzebue, Nenana, Northway, and Yukon Flats basins; (3) oil and methane gas in seeps and wells in Norton Sound; (4) small quantities of liquid and solid hydrocarbons associated with mercury ore in the Kuskokwim Mountains; (5) oil shale and numerous occurrences of bitumen in the Kandik area; and (6) tasmanite, a form of oil shale, in the uplands north of Yukon Flats.

  6. The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) data archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The area currently known as the National Petroleum ReserveAlaska was originally designated in 1923 as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 (NPR4). It was one of four U.S. regions thought to contain significant amounts of oil that were to be reserved for national crises. Geographic and geologic knowledge of the NPR4 was only superficial in 1923. Earlier exploration, however, had shown that the region contained the ingredients necessary for oil accumulations to exist: source rocks, reservoir rocks, and geologic structures that could trap petroleum. Oil seeps on the coast and the size of the area (some 37,000 square miles, about the size of Indiana) reinforced the notion that significant quantities of petroleum were present.

  7. Record of decision of the Alaska State Director on the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Alaska State Director, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has adopted the preferred alternative from the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for oil and gas leasing in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) as modified by this record of decision (ROD). This decision consists of: (1) Land allocation - deletion from leasing of 1,416,000 acres in the Utukok caribou calving area and the highest density black brant molting area; special management leasing of approximately 4,350,000 acres in four zones; and special and standard stipulations for leasing in the remaining approximately 17,787,000 acres of the reserve. (2) Leasing schedule - a 5-year leasing program for these areas not deleted or deferred that will offer approximately 2,000,000 acres annually. (3) Stipulations - the stipulations identified in the FEIS are generally adequate for all future leases and will be assigned to individual tracts as deemed necessary. This ROD specifically identifies stipulations that will be assigned to tracts and those which would be permit stipulations. (4) Studies and monitoring - the BLM will cooperate closely with the state and borough, monitoring activity on the reserve, gathering priority resource data and identifying specific study and research needs. (5) Subsistence - the lease schedule, lease stipulations, sale rate, development likelihood and future site-specific coordination with the north slope borough adequately mitigate subsistence impacts. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Basement geology of the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Phillips, J.D.; Kulander, C.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Potter, C.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity, aeromagnetic, seismic, and borehole information enable mapping of crustal basement characteristics within the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA). In general, the pre-Mississippian basement of the southern portion of the NPRA is different from that in the north in that it is deeper and thinner, is made up of dense magnetic rocks, is cut by more normal faults, and underlies thicker accumulations of Mississippian to Triassic Ellesmerian sequence sedimentary rocks. Mafic igneous rocks within the basement and locally within the deeper Ellesmerian sequence sedimentary section could explain the observed density and magnetic variations. Because these variations spatially overlap thicker Ellesmerian sequence sediment accumulations, they may have developed, at least in part, during Mississippian to Triassic extension and basin formation. If this period of extension, and postulated mafic magmatism, was accompanied by higher heat flow, then early Ellesmerian sequence clastic sediments may have become mature for hydrocarbon generation (Magoon and Bird, 1988). This could have produced an early petroleum system in the Colville basin.

  9. Low-level aeromagnetic surveying for petroleum in arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.; Hendricks, J.D.; Roberts, A.A.; Eliason, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies of high wave number measured over oil fields have been interpreted as reflecting abundant near-surface magnetic minerals formed as a direct result of petroleum seepage. The investigation reported here, undertaken during the summer of 1979, demonstrates that these kinds of anomalies are associated with known occurrences of petroleum in northern Alaska. Because routine geological and geophysical information is especially difficult and expensive to acquire in northern Alaska, rapidly gathered and relatively inexpensive aeromagnetic data that might conceivably serve as an indirect indicator of hydrocarbons could have an impact on exploration activities there. Additionally, documentation of microseepage-related phenomena is an important step toward understanding petroleum microseepage in a permafrost environment. Rocks above and adjacent to the Barrow arch, a buried regional feature along the north coast of Alaska, are a primary habitat for oil and gas, but the geologic framework and the geology of petroleum occurrence are complex. Upper Devonian to lowermost Cretaceous carbonate and clastic rocks derived from northern sources were deposited in a basin that deepened southward. These rocks contain four of the five major reservoirs in the Prudhoe Bay field, which is located on the arch 330 km southeast of Barrow. Formation of the ancestral Brooks Range and the opening of the Arctic Ocean in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous caused southern sediment sources to replace the northern landmass. Subsequent subsidence and tilting of the continental margin toward the opening Arctic Ocean resulted in the formation of the Barrow arch. The Barrow arch was onlapped and overlapped in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary times by a series of clastic wedges that filled northeastward-migrating foredeeps.

  10. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and... Petroleum Reserve- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National...

  11. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale...

  12. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch tectonic belts and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Alaska rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America, with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of about 28 billion barrels of oil equivalent. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a platform assessment unit, comprising the Alaska rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a fold-and-thrust belt assessment unit, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald arch tectonic belts. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil and 122 trillion cubic feet of nonassociated gas in the platform assessment unit and 2 billion barrels of oil and 59 trillion cubic feet of nonassociated gas in the fold-and-thrust belt assessment unit.

  13. Reservoir quality and potential, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.; Seidlitz, A.; Gibson, C.; Bascle, R.; Dygas, J. )

    1991-03-01

    As part of the reservoir management, resource assessment, and planning programs of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in Alaska, the oil and gas resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) is undergoing review in light of new technical information, as well as changing national and international socioeconomic conditions. Emphasis is on integration of geological, petrophysical, geophysical, and engineering information to provide a refined, more technically substantive knowledge base for resource assessment and management. Brookian clastic rocks - in particular the Nanushuk Group and underlying Torok/Topagoruk intervals - have been the principal horizons of concern. Petrologic-mineralogic characteristics have been reinvestigated, related to petrophysical parameters and wireline log responses, and integrated with available engineering data, for key wells within and peripheral to the NPRA. Particular attention has been directed to diagenetic relationships, effects on reservoir quality, and implications for untested portions of this sizable basin. Similar efforts have been directed to pre-Brookian strata as well. Only some 127 exploratory wells (all but one under government aegis) have been drilled within or adjacent to NPRA (a geographic area on the order of 37,000 mi{sup 2} - about the size of the state of Indiana), many only to shallow depths. In almost every well drilled to any appreciable depth in the area, there have been manifestations of the presence of hydrocarbons. The results to date are actually rather promising from a qualitative geologic-geochemical perspective, in terms of potential for significant resources to be present.

  14. Brookian structural plays in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA), two structural plays were assessed in thrust-faulted and folded Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Brookian megasequence. These are the Brookian Topset Structural Play and the Torok Structural Play, located in the Brooks Range foothills and the southern part of the coastal plain, within the Tertiary-age frontal part of the Jurassic to Tertiary Brooks Range orogenic belt. A new regional structural interpretation, developed through regional seismic analyses, reconnaissance field investigations, and new thermal constraints, guided the geologic evaluation and risking of these plays. Volumetric parameters were derived from seismic reflection data, well data and oil and gas field analogs. The fundamental elements of the Brookian Topset Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped Umiat oil field, include: (1) reservoirs in Nanushuk Group and uppermost Torok Formation shallow-marine to nonmarine sandstones draped over anticlines caused by structural thickening in underlying Torok mudstones; (2) seals provided by overlying shale drapes in the Nanushuk, and locally by thrust faults; (3) Torok, gamma-ray-zone (GRZ) or pebble shale source rocks; (4) remigration of hydrocarbons from early formed (Late Cretaceous) stratigraphic traps disrupted by 60 Ma thrusting, into newly formed structural traps. The 60 Ma thrusting was probably accompanied by new generation and migration of natural gas resulting from late structural thickening and tectonic loading. Subsurface data from the Umiat field and other seismic reflection data within the play area indicate that the structural traps are commonly compartmentalized by thrust faults. The fundamental elements of the Torok Structural Play, exemplified by the undeveloped East Kurupa gas accumulation just south of NPRA, include: (1) reservoirs in lower Torok Formation basin-floor sandstones, and perhaps in

  15. Chapter 32: Geology and petroleum potential of the Arctic Alaska petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska petroleum province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald Arch orogenic belt and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Beaufort Rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of c. 28 BBOE. The province constitutes a significant part of a displaced continental fragment, the Arctic Alaska microplate, that was probably rifted from the Canadian Arctic margin during formation of the Canada Basin. Petroleum prospective rocks in the province, mostly Mississippian and younger, record a sequential geological evolution through passive margin, rift and foreland basin tectonic stages. Significant petroleum source and reservoir rocks were formed during each tectonic stage but it was the foreland basin stage that provided the necessary burial heating to generate petroleum from the source rocks. The lion's share of known petroleum resources in the province occur in combination structural-stratigraphic traps formed as a consequence of rifting and located along the rift shoulder. Since the discovery of the super-giant Prudhoe Bay accumulation in one of these traps in the late 1960s, exploration activity preferentially focused on these types of traps. More recent activity, however, has emphasized the potential for stratigraphic traps and the prospect of a natural gas pipeline in this region has spurred renewed interest in structural traps. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a Platform assessment unit (AU), comprising the Beaufort Rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald Arch tectonic belt. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 122 trillion

  16. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's Alaska State Office hereby notifies the public it will hold a National...

  17. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  18. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... opening for select tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the...

  19. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The transects, along with other seismic-reflection examples, illustrate four play concepts being used in the deformed area for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). The Brookian topset structural play includes broad west-northwest-trending anticlines in the Cretaceous Nanushuk Group, developed above structurally thickened Torok mudstones in the incipiently-deformed, most northerly part of the thrust system. The Torok structural play includes prominent anticlines affecting deep-basin sandstones, many of which are detached from folds exposed at the surface. The Ellesmerian structural play includes closures developed in the clastic part of the Ellesmerian sequence, mainly above a detachment in the Shublik Formation. The thrust belt play includes antiformal stacks of allochthonous Endicott Group clastic rocks and Lisburne Group carbonates; these stacks were assembled at about 120 Ma, and were transported to their present positions in the foothills at about 60 Ma.

  20. Map and digital database of sedimentary basins and indications of petroleum in the Central Alaska Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, Sandra M.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This database and accompanying text depict historical and modern reported occurrences of petroleum both in wells and at the surface within the boundaries of the Central Alaska Province. These data were compiled from previously published and unpublished sources and were prepared for use in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey petroleum assessment of Central Alaska, Yukon Flats region. Indications of petroleum are described as oil or gas shows in wells, oil or gas seeps, or outcrops of oil shale or oil-bearing rock and include confirmed and unconfirmed reports. The scale of the source map limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:2,500,000 or smaller.

  1. 2011, 2010 petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska: GIS play maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides digital geographic information systems (GIS) files of maps for each of the 24 plays considered in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2010 updated petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) (Houseknecht and others, 2010). These are the sample plays evaluated in a previous USGS assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a), maps of which were released in pdf format (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The 2010 updated assessment of the NPRA evaluated each of the previously used 24 plays based on new geologic data available from exploration activities and scientific research. Quantitative assessments were revised for 11 plays, and no revisions were made for 9 plays. Estimates of the volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil, and nonassociated gas resources in these 20 plays are reported elsewhere (Houseknecht and others, 2010). Four plays quantitatively assessed in 2002 were eliminated from quantitative assessment for reasons explained by Houseknecht and others (2010). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists.

  2. Bedrock geologic map of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, C.F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Kirschner, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction with background information to accompany the bedrock geologic map (pl. 8.1) and cross sections (pl. 8.2) of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Unconsolidated Tertiary( ) and Quaternary sediments, principally those of the Pliocene( ) and Pleistocene Gubik Formation and the Holocene deposits, are omitted from the map in the northern part of the area in order to show the approximate subcrop contacts between consolidated rock units that are Tertiary and older in age. These contacts are approximated from information on the first consolidated rock unit drilled in oil exploration wells and from maps of shallow seismic results in the northern and eastern parts of the NPRA. Modifications to earlier geologic maps have been made where warranted by more recent geologic investigations. Previous geologic compilations of the southern part of the NPRA have been partly remapped to conform to the tectonostratigraphic units named by Ellersieck and others and Mayfield and others. In the northwestern part of the reserve, rocks previously mapped as part of the Colville Group are here reassigned to the Nanushuk Group. Reports of plant fossils on the Kuk and Kaolak Rivers and micropaleontologic study of near-surface strata at the Tunalik No. 1 well indicate that the rocks west of the Meade River are probably all pre-Turonian in age and therefore older than any known rocks in the Colville Group. This revision is consistent with the sedimentology, because both the Nanushuk and Colville Groups consist of deltaic sediments that were prograded across the North Slope from south-west to northeast. Through Colville deposition began with a significant marine transgression, it seems unlikely that this deposition reached as far west as the area in question.

  3. 77 FR 76515 - Notice of Availability of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final Integrated Activity Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final... National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) Final Integrated Activity Plan/Environmental Impact...

  4. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  5. Beaufortian stratigraphic plays in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The Beaufortian megasequence in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes Jurassic through lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) strata of the Kingak Shale and the overlying pebble shale unit. These strata are part of a composite total petroleum system involving hydrocarbons expelled from source rocks in three stratigraphic intervals, the Lower Jurassic part of the Kingak Shale, the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the Lower Cretaceous gamma-ray zone (GRZ) and associated strata. The potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Beaufortian megasequence in NPRA was assessed by defining eight plays (assessment units), two in lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) topset seismic facies, four in Upper Jurassic topset seismic facies, one in Lower Jurassic topset seismic facies, and one in Jurassic through lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) clinoform seismic facies. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 239 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 103 million barrels. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 1,162 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 405 billion cubic feet. The Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset South Play is estimated to contain between 635 (95-percent probability) and 4,004 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 2,130 billion cubic feet. No technically recoverable oil is assessed in the Beaufortian Cretaceous Topset South Play, as it lies at depths that are entirely in the gas window. The Beaufortian Upper Jurassic Topset Northeast Play is estimated to contain between 2,744 (95-percent probability) and 8,086 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil

  6. Brookian stratigraphic plays in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The Brookian megasequence in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes bottomset and clinoform seismic facies of the Torok Formation (mostly Albian age) and generally coeval, topset seismic facies of the uppermost Torok Formation and the Nanushuk Group. These strata are part of a composite total petroleum system involving hydrocarbons expelled from three stratigraphic intervals of source rocks, the Lower Cretaceous gamma-ray zone (GRZ), the Lower Jurassic Kingak Shale, and the Triassic Shublik Formation. The potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Brookian megasequence in NPRA was assessed by defining five plays (assessment units), one in the topset seismic facies and four in the bottomset-clinoform seismic facies. The Brookian Topset Play is estimated to contain between 60 (95-percent probability) and 465 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 239 million barrels. The Brookian Topset Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 679 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 192 billion cubic feet. The Brookian Clinoform North Play, which extends across northern NPRA, is estimated to contain between 538 (95-percent probability) and 2,257 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 1,306 million barrels. The Brookian Clinoform North Play is estimated to contain between 0 (95-percent probability) and 1,969 (5-percent probability) billion cubic feet of technically recoverable, nonassociated natural gas, with a mean (expected value) of 674 billion cubic feet. The Brookian Clinoform Central Play, which extends across central NPRA, is estimated to contain between 299 (95-percent probability) and 1,849 (5-percent probability) million barrels of technically recoverable oil, with a mean (expected value) of 973

  7. Coal occurrence, quality and resource assessment, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Field studies of the Cretaceous Torok, Kukpowruk, and Corwin Formations in the western portion of the NPRA (National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska) and Cretaceos Torok, Tuktu, Grandstand, and Chandler Formations in the eastern portion of NPRA indicate that two major delta systems are responsible for most of the coal accumulation in this area. The Corwin delta in the western portion was an early Albian to Cenomanian, north and east prograding system, whereas the slightly younger mid-Albian to Cenomanian Umiat delta system prograded north and northeast in the eastern portion. Investigations of the lightologies, fossils, and primary depositional structures of these formations indicate that the Corwin system was deposited as a large, high-constructional, shaped delta on which thick and numerous coals developed on splay and interdistributary bay platforms away from the influence of the Cretaceous epicontinental sea. The Umiat delta started out as a high-constructional system but in time became wave dominated, and its shape changed to lobate.

  8. Alaska OCS socioeconomic studies program, technical report number 54, Volume 2. Bering-Norton petroleum development scenarios and sociocultural systems analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellanna, L.J.

    1980-08-31

    The report contains a projection of sociocultural change for the Bering Strait, Norton Sound, and, less in depth, Yukon Delta areas of Alaska under non-OCS conditions to the year 2000. In addition, impacts projections to the sociocultural systems of these same areas under low (95%), mean (50%), and high (5%) conditions are also projected. The report should be utilized only in conjunction with Volume 1, the baseline study of this same area. A bibliography with considerable time depth for the areas under consideration is included with both volumes. Although both non-Native and Native (Inupiat and Yuit) populations are considered in this study, there is a significant emphasis on the Native sociocultural systems.

  9. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska. PMID:23937114

  10. Importance of the national petroleum reserve-alaska for aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A; Larned, William

    2013-12-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992-2010) of >100,000 km(2) and ground surveys (1998-2004) of >150 km(2) to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds-waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers-were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas. Prioridades para la Conservación de Aves en el Norte de Alaska.

  11. Digital recovery, modification, and analysis of Tetra Tech seismic horizon mapping, National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Kulander, Christopher S.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We have digitized, modified, and analyzed seismic interpretation maps of 12 subsurface stratigraphic horizons spanning portions of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). These original maps were prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc., based on about 15,000 miles of seismic data collected from 1974 to 1981. We have also digitized interpreted faults and seismic velocities from Tetra Tech maps. The seismic surfaces were digitized as two-way travel time horizons and converted to depth using Tetra Tech seismic velocities. The depth surfaces were then modified by long-wavelength corrections based on recent USGS seismic re-interpretation along regional seismic lines. We have developed and executed an algorithm to identify and calculate statistics on the area, volume, height, and depth of closed structures based on these seismic horizons. These closure statistics are tabulated and have been used as input to oil and gas assessment calculations for the region. Directories accompanying this report contain basic digitized data, processed data, maps, tabulations of closure statistics, and software relating to this project.

  12. Structure and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment of the northern Gulf of Alaska continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses the structure, geologic history, and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment, the part of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska. As part of a program of geological and geophysical investigations of the continental margin in the northern Gulf of Alaska, the US Geological Survey collected multichannel seismic reflection data along about 2000 km of tracklines in the study area during 1975, 1977, and 1978. In addition, dredge samples from the continental slope were acquired during the 1977, 1978, and 1979 field seasons. The first part of this paper presents an interpretation of the seismic reflection and refraction data, including structure contour maps, isopach maps, and interpreted seismic sections; the second part is a discussion of the implications for petroleum potential. The primary area of interest is the continental shelf and slope, but some data from strata at the base of the slope are also included.

  13. Selected data from eleven wildcat wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zihlman, F.N.; Oliver, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 27 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. This publication presents the following data from eleven of those 27 wells: general information, well core images, depths to specific stratigraphic units, well core gamma ray logs in LAS format, well log information in LAS format, geological and drilling history reports in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, and permeability and porosity data.

  14. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and...

  15. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  16. Importance of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska for aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Platte, Robert M.; Andres, Brad; Brown, Stephen; Johnson, James A.; Larned, William

    2013-01-01

    We used data from aerial surveys (1992–2010) of >100,000 km2 and ground surveys (1998–2004) of >150 km2 to estimate the density and abundance of birds on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). In the ground surveys, we used double sampling to estimate detection ratios. We used the aerial survey data to compare densities of birds and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), the major nest predator of birds, on the North Slope, in Prudhoe Bay, and in nearby areas. We partitioned the Prudhoe Bay oil field into 2 × 2 km plots and determined the relation between density of aquatic birds and density of roads, buildings, and other infrastructure in these plots. Abundance and density (birds per square kilometer) of 3 groups of aquatic birds—waterfowl, loons, and grebes; shorebirds; and gulls, terns, and jaegers—were highest in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPRA) and lowest in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Six other major wetlands occur in the Arctic regions of Canada and Russia, but the largest population of aquatic birds was in the NPRA. Aquatic birds were concentrated in the northern part of the NPRA. For example, an area that covered 18% of the NPRA included 53% of its aquatic birds. The aerial surveys showed that bird density was not lower and fox density was not higher in Prudhoe Bay than in surrounding areas. Density of infrastructure did not significantly affect bird density for any group of species. Our results establish that the NPRA is one of the most important areas for aquatic birds in the Arctic. Our results and those of others also indicate that oil production, as practiced in Prudhoe Bay, does not necessarily lead to substantial declines in bird density or productivity in or near the developed areas.

  17. Building a Workforce Development System in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Sally

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Human Resources Investment Council developed a blueprint to guide a system that is needs-driven, accessible, interconnected, accountable, sustainable, and has collaborative governance. Vocational Technical Education Providers (VTEP) representing secondary education, technical schools, proprietary institutions, the University of Alaska,…

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Kingak Shale (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous), National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Beaufortian strata (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) are a focus of exploration since the 1994 discovery of the nearby Alpine oil field (>400 MMBO). These strata include the Kingak Shale, a succession of depositional sequences influenced by rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. Interpretation of sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies from a regional two-dimensional seismic grid and well data allows the definition of four sequence sets that each displays unique stratal geometries and thickness trends across NPRA. A Lower to Middle Jurassic sequence set includes numerous transgressive-regressive sequences that collectively built a clastic shelf in north-central NPRA. Along the south-facing, lobate shelf margin, condensed shales in transgressive systems tracts downlap and coalesce into a basinal condensed section that is likely an important hydrocarbon source rock. An Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sequence set, deposited during pulses of uplift on the Barrow arch, includes multiple transgressive-regressive sequences that locally contain well-winnowed, shoreface sandstones at the base of transgressive systems tracts. These shoreface sandstones and overlying shales, deposited during maximum flooding, form stratigraphic traps that are the main objective of exploration in the Alpine play in NPRA. A Valanginian sequence set includes at least two transgressive-regressive sequences that display relatively distal characteristics, suggesting high relative sea level. An important exception is the presence of a basal transgressive systems tract that locally contains shoreface sandstones of reservoir quality. A Hauterivian sequence set includes two transgressive-regressive sequences that constitute a shelf-margin wedge developed as the result of tectonic uplift along the Barrow arch during rift opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin. This sequence set displays stratal geometries suggesting incision and synsedimentary collapse of the shelf

  19. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  20. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  1. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  2. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  3. A petroleum system model for gas hydrate deposits in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, Timothy S.; Wong, Florence L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposits are common on the North Slope of Alaska around Prudhoe Bay, however the extent of these deposits is unknown outside of this area. As part of a United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) gas hydrate research collaboration, well cutting and mud gas samples have been collected and analyzed from mainly industry-drilled wells on the Alaska North Slope for the purpose of prospecting for gas hydrate deposits. On the Alaska North Slope, gas hydrates are now recognized as an element within a petroleum systems approach or TPS (Total Petroleum System). Since 1979, 35 wells have been samples from as far west as Wainwright to Prudhoe Bay in the east. Geochemical studies of known gas hydrate occurrences on the North Slope have shown a link between gas hydrate and more deeply buried conventional oil and gas deposits. Hydrocarbon gases migrate from depth and charge the reservoir rock within the gas hydrate stability zone. It is likely gases migrated into conventional traps as free gas, and were later converted to gas hydrate in response to climate cooling concurrent with permafrost formation. Gas hydrate is known to occur in one of the sampled wells, likely present in 22 others based gas geochemistry and inferred by equivocal gas geochemistry in 11 wells, and absent in one well. Gas migration routes are common in the North Slope and include faults and widespread, continuous, shallowly dipping permeable sand sections that are potentially in communication with deeper oil and gas sources. The application of this model with the geochemical evidence suggests that gas hydrate deposits may be widespread across the North Slope of Alaska.

  4. Petroleum source potential of rocks dredged from the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Claypool, George Edwin

    1979-01-01

    A bedrock dredging program by the R/V Sea Sounder in 1977 and 1978 along the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Alaska revealed a previously unknown Eocene sedimentary sequence that includes argillaceous rocks with favorable petroleum source rock characteristics. Seven of 36 dredge hauls that sampled outcrop contain argillaceous rocks with more than l percent and as much as 1.64 percent organic carbon. Some of the rocks in samples of probable early Eocene age have undergone a thermal history that has resulted in generation of hydrocarbons. The organic matter appears to be hydrogen deficient, however, which could indicate that the rocks are more likely to be a source of gas rather than liquid hydrocarbon, unless the hydrogen loss is due to weathering. The Eocene rocks are associated with sandstone and conglomerate on the continental slope. They dip northward beneath younger Tertiary strata in the outer continental shelf where they could be an important petroleum source and exploratory target.

  5. Geology and petroleum potential of Shumagin continental margin, western Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, T.R.; Von Huene, R.; Culotta, R.D.; Lewis, S.D.; Ladd, J.W.

    1986-07-01

    Interpretations of multichannel seismic reflection data indicate that the Shumagin continental margin seaward of the Border Ranges fault is underlain by two major seismic sequences, separated by an erosional unconformity beneath the shelf and by the time-correlative conformity seaward. Rocks above the unconformity are late Miocene and younger. Rocks below the unconformity can be as young as middle Miocene beneath the outer shelf and slope, seaward of a paleoshelf break. However, beneath the shelf they are primarily Late Cretaceous turbidites of the Shumagin Formation and Paleocene granodiorite. Late Miocene and younger structures of the Shumagin margin include Shumagin, Sanak, and Unimak basins and Unimak Ridge, a midslope structural high. Strata in Sanak and Unimak basins were deposited on a subsiding outer shelf and slope, and trapped behind Unimak Ridge and its now-buried structural continuation. Sanak and Unimak basins are in part bounded by northwest-trending extensional faults that parallel both the early Tertiary Beringian margin and a transverse tectonic boundary that segments the fore-arc. These faults may have developed during collapse and extension along the southeastward continuation of the old Beringian margin, analogous to the processes that created the Bering Shelf basins. The most promising areas of the Shumagin margin for petroleum potential are Sanak, and Unimak basins, which contain strata 8 and 4.5 km thick, respectively, and beneath the outer shelf and slope. Paleogene source rocks like those on the adjacent Alaska Peninsula may be preserved offshore, seaward of the inferred paleoshelf break. Reservoir rocks might have formed from granitic-rich erosional products derived during Oligocene and Miocene erosion of the shelf plutons.

  6. Diagenetic relationships and hydrocarbon resource implications, Nanushuk group and Torok/Topagoruk formation, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mowatt, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    Petrographic, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope investigations of Nanushuk Group and Torok/Topagoruk formation (Brookian) sandstones and siltstones from 9 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska resulted in recognition of features of interest regarding the diagenetic development of these rocks. Several kinds of labile materials are present, and secondary dissolution porosity has been developed to various degrees. Mineralogic, geochemical, and textural characteristics indicate the potential for development of appreciable porosity of this type in equivalent horizons and/or similar materials within the northern Alaska Cretaceous basin. Known regional geologic, geochemical, and geophysical relationships are consistent with this view. Considerations of hydrocarbon resource potential should include concern for these relationships as integral to appreciation of the overall diagenetic evolution of the region. Heretofore, the potential for the occurrence of significant reservoir rocks in these horizons has been considered to be rather low, based on primary petrologic characteristics. However, this should be reappraised in light of increased knowledge and understanding of the principles and realities regarding diagenetic events, inorganic and organic, including secondary porosity development, clay mineral relationships, and maturation of organic material.

  7. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  8. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  9. Analysis of Alaska hydro power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sieber, O.V.

    1983-12-01

    Alaska leads the world in terms of total potential for hydropower development, yet Alaska is 91% dependent on fossil fuels. A mix of gas, diesel and coal-fired power plants generate all but 9% of its electricity. This dependence on fossil fuels stems from the abundance of cheap gas, coal and oil-nonrenewable resources that are becoming more costly. Hydro power is also costly; however, most hydro projects are justified by long term returns. Once the water hits the turbine in a hydro project, the operating and maintenance cost is practically nil. The successful completion of two complex thin-arch concrete dams and several other hydro projects are discussed in order to meet Alaska's power demand.

  10. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  11. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  12. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  13. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  14. Trends in the Spring Breakup Dates Within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) is a vast area of approximately 23 million acres and it extends from the north side of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) installed seven gauging stations, starting in 2003, to establish baseline conditions for weather and hydrological variables. These stations are equipped with sensors capable of tracking water level and temperature changes in the streams, air temperature, wind speed and direction, and rain fall. This work covers the entire record of water level changes at each station during spring breakup and focuses on first flow dates, which could reflect changing weather conditions in the area. Observed trends indicate a general tendency to early breakup dates in the region. Some of the available data point out a change of nearly two weeks in the breakup date. Additionally, the tendency to early breakup seems to be accentuated in recent years.

  15. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  16. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  17. Radar imaging of winter seismic survey activity in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Rykhus, Russ; Lu, Zhiming; Arp, C.D.; Selkowitz, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    During the spring of 2006, Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was acquired on a continual basis for the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), in the northeast portion of the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPR-A) in order to monitor lake ice melting processes. During data processing, it was discovered that the Radarsat-1 imagery detected features associated with winter seismic survey activity. Focused analysis of the image time series revealed various aspects of the exploration process such as the grid profile associated with the seismic line surveys as well as trails and campsites associated with the mobile survey crews. Due to the high temporal resolution of the dataset it was possible to track the progress of activities over a one month period. Spaceborne SAR imagery can provide information on the location of winter seismic activity and could be used as a monitoring tool for land and resource managers as increased petroleum-based activity occurs in the TLSA and NPR-A. ?? 2008 Cambridge University Press.

  18. Use of wetland habitats by birds in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Derksen, D.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Eldridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of wetland habitats by migratory birds were studied at two interior and three outer Arctic Coastal Plain sites in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) in 1977 and 1978. Comparative data were collected in the same years from a Beaufort Sea coastal site near Prudhoe Bay. Species composition of breeding birds varied between sites, especially between coastal areas and sites near foothills of the Brooks Range. Seasonal fluctuation in population densities were common with numbers greatest in June during breeding and August during migration. Population densities also differed between sites, perhaps due to variation in wetland composition and ratios of water cover to upland tundra. Use of wetlands by loons, waterfowl, and shorebirds was quantified to assess relative values of seven classes of freshwater habitats. Wetlands with emergent Arctophila fulva were used most by these water birds. Breeding birds were especially dependent upon wetlands with emergent hydrophytes, although they used various types of wetlands during different activities and life stages. Most broods were found in wetlands with A. fulva, which afforded protective cover and substrate for aquatic invertebrates used as food by water birds. Wetlands and lakes without emergents were generally less attractive to breeding birds, but were especially important to molting geese. Based on water bird distribution and densities and their dependence on Arctic Coastal Plain wetlands in NPR-A, petroleum exploration and production activities onshore and in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas may have significant adverse effects if not closely regulated and prohibited in some areas.

  19. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  20. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production

  1. Seismic subsequences in foothills foldbelt, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, H.B.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills foldbelt of the NPRA takes its name from its well-developed concentric folds involving Cretaceous rocks. These folds can extend over several townships, some being 40 mi (65 km) long and 10 mi (15 km) wide, and could contain significant amounts of oil. One fundamental problem in the foldbelt is to identify good quality reservoir rocks at optimum depths of burial. The most widespread units containing potential reservoir rocks are the Torok Formation and the Nanushuk Group. The Totok Formation, of Aptian-Albian age, consists primarily of shale and siltstone with sands interbedded locally. It was deposited as a prograding delta sequence containing both marine and transitional marine clastics. The Nanushuk Group, of Albian to Cenomanian age, is typified by marine clastic grading upward into fluvial and nonmarine clastics. The Nanushuk Group contains many intervals with good reservoir potential, but they usually lie too near the surface to allow economical recovery of oil. The Torok lies at optimum depths, but it tends to be too fine grained or dirty to possess good porosities and permeabilities. The Torok does contain certain intervals with better quality and more numerous sands. These sands were probably deposited as nearshore bars during periods of higher energy deposition. Seismic subsequences within the Torok are through to represent large deltaic lobes. The tops of the subsequences are defined by zones of toplap or truncation and tie very well with the bases of sandier intervals near the transition from Torok to Nanushuk Group where the intervals are present in outcrop.

  2. Evolution of geometric and hydraulic parameters as function of discharge in two streams in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Bailey, J.; Kemnitz, R.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) is a vast 22.8 million acre area that extends from the foot hills of the Brooks Range to the Beaufort Sea. The United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in association with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) is conducting hydrological research to establish baseline conditions to aid future infrastructure development related to oil and gas in the NPR-A region. Field measurements (discharge, cross-sectional area, top width, water slope) were carried out in Spring 2011, 2012 and 2013, during receding water levels in the streams when the flows were ice-free. The river gauges are located approximately 15 miles south of the rivers mouth on Beaufort Sea and 13 miles from each other. The contributing watershed areas upstream of the gauging stations are 620 and 128 square miles for Judy Creek and Ublutuoch River respectively. The streams have very different channel characteristics and sediment loads. The Judy Creek channel is somewhat unstable; bed sediment contains sand and fine gravel with a heavy sediment load during spring. Bed sediment on Ublutuoch River mainly comprise of coarse gravel, with heavily brush-vegetated steep banks and very limited sediment load during spring. We present a preliminary set of hydraulic geometric relationships describing the variation of channel width, depth, and velocity as function of discharge at the gauging sites on the rivers. Empirical equations indicate that exponents for channel width have similar values in both rivers (approximately 0.38), while exponents for velocity display different values and signs. Exponents for channel depth range from 0.55 to 0.71. Differences in prevailing sediment transport conditions seem to be, at least partially, responsible for the variation in the exponents. Additionally, roughness coefficients are reported.

  3. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  4. Air Temperature Evolution for the Last 10 Years in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Kemnitz, R.; Bailey, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), an area of approximately 23 million acres, extends from the north side of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), as a part of studies focused on establishing baseline conditions for weather and hydrological parameters, installed six weather and gauging stations along the NPR-A. This work concentrates on weather conditions, specifically air temperature. Data collected in each of these sites include air temperature (in all the stations), while summer precipitation and wind parameters were collected only at three stations. We present an initial summary of air temperature evolution in the stations, from the installation of each site to September 30, 2013. Available information indicates that the entire region followed a pronounced warming trend, finishing with the 2010/2011 winter, which was the warmest winter recorded in each station. A nearly 20 percent increase in annual cumulative freezing degree days (ACFDD) occurred between the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 winters. A preliminary analysis of air temperature on a monthly basis shows that, in general, the months of January and March of 2012 contributed the most to the increase in the ACFDD. In particular, the mean monthly temperature in March was in the vicinity of -35 °C in all the stations, which certainly marked 2012 as the coldest March on record.

  5. A Three-Year Comparison of Hydrological Measurements in Seven Streams During Breakup in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Kemnitz, R.; Lamb, E.

    2012-12-01

    National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) is an extensive 22.8 million acre oil, gas, and coal rich area that extends from the north foothills of the Brooks range all the way to the Arctic Ocean. Due to increasing demand for oil and natural gas the United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is holding annual oil and gas lease sales in the NPR-A region. BLM is also supporting research to aid responsible oil exploration in the NPR-A region. We conducted a set of hydraulic measurements, which includes discharge measurements using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), water slope, and suspended sediment sampling during breakup, the most important hydrologic event of the year, from 2010 to 2012 on Otuk Creek, Seabee Creek, Prince Creek, Ikpikpuk River, Judy Creek, Fish Creek, and Ublutuoch River in the NPR - A region. The hydraulic data we collected helped us understand how rivers change yearly which is useful for the development of new infrastructure such as pipe lines, bridges, and roads in the NPR-A region. The goal of this work is to present the results of our 2010 to 2012 spring breakup measurements.

  6. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  7. Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature and related records from 28 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) although somewhat constrained from accuracy by data gathering methods, extrapolate to undisturbed formation temperatures at specific depths below permafrost, and lead to calculated geothermal gradients between these depths. Tabulation of the results show that extrapolated undisturbed temperatures range from a minimum of 98?F (37?C) at 4,000 feet (1,220 m) to a maximum of 420?F (216?C) at 20,260 feet (6,177 m) and that geothermal gradients range from 0.34?F/100' (6?C/km) between 4,470 feet to 7,975 feet (Lisburne (1) and 3.15?F/100? (57?C/km) between 6,830 feet to 7,940 feet (Drew Point #1). Essential information needed for extrapolations consists of: time-sequential 'bottom-hole' temperatures during wire-line logging of intermediate and deep intervals of the bore hole; the times that circulating drilling fluids had disturbed the formations; and the subsequent times that non-circulating drilling fluids had been in contact with the formation. In several wells presumed near direct measures of rock temperatures recorded from formation fluids recovered by drill stem tests (DST) across thin (approx. 10-20 foot) intervals are made available. We believe that the results approach actual values close enough to serve as approximations of the thermal regimes in appropriate future investigations. Continuous temperature logs obtained at the start and end of final logging operations, conductivity measurements, and relatively long-term measurements of the recovery from disturbance at shallow depths in many of the wells will permit refinements of our values and provide determination of temperatures at other depths.

  8. Petroleum source potential and thermal maturity of Cantwell Formation (Paleocene), central Alaska Range: a reconnaissance study

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, R.G.

    1987-05-01

    The Paleocene Cantwell Formation is a sequence of nonmarine sedimentary and volcanic rocks that is widely distributed in the central Alaska Range and locally is more than 3000 m thick. Mudstones and coals in the Cantwell were deposited in a variety of lacustrine and fluvial overbank environments and are of interest as potential source rocks of petroleum. Thirty-eight samples of mudstone and coal were collected from ten outcrops and analyzed using Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance (R/sub 0/), and thermal alteration index (TAI). The results suggest that these rocks may be potential sources of gas and possibly oil. Total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples is relatively high, averaging about 2.8% (range 0.5-14.2%) in the mudstones and about 28.8% (range 5.1-50.2%) in the coals. Plots of hydrogen and oxygen indices (HI and OI) on modified van Krevelen diagrams indicate kerogens of types III and IV. In addition, HI values are generally less than 150 and S2/S3 values are generally less than 3, indicating that these kerogens are gas prone. A few samples exhibit somewhat higher values of HI (up to 170) and S2/S3 (up to 18.6) and therefore may be capable of generating small amounts of oil. Values of T/sub max/ (range 437-537/sup 0/C), median R/sub 0/ (range 0.63-4.28), and TAI (range 2.3.-3.8) show that the thermal maturity of the samples varies from mature to postmature with respect to the oil and gas windows.

  9. Inorganic chemical analyses of black shale from wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Brosge, W.P.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    Core samples of Mississippian through Upper Cretaceous black shale, siltstone, and limy mudstone from 24 test wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) have been analyzed for trace elements in order to provide data on regional background concentrations for inorganic geochemical exploration. This study was made because the authors had noticed that several of the rock units cored in the subsurface were associated with surface geochemical anomalies or small mineral deposits in the areas where they crop out. In the southwestern part of the NPRA, the heavy-mineral concentrates from sediments of streams that flow over shale and graywacke of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations are unusually rich in lead, arsenic, and silver. Southeast of the NPRA, in the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, stream sediments in areas of Permian to Lower Cretaceous shale locally contain anomalously large amounts of zinc and thorium. In addition, the high organic-carbon content of the Shublick Formation, Jurassic (part) Kingak Shale, and lowest Cretaceous pebble shale unit in the subsurface in the Prudhoe Bay area indicate that they may be rich in trace metals. Outcrops of the Shublik in the Brooks Range locally contain much copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and rare-earth elements, and the high gamma-radiation characteristic of the pebble shale unit in the subsurface shows that it is rich in uranium and thorium. The shale section with the most important known metallic deposits is the Mississippian shale and chert now assigned to the Kuna Formation. The distribution of vanadium and nickel may also be of interest in oil exploration. Hughes and others found higher V/Ni ratios in the Prudhoe-Barrow types of oil than in the Umiat-Simpson types and attributed these higher ratios to sources in the Shublik Formation and Jurassic (part) Kingak Shale.

  10. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1985-04-01

    Knowledge of depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska is necessary for predicting the occurrence of potential sandstone reservoirs. These rocks range in thickness from 7000+ m along the Colville basin axis to about 1200 m on the Barrow arch. Lower Neocomian strata on the north flank of the basin consist of southward-prograding marine shelf and slope deposits of shale and minor sandstone units. Uplife, erosion,and subsequent transgression on the northernmost flank of the basin resulted in deposition of the pebble shale unit in late Neocomian time and termination of the northern provenance. Following this, the basin was downwarped, and little deposition occurred on the north flank until distal, deep-water deposits of the Torok Formation onlapped and downlapped the south-dipping flank of the basin resulted in deposition of the pebble shale unit in late Neocomian time and termination of the northern provenance. Following this, the basin was downwarped, and little deposition occurred on the north flank until distal, deep-water deposits of the Torok Formation onlapped and downlapped the south-dipping flank of the basin in middle or late Albian time. On the south flank of the basin, southern-source turbidities of the Okpikruak Formation (early Neocomian) accumulated in a subsiding foredeep and were suybsequently thrust northward in late Neocomian or Aptian time. The fortress Mountain Formation (early Albian), which consists of as much as 3000 m of mainly deep-water deposits, unconformably overlies the Okpikruak and older rocks on the southernmost flank of the basin. Filling of the Colville basin occurred in middle to late Albian time as thick prodeltaic and deltaic deposits of the Torok Formation and Nanushuk Group, respectively, prograded across the basin from the south side of the basin, but prograded princially from the west-southwest of most of the basin.

  11. Software systems development in petroleum engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. J.; Cain, G. M.; Carmichael, N. P.; Gouldstone, F. G.; Wadsley, A. W.; Webb, S. J.; Winder, P.

    1985-10-01

    Many approaches to designing software systems have been developed for use in commercial or business environments. These development methods and procedures have improved dramatically over the last ten years although it is only recently that these have been employed in scientific and technological applications. Many of these implementations have been unsuccessful because the design methodology has been divorced from the practical requirements of the industry in which the software system is to operate. This paper discusses a modern approach to software development which directly relates to an engineering environment and which is designed to satisfy practical criteria of acceptability of the software when delivered to the petroleum engineer. Since all field developments nowadays rely heavily on associated software systems, the approach presented here can lead to improved mechanical systems reliability and shorter development/design cycles.

  12. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  13. Alaska School-to-Work Opportunities Development Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    In 1994, Alaska began the process of using its grant funds from the National School-to-Work Opportunities Act to design a school-to-work system to meet the following objectives: obtain commitment and involvement from Alaska's governor and officials involved in human resource development; develop an implementation plan for a statewide system to…

  14. Future petroleum supply - exploration or development?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.

    2005-01-01

    The presentation is titled 'Future Petroleum Supply - Exploration or Development?' and provides a general overview of the magnitude and significance of reserve growth around the world. Reserve growth is defined as the increase in successive estimates of recoverable crude oil, natural gas, and natural-gas liquids and condensates in discovered fields. Analysis of recent exploration and production data shows that petroleum (both crude oil and natural gas) volumes added to reserves by reserve growth in the world are comparable to, if not greater than, the volumes added by new-field discoveries. This presentation describes the examination of recoverable volumes of crude oil in 186 giant oil fields (excluding those of the United States (U.S.) and Canada) reported through time from 1981 to 2003 and describes a comparison of the successive increases in these volumes (reserve growth) with recoverable volumes added from new-field discoveries. Examples from the ongoing USGS study of reserve growth in the North Sea also are shown in this presentation.

  15. Observations on the geology and petroleum potential of the Cold Bay-False Pass area, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, Hugh James

    1979-01-01

    Upper Jurassic strata in the Black Hills area consist mainly of fossiliferous, tightly cemented, gently folded sandstone deposited in a shallow marine environment. Upper Cretaceous strata on Sanak Island are strongly deformed and show structural features of broken formations similar to those observed in the Franciscan assemblage of California. Rocks exposed on Sanak Island do not crop out on the peninsular mainland or on Unimak Island, and probably make up the acoustic and economic basement of nearby Sanak basin. Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the outermost part of the Alaska Peninsula consist of Oligocene, Miocene, and lower Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate deposited in nonmarine and very shallow marine environments. Interbedded airfall and ash-flow tuff deposits indicate active volcanism during Oligocene time. Locally, Oligocene strata are intruded by quartz diorite plutons of probable Miocene age. Reservoir properties of Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are generally poor due to alteration of chemically unstable volcanic rock fragments. Igneous intrusions have further reduced porosity and permeability by silicification of sandstone. Organic-rich source rocks for petroleum generation are not abundant in Neogene strata. Upper Jurassic rocks in the Black Hills area have total organic carbon contents of less than 0.5 percent. Deep sediment-filled basins on the Shumagin Shelf probably contain more source rocks than onshore correlatives, but reservoir quality is not likely to be better than in onshore outcrops. The absence of well-developed folds in most Tertiary rocks, both onshore and in nearby offshore basins, reduces the possibility of hydrocarbon entrapment in anticlines.

  16. Financing Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Hillman, D.; Busche, S.

    2013-04-01

    This technical report provides an overview of existing and potential financing structures for renewable energy project development in Alaska with a focus on four primary sources of project funding: government financed or supported (the most commonly used structure in Alaska today), developer equity capital, commercial debt, and third-party tax-equity investment. While privately funded options currently have limited application in Alaska, their implementation is theoretically possible based on successful execution in similar circumstances elsewhere. This report concludes that while tax status is a key consideration in determining appropriate financing structure, there are opportunities for both taxable and tax-exempt entities to participate in renewable energy project development.

  17. Development of Interspecies Correlation Models for Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the consequences of petroleum products to water column organisms has commonly been hampered by limited acute toxicity data, which exists only for a relatively small number of test species. In this study, we developed petroleum-specific Interspecies Correlation Estimati...

  18. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  19. U.S. Geological Survey 2002 petroleum resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    A new USGS assessment concludes that NPRA holds signicantly greater petroleum resources than previously estimated. Technically recoverable, undiscovered oil beneath the Federal part of NPRA likely ranges between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels, with a mean (expected) value of 9.3 billion barrels. An estimated 1.3 to 5.6 billion barrels of those technically recoverable oil resources is economically recoverable at market prices of $22 to $30 per barrel. Technically recoverable, undiscovered nonassociated natural gas for the same area likely ranges between 39.1 and 83.2 trillion cubic feet, with a mean (expected) value of 59.7 trillion cubic feet. The economic viability of this gas will depend on the availability of a natural-gas pipeline for transport to market.

  20. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  1. 78 FR 13080 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... BLM-Alaska Web site at www.blm.gov/ak . Hard copies of the ROD are available upon request from Serena... analysis upon which the decision is based, is also available at the above Web site address, the Anchorage... onshore infrastructure in support of offshore development, while protecting surface values, most...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey 2002 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides digital GIS files of maps for each of the 24 plays evaluated in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2002 petroleum resource assessment of the NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002a). These are the same maps released in pdf format by Bird and Houseknecht (2002b). The USGS released in 2002 a summary of the estimated volume of technically recoverable, undiscovered oil and nonassociated gas resources for 24 plays in NPRA (Bird and Houseknecht, 2002b). The NPRA assessment study area includes Federal and Native onshore land and adjacent State offshore areas. A map showing the areal extent of each play was prepared by USGS geologists as a preliminary step in the assessment process. Boundaries were drawn on the basis of a variety of information, including seismic reflection data, results of previous exploration drilling, and regional patterns of rock properties. Play boundary polygons were captured by digitizing the play maps prepared by USGS geologists. Federal, Native, and State areas were later clipped from the play boundary polygons, allowing for acreages to be calculated for entire plays and for various subareas within plays.

  3. High resolution study of petroleum source rock variation, Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian and Barremian) of Mikkelsen Bay, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Margaret A.; Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    Open File Report 01-480 was designed as a large format poster for the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and the Society for Sedimentary Geology in Denver Colorado in June 2001. It is reproduced here in digital format to make widely available some unique images of mudstones. The images include description, interpretation, and Rock-Eval data that resulted from a high-resolution study of petroleum source rock variation of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Mobil-Phillips Mikkelsen Bay State #1 well on the North Slope of Alaska. Our mudstone samples with Rock-Eval data plus color images are significant because they come from one of the few continuously cored and complete intervals of the Lower Cretaceous succession on the North Slope. This succession, which is rarely preserved in outcrop and very rarely cored in the subsurface, is considered to include important petroleum source rocks that have not previously been described nor explained Another reason these images are unique is that the lithofacies variability within mudstone dominated successions is relatively poorly known in comparison with that observed in coarser clastic and carbonate successions. They are also among the first published scans of thin sections of mudstone, and are of excellent quality because the sections are well made, cut perpendicular to bedding, and unusually thin, 20 microns. For each of 15 samples, we show a thin section scan (cm scale) and an optical photomicrograph (mm scale) that illustrates the variability present. Several backscattered SEM images are also shown. Rock-Eval data for the samples can be compared with the textures and mineralogy present by correlating sample numbers and core depth.

  4. Summary of 2012 reconnaissance field studies related to the petroleum geology of the Nenana Basin, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Gillis, Robert J.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Stanley, Richard G.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Peterson, C. Shaun; Benowitz, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) recently initiated a multi-year review of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier sedimentary basins in Alaska (Swenson and others, 2012). In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Oil & Gas and the U.S. Geological Survey we conducted reconnaissance field studies in two basins with recognized natural gas potential—the Susitna basin and the Nenana basin (LePain and others, 2012). This paper summarizes our initial work on the Nenana basin; a brief summary of our work in the Susitna basin can be found in Gillis and others (in press). During early May 2012, we conducted ten days of helicopter-supported fieldwork and reconnaissance sampling along the northern Alaska Range foothills and Yukon–Tanana upland near Fairbanks (fig. 1). The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of the geologic development of the Nenana basin and to collect a suite of samples to better evaluate hydrocarbon potential. Most laboratory analyses have not yet been completed, so this preliminary report serves as a summary of field data and sets the framework for future, more comprehensive analysis to be presented in later publications.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska, sampling three different matrices.

    PubMed

    Lance, Ellen W; Matz, Angela C; Reeves, Mari K; Verbrugge, Lori A

    2012-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were measured in sediments, bivalves and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in the relatively pristine marine environment of Nelson Lagoon, Alaska. Most PAH levels in Nelson Lagoon were low, and similar to global background concentrations. Sampling media type can significantly influence conclusions of PAH contamination in the environment. Concentration of a broad size range of PAHs was observed in the tissues of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). SPMDs collected some two- to three-ring PAHs from the dissolved water phase, while sediments collected five- to six-ring PAHs that were likely adsorbed onto particulate matter. Benzo(a)pyrene, a potent carcinogen, was found in mussels at levels similar to more industrialized harbors in Alaska.

  6. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  7. Long Range Program, Library Development in Alaska 1973-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of State Libraries.

    A statewide library development program designed to provide total library services to meet educational, informational, and cultural needs of the people of Alaska is outlined in this document. The body of the report is divided into three sections. In the first, the purpose, scope, and development of the plan are summarized. The second section…

  8. Impact of coastal processes on resource development with an example from Icy Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    1978-01-01

    The coastline of Alaska is dynamic and continually readjusting to changes in the many processes that operate in the coastal zone. Because of this dynamic nature, special consideration must be made in planning for development, and. caution must be exercised in site selection for facilities to be emplaced in the coastal zone. All types of coastal processes from continuously active normal processes to the low frequency-high intensity rare event must be considered. Site-specific evaluation-s considering the broad range of possible processes must precede initiation of development. An example of the relation between coastal processes and a proposed resource treatment facility is presented for Icy Bay, Alaska. Icy Bay is the only sheltered bay near many of the offshore tracts leased for petroleum exploration in the 1976 northern Gulf of Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) lease sale. Consequently, it has been selected as a primary onshore staging site for the support of offshore exploration and development. The environment of Icy Bay has many potentially hazardous features, including a submarine moraine at the bay mouth and actively calving glaciers at the bay's head which produce many icebergs. But most significant from the point of view of locating onshore facilities and pipeline corridors are the high rates of shoreline erosion and sediment deposition. If pipelines or any onshore staging facilities are to be placed in the coastal areas of Icy Bay, then the dynamic changes in shoreline position must be considered so that man-made structures will not be eroded away or be silted in before the completion of development.

  9. Radiolarian biostratigraphy of the Otuk Formation in and near the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Blome, C.D.; Reed, K.M.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bedded chert is a common rock type in the Brooks Range orogen of northern Alaska and is locally abundant in all parts of the orogen except the northeast Brooks Range. Pennsylvanian to Jurassic radiolarian chert is especially widespread in the west, in and adjacent to the De Long Mountains. The Cretaceous Brookian orogeny superposed and disordered the bedded chert sequences. Initial foreshortening and subsequent Laramide-style deformation created a complex of Carboniferous to Jurassic sedimentary deposits that has been rearranged into a stack of thrust sheets, each distinguished by its own physical, paleontologic, and tectonic characteristics. Biostratigraphic control in this study was inadequate to refine many of the earlier paleontologic syntheses. Verification of the ages for radiolarian cherts was particularly difficult because the only age-diagnostic megafossils were found in the younger horizons. The older parts of the Otuk Formation have yielded few useful megafossils. This study includes radiolarian faunas from lithostratigraphic sections through the Otuk Formation that include shale, chert, and limestone of Triassic through Early Jurassic age. This biostratigraphic scheme for the Otuk Formation is based on radiolarian and molluscan faunal assemblages from measured sections, as well as correlation with radiolarian faunas described in recent reports (through 1987) concerning Triassic faunas from Baja California, Oregon, British Columbia, and Japan.

  10. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA.

  11. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  12. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Beck, Richard A; Schmutz, Joel A; Winston, Barry

    2009-06-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. PMID:19101761

  13. Arctic lake physical processes and regimes with implications for winter water availability and management in the national petroleum reserve alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, C.D.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Beck, R.A.; Schmutz, J.A.; Winston, B.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are dominant landforms in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA) as well as important social and ecological resources. Of recent importance is the management of these freshwater ecosystems because lakes deeper than maximum ice thickness provide an important and often sole source of liquid water for aquatic biota, villages, and industry during winter. To better understand seasonal and annual hydrodynamics in the context of lake morphometry, we analyzed lakes in two adjacent areas where winter water use is expected to increase in the near future because of industrial expansion. Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired between 1985 and 2007 were analyzed and compared with climate data to understand interannual variability. Measured changes in lake area extent varied by 0.6% and were significantly correlated to total precipitation in the preceding 12 months (p < 0.05). Using this relation, the modeled lake area extent from 1985 to 2007 showed no long-term trends. In addition, high-resolution aerial photography, bathymetric surveys, water-level monitoring, and lake-ice thickness measurements and growth models were used to better understand seasonal hydrodynamics, surface area-to-volume relations, winter water availability, and more permanent changes related to geomorphic change. Together, these results describe how lakes vary seasonally and annually in two critical areas of the NPRA and provide simple models to help better predict variation in lake-water supply. Our findings suggest that both overestimation and underestimation of actual available winter water volume may occur regularly, and this understanding may help better inform management strategies as future resource use expands in the NPRA. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  15. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  16. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  17. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  18. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  19. Petroleum developments in Europe in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kat, C.

    1980-11-01

    In 1979 the rise of oil prices and the threat to oil supplies from traditional Middle East sources caused an increase in development of known hydrocarbon resources in Europe. Oil production increased by 30% over the 1978 figure. The major share of the increase came from the North Sea, the Spanish Gulf of Valencia, and N. Italy as the discoveries of the 1970's were brought on stream. Vigorous appraisal and development drilling programs and new discovieres - Statoil/Shell's 31/2-1A gas discovery in the Norwegian North Sea may prove to be another giant - will insure that production increases in these areas will continue into the 1980's. Exploration activity moved into high-cost and high-risk areas and has enabled the definition of deeper and more subtle traps. There was successful wildcat drilling of new plays in the producing offshore areas of the North Sea and Italian Adriatic and also in many of the traditional onshore hydrocarbon producing areas of Europe, W. Germany, Austria, France, Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Italy, Spain, and the UK.

  20. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  1. Petroleum developments in Europe in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kat, C.

    1980-11-01

    In 1979 the rise of oil prices and the threat to oil supplies from traditional Middle East sources caused an increase in development of known hydrocarbon resources in Europe. Oil production increased by 30% over the 1978 figure. The major share of the increase came from the North Sea, the Spanish Gulf of Valencia, and northern Italy as the discoveries of the 1970s were brought on stream. Vigorous appraisal and development drilling programs and new discoveries - Statoil/Shell's 31/2-1A gas discovery in the Norwegian North Sea may prove to be another giant - will ensure that production increases in these areas will continue into the 1980s. Tertiary recovery and new fracturing techniques enabled increased output from some existing fields. Exploration activity moved into high-cost and high-risk areas. Increased geologic knowledge obtained through recent offshore drilling, together with the application of new seismic techniques, has enabled the definition of deeper and more subtle traps. There was successful wildcat drilling of new plays in the producing offshore areas of the North Sea and the Italian Adriatic and also in many of the traditional onshore hydrocarbon producing areas of Europe, West Germany, Austria, France, Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Several of these onshore areas suffered a drop in production levels in 1979. Seismic exploration and licensing awards were made in undrilled remote, often deep-water, and even hostile environments as well as in the less well-explored offshore areas where earlier drilling had given promising results. Results of wildcat drilling were not always released but BP's 26/28-1 discovery in the deep-water Porcupine Trough appears to be a major find.

  2. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  3. The Longview/Lakeview Barite Deposits, Southern National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA) - Potential-Field Models and Preliminary Size Estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Morin, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Longview and Lakeview are two of the larger stratiform barite deposits hosted in Mississippian Akmalik Chert in the Cutaway Basin area (Howard Pass C-3 quadrangle) of the southern National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Geologic studies for the South NPRA Integrated Activity Plan and Environmental Impact Statement process included an attempt to evaluate the possible size of barite resources at Longview and Lakeview by using potential-field geophysical methods (gravity and magnetics). Gravity data from 227 new stations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey, sparse regional gravity data, and new, high-resolution aeromagnetic data were forward modeled simultaneously along seven profiles perpendicular to strike and two profiles along strike of the Longview and Lakeview deposits. These models indicate details of the size and shape of the barite deposits and suggest thicknesses of 15 to 24 m, and 9 to 24 m for the Longview and Lakeview deposits, respectively. Two groups of outcrops span 1.8 km of strike length and are likely connected below the surface by barite as much as 10 m thick. Barite of significant thickness (>-5 m) is unlikely to occur north of the presently known exposures of the Longview deposit. The barite bodies have irregular (nonplanar) bases suggestive of folding; northwest-trending structures of small apparent offset cross strike at several locations. Dip of the barite is 10 to 25 degrees to the southeast. True width of the bodies (the least certain dimension) is estimated to be 160 to 200 m for Longview and 220 to 260 m for Lakeview. The two bodies contain a minimum of 4.5 million metric tons of barite and more than 38 million metric tons are possible. Grades of the barite are relatively high, with high specific gravities and low impurities. The potential for the Cutaway Basin to host economically minable quantities of barite is uncertain. Heavy-mineral concentrate samples from streams in the area, trace-element analyses, and physicalproperty

  4. Pebble shale (Early Cretaceous) depositional environments in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1983-03-01

    A pebble shale of Lower Cretaceous age occurs across the North Slope and continues into northwestern Canada. This organic shale (1 to 5% organic carbon) is possibly the source for the Prudhoe Bay hydrocarbons and includes localized well-developed sand bodies such as those in the giant Kuparuk oil field. The inferred rifting of the Arctic basin, subsequent subsidence of a northern source area, and the southern orogeny during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous contributed to the unique lithology and regional setting of the pebble shale. Overlying the uppermost unconformity on the Barrow arch a pebbly mudstone 3 to 8-m (10 to 26 ft) thick, of Hauterivian-Barremian age contains well-rounded sand grains, pebbles and cobbles, pelletal glaunconite, shell fragments, wood chips, and burrows. The pebbly mudstone facies, derived from a northerly source, is interpreted as a lowstand and subaqueous delta environment formed as the northern provenance was uplifted during Valanginian time. Rapid subsidence of this basin margin was related to the inferred Atlantic margin type downfaulting north of the Barrow arch. The subsequent deposits produced a blanket of sediment 300,000 mi/sup 2/ (482,700 km/sup 2/) in areal extent. This (2 to 9 ft, 0.8 m), fine-grained sands occur within the pebble shale of the Barremian silty shale facies and are restricted to the Barrow area. These sands have an average combined thickness of 45 ft (15 m) and contain traces of oil. Paleogeographic considerations imply better reservoir and coalescing of these sands to the north toward the paleoshoreline and suggest potential for discovery of hydrocarbon reserves from drilling locations on the northern barrier island systems and offshore.

  5. Alaska Native Rural Development: The NANA Experience. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Michael J.

    Faced with the need to build new social and economic institutions following the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Natives formed 12 regional non-profit making corporations. One of these, Northwest Arctic Inupiat (NANA), is bringing a human resources development approach to the area in an effort to develop enduring economic and…

  6. A study of reservoir characteristics of the Nanushuk and Colville groups, Umiat test well 11, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, J.E.; Lambert, P.W.; Pitman, J.K.; Wu, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Cretaceous sandstones in the Umiat Anticline contain the largest volume of oil discovered to date in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Umiat test well 11, although dry and abandoned, penetrated the most complete sequence of Cretaceous rocks in the Umiat area. Cretaceous formations cored (oldest to youngest) were the Grandstand, Chandler, and Ninuluk Formations of the Nanushuk Group and the Seabee and Prince Creek Formations of the Colville Group. Cores from sandstone beds in each of the formations penetrated were studied to identify the factors influencing porosity and permeability. Based on lithologic, textural, sedimentary-structural, faunal and floral, and regional paleogeographic evidence, the Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence in the Umiat area can be described as complexly interbedded delta-front and delta-plain facies (named the Umiat delta). The Grandstand Formation and Killik Tongue of the Chandler Formation represent one thick progradational sequence of delta-front and delta-plain facies, respectively. This sequence was followed by deposition of transgressive marine facies of the Ninuluk and Seabee Formations, which were in turn overlain by another progradational delta-plain facies, the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation. The delta-front sandstone of the Grandstand Formation is well-sorted, fine-grained to very fine grained, angular to subangular chert arenite and phyllarenite. Authigenic cements include dolomite, calcite, siderite, quartz overgrowth, kaolinite, chert, pyrite, and possibly some small flakes of chlorite. The source terrane was southwest of Umiat and, on the basis of the aforementioned petrographic evidence, consisted of low-grade metamorphic rocks and possibly sandstone and cherty limestone. The weighted average porosity, based on well-log analyses, for the lower part of the Grandstand Formation is 15.1 percent and for the upper part is 15.6 percent; the weighted average permeability is 58.6 md for the lower part and 167

  7. Subsidence history of Cook Inlet basin, southern Alaska: basement control on forearc basin development

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Cook Inlet, lying between the Aleutian Trench and the Alaska-Aleutian batholith, has often been cited as a typical forearc basin. Upper (northeast) Cook Inlet Tertiary sediments have produced oil for over 25 years. Lower (southwest) Cook Inlet exploration, however, has been unsuccessful; previous studies have noted extensive zeolitization of potential Jurassic reservoirs. Geohistory analysis (backstripping) of published stratigraphic sections from outcrop and bore holes reveals two different tectonic mechanism of basin development in the lower and upper Cook Inlet. Thermal subsidence coincident with radiometrically determined cooling ages of the Alaska-Aleutian batholith predominated in the lower Cook Inlet during the Jurassic, suggesting that this part of the basin may be underlain by an extension of the batholith. Previous workers have noted a typical arc-unroofing sequence in Jurassic sandstones. The Tertiary section here is relatively thin. In contrast, the upper Cook Inlet has had a more complex history. Accumulation of nearly 5000, m of tertiary sediments over a thin Mesozoic section appears to have resulted from crustal loading, possibly through accretionary thickening of trenchward metasediments. These accreted terranes may extend beneath the upper Cook Inlet basin, resulting in a relatively ductile basement susceptible to load deformation. Published sandstone QFL compositions in the Tertiary indicate mixed or recycled orogene provenances, with source terrains both arcward and trenchward. Local basement type appears to have exerted a strong influence on sediment accumulation and petroleum potential in the Cook Inlet basin. Further study of the basin may thus lead to better understanding of the overall construction and tectonic history of this complex convergent margin.

  8. Current situation of development of petroleum substituting energies (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Trends in development of petroleum substituting energies in Canada are described. Those fuels being put into practical use as substituting fuels in the transportation sector are natural gas, propane gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electric power. An architectural energy technology improving project was inaugurated on air conditioning, ventilation, and illumination in buildings that consume 34% of the entire energy. The IERD program was implemented by the bureau of efficient substituting energy technologies of CANMET on the research and development in industrial areas. Since having been introduced in 1977, this project has extended assistance to about 80 cases in industrial areas, of which 50% have achieved technical successes and were commercialized. With respect to bio energies, methods for effectively utilizing wastes that are difficult to treat are drawing attention. Research and development are being moved forward to put into practical use the solar energy, wind power, and small-scale regenerative energies.

  9. Representative Bulk Composition of Oil Types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey Resource Assessment of National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk oil composition is an important economic consideration of a petroleum resource assessment. Geological and geochemical interpretations from previous North Slope studies combined with recently acquired geochemical data are used to predict representative oil gravity (?API) and sulfur content (wt.% S) of the oil types for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPRA). The oil types are named after their respective source rock units and include Kuna-Lisburne, Shublik-Otuk, Kingak-Blankenship, and Pebble-GRZ-Torok. The composition of the oil (24?API, 1.6 wt.% S) in the South Barrow 12 well was selected as representative of Kuna-Lisburne oil. The average gravity and sulfur values (23?API and 1.6 wt.% S, respectively) of the Kuparuk field were selected to be representative of Shublik-Otuk oil type. The composition of the oil (39?API, 0.3 wt.% S) from the Alpine field discovery well (ARCO Bergschrund 1) was selected to be representative of Kingak-Blankenship oil. The oil composition (37?API, 0.1 wt.% S) of Tarn field was considered representative of the Pebble-GRZ-Torok oil type in NPRA.

  10. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…

  11. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  12. Development of a tobacco cessation intervention for Alaska Native youth

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Fadahunsi, Oluwole; Hanza, Marcelo; Smith, Christina M.; Hughes, Christine A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Boyer, Rahnia; Decker, Paul A.; Luger, Elizabeth; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco cessation treatments have not been evaluated among Alaska Native (AN) adolescents. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a targeted cessation intervention developed for AN youth. Intervention components were informed by prior focus groups assessing treatment preferences among AN youth, a social cognitive theoretical framework and feedback obtained from a teen advisory group. The intervention consisted of a weekend program where youth traveled by small airplane from their villages to stay overnight with other adolescents who quit tobacco use together. The program included recreational activities, talking circles, personal stories from elders and teen advisors, and cognitive behavioral counseling. Two intervention pilots were conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 using a non-randomized, uncontrolled study design with assessments at baseline and six-week follow-up. One village in Western Alaska was selected for each pilot with a targeted enrollment of 10 adolescents each. Participants were recruited for each pilot within five days, but recruitment challenges and ‘‘lessons learned’’ are described. The first pilot enrolled nine adolescents (all female) aged 13–16 years; all nine attended the intervention program and 78% (7/9) completed follow-up. The second pilot enrolled 12 adolescents (eight females, four males) aged 12–17 years, of which seven attended the intervention program. Six of these seven participants (86%) completed follow-up. In both pilots, participants rated the intervention as highly acceptable. A targeted cessation intervention was feasible and acceptable to AN youth. The intervention will be tested for efficacy in a subsequent randomized controlled trial. PMID:24058327

  13. Petroleum source potential of the Lower Cretaceous mudstone succession of the NPRA and Colville Delta area, North Slope Alaska, based on sonic and resistivity logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Margaret A.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Resource assessment of the North Slope of Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey includes evaluation of the petroleum source potential of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks using the delta log R technique (Passey and others, 1990). Porosity and resistivity logs are used in combination with thermal maturity data to produce a continuous profile of total organic carbon content in weight % (TOC). From the pattern and amount of TOC in the profile produced, the depositional setting and thus the petroleum source-rock potential (kerogen type) of the organic matter can be inferred and compared to interpretations from other data such as Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TOC profiles determined by this technique for the contiguous interval of pebble shale unit, Hue Shale (including the Gamma Ray Zone or GRZ), and lower part of the Torok Formation indicate important potential for petroleum generation in the Tunalik 1, Inigok 1, N. Inigok 1, Kuyanak 1, Texaco Colville Delta 1, Nechelik 1, and Bergschrund 1 wells of the western North Slope region. TOC profiles suggest that this interval contains both type II and III kerogens – consistent with proposed depositional models -- and is predominantly greater than 2 wt. % TOC (cut-off used for effective source potential). Average TOC for the total effective section of the pebble shale unit + Hue Shale ranges from 2.6 to 4.1 wt % TOC (values predominantly 2-8% TOC) over 192-352 ft. Source potential for the lower Torok Formation, which also has interbedded sandstone and lean mudstone, is good to negligible in these 7 wells.

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 1979 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.; Williams, John R.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve... call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2012 National...

  17. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve... call for nominations and comments on tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2011 National...

  18. Effects of petroleum creosote on selected stages of embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote, a complex mixture of chemicals, was investigated via an in vivo study and an in vitro embryo culture system. Additionally, the prenatal toxicity of naphthalene, one chemical component of petroleum creosote, was determined in the in vitro system. The purpose of the study was to provide specific data on the prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote and demonstrate the value of the two techniques. In the in vivo study, petroleum creosote was not embryotoxic or teratogenic in ICR mice when administered on gestation days 5-9, at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. In vitro, petroleum creosote becomes embryotoxic to ICR mouse blastocysts at some exposure level between 22 and 33 {mu}g/ml of media. Bioactivation plays a major role in embryotoxicity of naphthalene. Naphthalene without rodent liver microsomal enzymes added to the media was not embryotoxic at levels as high as 100 {mu}g/ml media, whereas naphthalene became embryotoxic at some level between 10 and 50 {mu}g/ml of media in the presence of microsomes. The data indicate that naphthalene is one of the embryotoxic components of petroleum creosote, and that exposure to sufficient levels of petroleum creosote during early pregnancy could result in embryonic loss.

  19. Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Stillwater, B; Echavarria, V A; Lanier, A P

    1995-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended. PMID:7631000

  20. Pilot test of a cervical cancer prevention video developed for Alaska Native women.

    PubMed Central

    Stillwater, B; Echavarria, V A; Lanier, A P

    1995-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is twice as likely to occur among Alaska Native women than among Caucasian women in the United State. To understand some of the factors associated with this high incidence, a random sample of 528 Alaska Native women were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors. From the results of the Alaska Native Women's Health Project study, the need for more public education related to cervical cancer prevention was identified. A review of existing educational resources revealed that no culturally appropriate materials related to cervical cancer had been developed for Alaska Native women. To increase Native women's knowledge about cervical cancer and to motivate them to obtain annual Papanicolaou tests, a 12-minute videotape presentation was developed specifically for this population. The videotape portrayed Alaska Native women as role models from the community discussing cervical cancer and Papanicolaou tests and engaging in healthy lifestyles. The videotape was pilot tested with several groups of Alaska Native women. The women were surveyed before and after watching the video and were asked to rate the tape and make comments about it. The results of the posttest demonstrated a significant increase in the knowledge level of the participants. The videotape was well received because of its cultural sensitivity and appropriateness. On the basis of this study, the development of additional culturally appropriate educational materials related to cancer prevention of Alaska Native women is recommended. Images p213-a PMID:7631000

  1. The US Geological Survey-Bureau of Land Management cultural resources program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.S. Jr.; Gal, R.

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of northern Alaska's riches long predates the recent oil exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Though the earliest known archaeological site in the reserve dates back only 7600 yr, most archaeologists believe human groups first occupied the area at least 4000 yr earlier. The as-yet-undiscovered physical remains left behind by these first inhabitants of the area, as well as the known and unknown traces of the peoples who succeeded them through time, constitute the cultural resources of the NPRA. First among the laws protecting cultural resources is the Antiquities Act of 1906, which provides for the establishment of national monuments by Presidential proclamation, sets up a permit system for the scientific investigation of cultural resources on Federal land, and details penalities for unauthorized disturbance of archaeological remains. The Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974, which extended the earlier Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, authorizes funds for the preservation of historical and archaeological data that otherwise might be lost through any Federal construction project or federally licensed or assisted activity or program. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 established the National Register of Historic Places and a National Advisory Council to assist all Federal agencies in evaluating the effects of their actions on properties included, or eligible for inclusion, in the National Register. Finally, Executive Order 11593 of May 13, 1971, requires all Federal agencies to inventory cultural resources on lands they manage or affect in order to determine eligibility for the National Register, and to use due caution in regard to those resources until the inventory, evaluation, and nomination processes are completed. The oil exploration program in the NPRA is subject to this body of law for cultural resource protection.

  2. Development of Viscosity Model for Petroleum Industry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motahhari, Hamed reza

    Heavy oil and bitumen are challenging to produce and process due to their very high viscosity, but their viscosity can be reduced either by heating or dilution with a solvent. Given the key role of viscosity, an accurate viscosity model suitable for use with reservoir and process simulators is essential. While there are several viscosity models for natural gases and conventional oils, a compositional model applicable to heavy petroleum and diluents is lacking. The objective of this thesis is to develop a general compositional viscosity model that is applicable to natural gas mixtures, conventional crudes oils, heavy petroleum fluids, and their mixtures with solvents and other crudes. The recently developed Expanded Fluid (EF) viscosity correlation was selected as a suitable compositional viscosity model for petroleum applications. The correlation relates the viscosity of the fluid to its density over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. The other inputs are pressure and the dilute gas viscosity. Each fluid is characterized for the correlation by a set of fluid-specific parameters which are tuned to fit data. First, the applicability of the EF correlation was extended to asymmetric mixtures and liquid mixtures containing dissolved gas components. A new set of mass-fraction based mixing rules was developed to calculate the fluid-specific parameters for mixtures. The EF correlation with the new set of mixing rules predicted the viscosity of over 100 mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds and carbon dioxide with overall average absolute relative deviations (AARD) of less than 10% either with measured densities or densities estimated by Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). To improve the viscosity predictions with APR EoS-estimated densities, general correlations were developed for non-zero viscosity binary interaction parameters. The EF correlation was extended to non-hydrocarbon compounds typically encountered in natural gas industry. It was

  3. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  4. Current situation of development of petroleum substituting energies (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Trends in development of petroleum substituting energies in the U.S.A. are described. Among non-fossil fuel based energies currently available, nuclear power generation (7%), biomass power generation (4%), and hydraulic power generation (3%) account for a large part. The future for the nuclear energy is opaque. Biomasses are anticipated to be the largest regenerative energy source. Solar energy was regarded to be a future energy source, but its cost effect is not still good. While geothermal power generation produces 0.1% of the entire energy, its future is bright. Ocean energies of all types of form such as sea water thermal energy conversion and wave energy were not treated as a substituting energy in the U.S.A. Multi-fuel vehicles using gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are estimated to account for 25% of vehicle operations in the U.S.A. by 2000. Electric vehicles for practical use would be a hybrid type combining electric motors and gasoline engines.

  5. The Kingak shale of northern Alaska-regional variations in organic geochemical properties and petroleum source rock quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Kingak Shale, a thick widespread rock unit in northern Alaska that ranges in age from Early Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, has adequate to good oil source rock potential. This lenticular-shaped rock unit is as much as 1200 m thick near the Jurassic shelf edge, where its present-day burial depth is about 5000 m. Kingak sediment, transported in a southerly direction, was deposited on the then marine continental shelf. The rock unit is predominantly dark gray Shale with some interbeds of thick sandstone and siltstone. The thermal maturity of organic matter in the Kingak Shale ranges from immature (2.0%R0) in the Colville basin toward the south. Its organic carbon and hydrogen contents are highest in the eastern part of northern Alaska south of and around the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields. Carbon isotope data of oils and rock extracts indicate that the Kingak Shale is a source of some North Slope oil, but is probably not the major source. ?? 1984.

  6. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  7. Development of a hybrid distance occupational therapy program in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bracciano, Alfred; Lohman, Helene; Coppard, Brenda M; Bradberry, J Christopher; Easley, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    There are shortages of health professionals in rural states. Correspondingly, health professions education programs often do not exist in these areas. Students from rural areas seeking health professions degrees frequently move out of state or to urban areas for education. To address the shortage of occupational therapists in Alaska, Creighton University, a private, Jesuit university partnered with the University of Alaska Anchorage, a public institution, to deliver a hybrid occupational therapy program to students residing near or in Anchorage, Alaska. Characteristics for a successful interorganizational partnership include effective communication, a common goal, mutual needs, and trust. This academic program was designed by applying these characteristics and using agreed-upon benchmarks for web-based programs as described by Phipps and Merisotis. The collaborative program demonstrates a model, which could be used between two disparate institutions to meet the challenges and needs of rural and underserved areas for access to health education programs. PMID:21695369

  8. 33 CFR 155.5052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 33 CFR 155.1052. ... evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum oil. 155.5052 Section 155.5052 Navigation... Response plan development and evaluation criteria for nontank vessels carrying group V petroleum...

  9. Development of Parallel Code for the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, B.; Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and other means in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. At the U.S. National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), the model is mainly used in a pre-computed fashion. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during tsunamis to immediately produce forecasts. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves get closer to coastal waters. Even with the pre-computation the task becomes non-trivial as sub-grid resolution gets finer. Currently, the finest resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) used by ATFM are 1/3 arc-seconds. With a serial code, large or multiple areas of very high resolution can produce run-times that are unrealistic even in a pre-computed approach. One way to increase the model performance is code parallelization used in conjunction with a multi-processor computing environment. NTWC developers have undertaken an ATFM code-parallelization effort to streamline the creation of the pre-computed database of results with the long term aim of tsunami forecasts from source to high resolution shoreline grids in real time. Parallelization will also permit timely regeneration of the forecast model database with new DEMs; and, will make possible future inclusion of new physics such as the non-hydrostatic treatment of tsunami propagation. The purpose of our presentation is to elaborate on the parallelization approach and to show the compute speed increase on various multi-processor systems.

  10. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  11. Petroleum Development Oman gas exploration unlocks major new reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Mozetic, A.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1985, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has been exploring for gas on behalf of the Government of Oman under a ten-year agreement signed in June 1984. The aim of the one-rig programme was to find additional non-associated gas reserves (3 TCF) to meet domestic energy requirements for a minimum of 40 years, for which the available reserves at that time (5.6 TCF) were insufficient. Initial results of the campaign, which principally targeted the Permian Khuff Formation, were disappointing, analogues to the major accumulations of the Arabian Gulf failing to materialise. During the second half of the programme, therefore, the strategy was revised to address the prospectivity of higher risk/higher reward plays recognised at greater depths. Well Saih Nihayda-24, drilled in 1989, found gas/condensate-bearing reservoirs in Cambro/Ordovician sandstones of the Andam Formation below 4000 metres. This discovery, in a seismically poorly defined anticline, sparked an intensive effort of 2D, and later 3D, long cable seismic acquisition. This led in 1991 to additional major gas/condensate finds in Saih Rawl and Barik, and a dedicated two-year two-rig appraisal campaign has since proven up sufficient reserves to support an LNG gas export scheme. The ten-year programme has more than tripled Oman`s non-associated gas expectation reserves to some 22 TCF, exceeding-the target more than five-fold. Significant potential for further gas discoveries identified in both North and South Oman provides encouragement for continued successful gas exploration in the future.

  12. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  13. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  14. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  15. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  16. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  17. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  18. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary...

  19. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  20. Constraining the age and magnitude of uplift in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)-apatite fission-track analysis of samples from three wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; O'Sullivan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A broad, post-mid-Cretaceous uplift is defined in the northern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) by regional truncation of Cretaceous strata, thermal maturity patterns, and amounts of exhumation estimated from sonic logs. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of samples from three wells (South Meade No. 1, Topagoruk No. 1, and Ikpikpuk No. 1) across the eastern flank of the uplift indicates Tertiary cooling followed by Quaternary heating. Results from all three wells indicate that cooling, presumably caused by uplift and erosion, started about 75-65 Ma (latest Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary) and continued through the Tertiary Period. Data from South Meade indicate more rapid cooling after about 35-15 Ma (latest Eocene-middle Miocene) followed by a significant increase in subsurface temperature during the Quaternary, probably the result of increased heat flow. Data from Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk include subtle evidence of accelerated cooling starting in the latest Eocene-middle Miocene and possible evidence of increased temperature during the Quaternary. Subsurface temperature perturbations related to the insulating effect of permafrost may have been responsible for the Quaternary temperature increase at Topagoruk and Ikpikpuk and may have been a contributing factor at South Meade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence suggest that the magnitude of exhumation resulting from uplift and erosion is 5,000-6,500 ft at South Meade, 4,000-5,500 ft at Topagoruk, and 2,500-4,000 ft at Ikpikpuk. The results from these wells help to define the broad geometry of the uplift, which increases in magnitude from less than 1,000 ft at the Colville River delta to perhaps more than 7,000 ft along the northwestern coast of NPRA, between Point Barrow and Peard Bay. Neither the origin nor the offshore extent of the uplift, west and north of the NPRA coast, have been determined.

  1. Influence of the Kingak Shale ultimate shelf margin on frontal structures of the Brooks Range in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stier, Natalie E.; Connors, Christopher D.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) includes several southward-offlapping depositional sequences that culminate in an ultimate shelf margin, which preserves the depositional profile in southern NPRA. The Kingak Shale thins abruptly southward across the ultimate shelf margin and grades into condensed shale, which is intercalated with underlying condensed shale and chert of the Upper Triassic Shublik Formation and overlying condensed shale of the Lower Cretaceous pebble shale unit and the gamma-ray zone (GRZ) of the Hue Shale. This composite of condensed shale forms a thin (≈300-meter) and mechanically weak section between much thicker and mechanically stronger units, including the Sadlerochit and Lisburne Groups below and the sandstone-prone foredeep wedge of the Torok Formation above. Seismic interpretation indicates that the composite condensed section acted as the major detachment during an Early Tertiary phase of deformation in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range and that thrust faults step up northward to the top of the Kingak, or to other surfaces within the Kingak or the overlying Torok. The main structural style is imbricate fault-bend folding, although fault-propagation folding is evident locally, and large-displacement thrust faults incorporate backthrusting to form structural wedges. The Kingak ultimate shelf margin served as a ramp to localize several thrust faults, and the spatial relationship between the ultimate shelf margin and thrust vergence is inferred to have controlled many structures in southern NPRA. For example, the obliqueness of the Carbon Creek anticline relative to other structures in the foothills is the result of northward-verging thrust faults impinging obliquely on the Kingak ultimate shelf margin in southwestern NPRA.

  2. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  3. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  4. Structure and petroleum potential of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruns, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Major structural features of the Yakutat segment, the segment of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska, are delineated by multichannel seismic reflection data. A large structural high is centered on Fairweather Ground and lies generally at the edge of the shelf from Cross Sound to west of the Alsek Valley. A basement uplift, the Dangerous River zone, along which the seismic acoustic basement shallows by up to two kilometers, extends north from the western edge of Fairweather Ground towards the mouth of the Dangerous River. The Dangerous River zone separates the Yakutat segment into two distinct subbasins. The eastern subbasin has a maximum sediment thickness of about 4 km, and the axis of the basin is near and parallel to the coast. Strata in this basin are largely of late Cenozoic age (Neogene and Quaternary) and approximately correlate with the onshore Yakataga Formation. The western subbasin has a maximum of at least 9 km of sediment, comprised of a thick (greater than 4.5 km) Paleogene section overlain by late Cenozoic strata. The Paleogene section is truncated along the Dangerous River zone by a combination of erosion, faulting, and onlap onto the acoustic basement. Within the western subbasin, the late Cenozoic basin axis is near and parallel to the coast, but the Paleogene basin axis appears to trend in a northwest direction diagonally across the shelf. Sedimentary strata throughout the Yakutat shelf show regional subsidence and only minor deformation except in the vicinity of the Fairweather Ground structural high, near and along the Dangerous River zone, and at the shoreline near Lituya Bay. Seismic data across the continental slope and adjacent deep ocean show truncation at the continental slope of Paleogene strata, the presence of a thick (to 6 km) undeformed or mildly deformed abyssal sedimentary section at the base of the slope that in part onlaps the slope, and a relatively narrow zone along the slope or at

  5. Proposal for Reservoir Engineering Studies in the State of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Economides, Michael J.; Ehlig-Economides, Christine; Wescott, Eugene

    1980-12-18

    Alaska has a significant geothermal potential. While other sources of energy such as petroleum and coal are in abundance, there has been a definite move towards geothermal exploitation. The State has recognized the opportunity cost of petroleum as a source of materials and has expressed interest in the development of geothermal energy as a desirable and alternative resource. More than 11 million acres have been identified as potential geothermal reservoirs capable of producing electric power as well as direct heating. Reservoirs of the latter type are found in the interior of the state. Considering the winter temperatures of these regions (at times dipping to -60{degree}F) direct utilization is attractive. A comprehensive reservoir engineering proposal is presented to better assess the extent and potential of the geothermal areas in Alaska. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the participants of the Stanford Geothermal Workshop with the enormous potential, as yet untapped, of the State of Alaska.

  6. Traditional and New Developments in Petroleum Remote Sensing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustes, A. W.; Prasad, M.

    2011-12-01

    The petroleum business is all about information. The primary source of sub-surface information is found in the borehole. This presentation will cover the standard suite of downhole tools for acoustic, electrical, and radioactive measurements followed by recent advances in tool and measurement technology. These include nuclear magnetic resonance, formation micro-imagers, and measurement-while-drilling/logging-while-drilling tools. Other new areas of technology include downhole fluid and chemical analysis, tilt meters, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and insitu stress testing. In addition, micro-seismic methodology for finding fracture stimulation trajectories will be reviewed. The calibration techniques for some of these tools will be covered. Finally, a peek into future technologies will be shown including nanoscale tools.

  7. Sustainable agriculture for Alaska and the circumpolar north: Part 1. Development and status of northeren agriculture and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska is food insecure, importing an estimated 95% of all agricultural products and 50 commodities and only maintaining a year round food supply of about three to five days. We 51 review the history, development and current state of sustainable agriculture at high-latitudes, 52 especially Alaska, a...

  8. The Development of a Curriculum Toolkit with American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Hare, Dwight; Sempier, Tracie T.; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article explains the creation of the "Growing and Learning with Young Native Children" curriculum toolkit. The curriculum toolkit was designed to give American Indian and Alaska Native early childhood educators who work in a variety of settings the framework for developing a research-based, developmentally appropriate, tribally specific…

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Early Childhood Health, Development, and Education Assessment Research. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Demmert, William G., Jr.

    This digest reports on the very limited research that has focused specifically on early childhood issues in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) health, development, and education. Extant research focuses primarily on infant mortality, birth weight and growth, obesity, and hearing and speech. Beginning in 1985, a longitudinal study called the…

  10. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  11. Development and evaluation of a support program for prostate cancer survivors in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Stacy; DeCourtney, Christine; Thorsness, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer survivors in Alaska and elsewhere have unmet support needs. The Men's Prostate Cancer Survivorship Retreat, or “men's retreat,” was developed targeting Alaska Native and non-Native men who were survivors of prostate cancer. The program brought together survivors in a supportive environment to discuss and share their experiences. Objective Despite the proven effectiveness of support groups for improving quality of life for cancer patients, men typically do not participate in formal support groups. This descriptive study was conducted to explore the needs of Alaska Native and non-Native prostate cancer survivors and assess satisfaction and acceptability of a men's cancer survivorship retreat in Alaska. Methods Prostate cancer survivors (N=80) who attended men's retreats during 2009–2013 were asked to complete a retreat application and post-retreat evaluation. Comments regarding social support, helpful and valuable aspects of the retreat including overall satisfaction were reported. Results A men's retreat with activities that engage men can be successful for prostate cancer survivors. Many men returned for successive retreats. After the retreat, 97% of the participants said they would continue with support activities. Conclusion The men's retreat provides a valued opportunity for men to interact with other survivors and access information from health professionals. The results from this study highlight a successful model for social support and resources specific to male prostate cancer survivors. PMID:26612829

  12. Using strategic planning and organizational development principles for health promotion in an Alaska Native community

    PubMed Central

    Lardon, Cécile; Soule, Susan; Kernak, Douglas; Lupie, Henry

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Health promotion aims to support people in their efforts to increase control over factors that impact health and well-being. This emphasis on empowerment and contextual influences allows for a more holistic conceptualization of health and approaches to promoting health that are anchored in principles of community development and systems change. Piciryaratgun Calritllerkaq (Healthy Living Through A Healthy Lifestyle) is a collaboration between a Yup’ik village in rural Alaska and researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The goal was to improve nutrition, increase exercise and decrease stress. The project utilized elements of organization development and strategic planning to develop a local infrastructure and process and to promote local expertise. The project team developed goals, objectives, action and evaluation plans that integrated local traditions, Yup’ik culture, and research. PMID:21271433

  13. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska 1980 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.; Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  15. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Nairn R. D.; Hudson, Travis

    1981-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  16. Development of Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Networks, 1988-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, G.; Paskievitch, J. F.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The number and quality of seismic stations and networks on Alaskan volcanoes have increased dramatically in the 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Starting with 28 stations on six volcanoes in 1988, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) now operates 194 stations in networks on 33 volcanoes spanning the 2000 km Aleutian Arc. All data are telemetered in real time to laboratory facilities in Fairbanks and Anchorage and recorded on digital acquisition systems. Data are used for both monitoring and research. The basic and standard network designs are driven by practical considerations including geography and terrain, access to commercial telecommunications services, and environmental vulnerability. Typical networks consist of 6 to 8 analog stations, whose data can be telemetered to fit on a single analog telephone circuit terminated ultimately in either Fairbanks or Anchorage. Towns provide access to commercial telecommunications and signals are often consolidated for telemetry by remote computer systems. Most AVO stations consist of custom made fiberglass huts that house the batteries, electronics, and antennae. Solar panels are bolted to the south facing side of the huts and the seismometers are buried nearby. The huts are rugged and have allowed for good station survivability and performance reliability. However, damage has occurred from wind, wind-blown pumice, volcanic ejecta, lightning, icing, and bears. Power is provided by multiple isolated banks of storage batteries charged by solar panels. Primary cells are used to provide backup power should the rechargable system fail or fall short of meeting the requirement. In the worst cases, snow loading blocks the solar panels for 7 months, so sufficient power storage must provide power for at least this long. Although primarily seismic stations, the huts and overall design allow additional instruments to be added, such as infrasound sensors, webcams, electric field meters, etc. Yearly maintenance visits are desirable, but some

  17. MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, K. M.; Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Amundson, J. M.; Kavanaugh, J. L.; Cook, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in 2017 and will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which is a photon-counting laser altimeter and represents a new approach to space-borne determination of surface elevation. Given the new technology of ATLAS, an airborne instrument, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), has been deployed to both Greenland (April 2012) and Alaska (July 2014) to provide data needed for: 1) satellite algorithm development; 2) to simulate key elements of this photon-counting sampling strategy; and 3) to assess elements of this sampling strategy that may vary seasonally. Here, we compare seasonal aspects of the two datasets, with a focus on results from the latter campaign, where in situ observations in southeastern Alaska help to assess instrument performance in summer conditions and in the presence of glacier melt ponds.

  18. Petroleum and structural change in a developing society: the case of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Olayiwola, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    This study of Nigeria provides a multidimensional analysis of development. The Nigerian development experience is considered as the interrelation of: (a) economic development paradigm which guided development thinking; (b) the national planning model and apparatus employed; (c) the ideology of nationalism; and (d) the internal and external factors in Nigeria's environment that combined to influence its development strategies. As a society, Nigeria has undergone profound changes over the period of the last 25 years. It was transformed from a primarily agricultural society to an industrializing one. A key source of this change has been the emergence of the petroleum economy. Nigeria's GDP grew an extraordinary 81% per annum on average between 1960 and 1980. Yet, the aggregate performance of the petroleum economy was far better, adding to Nigerian economic wealth at an average rate of 7400% per annum. Judged on these terms, Nigeria's overall economic performance from independence to 1980 was spectacular; the performance of its petroleum economy astounding. Despite this performance, the structure of Nigeria's political economy is nearly the same as it was at independence. It remains one in which economic life depends critically upon world-market conditions and the level of trade with developed economies.

  19. Collaborative Sounding Rocket launch in Alaska and Development of Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Akimasa; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kan, Yuji; Tohyama, Fumio; Nakashino, Kyouichi; Hawkins, Joseph

    Tokai University student rocket project (TSRP) was established in 1995 for a purpose of the space science and engineering hands-on education, consisting of two space programs; the one is sounding rocket experiment collaboration with University of Alaska Fairbanks and the other is development and launch of small hybrid rockets. In January of 2000 and March 2002, two collaborative sounding rockets were successfully launched at Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. In 2001, the first Tokai hybrid rocket was successfully launched at Alaska. After that, 11 hybrid rockets were launched to the level of 180-1,000 m high at Hokkaido and Akita in Japan. Currently, Tokai students design and build all parts of the rockets. In addition, they are running the organization and development of the project under the tight budget control. This program has proven to be very effective in providing students with practical, real-engineering design experience and this program also allows students to participate in all phases of a sounding rocket mission. Also students learn scientific, engineering subjects, public affairs and system management through experiences of cooperative teamwork. In this report, we summarize the TSRP's hybrid rocket program and discuss the effectiveness of the program in terms of educational aspects.

  20. Development of NMRI spectroscopy for improved petroleum recovery, Annex 6

    SciTech Connect

    Barrufet, M.A.; Flumerfelt, R.W.; Jennings, J.W.; Walsh, M.P.; Watson, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives are to develop and apply Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) and CT X-Ray Scanning methods for determining rock, fluid, and petrophysical properties and for fundamental studies of multiphase flow behavior in porous media. Specific objectives are to: (1) develop NMRI procedures for measuring porosity, permeability, pore size distribution, capillary pressure, and wetting characteristics, (2) apply imaging methods for improved methods of determining two- and three-phase relative permeability functions, (3) apply NMRI for development of a better understanding of dispersed phase displacement processes, and (4) apply imaging methods to develop a better understanding of saturation distribution and fingering during miscible displacements. The objectives have been organized into four subtasks. Annual progress reports for each subtask are provided.

  1. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  2. Using local knowledge, hydrological, and climate data to develop a driftwood harvest model in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kielland, K.

    2011-12-01

    Residents of rural Alaska usually harvest driftwood from the Yukon River during two distinct periods in the summer. Typically, driftwood accompanies high flows on the Yukon River associated with spring break-up. A few weeks later, a second pulse of driftwood associated with the "2nd Rise" typically flows during early June. This study examines the nature of the differential timing of high flow events in the Yukon River to develop a model of the driftwood harvest. Many communities in interior Alaska have grown to rely upon driftwood as an important source of wood, which is used in construction and as a source of fuel. Increasingly, villages in rural Alaska are trying to lessen their dependence upon high-cost fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources. A number of Alaskan villages have recently installed wood chip-fired boilers to generate heat and/or electricity and additional boilers are slated to be installed in rural Alaska in the near future. These boilers are largely fed by driftwood which can be harvested cheaply and processed easily. But if the driftwood harvest is dependent upon high flows in the Yukon, how will fluctuations in river hydrology affect the efficacy and reliability of driftwood harvest? We examined this question using information from local knowledge in conjunction with U.S. census, hydrological, and climate reanalysis data sets to model the magnitude of Yukon River driftwood harvest during summer. It appears that since 1995, high flow events have decreased magnitude, but increased in frequency, compared to the period between 1977 and 1994. Based upon this observation, the annual potential driftwood harvest in Tanana since 1995 was modeled to be greater compared to the average prior to 1994. This pattern was largely driven by a change in the frequency and duration of high flow events. Thus, the availability of driftwood as an energy resource is expected to be commensurate to the recurrence of high flow events on the Yukon River.

  3. Wildlife management implications of petroleum exploration and development in wildland environments. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, M.

    1985-09-01

    The report describes: (1) petroleum exploration, development, and production; (2) potential environmental disruptions; (3) effects of disruptions on wildlife behavior, habitat, and populations; and (4) strategies for minimizing and mitigating adverse effects. The section on impacts includes a detailed outline/index referring to an annotated bibliography. Major wildlife groups discussed are ungulates, carnivores, waterfowl, raptors, songbirds, shorebirds, and furbearers. Fish and other aquatic organisms are not covered.

  4. Present status of developing petroleum-substituting energy (EC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The EC has had approximately 50% of its total energy demand supplied by imports from the exterior of the Community. Hence, it is getting important to develop oil-substituting renewable energy as well as to curtail the emission of carbon dioxide. In consideration of these situations, the results of investigation on the energy policy of the European Community are described. The policy comprises three courses: European Energy Charter, formation of an open European Community energy market, and environmental conservation. Particularly, concerning the reduction of carbon dioxide emission, the EC Council has decided to introduce carbon dioxide taxation so as to suppress the carbon dioxide emission in the year 2000 to the 1990 level. The arrangement for its introduction, however, encountered with difficulties because of the opposition of various countries other than the European Community and the industrial world of the European Community. Legislation of the investment promotion law for energy saving and the construction of infrastructure footing and an information network are ineffective due to the sluggish fuel price and economic recession. A plurality of EC member countries are advancing a comprehensive activity within the framework of the joint programs of research, development, and demonstration set for the renewable energy policy ensuring energy supply and environmental harmonization.

  5. A framework for assessing water and proppant use and flowback water extraction associated with development of continuous petroleum resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Cook, Troy; Thamke, Joanna N.; Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.; Healy, Richard W.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Engle, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing approaches for the quantitative assessment of water and proppant involved with possible future production of continuous petroleum deposits. The assessment approach is an extension of existing U.S. Geological Survey petroleum-assessment methods, and it aims to provide objective information that helps decision makers understand the tradeoffs inherent in resource-development decisions. This fact sheet provides an overview of U.S. Geological Survey assessments for quantities of water and proppant required for drilling and hydraulic fracturing and for flowback water extracted with petroleum; the report also presents the form of the intended assessment output information.

  6. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was

  7. Ecosystem development on terraces along the Kugururok River, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binkley, D.; Suarez, F.; Stottlemyer, R.; Caldwell, B.

    1997-01-01

    Riverside terraces along the Kugururok River in the Noatak National Preserve provided an opportunity to study primary succession, considering general trends that apply across all terraces, and unique events that influence individual terraces. The 30-year-old willow/poplar (Salix spp., Populus balsamifera L.) terrace had no trees taller than 1.5 m; the abundant spruce trees were not tall enough to emerge from the canopy height of the willows and poplars, and moose (Alces alces [Clinton]) browsing limited the canopy height of these plants. The 75-year-old poplar/spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) terrace had a high density of poplars (> 1000/ha) and low density of spruce (125/ha); heavy browsing by moose reduced the density of poplar by about one-half. The removal of the poplar by moose in this stand resulted in sustained increases in growth of individual spruce trees. The 100-year-old younger spruce/poplar terrace had about twice as many spruce trees (1250/ha) as poplar trees (500/ha), and the spruce trees were larger on average than the poplar trees. In the 220+ year-old older spruce/poplar type, only a few poplars remained (about 25/ha), and the number of spruce trees (600/ha) was only half that of the younger stage, either from lower initial spruce density on this terrace, or increased mortality of spruce. The 240+ year-old spruce type was a second-generation forest, characterized by a high density (1950/ha) of small spruce trees, some of which were tilted, indicating discontinuous permafrost. Plant litterfall mass showed no strong trend with terrace age, although N content of litterfall appeared to decline by about 1/3 in the spruce-dominated stages. Fungal biomass increased with ecosystem age, whereas bacterial biomass and microfauna declined. We found no evidence of declining soil N supply in older stages, but fertilization experiments would be needed to determine if N limitation of productivity changed with ecosystem development. We conclude that the general

  8. Late Jurassic – early Cretaceous inversion of rift structures, and linkage of petroleum system elements across post-rift unconformity, U.S. Chukchi Shelf, arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Connors, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-prone source rocks, reservoir-quality sandstone, migration pathways, and structural closure are linked intimately across the Jurassic unconformity, which reflects inversion. Thus, all these key petroleum systems elements were in place when Triassic source rocks entered the oil generation window during Cretaceous–Cenozoic stratigraphic burial.

  9. Development of a human health oral risk factor for long chain petroleum hydrocarbons. Final report, May-October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of the research presented herein was to develop oral risk factors for long chain petroleum hydrocarbons (LCPHs). Literature searches were conducted on petroleum products and specific LCPHs. Over 5,000 references were identified and over 100 references were reviewed. Information was collected on the chemical composition and analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH); the environmental regulation of TPH in soils; the weathering of TPH in soils; risk factors previously developed for neat petroleum products and four LCPHs; and on the toxicity of LCPHs. Oral reference doses were developed for nonane, decane, C10-C11 isoparaffmic hydrocarbon dearomatized white spirit C11 -C12, mineral oil, and petroleum wax. Gaps in the data necessary for the development of risk factors for LCPHs were identified and suggestions were made for future research to elucidate risk assessment at petroleum contamination sites. In addition, four DoD sites were identified for potential demonstration of risk assessment and risk-based cleanup versus cleanup based on regulatory standards for soils.

  10. Promoting positive youth development and highlighting reasons for living in Northwest Alaska through digital storytelling.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Gubrium, Aline; Griffin, Megan; DiFulvio, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    Using a positive youth development framework, this article describes how a 3-year digital storytelling project and the 566 digital stories produced from it in Northwest Alaska promote protective factors in the lives of Alaska Native youth and serve as digital "hope kits," a suicide prevention approach that emphasizes young people's reasons for living. Digital stories are short, participant-produced videos that combine photos, music, and voice. We present process data that indicate the ways that digital stories serve as a platform for youth to reflect on and represent their lives, important relationships and achievements. In so doing, youth use the digital storytelling process to identify and highlight encouraging aspects of their lives, and develop more certain and positive identity formations. These processes are correlated with positive youth health outcomes. In addition, the digital stories themselves serve as reminders of the young people's personal assets--their reasons for living--after the workshop ends. Young people in this project often showed their digital stories to those who were featured positively within as a way to strengthen these interpersonal relationships. Evaluation data from the project show that digital storytelling workshops and outputs are a promising positive youth development approach. The project and the qualitative data demonstrate the need for further studies focusing on outcomes related to suicide prevention.

  11. MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Amundson, Jason M.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Walsh, Kaitlin M.; Cook, William B.; Markus, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in late 2017 and will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which is a photon-counting laser altimeter and represents a new approach to satellite determination of surface elevation. Given the new technology of ATLAS, an airborne instrument, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was developed to provide data needed for satellite-algorithm development and ICESat-2 error analysis. MABEL was deployed out of Fairbanks, Alaska, in July 2014 to provide a test dataset for algorithm development in summer conditions with water-saturated snow and ice surfaces. Here we compare MABEL lidar data to in situ observations in Southeast Alaska to assess instrument performance in summer conditions and in the presence of glacier surface melt ponds and a wet snowpack. Results indicate the following: (1) based on MABEL and in situ data comparisons, the ATLAS 90 m beam-spacing strategy will provide a valid assessment of across-track slope that is consistent with shallow slopes (< 1°) of an ice-sheet interior over 50 to 150 m length scales; (2) the dense along-track sampling strategy of photon counting systems can provide crevasse detail; and (3) MABEL 532 nm wavelength light may sample both the surface and subsurface of shallow (approximately 2 m deep) supraglacial melt ponds. The data associated with crevasses and melt ponds indicate the potential ICESat-2 will have for the study of mountain and other small glaciers.

  12. Central Arctic caribou and petroleum development: Distributional, nutritional, and reproductive implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, R.D.; Smith, W.T.; White, R.G.; Griffith, B.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesize findings from cooperative research on effects of petroleum development on caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Central Arctic Herd (CAH). The CAH increased from about 6000 animals in 1978 to 23 000 in 1992, declined to 18 000 by 1995, and again increased to 27 000 by 2000. Net calf production was consistent with changes in herd size. In the Kuparuk Development Area (KDA), west of Prudhoe Bay, abundance of calving caribou was less than expected within 4 km of roads and declined exponentially with road density. With increasing infrastructure, high-density calving shifted from the KDA to inland areas with lower forage biomass. During July and early August, caribou were relatively unsuccessful in crossing road/pipeline corridors in the KDA, particularly when in large, insect-harassed aggregations; and both abundance and movements of females were lower in the oil field complex at Prudhoe Bay than in other areas along the Arctic coast. Female caribou exposed to petroleum development west of the Sagavanirktok River may have consumed less forage during the calving period and experienced lower energy balance during the midsummer insect season than those under disturbance-free conditions east of the river. The probable consequences were poorer body condition at breeding and lower parturition rates for western females than for eastern females (e.g., 1988-94: 64% vs. 83% parturient, respectively; p = 0.003), which depressed the productivity of the herd. Assessments of cumulative effects of petroleum development on caribou must incorporate the complex interactions with a variable natural environment. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  13. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  14. Development of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Use among the Yup'ik People of Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Simeon, Desiree; Ferguson, Gary; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Alaska Native populations are experiencing a nutrition transition and a resulting decrease in diet quality. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the diet of the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 24-hour recalls and the information collected served as a basis for developing a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 177 males and females, aged 13-88, in six western Alaska communities, completed up to three 24-hour recalls as part of the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project. The frequency of the foods reported in the 24-hour recalls was tabulated and used to create a draft quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which was pilot tested and finalized with input from community members. Store-bought foods high in fat and sugar were reported more frequently than traditional foods. Seven of the top 26 foods most frequently reported were traditional foods. A 150-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed that included 14 breads and crackers; 3 cereals; 11 dairy products; 69 meats, poultry and fish; 13 fruit; 22 vegetables; 9 desserts and snacks; and 9 beverages. The quantitative food frequency questionnaire contains 39 traditional food items. This quantitative food frequency questionnaire can be used to assess the unique diet of the Alaska Native people of Western Alaska. This tool will allow for monitoring of dietary changes over time as well as the identification of foods and nutrients that could be promoted in a nutrition intervention program intended to reduce chronic disease. PMID:24963718

  15. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use among the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Simeon, Desiree; Ferguson, Gary; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Alaska Native populations are experiencing a nutrition transition and a resulting decrease in diet quality. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the diet of the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 24-hour recalls and the information collected served as a basis for developing a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 177 males and females, aged 13-88, in six western Alaska communities, completed up to three 24-hour recalls as part of the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project. The frequency of the foods reported in the 24-hour recalls was tabulated and used to create a draft quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which was pilot tested and finalized with input from community members. Store-bought foods high in fat and sugar were reported more frequently than traditional foods. Seven of the top 26 foods most frequently reported were traditional foods. A 150-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed that included 14 breads and crackers; 3 cereals; 11 dairy products; 69 meats, poultry and fish; 13 fruit; 22 vegetables; 9 desserts and snacks; and 9 beverages. The quantitative food frequency questionnaire contains 39 traditional food items. This quantitative food frequency questionnaire can be used to assess the unique diet of the Alaska Native people of Western Alaska. This tool will allow for monitoring of dietary changes over time as well as the identification of foods and nutrients that could be promoted in a nutrition intervention program intended to reduce chronic disease.

  16. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  17. Climate science informs participatory scenario development and applications to decision making in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L. A.; Winfree, R.; Mow, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents unprecedented challenges for managing natural and cultural resources into the future. Impacts are expected to be highly consequential but specific effects are difficult to predict, requiring a flexible process for adaptation planning that is tightly coupled to climate science delivery systems. Scenario planning offers a tool for making science-based decisions under uncertainty. The National Park Service (NPS) is working with the Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers (CSCs), the NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs), and other academic, government, non-profit, and private partners to develop and apply scenarios to long-range planning and decision frameworks. In April 2012, Alaska became the first region of the NPS to complete climate change scenario planning for every national park, preserve, and monument. These areas, which collectively make up two-thirds of the total area of the NPS, are experiencing visible and measurable effects attributable to climate change. For example, thawing sea ice, glaciers and permafrost have resulted in coastal erosion, loss of irreplaceable cultural sites, slope failures, flooding of visitor access routes, and infrastructure damage. With higher temperatures and changed weather patterns, woody vegetation has expanded into northern tundra, spruce and cedar diebacks have occurred in southern Alaska, and wildland fire severity has increased. Working with partners at the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Scenario Network for Alaska Planning the NPS integrates quantitative, model-driven data with qualitative, participatory techniques to scenario creation. The approach enables managers to access and understand current climate change science in a form that is relevant for their decision making. Collaborative workshops conducted over the past two years grouped parks from Alaska's southwest, northwest, southeast, interior and central areas. The emphasis was to identify and connect

  18. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  19. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  20. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions.

  1. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions. PMID:23978722

  2. Tectonic framework of petroliferous rocks in Alaska: hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Kirschner, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Alaska, which contains about 28% of the land and continental shelf of the United States, is estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey to contain about one third of the nation's undiscovered oil and about one sixth of its undiscovered natural gas. The Survey estimates that fields discovered in Alaska through 1972 ultimately may produce about 26 billion bbl of oil and 68 Tcf of natural gas. In northern Alaska, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf and slope carbonate and clastic rocks of the Brooks Range orogen were thrust relatively northward over the depressed south margin of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Arctic platform. A foredeep, the Colville geosyncline, developed across the depressed margin of the platform in earliest Cretaceous time. Detritus from the Brooks Range filled the foredeep and prograded northward to fill the Cretaceous and Tertiary North Chukchi and Umiat-Camden basins and form the progradational Beaufort shelf. The largest petroleum reserves (Prudhoe Bay and associated fields) and the best prospects for additional large discoveries in Alaska lie in the areally extensive upper Paleozoic to Tertiary carbonate and clastic rocks of northern Alaska. In southern Alaska, a series of arc-trench systems developed on oceanic rocks during Jurassic and Cretaceous time. Between these arcs and the metamorphic (continental) terranes of east-central and northern Alaska, large back-arc and arc-trench gap basins received thick volcanic and detrital deposits. These deposits were extensively, and commonly intensely, deformed and disrupted by mid-Jurassic to Tertiary plutonism, Laramide oroclinal bending, wrench faulting, and arc-related compression. This deformation, coupled with low porosity (in part produced by diagenetic mobilization of labile constituents), has left these rocks with only modest, local prospects for petroleum. Laramide events compressed and consolidated ("continentalized") the late Mesozoic back-arc basin deposits and welded them to the older continental

  3. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  4. 30 CFR 250.1166 - What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... developments in the Alaska OCS Region? 250.1166 Section 250.1166 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1166 What additional reporting is required...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1166 - What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1166... development in the Alaska OCS Region, you must submit an annual reservoir management report to the...

  6. The Comprehensive Counseling Program for Alaska Public Schools. A Guide for Program Development: K-12th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The wide range of settings for counseling, from large urban schools to remote bush communities, as well as the many multicultural issues found in Alaska, when combined with the changing American society led to the development of this state-wide counseling and guidance plan. The goal of this plan is to provide comprehensive and systematic…

  7. 45 CFR 286.180 - What is the process for developing the comparability criteria that are required in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the process for developing the comparability criteria that are required in Alaska? 286.180 Section 286.180 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  9. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Alaska blackfish (Esociformes: Dallia pectoralis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Sage, George K.; DeWilde, Rachel L.; López, J. Andres; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Blackfishes (Esociformes: Esocidae: Dallia), small fishes with relictual distributions, are unique in being the only primary freshwater fish genus endemic to Beringia. Although the number of species of Dallia is debated, disjunct populations and distinct mitochondrial divisions that predate the end of the last glacial maximum are apparent. We developed sixteen polymorphic microsatellites from the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) to study genetic diversity in Dallia. Genotypes from two populations, Denali (n = 31) and Bethel (n = 35), demonstrated the usefulness of the loci for population-level investigation. Observed and expected heterozygosity averaged 18.6 and 19.8 % in Denali and 61.1 and 63.7 % in Bethel. Number of alleles at each locus averaged 3.50 in Denali and 9.63 in Bethel. The observed signature of variability and structuring between populations is consistent with mitochondrial data.

  10. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  11. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  12. Petroleum industry in Illinois, 1984. Oil and gas developments. Waterflood operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Berg, J.; Treworgy, J.D.; Elyn, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The report includes statistical information regarding the petroleum industry in Illinois during 1984. Illinois produced 28,873,000 barrels of crude oil in 1984. The value of this crude is estimated to be $830 million. New test holes drilled for oil and gas numbered 2732 - 4.1% more than in 1983. These tests resulted in 1575 oil wells, 21 gas wells, and 1136 dry holes. In addition, 28 former dry holes were reworked or deepened and completed as producers, and 9 former producers were reworked or deepened and completed as producers in new pay zones. In oil and gas exploration and development, including service wells and structure tests, total footage drilled in 1984 was 6,868,485 feet, 5.5% more than in 1983. Ten oil fields, 50 new pay zones in fields, and 51 extensions to fields were discovered in 1984.

  13. Development of a three-phase reacting flow computer model for analysis of petroleum cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1995-07-01

    A general computational fluid dynamics computer code (ICRKFLO) has been developed for the simulation of the multi-phase reacting flow in a petroleum fluid catalytic cracker riser. ICRKFLO has several unique features. A new integral reaction submodel couples calculations of hydrodynamics and cracking kinetics by making the calculations more efficient in achieving stable convergence while still preserving the major physical effects of reaction processes. A new coke transport submodel handles the process of coke formation in gas phase reactions and the subsequent deposition on the surface of adjacent particles. The code was validated by comparing with experimental results of a pilot scale fluid cracker unit. The code can predict the flow characteristics of gas, liquid, and particulate solid phases, vaporization of the oil droplets, and subsequent cracking of the oil in a riser reactor, which may lead to a better understanding of the internal processes of the riser and the impact of riser geometry and operating parameters on the riser performance.

  14. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  15. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  16. Development of New Accurate, High Resolution DEMs and Merged Topographic-Bathymetric Grids for Inundation Mapping in Seward Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, D.; Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.

    2004-05-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys continue to participate in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential inundation of selected coastal communities in Alaska. Seward, the next Alaskan community to be mapped, has excellent bathymetric data but very poor topographic data available. Since one of the most significant sources of errors in tsunami inundation mapping is inaccuracy of topographic and bathymetric data, the Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team cooperated with the local USGS glaciology office to perform photogrammetry in the Seward area to produce a new DEM. Using ten air photos and the APEX photogrammetry and analysis software, along with several precisely located GPS points, we developed a new georeferenced and highly accurate DEM with a 5-meter grid spacing. A variety of techniques were used to remove the effects of buildings and trees to yield a bald earth model. Finally, we resampled the new DEM to match the finest resolution model grid, and combined it with all other data, using the most recent and accurate data in each region. The new dataset has contours that deviate by more than 100 meters in some places from the contours in the previous dataset, showing significant improvement in accuracy for the purpose of tsunami modeling.

  17. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-03-04

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction data collected on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior's climate monitoring array, part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost. In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans 68.5°N to 70.5°N and 142.5°W to 161°W, an area of roughly 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with provisional quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes several additional climate variables to be released in subsequent reports, including ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Experimental low-altitude aeromagnetic reconnaissance for petroleum in Arctic-National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, using horizontal gradients: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.; Hendricks, J.D.; Roberts, A.A.; Eliason, P.T.

    1983-03-01

    Variations in the earth's magnetic field arising from areally restricted increased amounts of shallow-buried magnetite over hydrocarbon deposits have been mapped in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and elsewhere is northern Alaska. The anomalies have been delineated with a low-flying (90 m; 295 ft) magnetic horizontal gradiometer mounted on a fixed-wing airplane. Limited data from stable carbon isotope and remanent magnetism measurements of rock cores from the Cape Simpson region strongly suggest that the magnetic anomalies result from the chemical reduction of iron oxides in the presence of seeping hydrocarbons. Magnetometers extended from each wingtip and in a tail stinger permit calculation of the resultant horizontal gradient vector relative to the flight path. This calculation provides data for the unmeasured area between adjacent flight lines spaced at 1.5 km (.9 mi), thereby allowing generation of accurate computer-enhanced images or maps. Problems related to diurnal variations and solar storms at high magnetic latitude are largely overcome because changes in the total magnetic field do not significantly affect the magnetic gradient. Analysis of an experimental survey, covering 4418 line km (2745 line mi), suggests that the Marsh Creek anticline in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is prospective for oil and/or gas. Additional magnetic anomalies were also identified. Although the effect of permafrost on epigenetic processes has not been investigated, the data suggest that special purpose aeromagnetic surveying may be a useful and relatively inexpensive way to explore for oil and gas in this hostile environment.

  3. Assessment of the Summer Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Saudi Arabia: Directions for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosary, Adel S.; Raziuddin, Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed students and faculty at Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals about the school's summer program. Found that the program should not offer courses that require a long time to develop skills, but rather should function as a supplementary semester for students needing more help with regular course work. (EV)

  4. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  5. Final sitewide environmental assessment for continued development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Natrona County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Secretary of Energy is required by law to explore, prospect, conserve, develop, use, and operate the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. The Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), requires that the Naval Petroleum Reserves be produced at their maximum efficient rate (MER), consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period of six years. To fulfill this mission, DOE is proposing continued development activities which would include the drilling of approximately 250 oil production and injection (gas, water, and steam) wells, the construction of between 25 and 30 miles of associated gas, water, and steam pipelines, the installation of several production and support facilities, and the construction of between 15 and 20 miles of access roads. These drilling and construction estimates include any necessary activities related to the operation of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). The purpose of RMOTC will be to provide facilities and necessary support to government and private industry for testing and evaluating new oilfield and environmental technologies, and to transfer these results to the petroleum industry through seminars and publications. Continued development activities either have no potential to result in adverse environmental impacts or would only result in adverse impacts that could be readily mitigated. The small amounts of disturbed surface area will be reclaimed to its original natural state when production operations terminate. The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 73 refs.

  6. Modified method for estimating petroleum source-rock potential using wireline logs, with application to the Kingak Shale, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2016-02-11

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in three source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, including the lower part of the Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale. In order to identify organic shale potential in the absence of a robust geochemical dataset from the lower Kingak Shale, we introduce two quantitative parameters, $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ and $\\Delta DT_z$, estimated from wireline logs from exploration wells and based in part on the commonly used delta-log resistivity ($\\Delta \\text{ }log\\text{ }R$) technique. Calculation of $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ and $\\Delta DT_z$ is intended to produce objective parameters that may be proportional to the quality and volume, respectively, of potential source rocks penetrated by a well and can be used as mapping parameters to convey the spatial distribution of source-rock potential. Both the $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ and $\\Delta DT_z$ mapping parameters show increased source-rock potential from north to south across the North Slope, with the largest values at the toe of clinoforms in the lower Kingak Shale. Because thermal maturity is not considered in the calculation of $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ or $\\Delta DT_z$, total organic carbon values for individual wells cannot be calculated on the basis of $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ or $\\Delta DT_z$ alone. Therefore, the $\\Delta DT_\\bar{x}$ and $\\Delta DT_z$ mapping parameters should be viewed as first-step reconnaissance tools for identifying source-rock potential.

  7. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  8. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Oil and gas potential is significant in Arctic Alaska. Beyond petroleum potential, this region supports unique fish and wildlife resources and ecosystems, and indigenous people who rely on these resources for subsistence. This report summarizes key existing scientific information and provides initial guidance of what new and (or) continued research could inform decision making. This report is presented in a series of topical chapters and various appendixes each written by a subset of the USGS OCS Team based on their areas of expertise. Three chapters (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) provide foundational information on geology; ecology and subsistence; and climate settings important to understanding the conditions pertinent to development in the Arctic OCS. These chapters are followed by three chapters that examine the scientific understanding, science gaps, and science sufficiency questions regarding oil-spill risk, response, and impact (Chapter 5), marine mammals and anthropogenic noise (Chapter 6), and cumulative impacts (Chapter 7). Lessons learned from the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill are included to identify valuable "pre-positioned" science and scientific approaches to improved response and reduced uncertainty in damage assessment and restoration efforts (appendix D). An appendix on Structured Decision Making (appendix C) is included to illustrate the value of such tools that go beyond, but incorporate, science in looking at what can/should be done about policy and implementation of Arctic development. The report provides a series of findings and recommendations for consideration developed during the independent examination of

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF A SCREENING MODEL FOR SURFACE SPREADING OF PETROLEUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overflows and leakage from aboveground storage tanks and pipelines carrying crude oil and petroleum products occur frequently. The spilled hydrocarbons pose environmental threats by contaminating the surrounding soil and the underlying ground water. Predicting the fate and transp...

  10. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  11. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  12. [Development and testing of "Ekosorb" biosorbent based on association of petroleum-oxidizing bacteria for purifying petroleum-polluted soils].

    PubMed

    Chugunov, V A; Ermolenko, Z M; Zhigletsova, S K; Martovetskaia, I I; Zhirkova, N A; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    A biosorbent containing an association of oil-oxidizing bacteria as a main constituent was developed, in which Lessorb, a product of moss and wood thermal processing, was used as a carrier. Xeroprotectors preserving the cell viability and oil-oxidizing activity in the biosorbent on drying and after long-term storage were selected. The use of this biosorbent for cleaning oil-polluted sod-podzol soils showed a two-threefold cleanup rate acceleration at different pollution levels (8 and 24 l/m2), especially in the presence of a nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer. The biosorbent increased the populations of certain groups of soil microorganisms and the total soil biological activity.

  13. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  14. Exploration in petroleum development in Oman: Getting a kick into the creaming curve

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, G.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) currently explores an 80,000 mi[sup 2] concession area. Major discoveries were made in the early 1960s in north Oman and in south Oman in the 1970s. However, in the middle to late 1980s, discovery sizes decreased, consistent with classical creaming curves, particularly as exploration concentrated on areas around the hydrocarbon fairways. With a flattening creaming curve, the outlook did not look rosy. PDO faced the question, [open quotes]Does this curve represent the future or could new ideas, a change in approach, or application of newer technologies give an upward kick to the creaming curve [close quotes] A major strategy review took place in which the potential of all plays was reviewed. Prospects were place into frontier, conventional, and exploratory appraisal types. String time was allocated over a five-year period on a basis of play testing for frontier plays and a steady realization of conventional and exploratory appraisal drilling as partial fulfillment of the annual exploration reserves replenishment target. Initial results are promising, and specific challenges including new plays, one unique to Oman, have been defined beyond the aims of the original strategy. Resolution of these challenges will lead to delineation of new hydrocarbon resources in Oman. At the same time, technological advances such as slim-hole drilling and extensive three-dimensional seismic, in concert with work-station interpretation, are being used, in order to minimize costs and increase the success ratio.

  15. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  16. Development and Calibration of Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Tanana River near Tok, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Moran, Edward H.

    2004-01-01

    Bathymetric and hydraulic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Tanana River in proximity to Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities' bridge number 505 at mile 80.5 of the Alaska Highway. Data were collected from August 7-9, 2002, over an approximate 5,000- foot reach of the river. These data were combined with topographic data provided by Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to generate a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated with water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions collected at a discharge of 25,600 cubic feet per second. The calibrated model was then used for a simulation of the 100-year recurrence interval discharge of 51,900 cubic feet per second. The existing bridge piers were removed from the model geometry in a second simulation to model the hydraulic conditions in the channel without the piers' influence. The water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions from these simulations can be used to evaluate the influence of the piers on flow hydraulics and will assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities in the design of a replacement bridge.

  17. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  18. Program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations at a petroleum refinery and determination of industrial hygiene emergency responses

    SciTech Connect

    Oransky, J.J.; Delp, S.N.; Deppen, E.A.; Barrett, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the modern world the field of industrial hygiene continues to grow beyond the traditional definition of the profession. This case study documents the problem solving approach used to identify potential exposures and evaluate industrial hygiene preparedness to handle emergencies due to fire or major spill at a complex multi-process petroleum refinery. In the recent past an environmental engineer and industrial hygiene consulting firm was retained by a mature, multi-process petroleum refinery to assist in the program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations due to a fire, major release, or spill. This study would assist the refinery in compliance with the process safety and emergency response standards and to protect refinery operations and fire fighting personnel by minimizing potential exposures and risk when responding to such a major incident.

  19. Comparative toxicological and chemical properties of fuels developed from coal, shale, or petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Smith, L.H.; Epler, J.L.; Witschi, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Diesel fuel-, gasoline-, and heating oil-range materials prepared from coal, shale, and petroleum are found to exhibit similar toxicological properties in studies to date. Benzo(a)pyrene content, the weight distribution of bioactive chemical fractions, bacterial mutagenicity, and skin tumorigenicity are found comparable for several refined products. 15 references, 3 tables.

  20. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  1. Effect of petroleum-related pollutants on Aurelia growth and development. Final progress report, September 12, 1977-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberg, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum-related hydrocarbons were tested using the Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System. In addition, extensive studies were made of the effects of Alaskan crude petroleum oil, cadmium, and sodium azide on Aurelia metamorphosis. The Aurelia Budding Test System was applied to phenol, aniline, and naphthalene and the Aurelia Genetic Modification Test System was developed to determine whether chemically-treated organisms had genetic damage which could be revealed in progeny over a long period of time. The Aurelia Genetic Modification Test System was applied to aniline, phenol, Alaskan crude petroleum oil, and sodium azide-treated organisms. It is concluded that the Aurelia can be used effectively to ferret out subtle effects of marine pollutants as well as far-reaching effects passed on through progeny over a long period of time. Pollutant effects are most rapidly revealed, however, in organisms undergoing metamorphosis especially with regard to effects related to iodine metabolism, calcium metabolism, and behavioral and morphological teratology. The premise is that specific effects of environmental pollutants must be known in order that these effects may be neutralized or prevented. Through an understanding of mechanisms of action of various pollutant components in simple indicator organisms such as Aurelia, it may ultimately be possible to maintain high standards of energy production and to have a safe and productive marine environment at the same time.

  2. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  3. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  4. The Influence of Fold and Fracture Development on Reservoir Behavior of the Lisburne Group of Northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Wesley K.; Hanks, Catherine L.; Whalen, Michael T.; Jensen1, Jerry; Shackleton, J. Ryan; Jadamec, Margarete A.; McGee, Michelle M.; Karpov1, Alexandre V.

    2001-07-23

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively underformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults, (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns, (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow, and (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics.

  5. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  6. Educating medical students for Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fortuine, R; Dimino, M J

    1998-01-01

    Because Alaska does not have its own medical school, it has become part of WAMI (Washington, Alaska, Montana, Idaho), an educational agreement with the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM). Each year, 10 Alaskans are accepted into the entering class of UWSM and spend their first year at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). UWSM third- and fourth-year medical students can obtain some of their clinical experience in Alaska. To meet the needs of Alaska, students are chosen based on academic and personal records, as well as the likelihood of their returning to Alaska for practice. To this end, over the last seven years 30% of accepted students have come from rural communities and 10% are Alaska Natives. The curriculum for the first year includes several sessions dedicated to Alaska health problems, cross-cultural issues, and Alaska's unique rural health care delivery system. Students do two preceptorships--one with a private primary care physician and one with a physician at the Alaska Native Medical Center. Additionally, students have the option to spend a week at a rural site to learn about the community's health care system. An Alaska track is being developed whereby an Alaskan UWSM student can do most of the third year in state via clerkships in family medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, psychiatry, internal medicine, and pediatrics. All UWSM students at the end of their first year can elect to participate for one month in the R/UOP (Rural/Underserved Opportunities Program), which includes several Alaska sites. The overall goals of these approaches are to educate UWSM students, especially Alaskans, about the state's health needs and health care system and to encourage UWSM graduates to practice in the state.

  7. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  8. Petroleum geology of Norton basin, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.A.

    1982-03-01

    Basement rocks beneath the main part of the Norton basin were deformed and heated during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous to the extent that these rocks were not capable of generating hydrocarbons when the basin formed during the latest Cretaceous or early Paleogene. Consequently, source rocks for oil, if they exist, are most likely to be within the basin fill. If the Norton basin began to form 65 m.y. ago, subsided at a nearly constant rate, and had an average geothermal gradient of between 35 and 45/sup 0/C/km, then rocks as young as late Oligocene are in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65 and 1.30%). The appearance on seismic sections of reflections from rocks in and below the calculated oil window suggests that these rocks were deposited in a nonmarine environment. Thus, gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons to be present in the basin. Because of their shallow depth of burial, Neogene (possibly marine) rocks are not likely to be thermally mature anywhere in the basin. Deep parts of the basin formed as isolated faultbounded lows; consequently, the volume of mature rocks makes up at most 11% of the total basin fill. Numerous potential traps for hydrocarbons exist in the Norton basin; the traps include fractured or weathered basement rocks in horsts, strata in alluvial fans on the flanks of horsts, and arched strata over horsts.

  9. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  10. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years.

  11. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschetti, M. P.; Mueller, C. S.; Boyd, O. S.; Petersen, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  12. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles S.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  13. Native Pathways to Education: Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks.

    The Alaska Federation of Natives, in cooperation with the University of Alaska, received funding to implement the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI). Over a 5-year period (1995-2000), AKRSI initiatives are systematically documenting the indigenous knowledge systems of Alaska Native people and developing educational policies and practices…

  14. Definition of basin phases in the Petrel Sub-basin (Australia): Implications for the development of Palaeozoic petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blevin, J.E.; Colwell, J.B.; Kennard, J.M. , Canberra )

    1996-01-01

    An study of the Petrel Sub-basin (Bonaparte Basin) on Australia's northwest margin has identified seven main phases of basin development spanning the Early Cambrian to Tertiary. Each phase was initiated and terminated by distinct, primarily tectonic events that have controlled the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the basin and the development of petroleum systems. These phases include periods of major extension (Early Cambrian, Middle Devonian to early Carboniferous) and compression (Early Devonian, mid-Triassic), as well as rapid and slow subsidence phases in the Early to Late Carboniferous and Late Carboniferous to Triassic, respectively. Basin inversion in the mid-Triassic has been critical in controlling the development of broad anticlinal features that presently reservoir the large, but as yet undeveloped gas/condensate fields Petrel and Tern. An earlier period of minor compression during the late Carboniferous initiated limited movement of Paleozoic salt within the deeper basin, forming salt-cored, low amplitude anticlines in the predominantly carbonate Tanmurra Formation, a play which remains untested. In the southern Petrel Sub-basin, early phases of hydrocarbon generation and fluid migration associated with salt movement are poorly understood. Preliminary results of geochemical studies indicate that there are at least two oil families in Devonian and Carboniferous reservoirs. This suggests multiple source intervals within the deeper flanks of the basin, thus the understanding of sedimentation during early basin phases may be critical in evaluating petroleum systems.

  15. Definition of basin phases in the Petrel Sub-basin (Australia): Implications for the development of Palaeozoic petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blevin, J.E.; Colwell, J.B.; Kennard, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    An study of the Petrel Sub-basin (Bonaparte Basin) on Australia`s northwest margin has identified seven main phases of basin development spanning the Early Cambrian to Tertiary. Each phase was initiated and terminated by distinct, primarily tectonic events that have controlled the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the basin and the development of petroleum systems. These phases include periods of major extension (Early Cambrian, Middle Devonian to early Carboniferous) and compression (Early Devonian, mid-Triassic), as well as rapid and slow subsidence phases in the Early to Late Carboniferous and Late Carboniferous to Triassic, respectively. Basin inversion in the mid-Triassic has been critical in controlling the development of broad anticlinal features that presently reservoir the large, but as yet undeveloped gas/condensate fields Petrel and Tern. An earlier period of minor compression during the late Carboniferous initiated limited movement of Paleozoic salt within the deeper basin, forming salt-cored, low amplitude anticlines in the predominantly carbonate Tanmurra Formation, a play which remains untested. In the southern Petrel Sub-basin, early phases of hydrocarbon generation and fluid migration associated with salt movement are poorly understood. Preliminary results of geochemical studies indicate that there are at least two oil families in Devonian and Carboniferous reservoirs. This suggests multiple source intervals within the deeper flanks of the basin, thus the understanding of sedimentation during early basin phases may be critical in evaluating petroleum systems.

  16. Soil Surface Organic Layers in Alaska's Arctic Foothills: Development, Distribution and Microclimatic Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, C. A.; Mann, D. H.; Verbyla, D.; Valentine, D.; Kunz, M. L.; Heiser, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accumulated organic matter at the ground surface plays an important role in arctic ecosystems. These soil surface organic layers (SSOLs) influence temperature, moisture, and chemistry in the underlying mineral soil and, on a global basis, comprise enormous stores of labile carbon. Understanding the dynamics of SSOLs is prerequisite to modeling the responses of arctic ecosystem processes to climate changes. Here, we ask three questions regarding SSOLs in the Arctic Foothills in northern Alaska: 1) What environmental factors control their spatial distribution? 2) How long do they take to form? 3) What is the relationship between SSOL thickness and mineral soil temperature through the growing season? The best topographically-controlled predictors of SSOL thickness and spatial distribution are duration of sunlight during the growing-season, upslope drainage area, slope gradient, and elevation. SSOLs begin to form within several decades following disturbance but require 500-700 years to reach equilibrium states. Once formed, mature SSOLs lower peak growing-season temperature and mean annual temperature in the underlying mineral horizon by 8° and 3° C respectively, which reduces available growing degree days within the upper mineral soil by nearly 80%. How ongoing climate change in northern Alaska will affect the region's SSOLs is an open and potentially crucial question.

  17. Structural development and petroleum potential of the Dagestan foreland thrust belt, Terek-Caspian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Sobornov, K. )

    1994-07-01

    The Dagestan foreland thrust belt represents a transition zone between the Terek-Caspian basin and Caucasus. Boreholes and seismic data obtained during the last decade in the course of petroleum exploration reveal considerable differences between the surface and subsurface structures of the area. The new data suggest that the allochthonous assemblage of the belt is formed mainly by stacked north-verging thrust sheets made up mostly of Mesozoic carbonates and sandstones bounded at the top and bottom by conjugate detachment surfaces. The thrust sheets are interpreted to be inserted into the clastic section of the Terek-Caspian foredeep along the base of Oligocene-early Miocene mudstones. The interpreted geometry of the thrust-belt front implies a shortening of about 20-50 km. The blind subsurface thrusts have been active since late Miocene and Holocene. The interpreted structural relationships between Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic units imply that principal thrusts were formed due to reactivation and inversion of low-angle normal faults, which were active in the Jurassic - early Miocene. Mechanical weakness and low density of the overpressured Oligocene - lower Miocene Maykop Formation aided subsurface thrusting. The new interpretation of the regional structure offers a petroleum exploration play consisting of structural traps within the buried antiformal stacks. Oil- and gas-bearing Upper Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks involved in thrust sheets are considered primary prospecting targets.

  18. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

  19. Including Alaska Natives in a Program for Native Culture and Arts Development. Report To Accompany S. 1059 from the Committee on Indian Affairs. Senate, 103d Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This report recommends a legislative amendment authorizing grants to support arts and culture development programs for Alaska Natives in the same manner as such programs are currently supported for Native Hawaiians. Missionaries and school teachers who arrived in Alaska in the late 19th and early 20th centuries attempted to impress their…

  20. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve equation of state model development : current performance against measured data.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2010-07-01

    This report documents the progression of crude oil phase behavior modeling within the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve vapor pressure program during the period 2004-2009. Improvements in quality control on phase behavior measurements in 2006 coupled with a growing body of degasification plant operations data have created a solid measurement baseline that has served to inform and significantly improve project understanding on phase behavior of SPR oils. Systematic tuning of the model based on proven practices from the technical literature have shown to reduce model bias and match observed data very well, though this model tuning effort is currently in process at SPR and based on preliminary data. The current report addresses many of the steps that have helped to build a strong baseline of data coupled with sufficient understanding of model features so that calibration is possible.

  2. Determination of a risk management primer at petroleum-contaminated sites: developing new human health risk assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Sun; Park, Jae-Woo

    2011-01-30

    Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is an important environmental contaminant that is toxic to human and environmental receptors. However, human health risk assessment for petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL)-contaminated sites is especially challenging because TPH is not a single compound, but rather a mixture of numerous substances. To address this concern, this study recommends a new human health risk assessment strategy for POL-contaminated sites. The strategy is based on a newly modified TPH fractionation method and includes an improved analytical protocol. The proposed TPH fractionation method is composed of ten fractions (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic EC8-10, EC10-12, EC12-16, EC16-22 and EC22-40). Physicochemical properties and toxicity values of each fraction were newly defined in this study. The stepwise ultrasonication-based analytical process was established to measure TPH fractions. Analytical results were compared with those from the TPH Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) Direct Method. Better analytical efficiencies in TPH, aliphatic, and aromatic fractions were achieved when contaminated soil samples were analyzed with the new analytical protocol. Finally, a human health risk assessment was performed based on the developed tiered risk assessment framework. Results showed that a detailed quantitative risk assessment should be conducted to determine scientifically and economically appropriate cleanup target levels, although the phase II process is useful for determining the potency of human health risks posed by POL-contamination.

  3. Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Alaska second stage development, Crater lake. Final foundation report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-04

    The important geologic features and methods used to construct the Crater Lake stage of the Snettisham Hydroelectric project, built between 1985 and 1989, are discussed. The project added 31 megawatts of non-polluting, renewable electric power for Juneau, Alaska and the surrounding area. Features of the report include the power tunnel and access adits, penstock excavation, surge shaft, gate shaft and lake top. Construction aspects include the general geology, design features, construction methods, geologic conditions encountered, ground support requirements, grouting, instrumentation and tunnel filling. Foundation conditions for the Crater Lake status were excellent, permitting the power and penstock tunnel and shafts to be constructed essentially unlined. The basic rock type throughout the project is a high-quality, quartz diorite gneiss with randomly spaced, subparallel basalt dikes.... Unlined rock tunnels, Power tunnel, Penstocks, Lake tap, Surge shaft.

  4. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  5. Quaternary Sediment Accumulation in the Aleutian Trench: Implications for Dehydration Reaction Progress and Pore Pressure Development Offshore Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meridth, L. N.; Screaton, E.; Jaeger, J. M.; James, S. R.; Villaseñor, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment inputs to subduction zones impart a significant control on diagenetic reaction progress, fluid production and pore pressure development and thus affect hydrologic and tectonic behavior during subduction. Intensified glaciation following the mid-Pleistocene transition increased sediment flux to the Gulf of Alaska. Rapid sediment accumulation (>1 km/my) in the Aleutian Trench increases overburden and should accelerate dehydration of hydrous sedimentary components by elevating temperatures in the incoming sediment column. These processes have the potential to generate fluid overpressures in the mud-dominated, low permeability sediments deposited on the incoming plate, offshore SE Alaska. Mineralogical analyses on incoming sediments from Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 18 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 show that both smectite and Opal-A are present as hydrous mineral phases. A 1-D numerical model was developed to track dehydration reaction progress and pore pressures in the incoming sediment column from the abyssal plain to the Aleutian Trench. Simulated temperatures in the incoming column increase due to the insulating effect of trench sediments. As a result, trench sedimentation causes smectite dehydration to begin and Opal-A dehydration to nearly reach completion at the deformation front. Simulated excess pore pressures in the proto-decollement zone increase from nearly hydrostatic to almost half of lithostatic due to the rapid deposition of trench sediments. The 1-D modeling results were incorporated into a 2-D model that follows the underthrust column at the deformation front into the subduction zone. Simulated results of the 2-D flow model illustrate the effects of lateral flow on pore pressure distribution following subduction.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of the Amerasia Basin Petroleum Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The Amerasia Basin Petroleum Province encompasses the Canada Basin and the sediment prisms along the Alaska and Canada margins, outboard from basinward margins (hingelines) of the rift shoulders that formed during extensional opening of the Canada Basin. The province includes the Mackenzie delta and slope, the outer shelves and marine slopes along the Arctic margins of Alaska and Canada, and the deep Canada Basin. The province is divided into four assessment units (AUs): (1) The Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin AU is that part of the rifted margin where the Brooks Range orogenic belt has overridden the rift shoulder and is deforming the rifted-margin prism of sediment outboard of the hingeline. This is the only part of the Amerasia Basin Province that has been explored and—even though more than 3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) of oil, gas, and condensate have been discovered—none has been commercially produced. (2) The Alaska passive margin AU is the rifted-margin prism of sediment lying beneath the Beaufort outer shelf and slope that has not been deformed by tectonism. (3) The Canada passive margin AU is the rifted-margin prism of sediment lying beneath the Arctic outer shelf and slope (also known as the polar margin) of Canada that has not been deformed by tectonism. (4) The Canada Basin AU includes the sediment wedge that lies beneath the deep Canada Basin, north of the marine slope developed along the Alaska and Canada margins. Mean estimates of risked, undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include more than 6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), more than 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of associated gas, and more than 16 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin AU; about 1 BBO, about 3 TCF of associated gas, and about 3 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Alaska passive margin AU; and more than 2 BBO, about 7 TCF of associated gas, and about 8 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Canada passive margin AU. Quantities of natural

  7. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  8. Effects of oil development in Arctic America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Large and important discoveries of petroleum were made in northern Alaska in 1968. The reserves were estimated then to be perhaps as much as ten thousand million barrels. Subsequent exploration has shown the resources to be much greater than was estimated earlier. Many problems must be solved before petroleum from northern Alaska reaches the world's markets. These problems are of three types: 1, those related to exploring, developing, and operating under the physical environments of the region; 2, those having to do with people-both the native people and those brought in from lower latitudes-and 3, those concerning the protection of the natural environments. The problems are great, but so also are the reserves of petroleum. To the extent that the problems are not solved, the cost of development and operation will be higher, the use of people will be expensive and unsatisfactory, and the natural environments will be threatened. The whole effort could be jeopardized on those grounds. ?? 1970.

  9. 76 FR 58263 - Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Requirements. Tesoro requests that the Commission determine that two crude oil pipelines, as well as several crude oil and refined petroleum products pipeline spurs that are part of Tesoro Alaska's...

  10. Ice interaction with the Arctic shelf and coast: Constraints on and implication for petroleum development

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.W.; Reimnitz, E. )

    1990-05-01

    Along the Arctic coast of Alaska sea ice affects structures placed on and under the sea bed and influences the erosion and dispersal patterns of sedimentary particulates and pollutants. Most directly, ice gouges the sea floor to depths of a few meters, with return periods on the inner shelf of tens of years and, in places, annually, primarily during freezeup and breakup. These sea-floor ice-gouge patterns provide information on the motion and characteristics of the local ice canopy. The design and alignment of pipelines and coast structures should consider that ice gouging extends to the coast and onto the beaches; however, ice gouging is less apparent on beaches owing to lower gouge intensities and vigorous wave reworking. In the long term, gouging contributes to high rates of coastal and shelf erosion. Protruding ice keels extending downward from the sea-ice canopy divert and focus currents causing increased sea-floor scour to depths of a few meters below the sea floor. Sea-ice freezing during the commonly turbulent fall storms causes large volumes of sediment and pollutants to be sorted, resuspended, and, ultimately, incorporated into the ice canopy. Most entrained material is re-released to the nearshore the following open-water season however, some material may be transported offshore to become part of the Arctic pack. During freezeup and breakup (4-5 months/yr) when these processes are most active, trafficability in the Arctic nearshore is nil owing to the instability of the ice canopy, and so our comprehension of this processes is limited.

  11. Development and verification of a screening model for surface spreading of petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Maged; Jin, Minghui; Weaver, James W.

    2002-08-01

    Overflows and leakage from aboveground storage tanks and pipelines carrying crude oil and petroleum products occur frequently. The spilled hydrocarbons pose environmental threats by contaminating the surrounding soil and the underlying ground water. Predicting the fate and transport of these chemicals is required for environmental risk assessment and for remedial measure design. The present paper discusses the formulation and application of the Oil Surface Flow Screening Model (OILSFSM) for predicting the surface flow of oil by taking into account infiltration and evaporation. Surface flow is simulated using a semi-analytical model based on the lubrication theory approximation of viscous flow. Infiltration is simulated using a version of the Green and Ampt infiltration model, which is modified to account for oil properties. Evaporation of volatile compounds is simulated using a compositional model that accounts for the changes in the fraction of each compound in the spilled oil. The coupling between surface flow, infiltration and evaporation is achieved by incorporating the infiltration and evaporation fluxes into the global continuity equation of the spilled oil. The model was verified against numerical models for infiltration and analytical models for surface flow. The verification study demonstrates the applicability of the model.

  12. Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the grant was to design, build, and test two autonomous instruments to measure vertical profiles of electrical potential in sea floor sediments. The objectives were fully met when the instruments were successfully deployed in 1,800 feet of water at known petroleum seepage sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The instruments were proven to be able to measure and record signals known to be appropriate to sediments altered by seepage. Two known seepage sites were visited on September 18th and 20th, 1996. At the first, a small-scale instrument capable of measuring 60 cm into the sediment was repeatedly emplaced by the manipulator arm of a research submarine, along a sea floor traverse. Further, the large-scale instrument, having a probe 3.3 m in length, was deployed by steel cable from the ship and emplaced in the sediment under gravity. Both successfully recorded data from multiple electrodes, revealing the expected negative potentials (Eh values at low at {minus}230 mV) at, and close to, the sediment-water interface, instead of at the normal depths of 3 to 4 m.

  13. Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.F.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the grant was to design, build, and test two autonomous instruments to measure vertical profiles of electrical potential in sea floor sediments. The objectives were fully met when the instruments were successfully deployed in 1,800 feet of water at known petroleum seepage sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The instruments were proven to be able to measure and record signals known to be appropriate to sediments altered by seepage. Two known seepage sites were visited on September 18th and 20th, 1996. At the first, a small-scale instrument capable of measuring 60 cm into the sediment was repeatedly emplaced by the manipulator arm of a research submarine, along a sea floor traverse. Further, the large-scale instrument, having a probe 3.3 m in length, was deployed by steel cable from the ship and emplaced in the sediment under gravity. Both successfully recorded data from multiple electrodes, revealing the expected negative potentials (Eh values as low as {minus}230 mV) at, and close to, the sediment-water interface, instead of at the normal depths of 3 to 4 m.

  14. Oiling the system: How activities and the state shaped the politics of petroleum development in Tabasco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Heather Dawn

    This dissertation analyzes the social, economic and political processes that accompanied the development of petroleum resources in Tabasco, Mexico. Through an historical examination of the case of Tabasco, I explore the general question of how and why state-led development becomes a contested terrain. Why does this sort of activism flourish during some time periods and not others? Under what conditions are relatively marginalized people able to effectively challenge the sort of domination inherent in state-led development plans? To what extent can activists succeed at reshaping the course of development? I argue that protest of state-led development is not necessarily linked to the pace or absolute impact of the social, environmental and economic changes being promoted. Instead, what is most central is the degree to which activists can successfully portray state-led development as an unjust process that contributes to inequality. However, the fact that activists are always constrained by the limits of existing state discourse seriously constrains the range of actions open to marginalized people. In the case of oil development in Tabasco, while activists were free to challenge the uneven distribution of rents, they have not been able to challenge the process itself. Indeed, the promise of material progress is common ground for both activists and the state. I conclude my dissertation with the observation that just as state discourses simultaneously create and limit possibilities for citizen protest, so social movement discourses simultaneously push for change and solidify the existing inequitable social structures.

  15. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and designed to…

  16. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 276 Renewable Resource Development on Department of Defense Bases in Alaska: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    The potential to increase utilization of renewable energy sources among military facilities in Alaska through coordinated development and operation is the premise of this task. The US Army Pacific Command requested assistance from PNNL to help develop a more complete understanding of the context for wheeling power within Alaska, including legal and regulatory barriers that may prohibit the DOD facilities from wheeling power among various locations to optimize the development and use of renewable resources.

  18. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  19. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps... Project (ASAP), From the North Slope to South Central Alaska, Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  2. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  3. Psychological and demographic correlates of early academic skill development among American Indian and Alaska Native youth: a growth modeling study.

    PubMed

    Marks, Amy Kerivan; Coll, Cynthia García

    2007-05-01

    Research regarding the development of early academic skills among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students has been very limited to date. Using a nationally representative sample of AIAN, Hispanic, African American, and White children at school entry, the authors used latent growth models to estimate the associations among poverty, low parental education, living in a rural location, as well as child attitudes toward learning and internalizing/externalizing behaviors, with mathematical and reading cognitive skill development across the 1st 4 years of school. Results indicate that AIAN children entered kindergarten with scores on both mathematical and reading cognitive tests that were comparable to their peers from other ethnic groups of color. Importantly, all children who entered kindergarten with lower cognitive skill scores also acquired skills more slowly over the next 4 years. Having a positive approach to learning at the start of kindergarten was associated with cognitive skill levels at school entry nearly 1 standard deviation above the population average. Results are discussed with reference to the shared early educational profiles observed between AIAN and other children of color. These findings provide a much-needed update regarding early academic development among AIAN children.

  4. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  5. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be [open quote]its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.[close quotes] Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989.

  6. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  7. Jurassic-Neocomian biostratigraphy, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, M.B.; Haga, H.

    1985-04-01

    The foraminiferal and palynological biostratigraphy of subsurface Jurassic and Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age strata from the North Slope were investigated to better define biostratigraphic zone boundaries and to help clarify the correlation of the stratigraphic units in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Through use of micropaleontologic data, eight principal biostratigraphic units have been identified. The Neocomian and Jurassic strata have each been subdivided into four main units.

  8. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  9. Alaska's Potential Tax Revenues. ISER Fiscal Policy Papers, No. 3, February 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Oliver Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s Alaska's state and local governments spent two to three times more per capita than governments in other states but taxed individuals and businesses only about half as much. They were able to do this because high petroleum revenues paid most government expenses. Petroleum revenues began declining in the 1980s, and by the year 2000,…

  10. Summer Resource Selection and Identification of Important Habitat Prior to Industrial Development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in Northern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Prichard, Alexander K.; Parrett, Lincoln S.; Person, Brian T.; Carroll, Geoffry M.; Smith, Melanie A.; Rea, Caryn L.; Yokel, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004–2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd’s range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  11. Summer resource selection and identification of important habitat prior to industrial development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan R; Prichard, Alexander K; Parrett, Lincoln S; Person, Brian T; Carroll, Geoffry M; Smith, Melanie A; Rea, Caryn L; Yokel, David A

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004-2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd's range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  12. Technique development for characterization of metalloorganics in acid-base-neutral fractions of heavy petroleum residues: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach for the characterization of metallorganic compounds in heavy petroleum residues has been developed. Wilmington 1000/sup 0/ F+ and Mayan 925/sup 0/ F+ residues and hydrotreated products were separated into acid-base-neutral (ABN) fractions by a unique nonaqueous ion-exchange technique developed at NIPER. The metal complexes in the feeds, hydrotreated products and ABN fractions were then characterized by determining the total vanadium and nickel and by measuring the vanadium and nickel porphyrin content of each fraction. Molecular weight distribution profiles of the vanadium and nickel compounds in the feed, 400/sup 0/C hydrotreated product and corresponding ABN fractions were obtained by size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma. The majority of the metal appeared to be in non-porphyrinic form. The vanadium and nickel complexes were distributed into all of the ABN fractions. In the feed and the whole hydrotreated products the porphyrin levels decreased as hydrotreating temperatures increased. In contrast to previously reported work, porphyrins do not always decrease when hydrotreated. The amount of porphyrins in certain ABN fractions increased after hydrotreating at moderate temperatures. The Mayan V and Ni complexes were more resistant to hydrotreating than the Wilmington metal complexes; in particular, the high molecular weight Mayan metal complexes were more resistant to hydrotreating than the high molecular weight Wilmington metal complexes. 15 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. The Influence of fold and fracture development on reservoir behavior of the Lisburne Group of northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen: Michael T. Whalen; Paul Atkinson; Joseph Brinton; Thang Bui; Margarete Jadamec; Alexandre Karpov; John Lorenz; Michelle M. McGee; T.M. Parris; Ryan Shackleton

    2004-07-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is folded and thrust faulted where it is exposed throughout the Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. Symmetrical detachment folds characterize the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range. In contrast, Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hangingwall anticlines and footwall synclines. The Continental Divide thrust front separates these different structural styles in the Lisburne and also marks the southern boundary of the northeastern Brooks Range. Field studies were conducted for this project during 1999 to 2001 in various locations in the northeastern Brooks Range and in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, immediately south of the Continental Divide thrust front. Results are summarized below for the four main subject areas of the study.

  14. Size and retention of breeding territories of yellow-billed loons in Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Wright, Kenneth G.; DeSorbo, Christopher R.; Fair, Jeff; Evers, David C.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow-billed Loons (Gavia adamsii) breed in lakes in the treeless Arctic and are globally rare. Like their sister taxa, the well-documented Common Loon (G. immer) of the boreal forest, Yellow-billed Loons exhibit strong territorial behavior during the breeding season. Little is known about what size territories are required, however, or how readily territories are retained from year to year. An understanding of territory dynamics and size is needed by management agencies as most of the U.S. breeding population of Yellow-billed Loons resides in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska where oil and gas development is expected to increase in the next few decades. Using locational data from a set of Yellow-billed Loons marked with satellite transmitters, we quantified an index of territory radius for each of three breeding populations: two in Alaska and one in Canada. The mean territory radius was 0.42 km for Yellow-billed Loons summering on lakes within the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska, 0.69 km for Yellow-billed Loons within the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (encompasses the National Petroleum Reserve), and 0.96 km for Yellow-billed Loons within Daring Lake in mainland Canada. In this study, the mean territory radius on the Arctic Coastal Plain was about half the distance identified in stipulations for industrial development in the National Petroleum Reserve. The range in territory size among areas corresponded to a gradient in size of lakes used by Yellow-billed Loons with territories at the two Alaska sites on lakes averaging < 200 ha while territories in Canada were generally on much larger lakes. In the year after capture, 71% of Yellow-billed Loons retained territories that were held the previous year. Most Yellow-billed Loons that lost their territories wandered over a large area within 6 km of their prior territory. No Yellow-billed Loons occupied new territories, though one reacquired its prior territory after a 1-year hiatus. Retention of a territory

  15. The Development of Three-Dimensional Gravity Inversion Software Applied to the Location and Geometry of the Border Ranges Fault System, South-Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, R.; Doser, D. I.; Mankhemthong, N.; Baker, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Summary The Border Ranges Fault (BRFS) system bounds the Cook Inlet and Susitna Basins, an important petroleum province within south-central Alaska. The inversion utilizes gravity data constrained with geophysical, borehole, and surface geological information. The gravity inversion software was developed and tested by comparing and verifying several plausible structural models using several layers of geologic structure along the BRFS. The novel inversion approach involves directly modeling known geology, initially free-air corrected data, and revising a priori uncertainties on the geologic model to allow comparisons to alternative interpretations. Previous modeling of the BRFS using geophysical data has been limited due to the complexity of local geology and structure, both of shallow crustal features and the deeper subduction zone. Since this inversion is based on a sequence of gridded surfaces, it is feasible to develop software to help build these gridded geologic models. The gravity surveys are used in conjunction with known topology to create gridded surfaces. The software uses a Generalized, Nonlinear Least-Squares criterion to calculate the density solution of each gridded surface based on forward computations involving semi-infinite vertical line elements. The user has the capacity to observe the gravity misfit and make adjustments to the "a priori" information upon careful examination of each computed structural model. By varying several input parameters, the user can yield a range of plausible density models for making comparisons to several interpretations. Forward Model Computations The gravitational contributions are computed using a geophysics formulation, namely the vertical line element. g = πR2Gρ( x2 + y2 + z2)-1/2 Each line element is semi-infinite and extends from the top to the bottom of each structural layer. The contribution of the body to the gravity measurement will be computed as a volume integral and added to the overall contributions of

  16. Development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging/spectroscopy for improved petroleum recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrufet, M.A.; Flumerfelt, F.W.; Walsh, M.P.; Watson, A.T.

    1994-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to develop and apply Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) and CT X-Ray Scanning methods for determining rock, fluid, and petrophysical properties and for fundamental studies of multiphase flow behavior in porous media. Specific objectives are divided into four subtasks: (1) development of NMRI and CT scanning for the determination of rock-fluid and petrophysical properties; (2) development of NMRI and CT scanning for characterizing conventional multiphase displacement processes; (3) development of NMR and CT scanning for characterizing dispersed phase processes; and (4) miscible displacement studies.

  17. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: Part I. Trace metals.

    PubMed

    Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Trefry, John H; Dasher, Douglas H; Kelley, John J; Venkatesan, M Indira

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ∼1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40 years. PMID:22901961

  18. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  19. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  20. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  1. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the northern Talkeetna Mountains represents a Kimmeridgian-Valanginian backarc basin that was filled by northwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Mesozoic strata of the island-arc assemblage. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the southern Alaska Range represents a Valanginian-Cenomanian remnant ocean basin filled by west-southwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Paleozoic continental-margin strata uplifted in the along-strike suture zone. A belt of retrograde metamorphism and a regional anticlinorium developed along the continental margin from 115 to 106 Ma, roughly coeval with the end of widespread deposition in the Kahiltna sedimentary basins. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. Coeval with metamorphism of deposits of the Kahiltna basin in the southern part of the suture zone was development of a thrust-top basin, the Cantwell basin, in the northern part of the suture zone. Geologic mapping and compositional data suggest that the 4 km of Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marginal marine sedimentary strata in this basin

  3. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  4. Development of NMRI spectroscopy for improved petroleum recovery, Annex 6. Annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Barrufet, M.A.; Flumerfelt, R.W.; Jennings, J.W.; Walsh, M.P.; Watson, A.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objectives are to develop and apply Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) and CT X-Ray Scanning methods for determining rock, fluid, and petrophysical properties and for fundamental studies of multiphase flow behavior in porous media. Specific objectives are to: (1) develop NMRI procedures for measuring porosity, permeability, pore size distribution, capillary pressure, and wetting characteristics, (2) apply imaging methods for improved methods of determining two- and three-phase relative permeability functions, (3) apply NMRI for development of a better understanding of dispersed phase displacement processes, and (4) apply imaging methods to develop a better understanding of saturation distribution and fingering during miscible displacements. The objectives have been organized into four subtasks. Annual progress reports for each subtask are provided.

  5. Development of the Alaska Heritage Stewardship Program for protection of cultural resources at increased risk due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Restoration study number 104a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, D.G.; Reger, D.

    1994-08-01

    The authors developed a stewardship program, based on functioning models in Arizona and Texas, to train interested local groups and individuals to protect cultural resources. The program was adapted to Alaska`s remoteness, sparse populations, and climate by giving Stewards greater flexibility to deal with local conditions. The State Office of History and Archaeology and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are attempting to implement Stewardship in areas expressing interest.

  6. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. A History of Schooling for Alaska Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the geographic and demographic contexts of Alaska schooling, federal policies that have affected education in Alaska, and the evolution of schooling for Alaska Native people. Describes the development of a dual federal/territorial system of schools, the initiation of federal and state reform efforts, Native-sponsored educational…

  8. Anchorage Kindergarten Profile: Implementing the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This paper discusses the development of the Anchorage Kindergarten Developmental Profile in the context of the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile and presents some evaluation results from studies of the Anchorage measure. Alaska mandated the completion of an Alaska Developmental Profile (ADP) on each kindergarten student and each student…

  9. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  10. Women's Legal Rights in Alaska. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatter, Sue Ellen; Saville, Sandra K.

    This publication is intended to help women in Alaska learn about their legal rights. Some of the information is of a general nature and will be of interest to women in other states. Some of the laws and resources are relevant to Alaska only. The publication can serve as a model to other states wanting to develop a resource to inform women about…

  11. Culturally Responsive Guidelines for Alaska Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines are predicated on the belief that culturally appropriate service to indigenous peoples is a fundamental principle of Alaska public libraries. While the impetus for developing the guidelines was service to the Alaska Native community, they can also be applied to other cultural groups. A culturally responsive library environment is…

  12. Petroleum and mineral resources in Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1986-05-01

    The US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established by presidential proclamation on March 10, 1983. It gives the US the sovereign right over living and nonliving resources out to 200 nmi from its coast and island territories, an area of about 6,100,000 mi/sup 2/. Within this vast frontier, petroleum, metallic, and nonmetallic mineral deposits have been discovered or are believed to exist. Petroleum exploration has moved into progressively deeper water throughout this century, and has expanded to include all the varied and complex margins of North America. Some areas (e.g., the Gulf of Mexico, offshore California, and the North Slope of Alaska) have become major petroleum provinces with considerable future deep-water potential. Other regions (e.g., the Atlantic margin and Gulf of Alaska) have been disappointing. Too little is known about basins associated with the Pacific volcanic islands to evaluate them as yet.

  13. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  14. Development regimes of rifted basins and criteria of their petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Larchenkov, E. )

    1994-07-01

    The majority of great sedimentary basins were formed primarily by stretching and usually initiated by rifting. The evolution and development of intercontinental and passive margin rifted basins are discussed. Each basin type described (in the paper) is associated with either single or branched rift zones. The basin types are (1) unburied rift, i.e., recent rifts, or ancient rifts with post-rift stage without significant subsidence such as East Africa rifts, and Reconcavo basin in Brazil; and (2) buried rift zones where the post-rift stage is characterized by active subsidence and sediment accumulation. The basins often form by repeated rifting, and a rift zone of a different age may be completely or partially superimposed or separated from other rifting events.

  15. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    A critical appraisal has been presented of the CHOP for a large-scale energy infrastructure development project that was implemented in two of the world's poorest countries. The project is under close scrutiny from various independent monitoring groups, civil society organizations, and human rights groups. Reviewing the achievements and shortcomings permits the extraction of important lessons that will be critical for the future adoption of the CHOP in the current setting and for the implementation of additional CHOPs elsewhere in the developing world. The authors believe that the design must be flexible, efficient, and innovative so that a CHOP promptly can address pressing public health issues as they arise (eg, epidemic outbreak) and include the needs and demands of the concerned communities. An innovative feature of the current project is the high degree and mix of public-private partnerships. The project's CHOP also relies on partnerships. As elaborated elsewhere, public-private partnerships should be seen as a social experiment--they reveal promise but are not the solution for every problem. For this CHOP, the focus is on partnerships between a multinational consortium, government agencies, and international organizations. The partnerships also include civil society organizations for monitoring and evaluation and local NGOs designated for the implementation of the selected public health interventions within the CHOP. The governments and their respective health policies often form the umbrella under which the partnerships operate. With the increase in globalization, however, the importance and capacities of governments have diminished, and there is growing private-sector involvement. Private enterprise is seen as an efficient, innovative, pragmatic, and powerful means to achieve environmental and social sustainability. Experiences with the partnership configurations in the current CHOP are of importance for tackling grand challenges in global health by

  16. A Model for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in Alaska's Rural K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Barbara L.; Woods, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Statewide Mentor Project (ASMP) is a joint effort of the University of Alaska and the Alaska Department of Education & Early Development to address the persistently low teacher retention rates in the state, especially in rural districts that predominantly serve Alaska Native (AN) students. Over six years, teacher retention in rural…

  17. The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates.

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Santini, D. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-01

    This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various PHEV charge-depleting (CD) ranges were evaluated, and 100% CD mode and potential blended modes were analyzed. The NHTS data were also examined to evaluate the potential for PHEV battery charging multiple times a day. Data from the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS) were analyzed to evaluate the availability of garages and carports for at-home charging of the PHEV battery. The AHS data were also reviewed by census region and household location within or outside metropolitan statistical areas. To illustrate the lag times involved, the historical new vehicle market share increases for the diesel power train in France (a highly successful case) and the emerging hybrid electric vehicles in the United States were examined. A new vehicle technology substitution model is applied to illustrate a historically plausible successful new PHEV market share expansion. The trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle sales and light-duty vehicle stock were evaluated to estimate the time required for hypothetical successful new PHEVs to achieve the ultimately attainable share of the existing vehicle stock. Only when such steps have been accomplished will the full oil savings potential for the nation be achieved.

  18. The effect of Piriformospora indica on the root development of maize (Zea mays L.) and remediation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    As the depth of soil petroleum contamination can vary substantially under field conditions, a rhizotron experiment was performed to investigate the influence of endophyte, P. indica, on maize growth and degradation of petroleum components in a shallow and a deep-reaching subsurface layer of a soil. For control, a treatment without soil contamination was also included. The degree in contamination and the depth to which it extended had a strong effect on the growth of the plant roots. Contaminated soil layers severely inhibited root growth thus many roots preferred to bypass the shallow contaminated layer and grow in the uncontaminated soil. While the length and branching pattern of these roots were similar to those of uncontaminated treatment. Inoculation of maize with P. indica could improve root distribution and root and shoot growth in all three contamination treatments. This inoculation also enhanced petroleum degradation in soil, especially in the treatment with deep-reaching contamination, consequently the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plant tissues were increased.

  19. [Hygienic assessment of the water quality of water reservoirs in regions with developed petrochemical and petroleum refining industries].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, R A

    1996-01-01

    The pollution intensity of the Belay River was studied in different periods of petroleum refining processes over many years. The extent of river pollution was determined. The calculated complex indices for river pollution allow one to make hygienic ranging of the river by the basic hazard indices.

  20. Micropaleontology of selected wells and seismic shot holes, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mickey, Michael B.; Haga, Hideyo; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides micropaleontologic data (foraminifera, pollen, spores, and microplankton) and interpretations of the rocks penetrated by 49 wells and 3,134 seismic shot holes distributed among 73 seismic lines (figs. 1, 2; table 1). All shot holes and 30 wells are located within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA); the remaining 19 wells are located adjacent to the NPRA. The biostratigraphic zonation scheme, stratigraphy, and geologic ages followed in this study are summarized in figure 3. This update brings paleontologic analyses performed at various times over several decades to a current, unified set of interpretations that benefit from the evolution of northern Alaska biostratigraphic understanding developed during the past 33-years by Mickey and Haga. For each well, paleontologic information includes microfossil distribution charts, data spreadsheets, diversity graphs, and interpretive reports describing age and environments of deposition. Three biostratigraphic well-correlation sections that relate Chukchi Sea wells to onshore northwestern NPRA wells are also included. For all analyzed seismic shot hole samples, foraminiferal age and environmental interpretations are provided; palynological interpretations are provided only for those shot hole samples collected and analyzed after 1976, a little less than half of the total number of samples.

  1. Sustainability, equity, and natural resource development in northwest Siberia and Arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, N.A.; Andreeva, E.N.

    1995-06-01

    Today, the search for new energy sources continues unabated throughout the North. At the same time, scientists are increasingly concerned over the degradation of the Arctic and sub-Arctic environment stemming from fossil fuel and other large-scale energy projects already underway. Similar apprehensions are expressed by indigenous peoples who have often suffered from the impact of such development. While the most dramatic evidence of environmental devastation and social disruption is found in the Russian North, serious problems are by no means confined to that area alone. Nor are these negative effects necessarily limited to the borders of the country in which they originated. Indeed, the deleterious environmental impact of our global industrial economy has become sufficiently profound that social analysts are beginning to ask whether development strategies that cause such harm to the Arctic and sub-Arctic region should continue; and if not, what should replace them. This article addresses these issues as they relate to questions of sustainability, equity, political environment, and human rights in northwest Siberia and northern North America.

  2. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  3. Arctic Shrub Growth Response to Climate Variation and Infrastructure Development on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, D.; Finlay, J. C.; Griffin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Woody shrub growth in the arctic tundra is increasing on a circumpolar scale. Shrub expansion alters land-atmosphere carbon fluxes, nutrient cycling, and habitat structure. Despite these ecosystem effects, the drivers of shrub expansion have not been precisely established at the landscape scale. This project examined two proposed anthropogenic drivers: global climate change and local infrastructure development, a press disturbance that generates high levels of dust deposition. Effects of global change were studied using dendrochronology to establish a relationship between climate and annual growth in Betula and Salix shrubs growing in the Alaskan low Arctic. To understand the spatial heterogeneity of shrub expansion, this analysis was replicated in shrub populations across levels of landscape properties including soil moisture and substrate age. Effects of dust deposition on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photosynthetic rate were measured on transects up to 625 meters from the Dalton Highway. Dust deposition rates decreased exponentially with distance from road, matching previous models of road dust deposition. NDVI tracked deposition rates closely, but photosynthetic rates were not strongly affected by deposition. These results suggest that dust deposition may locally bias remote sensing measurements such as NDVI, without altering internal physiological processes such as photosynthesis in arctic shrubs. Distinguishing between the effects of landscape properties, climate, and disturbance will improve our predictions of the biogeochemical feedbacks of arctic shrub expansion, with potential application in climate change modeling.

  4. Methane hydrate potential and development of a shallow gas field in the arctic: The Walakpa Field North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the North Slope Hydrate Study is to evaluate the methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa gas field, a shallow gas field located near Barrow, Alaska. Observing, understanding, and predicting the production characteristics of the Walakpa field will be accomplished by the analysis of the reservoir geology, and of the individual well production data, derived from reservoir engineering studies conducted in the field.

  5. Methane hydrate potential and development of a shallow gas field in the arctic: The Walakpa Field North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, R.K.

    1992-06-01

    The goal of the North Slope Hydrate Study is to evaluate the methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa gas field, a shallow gas field located near Barrow, Alaska. Observing, understanding, and predicting the production characteristics of the Walakpa field will be accomplished by the analysis of the reservoir geology, and of the individual well production data, derived from reservoir engineering studies conducted in the field.

  6. ASTER and Ground Observations of Vegetation Primary Succession and Habitat Development near Retreating Glaciers in Alaska and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Furfaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    Like active volcanoes, glaciers are among the most dynamic components of the Earth's solid surface. All of the main surface processes active in these areas have an ability to suddenly remake or "resurface" the landscape, effectively wiping the land clean of vegetation and habitats, and creating new land surface and aqueous niches for life to colonize and develop anew. This biological and geomorphological resurfacing may remove the soil or replace it with inorganic debris layers. The topographical, hydrological, and particle size-frequency characteristics of resurfaced deglaciated landscapes typically create a high density of distinctive, juxtaposed niches where differing plant communities may become established over time. The result is commonly a high floral and faunal diversity and fecundity of life habitats. The new diverse landscape continues to evolve rapidly as ice-cored moraines thaw, lakes drain or fill in with sediment, as fluvial dissection erodes moraine ridges, as deltaic sedimentation shifts, and other processes (coupled with primary succession) take place in rapid sequence. In addition, climate dynamics which may have caused the glaciers to retreat may continue. We will briefly explore two distinctive glacial environments-(1) the maritime Copper River corridor through the Chugach Mountains (Alaska), Allen Glacier, and the river's delta; and (2) Nepal's alpine Khumbu valley and Imja Glacier. We will provide an example showing how ASTER multispectral and stereo-derived elevation data, with some basic field-based constraints and observations, can be used to make automatic maps of certain habitats, including that of the Tibetan snowcock. We will examine geomorphic and climatic domains where plant communities are becoming established in the decades after glacier retreat and how these link to the snowcock habitat and range. Snowcock species have previously been considered to have evolved in close association with glacial and tectonic history of South and

  7. Fundamentals of petroleum. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gerding, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: Petroleum Geology; Petroleum Exploration; Aspects of Leasing; Drilling Operations; Production; Transportation; Refining and Processing; Petroleum Marketing; and Economics of the Industry.

  8. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  9. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  10. Relationship between abundance of blunt-nosed leopard lizards, Crotaphytus silus, and intensity of petroleum field development in Kern County, California, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.

    1980-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the distribution and relative abundance of blunt-nosed leopard lizards, Crotaphytus silus, on three sections of BLM land impacted by light to moderate petroleum developments; (2) correlate relative density estimates with absolute density estimates, characteristics of the dominant vegetation associations, density of animal burrows, percent open space, and level of oil field development; and (3) determine the radius of movement for the species. Relative densities of lizards in each section were measured by counting all lizards seen during four surveys conducted between May and July 1980.

  11. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport.

  12. AAPG - The formative years (1915-1926). [A historical perspective of the development of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, F.A. )

    1991-03-01

    In the year 1915 there were no more than a few hundred geologists in the world who might identify themselves as petroleum specialists. Operators had had good success drilling along creeks in Pennsylvania, on hills in Oklahoma, and on mounds in the Gulf Coast without much regard for the subsurface geology. Although Union Oil of California had formed a geological department in 1900, geological input was generally looked upon with skepticism. It is reported that when Bill Skelly hired the first geologist to work for his company, he went to great pains to inform his investors that he was paying the man out of his own pocket rather than from corporate funds. By the fall of 1915, J. Elmer Thomas, a geologist with Minnehoma Oil Company in Tulsa and later to become the first president of AAPG, felt motivated to invite 30 fellow petroleum geologists to an October 2 dinner at the Hotel Tulsa for the purpose of, in his own words, 'fostering friendship within our ranks and of permitting the mutual benefits that would arise from the occasional exchange of data and ideas{hor ellipsis}.' Twenty-seven attended and during the discussion that took place, James H. Gardner suggested that they form a geological society. October 25th and the convention was held on January 7-8, 1916. Approximately 60 geologists attended. During the next ten year, membership grew from 94 to 1,504. The name Southwestern Association of Petroleum Geologists was adopted in 1917 and changed to American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1918. Association business was conducted from the offices and homes of the members of the Executive Committee until August, 1926, when a permanent office was established in Tulsa under business manager J.P.D. Hull.

  13. [STATE OF THE SOIL IN THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY WITH THE DEVELOPED PETROLEUM-REFINING INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Berezin, I I; Suchkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014, there was performed the study of the soil in the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk. The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk were determined. The evaluation of concentrations ofanthropogenic toxicants was carried out in Novokuibyshevsk by means of laboratory monitoring of environmental pollution. The obtained values were compared with the MPC or in the absence of MPC--with tentatively permissible concentrations (TPC) of chemicals in soil background concentrations in the Volga region of Samara region, as well as with previous studies of the soil of the city of Novokuibyshevsk in 2005. The studies revealed that in 2014, if compared with 2005, concentrations of heavy metals in soil on the territory of the industrial zone of the city of Novokuibyshevsk and within the city border decreased. There were obtained significant differences in the soil content ofcadmium, copper, lead, Nickel and zinc in 2005 and 2013-2014. Unlike the content of salts of heavy metals, the content of petroleum products in the soil over the past 9 years had tended to increase. The maximum concentration of petroleum products was detected in the industrial zone of CHP-1. The number of samples with extremely high pollution rised from 4% to 8%, with high pollution--from 10% to 12%. Also, an increase in the number of samples with the level of 2-20 background values accounted from 56% to 66%. The gain in concentrations of petroleum in the soil on the territory of the city of Novokuibyshevsk was associated not only with the activity of the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industry, but also with the elevating number of road transport. PMID:26625613

  14. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  15. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  16. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  17. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  18. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  19. A volcanic activity alert-level system for aviation: review of its development and application in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2013-01-01

    An alert-level system for communicating volcano hazard information to the aviation industry was devised by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) during the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. The system uses a simple, color-coded ranking that focuses on volcanic ash emissions: Green—normal background; Yellow—signs of unrest; Orange—precursory unrest or minor ash eruption; Red—major ash eruption imminent or underway. The color code has been successfully applied on a regional scale in Alaska for a sustained period. During 2002–2011, elevated color codes were assigned by AVO to 13 volcanoes, eight of which erupted; for that decade, one or more Alaskan volcanoes were at Yellow on 67 % of days and at Orange or Red on 12 % of days. As evidence of its utility, the color code system is integrated into procedures of agencies responsible for air-traffic management and aviation meteorology in Alaska. Furthermore, it is endorsed as a key part of globally coordinated protocols established by the International Civil Aviation Organization to provide warnings of ash hazards to aviation worldwide. The color code and accompanying structured message (called a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) comprise an effective early-warning message system according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. The aviation color code system currently is used in the United States, Russia, New Zealand, Iceland, and partially in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. Although there are some barriers to implementation, with continued education and outreach to Volcano Observatories worldwide, greater use of the aviation color code system is achievable.

  20. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Alaska OCS socioeconomic studies program. Technical report number 54, Volume 1. Bering-Nortonorton petroleum development scenarios sociocultural systems analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellanna, L.J.

    1980-04-30

    The document deals with a diachronic perspective of the sociocultural systems of the Bering Strait-Norton Sound area (Shishmaref to Alakanuk including the Bering Strait Islands). The focus is on the Inupiat and Yuit cultural systems of the area, but non-Native sociocultural systems could not be ignored because the area is a functional system. Traditional Inupiat and Yuit culture is considered, the period of initial impact on Native systems by Euroamerican agents of change, the response of this system to change, and the contemporary sociocultural baseline including subsistence, land and sea values, economic systems, political systems, social systems, inethnic relationships, and positive and negative indicators of response to change.

  2. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Bence, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. Current water quality in Cook Inlet, Alaska, study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segar, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    The University of Alaska Anchorage`s Environment and Natural Resources Institue conducted a 1993 field investigation to establish a baseline of information on the occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons, naturally occuring radioactive materials, and trace metals in Cook Inlet, Alaska. The sampling and analyses included trace metals and hydrocarbons in water, biota, and sediments; sediment grain size; carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen in sediments; naturally occurring radioactive materials in mollusc shells; total suspended solids and suspended sediment trace metals in water; hydrgraphy; and water and sediment bioassays.

  5. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  6. Water-elevation, stream-discharge, and ground-water quality data in the Alaska Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1993 to May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kriegler, A.T.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    From May 1993 to May 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management collected data on ground-water and surface-water elevations, stream discharge, and ground-water quality in the Alaska Railroad Industrial area in Fairbanks, Alaska. The data- collection efforts were coordinated with environmental efforts being made in the study area by the Alaska Railroad Corporation. These data were collected as part of an effort to characterize the hydrogeology of the Alaska Railroad Industrial area and to define the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in the area. Ground-water data were collected at 52 observation wells, surface-water data at 12 sites, stream discharge data at 9 sites, and chemical water-quality data at 32 observation wells.

  7. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF FOLD AND FRACTURE DEVELOPMENT ON RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR OF THE LISBURNE GROUP OF NORTHERN ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Michael T. Whalen; Jerry Jensen; Paul K. Atkinson; Joseph S. Brinton

    2000-05-01

    The Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding and lithostratigraphy on fracture patterns. (3) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. (4) The influence of lithostratigraphy and deformation on fluid flow. The results of field work during the summer of 1999 offer some preliminary insights: The Lisburne Limestone displays a range of symmetrical detachment fold geometries throughout the northeastern Brooks Range. The variation in fold geometry suggests a generalized progression in fold geometry with increasing shortening: Straight-limbed, narrow-crested folds at low shortening, box folds at intermediate shortening, and folds with a large height-to-width ratio and thickened hinges at high shortening. This sequence is interpreted to represent a progressive change in the dominant shortening mechanism from flexural-slip at low shortening to bulk strain at higher shortening. Structural variations in bed thickness occur throughout this progression. Parasitic folding accommodates structural thickening at low shortening and is gradually succeeded by penetrative strain as shortening increases. The amount of structural thickening at low to intermediate shortening may be inversely related to the local amount of structural thickening of the Kayak Shale, the incompetent unit that underlies the Lisburne. The Lisburne Limestone displays a different structural style in the south, across the boundary between the northeastern Brooks Range and the main axis of the Brooks Range fold

  9. Substrate Geochemistry and Soil Development in Boreal Forest and Tundra Ecosystems in the Yukon-Tanana Upland and Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Crock, J.G.; Wang, B.; Day, W.C.; Eberl, D.D.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report on soil development as a function of bedrock type and the presence of loess in two high latitude ecosystems (boreal forest and tundra) and from two regions in Alaska?the Yukon-Tanana Upland (YTU, east-central Alaska) and the Seward Peninsula (SP, far-west coastal Alaska). This approach to the study of 'cold soils' is fundamental to the quantification of regional geochemical landscape patterns. Of the five state factors in this study, bedrock and biota (ecosystem; vegetation zone) vary whereas climate (within each area) and topography are controlled. The influence of time is assumed to be controlled, as these soils are thousands of years old (late Quaternary to Holocene). The primary minerals in soils from YTU, developed over loess and crystalline bedrock (metamorphic and intrusive), are quartz, plagioclase, and 2:1 clays; whereas in the SP, where loess and metasedimentary bedrock (schist and quartzite) predominate, they are quartz and muscovite. The A horizon of both regions is rich in peat. Examination of the ratio of mobile (K2O, CaO, and Fe2O3) to immobile (TiO2) major oxides, within each region, shows that very little difference exists in the chemical weathering of soils developed between the two ecosystems examined. Differences were observed between tundra soils developed in the two regions. These differences are most probably due to the dissimilarity in the geochemical importance of both loess and bedrock. A minimal loss of cadmium with soil depth is seen for soils developed over YTU crystalline bedrock in the boreal forest environments. This trend is related to the mobility of cadmium in these soils as well as to its biogenic cycling. Major differences were observed in the proportion of cadmium and zinc among the A, B, and C horizon material sequestered in various soil fractions as measured by sequential soil extractions. These trends followed such variables as the decrease with depth in organic matter, the change in clay minerals, and the change

  10. A "CASE" Study on Developing Science Communication and Outreach Skills of University Graduate Student Researchers in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesche, M. E.; Conner, L.

    2015-12-01

    Well rounded scientific researchers are not only experts in their field, but can also communicate their work to a multitude of various audiences, including the general public and undergraduate university students. Training in these areas should ideally start during graduate school, but many programs are not preparing students to effectively communicate their work. Here, we present results from the NSF-funded CASE (Changing Alaska Science Education) program, which was funded by NSF under the auspices of the GK-12 program. CASE placed science graduate students (fellows) in K-12 classrooms to teach alongside of K-12 teachers with the goal of enhancing communication and teaching skills among graduate students. CASE trained fellows in inquiry-based and experiential techniques and emphasized the integration of art, writing, and traditional Alaska Native knowledge in the classroom. Such techniques are especially effective in engaging students from underrepresented groups. As a result of participation, many CASE fellows have reported increased skills in communication and teaching, as well as in time management. These skills may prove directly applicable to higher education when teaching undergraduate students.

  11. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  12. The development of a method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbon components using thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijie; Guo, Guanlin; Yan, Zengguang; Lu, Guilan; Wang, Qunhui; Li, Fasheng

    2010-01-15

    An analytical scheme to determine groups of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in crude oil was developed and used for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of crude oil samples from the Shengli oilfield, the second largest oilfield in China. Crude oil samples were fractionated and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID). Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for retention time, peak height and half peak width were less than 5.2% for all classes of compounds, based on nine independent replicates. The crude oil light fraction was further analyzed by GC-MS and the majority of identified compounds were methyl- or hydro-derivatives of long-chain hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds. The external standard method used in the present study can lower detection limits of petroleum hydrocarbon compound classes to 20.0 mg L(-1), and the crude oil concentration in the range of 30 and 35,000 mg L(-1) has a high linear correlation (r(2)>0.97, P<0.05) with peak area. A comparison between elution chromatography (EC) and TLC-FID regarding the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was carried out with aged crude oil contaminated soils of 50, 80, 200 and 300 mg g(-1). The tested TLC-FID method showed a 10% higher recovery for total extractable materials than the reference EC method. The calibration factor was fraction-dependent and varied with the recovery rate of TLC/EC. Regarding the tested extraction procedures, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) had a higher extraction efficiency for crude oil contaminated soils than Soxhlet and ultrasonic extractions.

  13. The development of statistical models to determine the relationship between aromatic-ring class profile and repeat-dose and developmental toxicities of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Nicolich, Mark J; Simpson, Barry J; Murray, F Jay; Roth, Randy N; Gray, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The repeat-dose and developmental toxicities of certain petroleum refinery streams are related to their polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) content (Feuston et al., 1994). Building on this foundation, and working within the context of the US EPA High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge Program, we: (1) characterized relationships between PAC content and repeat-dose and developmental toxicities of high boiling petroleum substances (HBPS), and (2) developed statistical models that can be used to predict critical effects of similar untested substances. Data from 39 dermal toxicity studies of HBPS were used to develop statistical models to predict the dose-response relationships between the weight percent concentration of each of their 1-7 aromatic ring classes and 4 repeat-dose and 3 developmental endpoints (absolute thymus weight, hemoglobin count, platelet count, liver to body weight, live fetus count, fetal weight, and percent resorptions). The correlations between the observed and model-predicted values are >0.90. The predictive ability of the models was tested via a series of evaluation or corroboration methods. As is shown in the paper, using only compositional data of untested HBPS, the models can be used to predict the effect at a given dose or the dose that causes an effect of a stipulated magnitude.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF FOLD AND FRACTURE DEVELOPMENT ON RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR OF THE LISBURNE GROUP OF NORTHERN ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen; Michael T. Whalen

    2002-01-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. The Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is characteristically deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hanging wall anticlines and footwall synclines. In contrast, the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range is characterized by symmetrical detachment folds. The focus of our 2000 field studies was at the boundary between these structural styles in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The northern edge of thrust-truncated folds in Lisburne is marked by a local range front that likely represents an eastward continuation of the central Brooks Range front. This is bounded to the north by a gently dipping panel of Lisburne with local asymmetrical folds. The leading edge of the flat panel is thrust over Permian to Cretaceous rocks in a synclinal depression. These younger rocks overlie symmetrically detachment-folded Lisburne, as is extensively exposed to the north. Six partial sections were measured in the Lisburne of the flat panel and local range front. The Lisburne here is about 700 m thick and is interpreted to consist primarily of the Wachsmuth and Alapah Limestones, with only a thin veneer of Wahoo Limestone. The Wachsmuth (200 m) is gradational between the underlying Missippian Kayak Shale and the overlying Mississippian Alapah, and

  1. Margin Architecture and Sediment Flux as Controls on Submarine Fan Development: Tectonic-Climate Interactions in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. P. S.; Montelli, A.; Swartz, J. M.; Morey, S.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Worthington, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The oblique collision of the Yakutat microplate into southeast Alaska generates the St. Elias Mountains, a coastal orogen with significant moisture from the Gulf of Alaska resulting in large, temperate glacial systems that expand to and eventually cross the continental shelf during glacial maxima. We present an overview of the evolution of sediment routing on this margin from integration of seismic images, updated age models and core-log-seismic correlations from IODP Expedition 341 drilling sites, and mapping efforts from shelf, slope, and fan. We focus on the three dominant glacial systems during the climatically important intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at the Plio-Pleistocene transition and the further intensification of glaciation since the mid-Pleistocene transition. Along strike, sediment delivery to deepwater from the three glacial systems varied according to Pleistocene shelf accommodation space. The Alsek crossed a narrower shelf with a bedrock high near the shelf edge; the Malaspina-Hubbard system crossed an undeformed, ~1 km deep shelf; the Bering-Bagley system crossed a several km deep shelf deforming as an active fold and thrust belt. The Malaspina and Bering catchments exhibit high exhumation rates onshore due to the Yakutat collision and upon reaching the shelf edge these glaciers generate trough mouth fans (TMFs) on the adjacent continental slope but only after first filling the available accommodation with glacigenic sediment and lowering the slope gradient through progradation. The Alsek crosses the shelf earliest but never with sufficient sediment flux to generate a TMF. An east-west transition in adjacent deepwater submarine channels that feed and generate the Surveyor Fan suggests that shelf accommodation and sediment flux are primary controls on sediment routing from orogen to submarine fan. Both of these parameters are in turn a function of initial tectonic architecture and ongoing orogen dynamics.

  2. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  3. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  4. Petroleum Depletion, Economic Development, and the Concept of Terracentrism: New Directions in Critical Hermeneutics, Involving a Study of Official Publications from the UN and the OECD from 1975 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Blaine D.

    2007-05-01

    This is a study of policy statements from the UN and OECD. I explored conceptual linkages between petroleum depletion and economic development, with particular emphasis on Third World debt. Petroleum has served as the primary feedstock for the vast majority of commercial and industrial products used in modern society; however, its role has often been poorly understood. The era of relatively cheap petroleum is now over. Findings in the literature indicate that sensitivity to petroleum's socioeconomic role fluctuate in inverse proportion to its availability; moreover, the discourse on economic development varied, depending upon whether or not core or peripheral states were involved. There was no universal standard by which all states were measured. Currently, society has neither the adequate conceptual tools nor the vocabulary for construing this new challenge on a global scale. To this end, using petroleum depletion as the focus, the new theoretical approach of Terracentrism is presented as a first step toward developing a new, more Earth-centered vocabulary. The fundamental idea behind Terracentrism is to incorporate non-human, ecological, Earth-based elements into the analysis of all large-scale human and organizational systems.

  5. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Second Progress Report, 1 July 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Derek

    Covering the period January 1 through June 30, 1975, this second semi-annual report on the Applied Fishery Science Program operative at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska presents information regarding program progress and Alaska Native students involved in science education. Specifically, this report details: Planning and Coordination…

  6. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Fifth Progress Report, 1 February 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    Summarizing the beginning of the second year of operation of the hatchery and educational program provided by the Applied Fisheries Science Program at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska for Alaska Natives and non-Native groups interested in salmon ranching, this fifth semi-annual report covers the period July 1 through December 31, 1976 and…

  7. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  10. Alaska Simulator - A Journey to Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Barbara; Pinggera, Jakob; Zugal, Stefan; Wild, Werner

    The Alaska Simulator is an interactive software tool developed at the University of Innsbruck which allows people to test, analyze and improve their own planning behavior. In addition, the Alaska Simulator can be used for studying research questions in the context of software project management and other related fields. Thereby, the Alaska Simulator uses a journey as a metaphor for planning a software project. In the context of software project management the simulator can be used to compare traditional rather plan-driven project management methods with more agile approaches. Instead of pre-planning everything in advance agile approaches spread planning activities throughout the project and provide mechanisms for effectively dealing with uncertainty. The biggest challenge thereby is to find the right balance between pre-planning activities and keeping options open. The Alaska Simulator allows to explore how much planning is needed under different circumstances.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  15. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  16. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  17. Method for recovering petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Coenen, H.; Kriegel, E.

    1985-08-06

    A process for recovering petroleum from deposits which have already been worked by primary extraction or are not suited for primary extraction. A gas in its supercritical state is introduced into the deposit. The supercritical gas charges itself with the petroleum while flowing through the deposit. The charged supercritical gas leaves the deposit and the petroleum is separated in a plurality of fractions from the charged supercritical gas.

  18. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  20. The Alaska experience using store-and-forward telemedicine for ENT care in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kokesh, John; Ferguson, A Stewart; Patricoski, Chris

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the development, evaluation, and growth of telemedicine in Alaska. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been used to deliver ear, nose, and throat (ENT) care to rural Alaska since 2002. It has proved valuable in the treatment of many conditions of the head and neck, and it is particularly well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of ear disease. Usage has grown steadily as telemedicine has become widely accepted. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been shown within the Alaska Native Health System to improve access for care and reduce wait times, as well as decrease travel-associated costs for patients. PMID:22032488

  1. The Alaska experience using store-and-forward telemedicine for ENT care in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kokesh, John; Ferguson, A Stewart; Patricoski, Chris

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the development, evaluation, and growth of telemedicine in Alaska. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been used to deliver ear, nose, and throat (ENT) care to rural Alaska since 2002. It has proved valuable in the treatment of many conditions of the head and neck, and it is particularly well suited for the diagnosis and treatment of ear disease. Usage has grown steadily as telemedicine has become widely accepted. Store-and-forward telemedicine has been shown within the Alaska Native Health System to improve access for care and reduce wait times, as well as decrease travel-associated costs for patients.

  2. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  3. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  4. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  5. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  6. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  7. The impact of Holocene soil-geomorphic riparian development on the role of salmon- derived nutrients in the coastal temperate rainforest of southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Bonzey, N.; Berkowitz, J.; Ruegg, J.; Bridgham, S.

    2008-12-01

    Salmon and riparian systems are linked in an ecological cycle that is important to both salmon life histories and riparian ecological functions in the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of southeast Alaska. Glacial rebound after the last glacial maximum during the Pleistocene expanded riparian zones by uplifting former estuaries in the CTR. The development of these lower river systems enhanced the movement of salmon into stream channels adjacent to terrestrial vegetation and increased the supply of salmon derived nutrients (SDN) to terrestrial ecosystems during the late Holocene. The flow of SDN to and from river systems has been the focus of recent research due to the potential for enhanced aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem productivity. However, there is very little known about the geomorphic development of the terrestrial and aquatic system that supports this important ecological coupling. Mass-spawning species of salmon are most often found in alluvial-fan and floodplain-channel process groups associated with specific soil geomorphic associations in southeast Alaska. We have developed an integrated model of geological controls over stream channel formation combined with soil geomorphology to provide a template for integrating studies of nutrient cycles associated with SDN in CTR streams. River systems and fish populations started to stabilize in their present configuration approximately 6ky ago, which established the primary template for soil and vegetation development in riparian zones along salmon spawning channels. Subsequent sediment delivery from the watershed formed at least two terraces on top of the estuarine base-level. A lower, younger floodplain terrace and an older terrace were identified and described and provide a range of characteristics associated with soil development in riparian zones of these distal portions of large watersheds in the CTR. Many SDN studies have not been able to distinguish the impact of SDN on terrestrial nutrient cycles due

  8. An evaluation of the science needs to inform decisions on Outer Continental Shelf energy development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Pierce, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    On March 31, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced a national strategy for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development. In that announcement, the Administration outlined a three-pronged approach (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010a): Development: "...expand development and production throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including resource-rich areas of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico..." Exploration: "...expand oil and gas exploration in frontier areas, such as the Arctic Ocean and areas in the Atlantic Ocean, to gather the information necessary to develop resources in the right places and the right ways." Conservation: "...calls for the protection of special areas like Bristol Bay in Alaska...national treasure[s] that we must protect for future generations." In a companion announcement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010b), within the Administration's "Exploration" component, the Secretary asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an initial, independent evaluation of the science needs that would inform the Administration's consideration of the right places and the right ways in which to develop oil and gas resources in the Arctic OCS, particularly focused on the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (fig. 1).

  9. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  10. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  11. Influence of pre-Mississippian paleogeology on Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Arctic National Wildlife refuge, northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.F.; Carlson, R.; Imm, T.; Gruzlovic, P.; Hanks, C.

    1988-02-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group of northern Alaska formed an extensive carbonate platform, which was later deformed as part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In the northeast, the Lisburne Group is parautochthonous and analogous to that at Prudhoe Bay. The Lisburne's paleogeography and facies relationships pertain to assessment of the petroleum potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The Franklinian paleogeology, unconformably underlying the Ellesmerian sequence, has influenced sedimentation patterns in the Lisburne Group. The transgressive Endicott Group (Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak, Shale) and Lisburne Group thin northward over Franklinian basement highs. In the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Katakturuk Dolomite formed a paleotopographic high over which the Endicott Group inched out and the Lisburne Group thinned. Shallow-marine oolitic grainstone developed in the cyclic Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone.

  12. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, Larry D.; Lilly, Michael R.; Kane, Douglas L.; Miller, D. Dan; Galloway, Braden K.; Hilton, Kristie M.; White, Daniel M.

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  13. A new frontier province offshore northwest Greenland: Structure, basin development, and petroleum potential of the Melville Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Hamann, N.E.

    1997-06-01

    In the Melville Bay area, offshore northwest Greenland, very large structures and sedimentary basins, which were predicted many years ago on the basis of magnetic and gravity data, have been confirmed by a recent reconnaissance seismic survey, with implications that are encouraging for petroleum exploration in the area. The Melville Bay area flanks a small ocean basin in Baffin Bay that is thought to have formed by oblique sea-floor spreading in the Eocene. There are two major, coast-parallel basins in the area. The inner basin, the Melville Bay Graben, is essentially a half graben with a maximum thickness of sediments exceeding 13 km. A complex fault-controlled ridge system separates this basin from the outer Kivioq Basin in which up to 7 km of sediments have accumulated. By analogy with onshore geology in the surrounding areas and well data from the continental shelves off southern west Greenland and Labrador to the south, it is expected that the first phase of rifting and sedimentation took place in the Early-middle Cretaceous, while a second phase of rifting took place in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene. Later, compression and inversion affected the northern part of the area, leading to the formation of large anticlinal structures. The existence of large tilted fault blocks and inversion anticlines provides grounds for anticipating the presence of large structural traps. Synrift sandstones and deeper water fans are expected to provide potential reservoirs, and correlatives of oil-prone source rocks known from the lower part of the upper Cenomanian-lower Maastrichtian Kanguk Formation in the Canadian Arctic may also have oil source properties in the Melville Bay area. Recent discoveries of live oil in the uppermost Cretaceous and lower Tertiary of onshore central west Greenland provide proof that oil has been generated in the region.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  15. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  16. Petroleum production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book is a study of petroleum production written for those with technical expertise between novice and professional. Covers petroleum reservoirs and drive mechanisms, well completion, well performance evaluation, primary cementing, perforating, squeeze cementing, packer and tubing forces, problem well analysis, workover methods, workover planning, and beam pumping.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  18. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  20. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  1. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  2. The Alaska Public School Fund: A Permanent Fund for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, E. Dean

    This paper examines the development of Alaska's Public School Fund, its current status, and its potential as a major revenue source for elementary and secondary education. The fund, which was created following the 1915 federal school lands grant to Alaska, is examined for the 1916-58 territorial period, the 1959-78 early statehood period, and the…

  3. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  4. “What makes life good?” Developing a culturally grounded quality of life measure for Alaska Native college students

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B.; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Mekiana, Deborah; Ctibor, Alaina; Church, Charlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native (AN) college students experience higher attrition rates than their non-Native peers. Understanding the factors that contribute to quality of life (“what makes life good”) for AN students will help inform supportive programs that are congruent with their culture and college life experiences. Objectives Co-develop a conceptual model and a measure of quality of life (QOL) that reflects the experiences of AN college students. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 26 AN college students. Within a community–academic partnership, interactive data collection activities, co-analysis workgroup sessions and an interactive findings forum ensured a participant-driven research process. Findings Students identified and operationally defined eight QOL domains (values, culture and traditions, spirituality, relationships, basic needs, health, learning and leisure). The metaphor of a tree visually illustrates how the domains values, culture and traditions and spirituality form the roots to the other domains that appear to branch out as students navigate the dual worldviews of Native and Western ways of living. Conclusions The eight QOL domains and their items identified during focus groups were integrated into a visual model and an objective QOL measure. The hope is to provide a useful tool for developing and evaluating university-based programs and services aimed toward promoting a positive QOL and academic success for AN students. PMID:23984302

  5. Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lira-Galeana, C.; Firoozabadi, A.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1996-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework uses the experimentally supported assumption that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent that does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax-precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

  6. Thermodynamics of wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Lira-Galeana, C.L.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    A thermodynamic framework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum mixtures over a wide temperature range. The framework assumes that the precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid-phase is described as a pure component or pseudocomponent which does not mix with other solid phases. Liquid-phase properties are obtained from an equation of state. Calculated wax precipitation data are in excellent agreement with experimental results for binary and multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures, including petroleum.

  7. Encouraging Involvement of Alaska Natives in Geoscience Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Fowell, S. J.; Kowalsky, J.; Solie, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geologically, Alaska is a dynamic state, rich in mineral and energy resources. The impact of natural geologic hazards and mineral resource development can be especially critical in rural areas. While Alaska Natives comprise a large percentage of Alaska's rural population, few have the training to be leaders in the decision-making processes regarding natural hazard mitigation or mineral resource evaluation and exploitation. UAF, with funding from the National Science Foundation, has embarked on a three year integrated program aimed at encouraging young Alaska Natives to pursue geosciences as a career. The program combines the geologic expertise at UAF with established Alaska Native educational outreach programs. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program specifically designed to prepare rural high school students for college. To attract college-bound Alaska Native students into the geosciences, geoscience faculty have developed a college-level, field-intensive, introductory RAHI geoscience course that will fulfill geoscience degree requirements at UAF. In years two and three, this class will be supplemented by a one week field course that will focus on geologic issues encountered in most Alaskan rural communities, such as natural hazards, ground water, mineral and energy resources. In order to retain Alaska Native undergraduate students as geoscience majors, the program is providing scholarships and internship opportunities in cooperation with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program (ANSEP). Undergraduate geoscience majors participating in ANSEP can intern as teaching assistants for both the classroom and field courses. Besides being mentors for the RAHI students, the Alaska Native undergraduate geoscience majors have the opportunity to interact with faculty on an individual basis, examine the geologic issues facing Alaska Natives, and explore geology as a profession.

  8. Development of a Geologic Exploration Model foe the Permo-Pennsylvanian Petroleum System in South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Lopez

    2007-06-30

    presented: migration occurred (1) before mid-Jurassic erosion produced a major regional unconformity or (2) about 82 million years ago. Migration pre-Laramide occurred because oil in both the Bighorn Basin and the Powder River Basin are part of the same petroleum system. Geochemical analyses of oils from producing fields across the region show the oils are all similar and have the same source and generation history. No Phosphoria source rocks exist in the project area of south-central Montana, requiring that oil migrated from distant source areas, probably in central and southwestern Wyoming. Oil shows and production in the Tensleep are absent in the northern part of the project area. This appears to be controlled by the merging of the top of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Jurassic unconformity (top of the Triassic Chugwater Formation). There should be potential for the discovery of oil in Tensleep stratigraphic traps or combination traps everywhere south of the Jurassic-Pennsylvanian Isopach zero contour except where the Tensleep has been exposed by uplift and erosion. Known Tensleep fields in south-central Montana are generally small in area, which agrees with outcrop studies that show eolian dune sequences are generally quite small in lateral extent, on the order of 10 to 40 acres. Although existing fields are small in area, they are very productive; individual wells will probably make 300,000 to 500,000 barrels of oil. In the project area, hydrodynamic considerations are important. All the existing Tensleep fields have active water drives. In many cases, the reservoir pressure today is as it was when initially discovered. In areas of high structural complexity, such as the Lodge Grass-Crow Agency fault and the Lake Basin fault zone, significant structural closure may be necessary to trap oil because of the strong hydrodynamic influence exerted by the underlying Madison Formation aquifer.

  9. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  14. The State of Adolescent Health in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Office of the Commissioner, Juneau.

    A survey was conducted to provide a profile of the health status and risk behaviors of youth in Alaska. The goal was to develop a statewide database which, when coupled with morbidity and mortality data, would provide information that would allow those who plan and develop services at state and local levels to better target those services. During…

  15. Alaska Standards for School Library Media Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians--Alaska, Juneau.

    Developed to encourage and promote the establishment and maintenance of standards of excellence in all school library media centers, standards presented here are designed to be the minimum acceptable for Alaska schools. Each school is urged to use the standards as a base to develop a quality library media program which reflects the unique…

  16. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  17. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  18. Population size and trend of Yellow-billed Loons in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Stehn, R.A.; Platte, Robert; Larned, W.W.; Mallek, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii) is of conservation concern due to its restricted range, small population size, specific habitat requirements, and perceived threats to its breeding and wintering habitat. Within the U.S., this species breeds almost entirely within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, nearly all of which is open, or proposed to be opened, for oil development. Rigorous estimates of Yellow-billed Loon population size and trend are lacking but essential for informed conservation. We used two annual aerial waterfowl surveys, conducted 1986a??2003 and 1992a??2003, to estimate population size and trend on northern Alaskan breeding grounds. In estimating population trend, we used mixed-effects regression models to reduce bias and sampling error associated with improvement in observer skill and annual effects of spring phenology. The estimated population trend on Alaskan breeding grounds since 1986 was near 0 with an estimated annual change of a??0.9% (95% CI of a??3.6% to +1.8%). The estimated population size, averaged over the past 12 years and adjusted by a correction factor based on an intensive, lake-circling, aerial survey method, was 2221 individuals (95% CI of 1206a??3235) in early June and 3369 individuals (95% CI of 1910a??4828) in late June. Based on estimates from other studies of the proportion of loons nesting in a given year, it is likely that <1000 nesting pairs inhabit northern Alaska in most years. The highest concentration of Yellow-billed Loons occurred between the Meade and Ikpikpuk Rivers; and across all of northern Alaska, 53% of recorded sightings occurred within 12% of the area.

  19. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  20. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  1. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  2. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  3. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  4. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  5. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  6. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  7. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  8. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  9. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  11. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lee C.; Carr, Timothy R.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-02-24

    This report covers the fourth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. The DPA is a longterm effort to develop a new methodology for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is a new and evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies.

  12. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; Owen, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  13. Scenarios to prioritize observing activities on the North Slope, Alaska in the context of resource development, climate change and socio-economic uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.; Lassuy, D.

    2014-12-01

    The North Slope of Alaska is experiencing rapid changes in response to interacting climate and socioeconomic drivers. The North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) is using scenarios as a tool to identify plausible, spatially explicit future states of resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas through the year 2040. The objective of the scenarios process is to strategically assess research and monitoring needs on the North Slope. The participatory scenarios process involved stakeholder input (including Federal, State, local, academic, industry and non-profit representatives) to identify key drivers of change related to resource extraction activities on the North Slope. While climate change was identified as a key driver in the biophysical system, economic drivers related to oil and gas development were also important. Expert-reviewed informational materials were developed to help stakeholders obtain baseline knowledge and stimulate discussions about interactions between drivers, knowledge gaps and uncertainties. Map-based scenario products will allow mission-oriented agencies to jointly explore where to prioritize research investments and address risk in a complex, changing environment. Scenarios consider multidecadal timescales. However, tracking of indicator variables derived from scenarios can lead to important insights about the trajectory of the North Slope social-environmental system and inform management decisions to reduce risk on much shorter timescales. The inclusion of stakeholders helps provide a broad spectrum of expert viewpoints necessary for considering the range of plausible scenarios. A well-defined focal question, transparency in the participation process and continued outreach about the utility and limitations of scenarios are also important components of the scenarios process.

  14. Development and evaluation of an enhanced diabetes prevention program with psychosocial support for urban American Indians and Alaska natives: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Vasquez, Jan J; Naderi, Ramin; Jeffery, Nicole; Hedlin, Haley; Qin, FeiFei; LaFromboise, Teresa; Megginson, Nancy; Pasqua, Craig; Flores, Orena; McClinton-Brown, Rhonda; Evans, Jill; Stafford, Randall S

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is highly prevalent, affecting over 25 million adults in the US, yet it can be effectively prevented through lifestyle interventions, including the well-tested Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) adults, the majority of whom live in urban settings, are more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as non-Hispanic whites. Additionally, prevalent mental health issues and psychosocial stressors may facilitate progression to diabetes and hinder successful implementation of lifestyle interventions for AIAN adults. This 2-phased study first engaged community stakeholders to develop culturally-tailored strategies to address mental health concerns and psychosocial stressors. Pilot testing (completed) refined those strategies that increase engagement in an enhanced DPP for urban AIAN adults. Second, the enhanced DPP will be compared to a standard DPP in a randomized controlled trial (ongoing) with a primary outcome of body mass index (BMI) and a secondary outcome of quality of life (QoL) over 12months. Obese self-identified AIAN adults residing in an urban setting with one or more components of the metabolic syndrome (excluding waist circumference) will be randomized to the enhanced or standard DPP (n=204). We hypothesize that addressing psychosocial barriers within a culturally-tailored DPP will result in clinical (BMI) and superior patient-centered (QoL) outcomes as compared to a standard DPP. Exploratory outcomes will include cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose) and health behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity). Results of this trial may be applicable to other urban AIAN or minority communities or even diabetes prevention in general.

  15. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  16. Birds and Wetlands of Alaska. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Alaska Sea Grant Report 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James G.; King, Mary Lou

    This curriculum guide is the fourth (Series V) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. Twelve units contain 45 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) bird lists and field guides; (2) definitions of a bird; (3) parts of a bird; (4) bird watching; (5) bird migration; (6) wetland…

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  19. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  2. China's petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps because of declining yields inland, the People's Republic of China has moved to its storm-ridden coast to develop additional petroleum reserves. During 1979 and 1980, 44 foreign oil-exploration companies engaged in what has been termed the world's record “seismic shoot” over 411,000 km2 extending from the Yellow Sea through the South China Sea, and including Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin), the bay lying east of Hanoi and west of Hainan Island. These offshore oil reserves are estimated to be 40-100 billion barrels.The seas off the mainland are relatively shallow (most drilling has been done in less than 100 m) but they are stormy. According to a recent description, “Typhoons can … occur in the area at almost any time of the year, and the strong winds (160 km h-1 or more) which they generate frequently wreak havoc in the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and occasionally, Hong Kong. Typhoon Vera, which hit southern China in late July, did immense damage and claimed dozens of lives. The main implications for oil operation naturally relate to rig design and safety measures but onshore facilities will also have to be designed accordingly” (New Scientist, Sept. 8, 1983).

  3. Lacustrine petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, A.J.; Kelts, K.; Talbot, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a proceedings volume from a 1985 symposium sponsored by the Geological Society of London and the International Geological Correlation Program Project No. 219 (Comparative lacustrine sedimentology in space and time). That meeting set the tone for subsequent IGCP No. 219 symposia, where sedimentary, petroleum, and structural geologists, as well as geochemists and paleontologists, have grappled with important problems in lake geology. The 1985 meeting on lacustrine source rocks considered the following questions: (1) How can we develop more refined methods for interpreting depositional environments from lake deposits and fossils , (2) What limnologic, sedimentologic, and tectonic conditions are most conducive to the production and accumulation of organic matter in lakes , (3) What diagenetic changes affect organic-rich sediments after deposition , and (4) How can questions 2 and 3 be best evaluated from the stratigraphic record As a group, lakes are extremely productive ecosystems. Marine environments that would be ranked as high productivity systems are only moderately productive by lacustrine standards. Even with energy transfer rates of less than a few percent from the primary producers to the sediment, lacustrine mudrocks can be extremely rich in organic matter. The major limitations of lacustrine source rocks are not lithologic but limitations of scale (both spatial and temporal). How, in the middle of a continent, do you get a hole in the ground that is both big enough and long-lasting enough to generate significant quantities of hydrocarbons

  4. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  5. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  6. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  7. Developing Service Plans: A Resource Manual for American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start/Early Head Start Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This "Developing Service Plans" guide is a tool to assist grantees in the development of written service plans. It provides a structure that can be tailored to meet the needs of individual grantees. Services Plans are a management tool for planning, organizing and implementing Head Start program services to children and families. As stated in the…

  8. Online Petroleum Industry Bibliographic Databases: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margaret B.

    This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…

  9. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  10. Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Anchorage.

    The goal of this first comprehensive report on adolescent health in Alaska is to stimulate interest, activity, and support for improved health among teenagers (ages 10-19). This plan was developed as a tool for use by governments, organizations, and communities. The plan seeks to provide information on the scope and nature of adolescent health…

  11. Pacific Rim Partnerships: Alaska's Bold Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Calkins, Annie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Alaska Sister Schools Network, formed in 1985 to create opportunities for Alaskan students to experience more directly the cultural and economic perspectives of their Pacific Rim neighbors. Network organizers go beyond the "pen-pal" approach to encourage three partnership levels: initial acquaintance, curriculum development, and…

  12. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Fourth Progress Report, 1 July 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    Covering the period January 1 through June 30, 1976, this fourth and final semi-annual report of the first two-year grant for the Applied Fishery Science Program operating at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska presents the following information; Background (program objectives, advisory committee, and program staff); Program Progress…

  13. Development of an Applied Fisheries Science Program for Native Alaskans at Sheldon Jackson College (Sitka, Alaska). Third Progress Report, 1 January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Mel

    Covering the period between July 1 to December 31, 1976, this third semi-annual report on the Applied Fishery Science Program operative at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska deals primarily with the first quarter of hatchery and educational program operation. Specifically, this report addresses the following: Program Objectives; Advisory…

  14. The development of folds and cleavages in slate belts by underplating in accretionary complexes: A comparison of the Kodiak Formation, Alaska and the Calaveras Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.

    1988-08-01

    The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and

  15. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).

  16. Predicting petroleum phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie

    2003-03-01

    Phototoxicity to Daphnia magna was studied on 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 petroleum products (ranging from diesel to crude oil). The phototoxicity ranking of pure PAHs was about the same as found in another study on fish gill cells in vitro (Toxicology 127 (1998) 143), suggesting that the relative acute phototoxicity does not differ significantly between different species. Most petroleum products were found to be phototoxic, although the results differ somewhat between test methods (preparation of water-accommodated fractions or petroleum ether dissolved oil slurries). The degree of phototoxicity of a sample is related to both the source and the refining process of the crude oil. The best chemical predictors found were the concentrations of eight phototoxic parent PAHs. An even simpler analytical technique suggested for initial screening would be direct measurements of "total PAH," where samples having more than 3% PAH should be studied further.

  17. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H.

    1996-12-31

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  18. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  19. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. The Influence of Fold and Fracture Development on Reservoir Behavior of the Lisburne Group of Northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.; Whalen, M.T.; Jensen, J.; Atkinson, P.K.; Brinton, J.S.

    2001-01-09

    The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults, (2) The influence of folding and lithostratigraphy on fracture patterns, (3) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics, and (4) The influence of lithostratigraphy and deformation on fluid flow.

  5. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  6. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  7. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  8. Alaska's Young Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Marilyn R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Edgecumbe Enterprises, a four-year-old fish exporting venture run by Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, Alaska, and the students' meeting with business leaders in Tokyo, Japan. The young entrepreneurs spent two weeks studying the Japanese marketing structure. (JOW)

  9. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  10. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  11. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  12. FY10 RARE Final Report to Region 10: The functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin - report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peatlands in south central Alaska form the predominant wetland class in the lowlands that encompass Cook Inlet. These peatlands are also in areas of increasing human development in Alaska. Currently Alaska peatlands are extensive and largely pristine. This study focused onobtaini...

  13. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  15. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  16. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  17. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  18. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  20. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  2. Feasibility studies for the development of petroleum areas. Integrated exploitation project of the fields in the area north of Santa Cruz. Volume 2. Tables and figures. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The report, generated by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. for Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, documents the results of a feasibility study which addressed the viability of developing petroleum areas in Bolivia. The primary objective of the project was to describe the reservoirs that have been discovered and their reserves, describe which would be the best alternatives for development of these reservoirs, and to determine the best alternatives for development of all the reserves together. The report, volume 2 of 4 contains Tables and Figures.

  3. Fundamentals of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents basic information about the petroleum industry. Nine fully illustrated chapters cover geology, exploration, leasing, drilling, production, transportation, refining and processing, marketing, and economics of the industry, with the extensive use of high tech in every phase of the industry described. A detailed index facilitates the book's use as a reference.

  4. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  5. Development of a Monitoring Protocol to Detect Ecological Change in the Intertidal Zone of Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Madison, Erica N.

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study to develop and test a probability-based intertidal monitoring protocol for Sitka National Historical Park was conducted from 1999 to 2003. In 1999, the basic design, with a focus on sampling the whole of the designated intertidal was created, and sampling was conducted for sessile species and large mobile invertebrates by point-intercept sampling of vertical transects and band surveys along transects, respectively. In 2002 and 2003, the same types of sampling were conducted, but quadrat sampling for small mobile invertebrates was added and then modified. This project has produced basic data on the presence, abundance, and spatial distribution of substrates and intertidal biota. Additionally, statistical power analyses conducted on the biological data have allowed assessment of the ability of the sampling to detect trends in the abundance of the predominant species. Current sampling has an 80 percent probability to detect +10 percent annual changes in abundance of all targeted species with an a = 0.05; the ability to detect -10 percent trends is not as uniformly high. Various options are discussed for decreasing the spatial variance of the data. The information presented provides a basis for discussion of the major questions being asked, how the sampling design might be reconfigured to be consistent in approach, and how the intertidal monitoring should interface with other potential intertidal monitoring.

  6. Micromorphologic evidence for paleosol development in the Endicott group, Siksikpuk formation, Kingak(?) shale, and Ipewik formation, western Brooks range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; White, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Micromorphologic evidence indicates the presence of paleosols in drill-core samples from four sedimentary units in the Red Dog area, western Brooks Range. Well-developed sepic-plasmic fabrics and siderite spherules occur in claystones of the Upper Devonian through Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate (Endicott Group), the Pennsylvanian through Permian Siksikpuk Formation (Etivluk Group), the Jurassic through Lower Cretaceous Kingak(?) Shale, and the Lower Cretaceous Ipewik Formation. Although exposure surfaces have been previously recognized in the Endicott Group and Kingak Shale on the basis of outcrop features, our study is the first microscopic analysis of paleosols from these units, and it provides the first evidence of subaerial exposure in the Siksikpuk and Ipewik Formations. Regional stratigraphic relations and geochemical data support our interpretations. Paleosols in the Siksikpuk, Kingak, and Ipewik Formations likely formed in nearshore coastal-plain environments, with pore waters subjected to inundation by the updip migration of slightly brackish ground water, whereas paleosols in the Kanayut Conglomerate probably formed in a more distal setting relative to a marine basin.

  7. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  8. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  9. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  10. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  11. The Early Years, the Critical Years: Implications of Brain Research on Early Childhood Policy and Practice in Alaska. Conference Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, September 23-25, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    Alaska's "The Early Years, The Critical Years" conference was designed to educate participants about current brain research, give them an opportunity to discuss public policy with state administrators, provide a forum to develop recommendations and activities to support young children in Alaska, and offer quality training about early development.…

  12. Telecommunication in Alaska. Papers in Support of the Alaska Case Study Presentation to the 1982 Pacific Telecommunications Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, January 17-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walp, Robert M., Ed.

    The 26 papers in this collection present the history and organization, system components and techniques, social aspects, and economics of telecommunications development in Alaska, with special emphasis on the growth and use of satellite systems. The first five papers cover developments beginning when Alaska was still Russian-owned, and also…

  13. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Clay mineralogy, fine-grained sediment dispersal, and inferred current patterns, lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Bouma, A.H.; Hampton, M.A.; Robin, Ross C.

    1979-01-01

    Because lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf are being explored and developed for their petroleum resources, it is essential for environmental reasons to understand the sediment dispersal routes and current patterns. The Susitna River flows into upper Cook Inlet and is the source of clay minerals in Holocene deposits found in western lower Cook Inlet. The Copper River, in the northern Gulf of Alaska, provides clay minerals to the Kodiak shelf and southeastern lower Cook Inlet. In addition, crosion of local bedrock outcrops on the shelf produces some clays that are deposited on the Kodiak shelf. Current patterns can be inferred from the clay-mineral distribution pattern. This is true even if the clay-size fraction is a minor sediment component, and in areas where coarse-grained relict deposits occur. Some potential dangers from offshore petroleum development include: (1) rapid and complete mixing of Cook Inlet waters, (2) adsorption of pollutants by clay deposited in quiet bays, and (3) ion-exchange and adsorption of chemical pollutants on clays that are part of the suspended sediment load in lower Cook Inlet. ?? 1979.

  8. Two stochastic models useful in petroleum exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. M.; Bradley, P. G.

    1972-01-01

    A model of the petroleum exploration process that tests empirically the hypothesis that at an early stage in the exploration of a basin, the process behaves like sampling without replacement is proposed along with a model of the spatial distribution of petroleum reserviors that conforms to observed facts. In developing the model of discovery, the following topics are discussed: probabilitistic proportionality, likelihood function, and maximum likelihood estimation. In addition, the spatial model is described, which is defined as a stochastic process generating values of a sequence or random variables in a way that simulates the frequency distribution of areal extent, the geographic location, and shape of oil deposits

  9. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    No production has been established in the Reel-foot rift. However, at least nine of 22 exploratory wells have reported petroleum shows, mainly gas shows with some asphalt or solid hydrocarbon residue. Regional seismic profiling shows the presence of two large inversion structures (Blytheville arch and Pascola arch). The Blytheville arch is marked by a core of structurally thickened Elvins Shale, whereas the Pascola arch reflects the structural uplift of a portion of the entire rift basin. Structural uplift and faulting within the Reelfoot rift since the late Paleozoic appear to have disrupted older conventional hydrocarbon traps and likely spilled any potential conventional petroleum accumulations. The remaining potential resources within the Reelfoot rift are likely shale gas accumulations within the Elvins Shale; however, reservoir continuity and porosity as well as pervasive faulting appear to be significant future challenges for explorers and drillers.

  10. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  12. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  13. Reindeer ranges inventory in western Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT data as a tool for reindeer range inventory on the tundra of northwestern Alaska is addressed. The specific goal is to map the range resource and estimate plant productivity of the Seward Peninsula. Information derived from these surveys is needed to develop range management plans for reindeer herding and to evaluate potential conflicting use between reindeer and caribou. The development of computer image classification techniques is discussed.

  14. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  15. Alaska Head Start. A Federal, State, and Community Program. Annual Report for 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau.

    This annual report details the accomplishments of the Alaska Head Start Program for fiscal year 1995. It begins with a description of the principal components of the Alaska Head Start Program, focusing on economic development; community development; parent and family involvement; education, training, and career development; and comprehensive…

  16. Systematic approach in petroleum personnel competence assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Vera; Nekhoda, Evgeniya; Dmitriev, Andrey; Khudyakov, Dmitriy; Pozdeeva, Galina

    2016-09-01

    The article is devoted to professional competence improvement of personnel in the petroleum industry. The technique for competence assessment optimization in oil and gas well drilling is developed. The specification for the oil and gas industry competence profiles has been provided.

  17. Vocational-Technical Course in Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Myron A.

    A project was designed to develop a vocational course to satisfy an industry request for trained manpower in petroleum production. During phase one the feasibility was studied, formal instruction determined, an instructor named, site located and secured, and students selected for the class. A three-year trade and industrial level course for…

  18. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  19. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  20. Discovery: An Introduction. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series. Alaska Sea Grant Report 83-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle; And Others

    This curriculum guide is the first (Series I) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. As a basic introduction, this first book in the series lends itself to the kindergarten level but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Six units contain 32 activities with worksheets that…