Science.gov

Sample records for alaska region marine

  1. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  2. Diets and food-web relationships of seabirds in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Overall diets of 39 species of marine birds (four procellariiforms, three cormorants, six sea ducks, one phalarope, two jaegers, 17 gulls, two terns, and 13 alcids) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions are summarized with food-web diagrams, tables, and text. Diets of the Northern Fulmar, Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters, Pelagic Cormorant, Black-legged Kittiwake, Common and Thick-billed Murres, Marbled and Kittlitz's Murrelets, and Horned and Tufted Puffins are compared among seasons and geographic regions.

  3. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Love, Milton S.

    2016-08-08

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  4. Alaska Arctic marine fish ecology catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    The marine fishes in waters of the United States north of the Bering Strait have received new and increased scientific attention over the past decade (2005–15) in conjunction with frontier qualities of the region and societal concerns about the effects of Arctic climate change. Commercial fisheries are negligible in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, but many marine species have important traditional and cultural values to Alaska Native residents. Although baseline conditions are rapidly changing, effective decisions about research and monitoring investments must be based on reliable information and plausible future scenarios. For the first time, this synthesis presents a comprehensive evaluation of the marine fish fauna from both seas in a single reference. Although many unknowns and uncertainties remain in the scientific understanding, information presented here is foundational with respect to understanding marine ecosystems and addressing dual missions of the U.S. Department of the Interior for energy development and resource conservation. 

  5. Molluscan evidence for early middle Miocene marine glaciation in southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Profound cooling of Miocene marine climates in southern Alaska culminated in early middle Miocene coastal marine glaciation in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. This climatic change resulted from interaction of the Yakutat terrane with southern Alaska beginning in late Oligocene time. The ensuing extreme uplift of the coastal Chugach and St. Elias Mountains resulted in progressive regional cooling that culminated in coastal marine glaciation beginning in the early middle Miocene (15-16 Ma) and continuing to the present. The counterclockwise flow of surface water from the frigid northeastern Gulf of Alaska resulted in a cold-temperate shallow-marine environment in the western Gulf of Alaska, as it does today. Ironically, dating of Gulf of Alaska marine glaciation as early middle Miocene is strongly reinforced by the presence of a few tropical and subtropical mollusks in western Gulf of Alaska faunas. Shallow-marine waters throughout the Gulf of Alaska were cold-temperate to cold in the early middle Miocene, when the world ocean was undergoing peak Neogene warming. -Author

  6. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  7. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  8. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  9. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  10. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  11. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  12. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: increased exposure through consumption of marine prey.

    PubMed

    McGrew, Ashley K; Ballweber, Lora R; Moses, Sara K; Stricker, Craig A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Salman, Mo D; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  13. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  14. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  15. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in

  16. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  17. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  18. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  19. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  20. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  1. Marine Geophysical Surveying Along the Hubbard Glacier Terminus, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; Davis, M.; Gulick, S. P.; Lawson, D. E.; Willems, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Tidewater glaciers are a challenging environment for marine investigations, owing to the dangers associated with calving and restrictions on operations due to dense floating ice. We report here on recent efforts to conduct marine geophysical surveys proximal to the ice face of Hubbard Glacier, in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska. Hubbard is an advancing tidewater glacier that has twice recently (1986 and 2002) impinged on Gilbert Point, which separates Russell Fiord from Disenchantment Bay, thereby temporarily creating a glacially-dammed Russell Lake. Continued advance will likely form a more permanent dam, rerouting brackish outflow waters into the Situk River, near Yakutat, Alaska. Our primary interest is in studying the development and motion of the morainal bank which, for an advancing tidewater glacier, stabilizes it against rapid retreat. For survey work, we operated with a small, fast, aluminum-hulled vessel and a captain experienced in operating in ice-bound conditions, providing a high margin of safety and maneuverability. Differencing of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in different years can identify and quantify areas of deposition and erosion on the morainal bank front and in Disenchantment Bay proper, where accumulation rates are typically > 1 m/yr within 1 km of the glacier terminus. The advance or retreat rate of the morainal bank can be determined by changes in the bed elevation through time; we document advance rates that average > 30 m/yr in Disenchantment Bay, but which vary substantially over different time periods and at different positions along the ice face. Georeferencing of available satellite imagery allows us to directly compare the position of the glacial terminus with the position of the morainal bank. From 1978 to 1999, and then to 2006, the advances in terminus and morainal bank positions were closely synchronized along the length of the glacier face. In the shallower Russell Fiord side of the terminus, a sediment ridge was mapped both

  2. Marine regime shifts in ocean biogeochemical models: a case study in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, C.; Cole, H.; Henson, S.; Yool, A.; Anderson, T. R.; de Mora, L.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Butenschön, M.; Totterdell, I. J.; Allen, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Regime shifts have been reported in many marine ecosystems, and are often expressed as an abrupt change occurring in multiple physical and biological components of the system. In the Gulf of Alaska, a regime shift in the late 1970s was observed, indicated by an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature and major shifts in the catch of many fish species. This late 1970s regime shift in the Gulf of Alaska was followed by another shift in the late 1980s, not as pervasive as the 1977 shift, but which nevertheless did not return to the prior state. A thorough understanding of the extent and mechanisms leading to such regime shifts is challenged by data paucity in time and space. We investigate the ability of a suite of ocean biogeochemistry models of varying complexity to simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska by examining the presence of abrupt changes in time series of physical variables (sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth), nutrients and biological variables (chlorophyll, primary productivity and plankton biomass) using change-point analysis. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical models are capable of simulating the late 1970s shift, indicating an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature forcing followed by an abrupt decrease in nutrients and biological productivity. This predicted shift is consistent among all the models, although some of them exhibit an abrupt transition (i.e. a significant shift from one year to the next), whereas others simulate a smoother transition. Some models further suggest that the late 1980s shift was constrained by changes in mixed layer depth. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical can successfully simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska region, thereby providing better understanding of how changes in physical conditions are propagated from lower to upper trophic levels through bottom-up controls.

  3. Marine geology of the Near Islands Shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scruton, Philip Challacombe

    1953-01-01

    During the summer of 1950 on the insular shelf surrounding the Near Islands, Alaska, 193 oceanographic stations were occupied from aboard the U. S. Geological Survey vessel EIDER. Bottom character and temperature observations were made at these stations. The composition and size distribution characteristics of the bottom samples have been determined. Components of terrigenous origin are angular to subangular sand and silt and angular to well rounded granules, pebbles, and cobbles, all composed of little-altered fragments of the fine grained insular rocks. Components of marine origin are the skeletons of Foraminifera, diatoms, and sponges and the broken shells of a few species of mollusks and of one echinoid species. A chart, based also on the study of approximately 600 USC&GS bottom notations, was prepared to show the distribution of these components of the sediments. Bed rock is exposed on most of the shelf; where sediment occurs terrigenous components are generally most important near shore, whereas marine components are more important seaward of the islands. Studies of the Foraminifera fauna and the diatom flora (identified by K. E. Lohman) and the few mollusks of quantitative importance show these organisms to be forms characteristic of cold or deep water or occurring in a wide range of temperature conditions. The Foraminifera exhibit depth zonation which seems to be controlled in part by temperature and in part by depth or some other variable which is a function of depth. Sphericity and roundness studies made on pebbles from the shelf, the beaches, and the fluvio-glacial deposits together with shelf topographic features and Foraminifera from sediment deposited before ice wastage was complete suggest the shelf was not subjected to prolonged surf action during the post-glacial rise of sea level. To aid in interpreting the sediments and their distribution several subaerial and marine environmental factors were investigated. Those factors found to be of most

  4. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  5. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  6. Marine tephrochronology of the Mt. Edgecumbe volcanic field, southeast Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addison, Jason A.; Beget, James E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    The Mt. Edgecumbe Volcanic Field (MEVF), located on Kruzof Island near Sitka Sound in southeast Alaska, experienced a large multiple-stage eruption during the last glacial maximum (LGM)-Holocene transition that generated a regionally extensive series of compositionally similar rhyolite tephra horizons and a single well-dated dacite (MEd) tephra. Marine sediment cores collected from adjacent basins to the MEVF contain both tephra-fall and pyroclastic flow deposits that consist primarily of rhyolitic tephra and a minor dacitic tephra unit. The recovered dacite tephra correlates with the MEd tephra, whereas many of the rhyolitic tephras correlate with published MEVF rhyolites. Correlations were based on age constraints and major oxide compositions of glass shards. In addition to LGM-Holocene macroscopic tephra units, four marine cryptotephras were also identified. Three of these units appear to be derived from mid-Holocene MEVF activity, while the youngest cryptotephra corresponds well with the White River Ash eruption at not, vert, similar 1147 cal yr BP. Furthermore, the sedimentology of the Sitka Sound marine core EW0408-40JC and high-resolution SWATH bathymetry both suggest that extensive pyroclastic flow deposits associated with the activity that generated the MEd tephra underlie Sitka Sound, and that any future MEVF activity may pose significant risk to local population centers.

  7. Late quaternary regional geoarchaeology of Southeast Alaska Karst: A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, E.J.; Heaton, T.H.; Fifield, T.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Putnam, D.E.; Grady, F.

    1997-01-01

    Karst systems, sea caves, and rock shelters within the coastal temperate rain forest of Alaska's Alexander Archipelago preserve important records of regional archaeology, sea level history, glacial and climatic history, and vertebrate paleontology. Two 14C AMS dates on human bone discovered in a remote cave (49-PET-408) on Prince of Wales Island document the oldest reliably dated human in Alaska to ca. 9800 B.P. A series of 14C AMS dates from cave deposits span the past 40,000 years and provide the first evidence of Pleistocene faunas from the northwest coast of North America. Other discoveries include sea caves and marine beach deposits elevated above modern sea level, extensive solution caves, and mammalian remains of species previously undocumented within the region. Records of human activity, including cave art, artifacts, and habitation sites may provide new insights into the early human colonization of the Americas. ??1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Marine regime shifts in ocean biogeochemical models: a case study in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Claudie; Cole, Harriet; Henson, Stephanie; Yool, Andrew; Anderson, Tom; de Mora, Lee; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Butenschön, Momme; Totterdell, Ian J.; Icarus Allen, J.

    2016-08-01

    Regime shifts have been reported in many marine ecosystems, and are often expressed as an abrupt change occurring in multiple physical and biological components of the system. In the Gulf of Alaska, a regime shift in the late 1970s was observed, indicated by an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature and major shifts in the catch of many fish species. A thorough understanding of the extent and mechanisms leading to such regime shifts is challenged by data paucity in time and space. We investigate the ability of a suite of ocean biogeochemistry models of varying complexity to simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska by examining the presence of abrupt changes in time series of physical variables (sea surface temperature and mixed-layer depth), nutrients and biological variables (chlorophyll, primary productivity and plankton biomass) using change-point analysis. Our results show that some ocean biogeochemical models are capable of simulating the late 1970s shift, manifested as an abrupt increase in sea surface temperature followed by an abrupt decrease in nutrients and biological productivity. Models from low to intermediate complexity simulate an abrupt transition in the late 1970s (i.e. a significant shift from one year to the next) while the transition is smoother in higher complexity models. Our study demonstrates that ocean biogeochemical models can successfully simulate regime shifts in the Gulf of Alaska region. These models can therefore be considered useful tools to enhance our understanding of how changes in physical conditions are propagated from lower to upper trophic levels.

  9. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  10. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  11. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's... public meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC... under Title VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law...

  12. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013....gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (e.g., name, address) voluntarily submitted.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 12, 2013, NMFS published an ANPR in the Federal Register (78 FR 15669)...

  13. An overview of paleogene molluscan biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Gulf of Alaska region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; McCoy, S.

    1984-01-01

    Paleogene marine strata in the Gulf of Alaska region occur in three geographic areas and may be characterized by their molluscan faunal composition and paleoecology: a western area consisting of the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and adjacent islands; a central area encompassing Prince William Sound; and an eastern area extending from the mouth of the Copper River to Icy Point in the Lituya district. Strata in the western area include the Ghost Rocks, Narrow Cape (in part), Sitkalidak, Stepovak, Belkofski, and Tolstoi Formations; in the central area Paleogene strata are assigned entirely to the Orca Group; Paleogene strata in the eastern area include the Kulthieth and Poul Creek Formations and several coeval units. Environments ranging from marginal marine to bathyal and from subtropical to cool-temperate are inferred for the various molluscan faunas. Sediments range from interbedded coal and marine sands to deep-water turbidites. The known Paleogene molluscan faunas of these three southern Alaskan areas permit recognition of biostratigraphic schemes within each area, preliminary correlations between faunas of the three areas, and more general correlations with faunas of the Pacific Northwest, the Far Eastern U.S.S.R., and northern Japan. ?? 1984.

  14. 75 FR 32737 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Forest Service Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices... Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal notice of all.... ADDRESSES: Ken Post, Appeals Specialist; Forest Service, Alaska Region; P.O. Box 21628; Juneau, Alaska...

  15. 78 FR 4377 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for...: This notice lists the newspapers that Ranger Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska...: Robin Dale, Alaska Region Group Leader for Appeals, Litigation and FOIA; Forest Service, Alaska...

  16. Regional Shoreline Change Along the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Erikson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change impacts to the north coast of Alaska threaten sensitive ecosystems, critical energy-related infrastructure, native Alaskan housing and traditional lifestyles, trust species and their habitats, and large tracts of Federally-managed land. Although there are several site-specific and limited regional studies documenting coastal change along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, no comprehensive study has documented coastal change or evaluated its causes on a regional scale. As part of a National Assessment of Shoreline Change study along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating shoreline changes along the north slope coast of Alaska between Peard Bay and the Canadian border. Rates of change will be calculated for both the mainland and barrier island coasts using shorelines derived from circa 1947 and 1987 NOS T-sheets and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. Here we present results from the first phase of the study, Colville River to Pt. Thomson, for three time periods (1947, 1987, 2004-7). In contrast to previous independent studies, which have documented localized erosion rates of up to 16 m/yr along portions of Alaska's north slope, results from this study show that on a regional scale, shoreline erosion rates along the mainland coast are typically less than 2 m/yr. The offshore barrier islands, however, are highly dynamic and show high rates of localized shoreline retreat along with a regionally consistent decrease in overall land area and associated rotation and migration to the southwest since the 1940s. As part of this study, continued data collection, analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling of the coast and nearshore environments will provide much needed data sets from which to evaluate future changes along this stretch of coast in response to sea-level rise, variability in the Arctic summer sea-ice extent, increased storminess, and other

  17. Modeled and Measured Underwater Sound Isopleths and Implications for Marine Mammal Mitigation in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Lisanne A M; Streever, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Before operating air guns in Alaska, industry is usually required to model underwater sound isopleths, some of which have implications for the mitigation and monitoring of potential marine mammal impacts. Field measurements are often required to confirm or revise model predictions. We compared modeled and measured air gun sound isopleths from 2006 to 2012 and found poor agreement. Natural variability in the marine environment, application of precautionary correction factors, and data interpretation in the generation of circular isopleths all contributed to the observed poor agreement. A broader understanding of the realities of modeled and measured underwater sound isopleths will contribute to improved mitigation practices.

  18. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  19. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  20. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  1. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  2. 78 FR 4378 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Forest Service Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices... Ranger Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal... the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Robin Dale, Alaska Region Group Leader for Appeals, Litigation...

  3. 40 CFR 81.246 - Northern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.246 Northern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  4. Pumice deposits in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1952-01-01

    Three principal areas of pumice deposition have been found in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region: Katmai National Monument, Augustine Island, and the Veniaminof-Aniakchak area. Vast quantities of pumice were deposited in Katmai National Monument resulting from the eruption of Mt. Katmai and related volcanic action in 1912. The principal deposits in the coastal areas of the Monument occur in the valley of the Katmai River and in the Amalik Bay-Kukak Bay area. Several areas of pumice deposition have been found on the south and west sides of Augustine Island, located 200 miles southwest of Anchorage. Mining was carried on by the Alaska Katmalite Corporation during the period 1946-1949, but no production has taken place since that time. Pumice deposits found in the Aniakchak-Veniaminof area have probably been derived from three principal sources: Aniakchak Crater, Mt. Veniaminof and Purple Crater. The limited data available indicate the deposits of chief interest occur in the valley of the Aniakchak River and in areas adjacent to Chignik Bay.

  5. Prey consumption and energy transfer by marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.L.; Drew, G.S.; Jahncke, J.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated prey consumption by marine birds and their contribution to cross-shelf fluxes in the northern Gulf of Alaska. We utilized data from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database for modeling energy demand and prey consumption. We found that prey consumption by marine birds was much greater over the continental shelf than it was over the basin. Over the shelf, subsurface-foraging marine birds dominated food consumption, whereas over the basin, surface-foraging birds took the most prey biomass. Daily consumption by marine birds during the non-breeding season ("winter") from September through April was greater than daily consumption during the breeding season, between May and August. Over the shelf, shearwaters, murres and, in winter, sea ducks, were the most important consumers. Over the basin, northern fulmars, gulls and kittiwakes predominated in winter and storm-petrels dominated in May to August. Our results suggest that marine birds contribute little to cross-shelf fluxes of energy or matter, but they do remove energy from the marine system through consumption, respiration and migration. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  7. Dose Estimates from Ingestion of Marine and Terrestrial Animals Harvested in the Beaufort Sea and Northwestern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. T. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci; D. W. Efurd; M. E. Ennis; M. J. Hameedi; J. M. Inkret; T. H. T. Little; G. Miller

    2000-11-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, marine and terrestrial animal samples were collected from the Beaufort Sea and northwest Alaska. These samples were analyzed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the presence of the anthropogenic radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The measurement data were combined with food consumption rates based on survey results for populations residing in three northwest Alaskan communities and published age-dependent ingestion dose coefficients to estimate potential radiological impacts from the consumption of traditional animal foods harvested in this region. The results of this study indicate that committed equivalent doses to adults from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, due to consumption of traditional food sources are consistent with currently accepted estimates of average doses to adults in North America due to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout.

  8. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Harden, E.L.; Richmond, B.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  9. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  10. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Hillgruber, N.; Burril, S.E.; St., Peters; Wetzel, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  11. 76 FR 59997 - Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Actions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Anchorage, Alaska. Chugach National Forest Decisions of the Forest Supervisor and the Glacier and Seward... Forest Service Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed... Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal notice of all decisions subject to...

  12. 76 FR 59110 - Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Glacier and Seward District Rangers: Anchorage Daily News, published daily in Anchorage, Alaska. Decisions... Forest Service Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed... the newspapers that Ranger Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will...

  13. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  14. Applications of ERTS-1 imagery to terrestrial and marine environmental analyses in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Crowder, W. K.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. It also will aid local fishing industries by augmenting currently available hydrologic and navigation charts. The interpretation of geologic and vegetation features resulted in preparation of improved surficial geology, vegetation and permafrost terrain maps at a scale of 1:1 million utilizing ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. This information will be further utilized in a route and site selection study for the Nome to Kobuk Road in central Alaska. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska has been measured and shorefast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska is being mapped for the spring and early summer seasons. These data will be used for route and site selection, regional environmental analysis, identification and inventory of natural resources, land use planning, and in land use regulation and management.

  15. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  16. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    PubMed

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  17. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Occurrence and genotypic analysis of Trichinella species in Alaska marine-associated mammals of the Bering and Chukchi seas.

    PubMed

    Seymour, J; Horstmann-Dehn, L; Rosa, C; Lopez, J A

    2014-02-24

    The zoonotic parasite Trichinella is the causative agent of trichinellosis outbreaks in the circumpolar Arctic. Subsistence communities are particularly prone to trichinellosis due to traditional meat preparation methods and regional presence of a freeze-tolerant Trichinella species (Trichinella nativa). This study is the first application of a validated artificial digestion method in determining incidence of Trichinella sp. in Alaskan mammals. Infection incidence in pinniped species (Erignathus barbatus, Eumetopias jubatus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens, and Pusa hispida) was low, with only 1/57 ringed seals infected. Polymerase Chain Reaction assays indicate T. nativa as the only species present in northern Alaska. Analysis of an archived polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle sample shows freeze-tolerance and longevity for T. nativa to -20°C for 10 years and short-term freeze resistance to -80°C when morphology was used to determine presence of live larvae. However, larval motility suggests 0% survival. An approach that combines artificial digestion with PCR based species identification has excellent potential for Trichinella sp. detection and identification of archived tissues. Overall, Trichinella in Alaskan mammals, particularly marine mammals of subsistence importance, appears to be a minor problem. These modern diagnostic techniques provide accurate insight into the presence of Trichinella in the Alaskan marine environment. PMID:24373515

  19. PBO Operations in Alaska and Cascadia, Combining Regions and Collaborating with our Regional Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Boyce, E. S.; Dausz, K.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Pyatt, C.; Willoughby, H.; Woolace, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    During the last year, the Alaska and the Cascadia regions of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network were combined into a single management unit. While both remain distinct regions with their own challenges and engineering staff, every effort has been made to operate as a single team to improve efficiency and provide the highest possible data quality and uptime. Over the last several years a concerted effort has been made to work collaboratively with other institutions and stakeholders to defray ongoing costs by sharing staff and resources. UNAVCO currently operates four integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, eight with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, and three with the EarthScope TA. By the end of 2015, PBO and TA plan to install another 3 integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While most of these are designed around existing PBO stations, the 2014 installation at Middleton Island is a new station for both groups, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data in Alaska. There were two major joint maintenance efforts in 2015:, the largest was a 5 day mission among PBO, AVO, and TA, which shared boat, helicopter, and staff on and around Augustine Volcano; the second, was a 10 day helicopter mission shared between AVO and PBO on Unimak Island. PBO Pacific Northwest is working closely with University of Washington to co-locate at least 9 Earthquake Early Warning Systems, which include the addition of strong motion sensors and high speed RT telemetry at PBO sites. The project is managed by University of Washington but UNAVCO is providing land contact information and infrastructure support. Summer 2015 upgrades include a complete overhaul of aging radio technology at two major networks and several small radio networks in Cascadia. The upgrades will increase reliability and enhance the speed of existing telemetry infrastructure and will continue through summer 2018.

  20. Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits

  1. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food-web perspective.

    PubMed

    Estes, J A; Doak, D F; Springer, A M; Williams, T M

    2009-06-27

    Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in turn affected the distribution, abundance and productivity of numerous other species. Ecological consequences of the pinniped declines are largely unknown. Increased predation by transient (marine mammal-eating) killer whales probably caused the sea otter declines and may have caused the pinniped declines as well. Springer et al. proposed that killer whales, which purportedly fed extensively on great whales, expanded their diets to include a higher percentage of sea otters and pinnipeds following a sharp reduction in great whale numbers from post World War II industrial whaling. Critics of this hypothesis claim that great whales are not now and probably never were an important nutritional resource for killer whales. We used demographic/energetic analyses to evaluate whether or not a predator-prey system involving killer whales and the smaller marine mammals would be sustainable without some nutritional contribution from the great whales. Our results indicate that while such a system is possible, it could only exist under a narrow range of extreme conditions and is therefore highly unlikely. PMID:19451116

  2. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: a food-web perspective

    PubMed Central

    Estes, J.A.; Doak, D.F.; Springer, A.M.; Williams, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Populations of sea otters, seals and sea lions have collapsed across much of southwest Alaska over the past several decades. The sea otter decline set off a trophic cascade in which the coastal marine ecosystem underwent a phase shift from kelp forests to deforested sea urchin barrens. This interaction in turn affected the distribution, abundance and productivity of numerous other species. Ecological consequences of the pinniped declines are largely unknown. Increased predation by transient (marine mammal-eating) killer whales probably caused the sea otter declines and may have caused the pinniped declines as well. Springer et al. proposed that killer whales, which purportedly fed extensively on great whales, expanded their diets to include a higher percentage of sea otters and pinnipeds following a sharp reduction in great whale numbers from post World War II industrial whaling. Critics of this hypothesis claim that great whales are not now and probably never were an important nutritional resource for killer whales. We used demographic/energetic analyses to evaluate whether or not a predator–prey system involving killer whales and the smaller marine mammals would be sustainable without some nutritional contribution from the great whales. Our results indicate that while such a system is possible, it could only exist under a narrow range of extreme conditions and is therefore highly unlikely. PMID:19451116

  3. Aerosol Size Distribution in the marine regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Petelski, Tomasz; Zielinski, Tymon; Pakszys, Paulina; Strzalkowska, Agata; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Kowalczyk, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    We would like to present the data obtained during the regular research cruises of the S/Y Oceania over a period of time between 2009 - 2012. The Baltic Sea is a very interesting polygon for aerosol measurements, however, also difficult due to the fact that mostly cases of a mixture of continental and marine aerosols are observed. It is possible to measure clear marine aerosol, but also advections of dust from southern Europe or even Africa. This variability of data allows to compare different conditions. The data is also compared with our measurements from the Arctic Seas, which have been made during the ARctic EXperiment (AREX). The Arctic Seas are very suitable for marine aerosol investigations since continental advections of aerosols are far less frequent than in other European sea regions. The aerosol size distribution was measured using the TSI Laser Aerosol Spectrometer model 3340 (99 channels, measurement range 0.09 μm to 7 μm), condensation particle counter (range 0.01 μm to 3 μm) and laser particle counter PMS CSASP-100-HV-SP (range 0.5 μm to 47 μm in 45 channels). Studies of marine aerosol production and transport are important for many Earth sciences such as cloud physics, atmospheric optics, environmental pollution studies and interaction between ocean and atmosphere. All equipment was placed on one of the masts of S/Y Oceania. Measurements using the laser aerosol spectrometer and condensation particle counter were made on one level (8 meters above sea level). Measurements with the laser particle counter were performed at five different levels above the sea level (8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 m). Based on aerosol size distribution the parameterizations with a Log-Normal and a Power-Law distributions were made. The aerosol source functions, characteristic for the region were also determined. Additionally, poor precision of the sea spray emission determination was confirmed while using only the aerosol concentration data. The emission of sea spray depends

  4. Early Tertiary marine fossils from northern Alaska: implications for Arctic Ocean paleogeography and faunal evolution.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; Brouwers, E.M.; Carter, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Marine mollusks and ostracodes indicate a post-Danian Paleocene to early Eocene (Thanetian to Ypresian) age for a fauna from the Prince Creek Formation at Ocean Point, northern Alaska, that also contains genera characteristic of the Cretaceous and Neogene-Quaternary. The life-assocation of heterochronous taxa at Ocean Point resulted from an unusual paleogeographic setting, the nearly complete isolation of the Arctic Ocean from about the end of the Cretaceous until sometime in the Eocene, in which relict Cretaceous taxa survived into Tertiary time while endemic taxa evolved in situ; these later migrated to the northern mid- latitudes. Paleobiogeographic affinities of the Ocean Point assocation with mild temperate faunas of the London Basin (England), Denmark, and northern Germany indicate that a shallow, intermittent Paleocene seaway extended through the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the North Sea Basin. Early Tertiary Arctic Ocean paleogeography deduced from faunal evidence agrees with that inferred from plate-tectonic reconstructions.-Authors

  5. The recent marine sedimentary record of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska - implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Norris, R. D.; Hangsterfer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Modern and paleoclimate studies suggest a correlation between Pacific decadal climate variability and marine ecosystem productivity, but are generally limited by either short periods of observation or low temporal resolution. Long, annually resolved paleoclimate time-series data are thus critical for assessing this correlation and understanding the full range of Pacific climate variability and its impacts. Baranof Island is located in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska, and contains many temperate ice-free fjords with shallow sills that enhance organic matter preservation by restricting oxygenation of bottom waters. Multicore samples EW0408-32MC and 43MC were recovered from two fjords on Baranof Island, and analyzed to determine how recent sedimentation patterns relate to the instrument record as a first step towards reconstructing high-latitude Pacific climate at annual timescales. A combination of radiometric 137Cs and excess 210Pb geochronometry, 3D computerized tomography (CT), and high-resolution Avaatech scanning XRF geochemical analyses were used to investigate this relationship. Scanning XRF data were collected every 2 mm on core 32MC, while 43MC was measured at 0.2 mm intervals. Core 32MC is composed of a diffusely laminated to bioturbated clay with a maximum apparent steady-state sedimentation rate of ~5±1 mm/yr, while core 43MC is a strongly laminated diatom ooze with a maximum apparent sedimentation rate of ~6±0.5 mm/yr. Using conservative estimates of accumulation to assess basal ages of the cores yields approximately ~AD 1930 for 32MC, and ~AD 1900 for 43MC. Scanning XRF centered natural log-ratio transformed [clr] element intensities indicate 32MC is controlled by a balance between detrital (Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe, and Ca) and biogenic components (S and Br), and isolated peaks in clr Ca data correspond with CT-visible shell debris. Core 43MC is more complex, with both XRF and CT scans indicating four distinct lithologies: (i) millimeter

  6. 40 CFR 81.248 - Southeastern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.248 Section 81.248 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.248 Southeastern Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  7. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81.247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  8. Marine benthic habitat mapping of the West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodson, Timothy O.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Powell, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, groundtruthed observations, and geological interpretations. The West Arm of Glacier Bay is a recently deglaciated fjord system under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the recently developed Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Due to the high flux of glacially sourced fines, mud is the dominant substrate within the West Arm. Water-column characteristics are addressed using a combination of CTD and circulation model results. We also present sediment accumulation data derived from differential bathymetry. These data show the West Arm is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS classification scheme and as a baseline for ongoing and future mapping efforts and correlations between seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glacimarine processes.

  9. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Kuskokwim Bay region, southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    The rocks of the map area range from Proterozoic age metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex (Kilbuck terrane) to Quaternary age mafic volcanic rocks of Nunivak Island. The map area encompasses much of the type area of the Togiak-Tikchik Complex. The geologic maps used to construct this compilation were, for the most part, reconnaissance studies done in the time period from the 1950s to 1990s. Pioneering work in the map area by J.M. Hoare and W.L. Coonrad forms the basis for much of this map, either directly or as the stepping off point for later studies compiled here. Physiographically, the map area ranges from glaciated mountains, as much as 1,500 m high, in the Ahklun Mountains to the coastal lowlands of northern Bristol Bay and the Kuskokwim River delta. The mountains and the finger lakes (drowned fiords) on the east have been strongly affected by Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation. Within the map area are a number of major faults. The Togiak-Tikchik Fault and its extension to the northeast, the Holitna Fault, are considered extensions of the Denali fault system of central Alaska. Other sub-parallel faults include the Golden Gate, Sawpit, Goodnews, and East Kulukak Faults. Northwest-trending strike-slip faults crosscut and offset northeast-trending fault systems. Rocks of the area are assigned to a number of distinctive lithologic packages. Most distinctive among these packages are the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex or Kilbuck terrane, composed of a high-grade metamorphic orthogneiss core surrounded by greenschist and amphibolite facies schist, gneiss, and rare marble and quartzite. These rocks have yielded radiometric ages strongly suggestive of a 2.05 Ga emplacement age. Poorly known Paleozoic rocks, including Ordovician to Devonian and Permian limestone, are found east of the Kanektok metamorphic complex. A Triassic(?) ophiolite complex is on the southeast side of Kuskokwim Bay; otherwise only minor Triassic

  10. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  11. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  12. The Effects of Changing Sea Ice on Marine Mammals and Their Hunters in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, H.; Quakenbush, L.; Nelson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information and insight relevant to ecological understanding, conservation action, and the regulation of human activity. We interviewed hunters in villages from northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, focusing on bowhead whales, walrus, and ice seals. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice, with resulting effects on the timing of marine mammal migrations, the distribution and behavior of the animals, and the efficacy of certain hunting methods, for example the difficulty of finding ice thick enough to support a bowhead whale for butchering. At the same time, hunters acknowledged impacts and potential impacts from changing technology such as more powerful outboard engines and from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. Hunters have been able to adapt to some changes, for example by hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring on St. Lawrence Island, or by focusing their hunt in a shorter period in Nuiqsut to accommodate work schedules and worse weather. Other changes, such as reduced availability of ice seals due to rapid retreat of pack ice after spring break-up, continue to defy easy responses. Continued environmental changes, increased disturbance from human activity, and the introduction of new regulations for hunting may further challenge the ability of hunters to provide food as they have done to date, though innovation and flexibility may also provide new sources of adaptation.

  13. Paleoclimatic significance of Middle Pleistocene glacial deposits in the Kotzebue Sound region, northwest coastal Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, S.R.; Brigham-Grette, J. )

    1992-01-01

    During Middle Pleistocene time, glaciers extended from the western Brooks Range in NW Alaska to the coast at Kotzebue Sound, forming Baldwin Peninsula, a 120 km-long terminal moraine. Marine, glacigenic, and fluvial facies exposed along coastal bluffs surrounding Kotzebue Sound and Hotham Inlet indicate that at least the initial stages of the glacial advance occurred while sea level was high enough to cover the shallow Bering Shelf. Although it is presently uncertain if the ice actually reached tidewater before extensive middle-latitude ice-sheet formation, the marine and glacigenic facies clearly indicate that this advance must have occurred significantly out-of-phase with lower latitude glaciation. The authors believe an ice-free Bering Sea provided the moisture for glacier growth during the waning phases of a global interglacial climate. Although the magnitude of the Baldwin Peninsula advance was large compared to late Pleistocene advances, the timing with respect to sea level is consistent with observations by Miller and de Vernal that late Pleistocene polar glaciations also occurred near the end of interglacial periods, when global sea level was high, high-latitude oceans were relatively warm, and summer insolation was decreasing. An important implication of this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis is that the critical transition point between climate states may be earlier in the interglacial-glacial cycle than previously thought. Because it appears that climate change is initiated in polar regions while the rest of Earth is experiencing an interglacial climate, many of their climate models must be revised. The glacial record at Baldwin Peninsula provides an opportunity to test, revise, and perhaps extend this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis to the middle Pleistocene interval.

  14. 75 FR 33575 - List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Decisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Forest Service List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of... the newspapers that Forests and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal... interested members of the public which newspapers will be used to publish legal notice of decisions...

  15. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other elements in tissues banked by the Alaska marine mammal tissue archival project

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Mackey, E.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Demiralp, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1995-03-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration maintains two marine mammals tissue banks within NIST`s National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. The document is the second report in the NIST Interagency Report Series in which analytical data on samples collected and banked as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project are summarized. Results for inorganic constituents in liver tissues from 15 bulukha whales, 14 ringed seals, 3 bowhead whales, 3 beared seals, and 1 spotted seal, and for organic contaminants in blubber tissues from 12 belukha whales are presented and discussed.

  16. Marine Mammals, Coastal and River Issues. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series VII. Alaska Sea Grant Report 84-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the last (Series VII) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The guide lends itself to the sixth-grade curriculum but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Eight units contain 43 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) the values…

  17. Seismicity trends and potential for large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.; Nishenko, S.P.; Varnes, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high likelihood of a gap-filling thrust earthquake in the Alaska subduction zone within this decade is indicated by two independent methods: analysis of historic earthquake recurrence data and time-to-failure analysis applied to recent decades of instrumental data. Recent (May 1993) earthquake activity in the Shumagin Islands gap is consistent with previous projections of increases in seismic release, indicating that this segment, along with the Alaska Peninsula segment, is approaching failure. Based on this pattern of accelerating seismic release, we project the occurrence of one or more M???7.3 earthquakes in the Shumagin-Alaska Peninsula region during 1994-1996. Different segments of the Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone behave differently in the decade or two preceding great earthquakes, some showing acceleration of seismic release (type "A" zones), while others show deceleration (type "D" zones). The largest Alaska-Aleutian earthquakes-in 1957, 1964, and 1965-originated in zones that exhibit type D behavior. Type A zones currently showing accelerating release are the Shumagin, Alaska Peninsula, Delarof, and Kommandorski segments. Time-to-failure analysis suggests that the large earthquakes could occur in these latter zones within the next few years. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  19. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  20. GhostNet marine debris survey in the Gulf of Alaska--satellite guidance and aircraft observations.

    PubMed

    Pichel, William G; Veenstra, Timothy S; Churnside, James H; Arabini, Elena; Friedman, Karen S; Foley, David G; Brainard, Russell E; Kiefer, Dale; Ogle, Simeon; Clemente-Colón, Pablo; Li, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris, particularly debris that is composed of lost or abandoned fishing gear, is recognized as a serious threat to marine life, vessels, and coral reefs. The goal of the GhostNet project is the detection of derelict nets at sea through the use of weather and ocean models, drifting buoys and satellite imagery to locate convergent areas where nets are likely to collect, followed by airborne surveys with trained observers and remote sensing instruments to spot individual derelict nets. These components of GhostNet were first tested together in the field during a 14-day marine debris survey of the Gulf of Alaska in July and August 2003. Model, buoy, and satellite data were used in flight planning. A manned aircraft survey with visible and IR cameras and a LIDAR instrument located debris in the targeted locations, including 102 individual pieces of debris of anthropogenic or terrestrial origin.

  1. 20th-century glacial-marine sedimentation in Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.; Post, A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vitus Lake, the ice-marginal basin at the southeastern edge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., is a site of modern, rapid, glacial-marine sedimentation. Rather than being a fresh-water lake, Vitus Lake is a tidally influenced, marine to brackish embayment connected to the Pacific Ocean by an inlet, the Seal River. Vitus Lake consists of five deep bedrock basins, separated by interbasinal highs. Glacial erosion has cut these basins as much as 250 m below sea level. High-resolution seismic reflection surveys conducted in 1991 and 1993 of four of Vitus Lake's basins reveal a complex, variable three-component acoustic stratigraphy. Although not fully sampled, the stratigraphy is inferred to be primarily glacial-marine units of (1) basal contorted and deformed glacial-marine and glacial sediments deposited by basal ice-contact processes and submarine mass-wasting; (2) acoustically well-stratified glacial-marine sediment, which unconformably overlies the basal unit and which grades upward into (3) acoustically transparent or nearly transparent glacial-marine sediment. Maximum thicknesses of conformable glacial-marine sediment exceed 100 m. All of the acoustically transparent and stratified deposits in Vitus Lake are modern in age, having accumulated between 1967 and 1993. The basins where these three-part sequences of "present-day" glacial-marine sediment are accumulating are themselves cut into older sequences of stratified glacial and glacial-marine deposits. These older units outcrop on the islands in Vitus Lake. In 1967, as the result of a major surge, glacier ice completely filled all five basins. Subsequent terminus retreat, which continued through August 1993, exposed these basins, providing new locations for glacial-marine sediment accumulation. A correlation of sediment thicknesses measured from seismic profiles at specific locations within the basins, with the year that each location became ice-free, shows that the sediment accumulation at some locations

  2. 76 FR 44605 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting and Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law 96-487, to operate in accordance with the provisions... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting and.... 770) requires that public notice of these meetings be announced in the Federal Register. DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 21404 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... National Park Service National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service... Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS) subsistence...

  4. 77 FR 58868 - Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Park Service Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meetings. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Wrangell-St. Elias...

  5. Metamorphic facies map of Southeastern Alaska; distribution, facies, and ages of regionally metamorphosed rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brew, D.A.; Douglass, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the bedrock in Southeastern Alaska has been metamorphosed, much of it under medium-grade conditions during metamorphic episodes that were associated with widespread plutonism. The oldest metamorphisms affected probable arc rocks near southern Prince of Wales Island and occurred during early and middle Paleozoic orogenies. The predominant period of metamorphism and associated plutonism occurred during Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary time and resulted in the development of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that extends along the inboard half of Southeastern Alaska. Middle Tertiary regional thermal metamorphism affected a large part of Baranof Island.

  6. First regional super ESPC a success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, K.

    2000-12-23

    The Coast Guard military base on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is the largest Coast Guard base in the world. By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at this base. Using the Super ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contracting) program, the Coast Guard was able to quickly contract with an experienced contractor with energy savings expertise. Working with ERI, one of FEMP's (Federal Energy Management Program) approved energy services contractors, the Coast Guard determined areas of potential energy savings and designed a retrofit to upgrade inefficient equipment and infrastructure. When energy-efficient modifications are complete, the base will be 30% more cost effective.

  7. Functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin, Region 10 Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peatlands in south central Alaska are the dominant wetland class in the lowlands of the Cook Inlet Basin. Currently Alaska peatlands are extensive and largely pristine but these areas are facing increasing human development. This study focused on obtaining measures of ecologica...

  8. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Rudis, D D; Roffe, T J; Robinson-Wilson, E

    1995-05-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsqaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stellei) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 micrograms/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants. PMID:7556023

  9. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  10. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Rudis, Deborah D.; Roffe, Thomas J.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 μg/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  11. Gravity survey and regional geology of the Prince William Sound epicentral region, Alaska: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Barnes, D.F.; Plafker, George; Robbins, S.L.

    1966-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Mesozoic and early Tertiary age form a roughly arcuate pattern in and around Prince William Sound, the epicentral region of the Alaska earthquake of 1964. These rocks include the Valdez Group, a predominantly slate and graywacke sequence of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, and the Orca Group, a younger sequence of early Tertiary age. The Orca consists of a lower unit of dense-average 2.87 g per cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter) pillow basalt and greenstone intercalated with sedimentary rocks and an upper unit of lithologically variable sandstone interbedded with siltstone or argillite. Densities of the clastic rocks in both the Valdez and Orca Groups average about 2.69 g per cm3. Granitic rocks of relatively low density (2.62 g per cm3) cut the Valdez and Orca Groups at several localities. Both the Valdez and the Orca Groups were complexly folded and extensively faulted during at least three major episodes of deformation: an early period of Cretaceous or early Tertiary orogeny, a second orogeny that probably culminated in late Eocene or early Oligocene time and was accompanied or closely followed by emplacement of granitic batholiths, and a third episode of deformation that began in late Cenozoic time and continued intermittently to the present. About 500 gravity stations were established in the Prince William Sound region in conjunction with postearthquake geologic investigations. Simple Bouguer anomaly contours trend approximately parallel to the arcuate geologic structure around the sound. Bouguer anomalies decrease northward from +40 mgal (milligals) at the southwestern end of Montague Island to -70 mgal at College and Harriman Fiords. Most of this change may be interpreted as a regional gradient caused by thickening of the continental crust. Superimposed on the gradient is a prominent gravity high of as much as 65 mgal that extends from Elrington Island on the southwest, across Knight and Glacier Islands to the Ellamar Peninsula

  12. Testing Models of Modern Glacial Erosion of the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska Using Marine Sediment Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; Loss, D. P.; Bruand, E.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciated coastal St. Elias Range in Alaska is a primary site to examine climate-tectonic interactions. Work has primarily focused on the Bering-Bagley and Malaspina-Seward ice fields, utilizing detrital and bedrock zircon and apatite geochronology to examine local exhumation and glacial erosion (Berger et al., 2008; Enkelmann et al., 2009; Headly et al., 2013). These studies argue for specific regions of tectonically focused or climatically widespread glacial erosion. Analyzed zircon and apatite grains are sand size, however glacial erosion favors the production of finer-grained sediments. This study focuses on the geochemical provenance of the silt-size fraction (15-63μm) of surface sediments collected throughout the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) seaward of the Bering and Malaspina glaciers to test if the exhumation patterns observed in zircon and apatites are also applicable for the silt size fraction. Onshore bedrock Al-normalized elemental data were used to delineate sediment sources, and a subset of provenance-applicable elements was chosen. Detrital thermochronologic data suggest that sediment produced by the Bagley/Bering system is derived from bedrock on the windward side with input from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC) underlying the Bagley only during glacial surge events (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt deposited during the 1994-95 surge event confirm input of CMC sediment (elevated in Cr, Ni, Sc, Sr, depleted in Hf, Pb and Rb relative to Kultieth and Poul Creek formations). We also observe a windward-side sediment source (Kultieth and Poul Creek). It is hypothesized that the sediment carried by the Malaspina is primarily from CMC rock underlying the Seward ice field mixed with Yakataga formation rock that underlies the Seward throat (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt support this hypothesis.

  13. Eocene Underplating Along the Kodiak Shelf, Alaska: Implications and Regional Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Tim

    1986-06-01

    Structural geology and geophysical data from the Kodiak Shelf suggest that the Mesozoic rocks exposed on the shelf are structurally underlain (at about 12 km depth) by several kms of Eocene age strata. Kinematic data from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Ghost Rocks Formation indicate that this formation and probably all of the Kodiak Islands, were uplifted vertically to nearly their present elevations. Landward tilting and imbrication are not indicated. The age of uplift is indicated by a regional, angular unconformity of Early Eocene to Early Oligocene age that separates deep-sea rocks from shallow water to non-marine rocks. The uplift of the accretionary prism is believed to have been caused by underplating of an Eocene sedimentary sequence because (1) a band of seismic reflections that occur 12 to 20 km beneath the shelf is interpreted as the top of the underplated material and (2) an obductively offscraped sequence of Eocene deep-sea rocks crops out on the seaward side of the Kodiak Shelf, suggesting that a thick trench-fill sequence may have been present prior to uplift of the prism. The underplated material is interpreted to be part of either a previously unrecognized turbidite fan of Early Eocene age or a proximal equivalent of the Zodiac fan of Late Eocene to Early Oligocene age. Other possible on-land remnants of the underplated material may be present in Prince William Sound (the Montague belt), the Gulf of Alaska (lower sections of the Yakutat block) and in the Coast Ranges of Oregon and Washington. The large volume of underplated material beneath the Kodiak shelf suggests that underplating may be the dominant process in the growth of convergent margins.

  14. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region: Highlights from the 2012 Summer Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Bierma, R. M.; Boyce, E. S.; Willoughby, H.; Fend, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its fourth year of operation and maintenance of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 data communications relays that comprise the Alaska region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The successful operation of the autonomous GPS and tiltmeter network in Alaska continues to be a challenge, because of logistics, weather, and other difficulties related to working in Alaska. PBO engineers continue to work on network enhancements to make the stations more robust, while improving overall data quality and station uptime to better serve the EarthScope science community. In the summer of 2012, PBO engineers completed maintenance activities in Alaska, which resulted in a 95% operational status for the Alaska network within PBO. PBO engineers completed a total of 87 maintenance visits in the summer of FY2012, including 62 routine maintenance and 25 unscheduled maintenance visits to GPS and data communications stations. We present a number of highlights and accomplishments from the PBO 2012 summer field season in Alaska, for example the deployment of a newly designed methanol fuel cell at AV35, a critical station that serves as the main repeater for the real time network on Unimak Island. In addition, PBO engineers also completed the installation of three Inmarsat BGAN terminals for data telemetry following successful testing at AC60 Shemya. Lastly, PBO engineers completed scheduled battery replacements at most of the PBO stations on Unimak Island, in collaboration with the USGS/Alaska Volcano Observatory. In addition to routine maintenance and planned station improvements to sites in Alaska, numerous critical repairs were made at stations on Unimak Island and elsewhere to ensure that the PBO network continues to function well and continues to meet the requirements stipulated by the NSF. We also present some of the station failures unique to Alaska, which we encountered during the course of the 2012 field season, as well

  15. An Anvilian (early pleistocene) marine fauna from western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Echols, R.E.; Valentine, P.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cover sediments of the York Terrace exposed near the California River, western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, yield mollusks, ostracodes, and foraminifera that lived during the Anvilian transgression of early Pleistocene age. The fossiliferous sediments lie at the inner edge of the York Terrace, a deformed wave-cut platform that extends eastward from Bering Strait along much of the southern coast of Seward Peninsula. The seaward margin is truncated by the little-deformed Lost River Terrace, carved during the Pelukian (Sangamonian) transgression. The early Pleistocene sediments seem to have been deposited between the first and second of four glaciations for which evidence can be found in the California River area. The California River fauna includes several extinct species and several species now confined to areas as remote as the northwestern Pacific and north Atlantic. The fauna probably lived in water temperatures much like those of the present time but deeper water on the Bering Shelf is suggested. The presence of an early Pleistocene fauna at the inner edge of the York Terrace at California River shows that the terrace was largely carved before and during early Pleistocene time. However, a marine fauna apparently of middle Pleistocene age is found on the York Terrace near Cassiterite Peak, and this seems to indicate that the terrace remained low until middle Pleistocene time. Uplift of the York Terrace probably was accompanied by uplift of Bering Strait. The strait may have been deeper, and there may have been no land bridge between the Seward Peninsula of Alaksa and the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia during most of early and middle Pleistocene time. ?? 1974.

  16. Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary deltaic to marine sedimentation, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Along the lower Colville River near Ocean Point, Alaska, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments (Colville Group and the Sagavanirktok Formation) record depositional environments from delta plain to prograding delta to shallow marine shelf. The unit hosts the northernmost known dinosaur remains and is less than 100 m thick with numerous tephra deposits in its lower sections. Furthermore, it is characterized by cyclic, relatively fine-grained sediments indicating mostly depositional and few erosional events. The major depositional elements of the delta plain are 3.5 to 5.45-m thick tabular fining-upward cycles that are cut by sand-filled fluvial channels (up to 10 m thick). The cyclic sediments contain abundant roots and grade upward from small-scale cross-beds to laminated and then structureless silt and clay terminating in organic-rich layers. The channel-fill sequences fine upward and change vertically from large to small-scale cross-beds. Over-bank flooding as well as lateral migration of small meandering fluvial channels formed the cyclically interbedded deposits, meandering rivers deposited the thick cross-bedded sands, and soil development or marsh deposits formed the organic-rich horizons that cap each cycle. Plant debris, nonmarine invertebrates, and vertebrate fossils are locally concentrated in the delta plain sediments. Subsidence related to compaction of the deltaic sediments along with possible delta lobe switching resulted in repeated progradation of the delta front over the delta plain. Delta front sediments are 3 to 10-m thick tabular deposits of large and small-scale cross-bedded sands and silt bounded by organic-rich beds. Also, there are abundant roots, rare channels and invertebrate fossils that suggest a transitional environment from sand-flats to estuarine or bay.

  17. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  18. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  19. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was

  20. Geology of the central Copper River region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    It is an interesting evidence of the prompt responsiveness of our governmental organization to popular needs that the year 1898, which saw the first rush of argonauts to Alaska as a result of the discovery of the Klondike in 1986, saw also several well-equipped Federal parties at work in the Territory, mapping its great waterways and mountain ranges, investigating the feasible means of transportation within it, laying out routes for future lines of communication, and studying the mineral resources and the plant and animal life. It is true that before that year, in which the general attention of the world was fixed upon our heretofore lightly regarded northern province, fur traders, adventurous travelers, and hardy prospectors had made little-heralded journeys through the interior, and that one or another of the governmental departments had had representatives on special errands within its borders, but the amount of private and public energy expended there in 1898 probably exceeded that of any ten previous years.

  1. Genomic characterization of novel marine vesiviruses from Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Burek, Kathy A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Knowles, Nick J; Neill, John D; Romero, Carlos H

    2008-12-01

    Marine vesiviruses were isolated in cell culture from oral and rectal swabs and vesicular fluid from Alaskan Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus). Further characterization by RT-PCR, complete genomic sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most closely related to the marine vesiviruses, but are distinct viruses and represent two novel genotypes. The complete genome of these two SSL isolates was sequenced after cloning their viral cDNA. The genomes were found to be 8302 and 8305 nucleotides in length, organized in three open reading frames and contained 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of 19 and 180 nucleotides, respectively. The complete genomes of both SSL viruses were most closely related to each other and shared 83.0% nucleotide identity. Using the very limited number of complete genomic vesivirus sequences available in the NCBI database, these novel SSL vesiviruses seem most closely related to vesicular exanthema of swine virus-A48 and least related to rabbit vesivirus and walrus calicivirus. Specific antiserum against some evolutionary closer marine vesiviruses did not neutralize these isolates supporting the novel nature of these SSL viruses. PMID:18765261

  2. Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, southcentral Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brendan J; Wipfli, Mark S; Lang, Dirk W; Lang, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    After rearing to adulthood at sea, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) return to freshwater to spawn once and then die on or near their spawning grounds. We tested the hypothesis that spawning coho salmon return marine N and C to beaver (Castor canadensis) ponds of the Copper River Delta (CRD), Cordova, southcentral Alaska, thereby enhancing productivity of the aquatic food webs that support juvenile coho salmon. We sampled three types of pond treatment: (1) natural enrichment by spawning salmon, (2) artificial enrichment via addition of salmon carcasses and eggs, and (3) ponds with no salmon enrichment. All ponds supported juvenile coho salmon. Seasonal samples of stable isotopes revealed that juvenile coho salmon, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), caddisfly larvae, leeches, and chironomid midge larvae were enriched with marine N and C. The aquatic vascular plants bur reed (Sparganium hyperboreum), pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus), and mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris) were enriched with marine N only. Riparian vegetation (Sitka alder Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata and willow Salix spp.) did not show enrichment. Artificial additions of adult carcasses and eggs of coho salmon increased the delta15N and delta13C values of juvenile coho salmon. In this dynamic and hydrologically complex coastal environment, spawning coho salmon contributed marine N and C comprising 10-50% of the dietary needs of juvenile coho salmon through direct consumption of eggs and carcass material. Invertebrates that have assimilated marine N and C yield a further indirect contribution. This perennial subsidy maintains the productivity of the ecosystem of the coho salmon on the CRD.

  3. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  4. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    Pore waters of marine sediments usually have salinities and chlorinities similar to the overlying sea water, ranging around 34-35 psu (Practical Salinity Units) and around 550 mM Cl-, respectively. This is because these parameters are conservative in the sense that they do not significantly participate in biogeochemical cycles. However, pore water studies carried out in the frame of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors have shown that salinities and chlorinities of marine pore waters can substantially deviate from the modern bottom water composition in a number of environmental settings, and various processes have been suggested to explain these phenomena. Also during the recent IODP Expedition 341 that drilled five sites in the Gulf of Alaska (Northeast Pacific Ocean) from the deep Surveyor Fan across the continental slope to the glaciomarine shelf deposits, several occurrences of pore waters with salinities and chlorinities significantly different from respective bottom waters were encountered during shipboard analyses. At the pelagic Sites U1417 and U1418 (~4,200 and ~3,700 m water depth, respectively), salinity and chlorinity maxima occur around 20-50 m sediment depth, but values gradually decrease with increasing drilling depths (down to 30 psu in ~600 m sediment depth). While the pore water freshening at depth is most likely an effect of clay mineral dehydration due to increasing burial depth, the shallow salinity and chlorinity maxima are interpreted as relicts of more saline bottom waters that existed in the North Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (Adkins et al., 2002). In contrast, the glaciomarine slope and shelf deposits at Site U1419 to U1421 (~200 to 1,000 m water depth) are characterised by unexpectedly low salinitiy and chlorinity values (as low as 16 psu and 295 mM Cl-, respectively) already in very shallow sediment depths (~10 m), and their records do not show systematic trends with sediment depth. Freshening

  5. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  6. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-08-02

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  7. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  8. UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory 2007 Student Field Assistant Program in the Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzulla, A.; Gasparich, S.; Pauk, B.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The UNAVCO, Inc. Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program strives to engage students in further study and careers in the Earth Sciences. Student Field Assistants from a variety of educational backgrounds ranging from high school graduates to master's level students spend a three to five month field season working in tandem with UNAVCO regional Field Engineers. The students work closely with senior staff to reconnaissance, install, and maintain a network of 875 permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in one of the five PBO regions covering the western United States, including Alaska. Practical skills, such as power tool use, drilling, welding, firearms training, and proper field safety procedures, are taught and expected of the students. Installation and maintenance of new and existing GPS stations composes the bulk of the student's responsibilities and duties. When not in the field, students prepare gear and arrange logistics for site installations and maintenance as well as enter metadata and complete installation reports from recently constructed sites. An understanding of the operations of the GPS receivers and the scientific benefit of the network allows for an appreciation and great attention to detail during installation of the sites. Student assistance in the Alaska region during 2007 PBO AK field season was critical to the successful installation of 36 new GPS stations throughout Alaska. Significant benchmarks of the field season included installing six logistically difficult stations in Prince William Sounds, completing the Denali Fault GPS network, four new tiltmeters on Akutan Volcano, completing all installs on the Seward Peninsula as well as several new GPS stations throughout the western interior of the state. Alaska is a prominent area for much movement and deformation as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate resulting in an area of high volcanic activity and heightened crustal deformation. The

  9. A pilot marine monitoring program in Cook Inlet, Alaska 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Hyland, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Under the mandate of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA`90) the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council (CIRCAC) sponsored the initiation of a pilot monitoring program in Cook Inlet, Alaska, The objectives of the pilot monitoring program were to provide baseline data on petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments and biota of Cook Inlet, and to evaluate the effectiveness of selected monitoring techniques in detecting petroleum hydrocarbon inputs from industry based sources. A sampling program was initiated in 1993 that included petroleum industry, specific sites and reference sites. Sample measurements included polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments, caged mussels, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), sediment toxicity using the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and estimates of population size and physiological condition of indigenous bivalves. Results of the 1993 sampling program indicated that (1) background levels of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and diagenetic hydrocarbons were present in sediments and indigenous bivalves, and (2) that limited amphipod toxicity and variations in bivalve measurements did not correlate with the hydrocarbons in the sediments. Modifications to the 1993 program were instituted for the 1994 sampling and included, the selection of new industry specific sites, discontinued use of caged bivalves, and design changes to SPMDs to enhance sensitivity. The results of the 1994 sampling program, and comparisons with the 1993 data are presented.

  10. Tectonics of the March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake: Chapter I in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George

    1969-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. Regional uplift and subsidence occurred mainly in two nearly parallel elongate zones, together about 600 miles long and as much as 250 miles wide, that lie along the continental margin. From the earthquake epicenter in northern Prince William Sound, the deformation extends eastward 190 miles almost to long 142° and southwestward slightly more than 400 miles to about long 155°. It extends across the two zones from the chain of active volcanoes in the Aleutian Range and Wrangell Mountains probably to the Aleutian Trench axis. Uplift that averages 6 feet over broad areas occurred mainly along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska, on the adjacent Continental Shelf, and probably on the continental slope. This uplift attained a measured maximum on land of 38 feet in a northwest-trending narrow belt less than 10 miles wide that is exposed on Montague Island in southwestern Prince William Sound. Two earthquake faults exposed on Montague Island are subsidiary northwest-dipping reverse faults along which the northwest blocks were relatively displaced a maximum of 26 feet, and both blocks were upthrown relative to sea level. From Montague Island, the faults and related belt of maximum uplift may extend southwestward on the Continental Shelf to the vicinity of the Kodiak group of islands. To the north and northwest of the zone of uplift, subsidence forms a broad asymmetrical downwarp centered over the Kodiak-Kenai-Chugach Mountains that averages 2½ feet and attains a measured maximum of 7½ feet along the southwest coast of the Kenai Peninsula. Maximum indicated uplift in the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges to the north of the zone of subsidence was l½ feet. Retriangulation over roughly 25,000 square miles of the deformed region in and around Prince William Sound

  11. Address to Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Regional Summit on Native Education (Bethel, Alaska, April 24, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongtooguk, Paul

    Remarks of Alaska Native researcher and educator Paul Ongtooguk are presented. Alaska Native students perform worse on exit exams than any other population in the state. In the past, formal education was offered to Alaska Natives only if they gave up being Alaska Natives. The current system is not designed to solve the problems of Alaska Native…

  12. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Effects of currents and tides on fine-scale use of marine bird habitats in a Southeast Alaska hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Hill, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Areas with high species richness have become focal points in the establishment of marine protected areas, but an understanding of the factors that support this diversity is still incomplete. In coastal areas, tidal currents—modulated by bathymetry and manifested in variable speeds—are a dominant physical feature of the environment. However, difficulties resolving tidally affected currents and depths at fine spatial-temporal scales have limited our ability to understand their influence the distribution of marine birds. We used a hydrographic model of the water mass in Glacier Bay, Alaska to link depths and current velocities with the locations of 15 common marine bird species observed during fine-scale boat-based surveys of the bay conducted during June of four consecutive years (2000-2003). Marine birds that forage on the bottom tended to occupy shallow habitats with slow-moving currents; mid-water foragers used habitats with intermediate depths and current speeds; and surface-foraging species tended to use habitats with fast-moving, deep waters. Within foraging groups there was variability among species in their use of habitats. While species obligated to foraging near bottom were constrained to use similar types of habitat, species in the mid-water foraging group were associated with a wider range of marine habitat characteristics. Species also showed varying levels of site use depending on tide stage. The dramatic variability in bottom topography—especially the presence of numerous sills, islands, headlands and channels—and large tidal ranges in Glacier Bay create a wide range of current-affected fine-scale foraging habitats that may contribute to the high diversity of marine bird species found there.

  14. Heat flow and temperature-depth curves throughout Alaska: finding regions for future geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batir, Joseph F.; Blackwell, David D.; Richards, Maria C.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of the thermal regime of Alaska and its relationship to geology, regional tectonics, and to suggest potential sites for future geothermal energy production. New heat flow data were collected and are combined with existing published and unpublished data, although large sections of Alaska still lack data. Fault traces were implemented into the heat flow contouring as an additional gridding constraint, to incorporate both heat flow measurements and geology. New heat flow data supported the use of geologic trends in the heat flow mapping procedure, and a heat flow map of Alaska was produced with this added constraint. The multi-input contouring strategy allows production of a map with a regional interpretation of heat flow, in addition to site-specific heat flow and thermal model interpretations in areas with sufficient data density. Utilizing the new heat flow map, temperature-at-depth curves were created for example areas. Temperature-at-depth curves are calculated to 10 km depth for the areas of Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay, and the Copper River Basin. The temperatures-at-depth predicted near the population centers of Anchorage and Juneau are relatively low, limiting the geothermal resource potential. The Fairbanks area temperature estimates are near conventional power production temperatures (150 °C) between 3.5 and 4 km. All data areas, except at Juneau, have temperatures sufficient for low temperature geothermal applications (40 °C) by 2 km. A high heat flow region exists within the Aleutian Volcanic Arc, although new data show heat flow variations from 59 to 120 mW m-2, so individual geothermal resources within the arc will be irregularly located.

  15. Heat flow and temperature-depth curves throughout Alaska: finding regions for future geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batir, Joseph F.; Blackwell, David D.; Richards, Maria C.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of the thermal regime of Alaska and its relationship to geology, regional tectonics, and to suggest potential sites for future geothermal energy production. New heat flow data were collected and are combined with existing published and unpublished data, although large sections of Alaska still lack data. Fault traces were implemented into the heat flow contouring as an additional gridding constraint, to incorporate both heat flow measurements and geology. New heat flow data supported the use of geologic trends in the heat flow mapping procedure, and a heat flow map of Alaska was produced with this added constraint. The multi-input contouring strategy allows production of a map with a regional interpretation of heat flow, in addition to site-specific heat flow and thermal model interpretations in areas with sufficient data density. Utilizing the new heat flow map, temperature-at-depth curves were created for example areas. Temperature-at-depth curves are calculated to 10 km depth for the areas of Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay, and the Copper River Basin. The temperatures-at-depth predicted near the population centers of Anchorage and Juneau are relatively low, limiting the geothermal resource potential. The Fairbanks area temperature estimates are near conventional power production temperatures (150 °C) between 3.5 and 4 km. All data areas, except at Juneau, have temperatures sufficient for low temperature geothermal applications (40 °C) by 2 km. A high heat flow region exists within the Aleutian Volcanic Arc, although new data show heat flow variations from 59 to 120 mW m‑2, so individual geothermal resources within the arc will be irregularly located.

  16. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  17. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in Southwestern Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Doyle, E.O.; Box, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The oldest dated metamorphic sequence in Alaska, the fault-bounded Kilbuck Terrane, consists of continental rocks that were metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions during early Proterozoic (1.77 Ga) time. Proterozoic or early Paleozoic metamorphic ages are also possible for greenschist- and amphibolite-facies continental rocks in interior Alaska (Ruby and Nixon Fork terranes). Medium-grade metamorphism on the Alaska Peninsula accompanied intrusion of a Jurassic arc. North of Bristol Bay, low-grade, locally high-pressure Mesozoic metamorphism is attributed to the progressive underthrusting of a subduction complex beneath an oceanic arc followed by underthrusting of the Kilbuck Terrane beneath the subduction complex.

  18. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  19. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C; Koven, Charles D; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E

    2016-07-12

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  20. Decision Support Services provided by the NWS Alaska Regional Operations Center in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Osiensky, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The NWS Alaska Region's Regional Operations Center (AR ROC) provides a variety of decision support services to partners and customers across the state. The AR ROC is virtual most times but can flex to stand up support for partners as needed. Support can vary from briefings over the phone or in person to dedicated virtual support to providing on-site meteorologist at an Emergency Operations Center or Incident Command Post to provide tailored support services. During 2015 there have been a number of situations where the AR ROC provided unique support services. This presentation will outline a few examples of how these unique support services benefitted partner agency decisions.

  1. Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, southcentral Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brendan J; Wipfli, Mark S; Lang, Dirk W; Lang, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    After rearing to adulthood at sea, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) return to freshwater to spawn once and then die on or near their spawning grounds. We tested the hypothesis that spawning coho salmon return marine N and C to beaver (Castor canadensis) ponds of the Copper River Delta (CRD), Cordova, southcentral Alaska, thereby enhancing productivity of the aquatic food webs that support juvenile coho salmon. We sampled three types of pond treatment: (1) natural enrichment by spawning salmon, (2) artificial enrichment via addition of salmon carcasses and eggs, and (3) ponds with no salmon enrichment. All ponds supported juvenile coho salmon. Seasonal samples of stable isotopes revealed that juvenile coho salmon, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), caddisfly larvae, leeches, and chironomid midge larvae were enriched with marine N and C. The aquatic vascular plants bur reed (Sparganium hyperboreum), pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus), and mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris) were enriched with marine N only. Riparian vegetation (Sitka alder Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata and willow Salix spp.) did not show enrichment. Artificial additions of adult carcasses and eggs of coho salmon increased the delta15N and delta13C values of juvenile coho salmon. In this dynamic and hydrologically complex coastal environment, spawning coho salmon contributed marine N and C comprising 10-50% of the dietary needs of juvenile coho salmon through direct consumption of eggs and carcass material. Invertebrates that have assimilated marine N and C yield a further indirect contribution. This perennial subsidy maintains the productivity of the ecosystem of the coho salmon on the CRD. PMID:15891853

  2. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience. PMID:27555644

  3. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Henry P; Quakenbush, Lori T; Nelson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience.

  4. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews

    PubMed Central

    Quakenbush, Lori T.; Nelson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods. Amidst these changes, however, hunters cited offsetting technological benefits, such as more powerful and fuel-efficient outboard engines. Other concerns included potential impacts to subsistence hunting from industrial activity such as shipping and oil and gas development. While hunters have been able to adjust to some changes, continued environmental changes and increased disturbance from human activity may further challenge their ability to acquire food in the future. There are indications, however, that innovation and flexibility provide sources of resilience. PMID:27555644

  5. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  6. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  7. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Characteristics of Small-scale Gravity Wave Propagation in the Mesopause Region over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Murayama, Y.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated characteristics of the atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) propagation using sodium airglow images obtained by an all-sky imager installed at Poker Flat Research Range (65.1N, 147.4W, MLAT 65.6) in Alaska. In this study, we developed data analysis programs which automatically derive the unambiguous 2-D power spectrum from the sodium airglow images, using a method by Coble et al. (1998). The power spectrums of the AGWs which have horizontal wavelengths between 2 - 400 km and periods up to 8 hours were obtained by these programs. Statistical study of the AGW data and mesospheric wind data by an MF radar during two winter seasons from October 2000 to April 2002 indicates the following characteristics. - During these periods, the AGW dominantly propagated westward in the zonal direction. - The meridional propagation direction frequently changed. This change seems to be explained by filtering effect by the mesospheric wind. - Total power of the AGW increased in December and January. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between these characteristics of the AGW propagation and unique phenomena in high-latitude region such as auroral precipitation. Acknowledgements This work is conducted as a part of "Alaska Project", the cooperative research project between NICT and Geophysical Institute of University of Alaska. Reference Coble, M. R., G. C. Papen, and C. S. Gardner, Computing two-dimensional unambiguous horizontal wavenumber spectra from OH airglow images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sens., 36, 368--382, 1998.

  9. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  10. Marine geology and bathymetry of nearshore shelf of Chukchi Sea, Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Sainsbury, C.L.

    1960-01-01

    During July and August 1958 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in behalf of the Atomic Energy Commission of the oceanography, bathymetry, and marine geology of the nearshore shelf of the Chukchi Sea off the Ogotoruk Creek area, northwest Alaska. Ogotoruk Creek enters the Chukchi Sea about 32 miles southeast of the large cuapate spit of Point Hope at long 165 degrees 4446 W. and lat 68 degrees 0551 N. The Ogotoruk Creek area extends approximately 10 miles west and 7 miles east of the creek mouth. Knowledge of the marine geology and oceanography is confined primarily to the nearshore shelf, which includes about 70 square miles of the shelf and is defined as the sea floor lying shoreward of the 50-foot submarine contour. The 50-foot contour generally lies from 2 to 4 miles from shore. Submarine topography was studied to a distance of 15 miles from shore over an area of approximately 340 square miles. A northwest coastal current flows past the Ogotoruk Creek area and during July and August averaged 0.5 mile per hour. Persistent northerly winds cause general upwelling near shore and at times of pronounced upwelling the coastal current was reversed or appreciably reduced in speed. Longshore currents shoreward of the breaker zone averaged 0.3 mile per hour and moved to the east for the greater part of the time of the study. The overall seaward slope of the inner 15 miles of the Chukchi shelf from a depth of 40 to 135 feet is approximately 0 degrees 04, or about 6 feet per mile. Slopes near shore to depths of 15-20 feet are steep and average 2 degrees 30. Beyond these depths they increase gradually out to a depth of 40-45 feet. Seaward of this point the shelf is flattest and slopes are as low as 0 degree 01. This terrace or flat part of the nearshore shelf is about 2 miles wide and descends to a depth of 50-55 feet beyond which the gradient increases to about 0 degree 06. At depths greater than 85 feet the submarine declivity gradually decreases to 0 degree 03 at

  11. Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Lentfer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

  12. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  13. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  14. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, A.V.; Jensen, B.J.L.; Zazula, G.D.; Ager, T.A.; Kuzmina, S.; La, Farge C.; Froese, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 40??cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131??????11??ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A late-Middle Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 6) vegetated surface buried by Old Crow tephra at the Palisades, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Zazula, Grant D.; Ager, Thomas A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; La Farge, Catherine; Froese, Duane G.

    2010-03-01

    A 40 cm thick primary bed of Old Crow tephra (131 ± 11 ka), an important stratigraphic marker in eastern Beringia, directly overlies a vegetated surface at Palisades West, on the Yukon River in central Alaska. Analyses of insect, bryophyte, and vascular plant macrofossils from the buried surface and underlying organic-rich silt suggest the local presence of an aquatic environment and mesic shrub-tundra at the time of tephra deposition. Autochthonous plant and insect macrofossils from peat directly overlying Old Crow tephra suggest similar aquatic habitats and hydric to mesic tundra environments, though pollen counts indicate a substantial herbaceous component to the regional tundra vegetation. Trace amounts of arboreal pollen in sediments associated with the tephra probably reflect reworking from older deposits, rather than the local presence of trees. The revised glass fission-track age for Old Crow tephra places its deposition closer to the time of the last interglaciation than earlier age determinations, but stratigraphy and paleoecology of sites with Old Crow tephra indicate a late Marine Isotope Stage 6 age. Regional permafrost degradation and associated thaw slumping are responsible for the close stratigraphic and paleoecological relations between Old Crow tephra and last interglacial deposits at some sites in eastern Beringia.

  16. Regional signatures in the organic composition of marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Keene, William C.; Kieber, David J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer. The organic composition of submicron particles derived from multiple seawater regions have been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cluster analysis of FTIR organic spectra suggest different spectral signatures based on collection location, seawater composition, and ambient conditions. Measurements including non-refractory aerosol composition from a high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), seawater composition, and wind speed were used to interpret the cluster results, depending on the availability from each campaign. FTIR spectra of ambient particles are compared to FTIR spectra of primary marine particles generated from model ocean systems to infer the ambient particle production mechanisms and aging processes. Recent measurements used in the comparison include ambient and generated marine aerosol particles measured off the coast of California during CalNex in May and June 2010. Remote ambient marine aerosol particles were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey in the eastern Pacific during the EPEACE experiment in July 2011. Ambient and generated marine particles were measured in two different seawater types during WACS 2012 including colder, more productive water off the coast of the northeastern United States and warmer, oligotrophic water in the Sargasso Sea. These particles are also compared with those measured in the southeastern Pacific during VOCALS and the north Atlantic during ICEALOT.

  17. ENSO events in the northern Gulf of Alaska, and effects on selected marine fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, K.M.; Macklin, S.A.; Reed, R.K.; Brodeur, R.D.; Ingraham, W.J.; Piatt, J.F.; Shima, M.; Francis, R.C.; Anderson, P.J.; Royer, T.C.; Hollowed, A.; Somerton, D.A.; Wooster, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    The 1991-93 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event first appeared in the northern Gulf of Alaska in autumn 1991 with warm sea-surface temperatures. In winter 1992, there were pulses of increased sea level and anomalous circulation. El Nino conditions persisted at least through summer 1993. The effects of this ENSO event on major groundfish species and Pacific herring in the northern Gulf of Alaska were examined and compared with the effects of previous ENSO events. There is little evidence that the 1991-93 or 1982-83 ENSO events affected landings of walleye pollock, Pacific cod, Pacific halibut, or arrowtooth flounder. Some changes in distribution of groundfish species were observed in 1993, but the effect was similar to changes observed in non-ENSO warm years. In general, warm ocean conditions have a positive effect on recruitment of northern stocks, but ENSO events appear to have an inconsistent effect on year-class strength within species and among different species. For example, strong year classes of halibut and arrowtooth flounder sometimes, but not always, coincide with ENSO events; ENSO events are associated with moderate to weak year classes of cod and pollock. However, post-ENSO warm years often are associated with strong recruitment of many groundfish species. Major changes have occurred in the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem since 1977. The influence of the 1976 ENSO event in precipitating these changes and the role of the frequency or strength of subsequent El Nino events is presently unknown. Herring and other stocks of small pelagic fishes may be more affected by ENSO events. In particular, decreased catches, recruitment, and weight-at-age of herring are sometimes associated with ENSO events. Furthermore, a variety of seabirds which feed mostly on pelagic forage fishes or the pelagic juvenile stages of groundfish suffered widespread mortalities and breeding failures in the Gulf of Alaska during the ENSO years of 1983 and 1993. These effects on seabirds

  18. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Depositional environments and processes in Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marine sediments, Ocean Point dinosaur locality, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    A 178-m-thick stratigraphic section exposed along the lower Colville River in northern Alaska, near Ocean Point, represents the uppermost part of a 1500 m Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic section. Strata exposed at Ocean Point are assigned to the Prince Creek and Schrader Bluff formations. Three major depositional environments are identified consisting, in ascending order, of floodplain, interdistributary-bay, and shallow-marine shelf. Nonmarine strata, comprising the lower 140 m of this section, consist of fluvial distributaries, overbank sediments, tephra beds, organic-rich beds, and vertebrate remains. Tephras yield isotopic ages between 68 and 72.9 Ma, generally consistent with paleontologic ages of late Campanian-Maastrichtian determined from dinosaur remains, pollen, foraminifers, and ostracodes. Meandering low-energy rivers on a low-gradient, low-relief floodplain carried a suspended-sediment load. The rivers formed multistoried channel deposits (channels to 10 m deep) as well as solitary channel deposits (channels 2-5 m deep). Extensive overbank deposits resulting from episodic flooding formed fining-upward strata on the floodplain. The fining-upward strata are interbedded with tephra and beds of organic-rich sediment. Vertical-accretion deposits containing abundant roots indicate a sheet flood origin for many beds. Vertebrate and nonmarine invertebrate fossils along with plant debris were locally concentrated in the floodplain sediment. Deciduous conifers as well as abundant wetland plants, such as ferns, horsetails, and mosses, covered the coastal plain. Dinosaur skeletal remains have been found concentrated in floodplain sediments in organic-rich bone beds and as isolated bones in fluvial channel deposits in at least nine separate horizons within a 100-m-thick interval. Arenaceous foraminifers in some organic-rich beds and shallow fluvial distributaries indicate a lower coastal plain environment with marginal marine (bay) influence. Marginal marine strata

  20. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.220 If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? If you propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the...

  1. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Brosge, W.P.; Till, A.B.; Doyle, E.O.; Mayfield, C.F.; Reiser, H.N.; Miller, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane onto the continental margin. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate have not been identified, and the mechanism by which the high-pressure rocks in the two areas were separated is not known. In the Ruby geanticline, glaucophane, attesting to high-pressure metamorphism, is sporadically developed both within the continental rocks of the lower plate and, less commonly, near the base of the overlying oceanic thrust sheets. Although the majority of the metamorphic episodes that affected northern Alaska occurred during the Mesozoic, older episodes have been documented or are suspected in a few areas.

  2. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in coastal marine ecosystems of southern Alaska: inferences from spatial patterns in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus).

    PubMed

    Reese, Stacey L; Estes, James A; Jarman, Walter M

    2012-08-01

    We measured the concentrations and chemical structures of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from 44 sites across southwest and southeast Alaska in an effort to determine both the sources of these compounds and the extent to which this region might be contaminated. High PCB concentrations were detected at Amchitka, Adak, and Unalaska Islands (83, 430, and 2800μgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively) in the Aleutians with relatively low concentrations elsewhere (7.1-51μgkg(-1) dry weight). Heavy PCB congener profiles (indicative of localized point sources) characterized the high concentration sites whereas distinctly lighter congener profiles (indicative of atmospheric transport) characterized the lower concentration sites. Elevated PCB concentrations at Adak were restricted to a small area along the island's eastern shore, suggesting either limited dispersion or rapid dilution of these compounds. More uniform chlorinated pesticide concentrations among the collection sites suggests that these compounds are entering the Aleutian ecosystem from distant sources. Pesticide concentrations correlated significantly with seabird density across the islands we sampled, thus identifying biological transport as a delivery mechanism of these compounds to the Aleutian archipelago. Our findings do not implicate persistent organochlorines as a significant factor in the recent pinniped and sea otter population declines across southwest Alaska.

  4. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning... addition of the map entitled ``Chukchi Sea Planning Area for Information and Nominations Lease Sale 237... Lease Sale 237 in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area, scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1166 - What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... developments in the Alaska OCS Region? 250.1166 Section 250.1166 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1166 What additional reporting is required...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1166 - What additional reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Other Requirements § 250.1166... development in the Alaska OCS Region, you must submit an annual reservoir management report to the...

  7. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... later than November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael S. Rolland, Chief,...

  8. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  9. Loess ecosystems of northern Alaska: Regional gradient and toposequence at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Everett, K.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Loess-dominated ecosystems cover {approx} 14% (11,000 km{sup 2}) of the Arctic Coastal Plain and much of the northern portion of the Arctic Foothills. Knowledge of this poorly known ecosystem is important for sound land-use planning of the expanding developments in the region and for understanding the paleoecological dynamics of eolian systems that once dominated much of northern Alaska. A conceptual alkaline-tundra toposequence includes eight common vegetation types and associated soils and vegetation downwind of the Sagavanirktok River. Properties of loess tundra important for land-use planning include: (1) its high ice content, which contributes to its susceptibility to thermokarst; (2) high salinities, which hamper revegetation efforts; and (3) presence of certain plant species such as Dryas intergrifolia, which are particularly sensitive to disturbance. The loess gradient provides a natural analogue for road dust, and extensive disturbance associated with oil-field development.

  10. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  11. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  12. Effect of Forest Fire on Regional Carbon Dioxide Exchange Over Boreal Forest in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, H.; Otsuki, M.; Harazono, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Iwata, T.

    2010-12-01

    Forest fire is a major disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems and significantly influences carbon exchange processes by combustion of vegetation and surface organic soils. In Interior Alaska, area of 7.6x106 ha was burned during 2000-2009 by forest fires. Fire occurrence frequency in the next decade may increase with current warming trend. Hence, it is important to include carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange at fire scars to accurately estimate regional CO2 exchange. To quantify CO2 exchange, CO2 flux and meteorological data were obtained at an undisturbed black spruce forest and a fire scar (five years after fire) in Interior Alaska, and responses of photosynthesis and respiration to meteorological variables were examined in each site. Photosynthesis at the fire scar was reduced to approximately 50 % of photosynthesis at the undisturbed black spruce forest due to loss of vegetation. Respiration at the fire scar was also reduced to 50 % of the undisturbed black spruce forest. This is attributable to decrease of biomass and surface organic matter. Annual net exchanges of CO2 at both sites were uptake of 519 and 256 gCO2/m2/year for the undisturbed black spruce forest and the fire scar, respectively. We used light-use efficiency model to estimate spatial distributions of photosynthesis and respiration using remote sensing imagery, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis meteorology and NASA solar radiation. The model was parameterized using observations at the undisturbed black spruce forest and the fire scar. Estimated regional average of CO2 uptake was reduced by 10 % compared to an estimated value with which fire scars were not included. Further improvement is expected by incorporating severity of forest fires that determine reduction of photosynthesis and respiration after fires.

  13. A reconnaissance of the major Holocene tephra deposits in the upper Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The upper Cook Inlet region of southcentral Alaska would be significantly impacted by a major tephrafall, owing to a widespread population and heavily travelled transportation corridors. To evaluate the likelihood of such an occurrence, the tephra deposits of the region have been inventoried. Approximately 90 deposits of Holocene age are sufficiently thick to have been preserved for sampling; the frequency of such major tephrafalls ranges from 1 every 200 years near sources on the west side of upper Cook Inlet, to 1 every 1000 years on the more populated east side. The volcanoes located on the west side of upper Cook Inlet are, from north to south, Hayes, Spurr, Redoubt, and Iliamna. Hayes volcano produced the most extensive set of 6 to perhaps 8 tephra layers in the region about 3650 yr B.P. and produced one other, less extensive tephra layer during Holocene time. Spurr and Redoubt volcanoes have produced, respectively, approximately 35 and 30 Holocene layers which were dispersed eastward toward population centers. No Holocene tephra layers of Iliamna have been recognized with certainty; consequently, several tephra layers which originated to the south of the region must have a source at Augustine Volcano, or some more distant volcano. Tephra layers of Hayes volcano are calc-alkaline dacites. Most of the Spurr deposits are tholeiitic, basaltic andesites whereas those of Redoubt Volcano are calc-alkaline andesites and dacites. ?? 1985.

  14. Glaciological and marine geological controls on terminus dynamics of Hubbard Glacier, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Leigh A.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; van der Veen, C. J.; Finnegan, D. C.; O'Neel, Shad; Scheick, J. B.; Lawson, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, is the world's largest non-polar tidewater glacier. It has been steadily advancing since it was first mapped in 1895; occasionally, the advance creates an ice or sediment dam that blocks a tributary fjord (Russell Fiord). The sustained advance raises the probability of long-term closure in the near-future, which will strongly impact the ecosystem of Russell Fiord and the nearby community of Yakutat. Here, we examine a 43-year record of flow speeds and terminus position to understand the large-scale dynamics of Hubbard Glacier. Our long-term record shows that the rate of terminus advance has increased slightly since 1895, with the exception of a slowed advance between approximately 1972 and 1984. The short-lived closure events in 1986 and 2002 were not initiated by perturbations in ice velocity or environmental forcings, but were likely due to fluctuations in sedimentation patterns at the terminus. This study points to the significance of a coupled system where short-term velocity fluctuations and morainal shoal development control tidewater glacier terminus position.

  15. The marine record of the Russell Fiord outburst flood, Alaska, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowan, E.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Powell, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The advance of Hubbard Glacier, near Yakutat, Alaska, U.S.A., in spring 1986 blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord with an ice-and-sediment dam, behind which a lake formed. The water level in Russell Lake rose to 25.5 m a.s.l. The dam catastrophically failed in October 1986, releasing 5.4 km3 of water into Disenchantment Bay. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles show a 7.5 km long channel system cut into and buried by glacimarine sediment, represented by continuous, parallel reflections. The chaotic seismic facies filling the channel is interpreted to be debris flow deposits. A gravity core from channel-overbank deposits contained sandy diamicton with mud clasts. Above the channel a 1-2 m thick sediment drape extends across the bay. Laminated mud, fining-upward sand beds and diamicton were recovered from this unit. The sediment-drape deposits were produced by suspension settling from turbid plumes and non-channelized turbidity currents generated by the outburst flood.

  16. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  17. Geography of Alaska Lake Districts: Identification, Description, and Analysis of Lake-Rich Regions of a Diverse and Dynamic State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are abundant landforms and important ecosystems in Alaska, but are unevenly distributed on the landscape with expansive lake-poor regions and several lake-rich regions. Such lake-rich areas are termed lake districts and have landscape characteristics that can be considered distinctive in similar respects to mountain ranges. In this report, we explore the nature of lake-rich areas by quantitatively identifying Alaska's lake districts, describing and comparing their physical characteristics, and analyzing how Alaska lake districts are naturally organized and correspond to climatic and geophysical characteristics, as well as studied and managed by people. We use a digital dataset (National Hydrography Dataset) of lakes greater than 1 hectare, which includes 409,040 individual lakes and represents 3.3 percent of the land-surface area of Alaska. The selection criteria we used to identify lake districts were (1) a lake area (termed limnetic ratio, in percent) greater than the mean for the State, and (2) a lake density (number of lakes per unit area) greater than the mean for the State using a pixel size scaled to the area of interest and number of lakes in the census. Pixels meeting these criteria were grouped and delineated and all groups greater than 1,000 square kilometers were identified as Alaska's lake districts. These lake districts were described according to lake size-frequency metrics, elevation distributions, geology, climate, and ecoregions to better understand their similarities and differences. We also looked at where lake research and relevant ecological monitoring has occurred in Alaska relative to lake districts and how lake district lands and waters are currently managed. We identified and delineated 20 lake districts in Alaska representing 16 percent of the State, but including 65 percent of lakes and 75 percent of lake area. The largest lake districts identified are the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Arctic Coastal Plain, and Iliamna lake districts with

  18. Evaluation of conditions along the grounding line of temperate marine glaciers: An example from Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seramur, K.C.; Powell, R.D.; Carlson, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    In the marine environment, stability of the glacier terminus and the location of subglacial streams are the dominant controls on the distribution of grounding-line deposits within morainal banks. A morainal bank complex in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, SE Alaska, is used to develop a model of terminus stability and location of subglacial streams along the grounding line of temperate marine glaciers. This model can be used to interpret former grounding-line conditions in other glacimarine settings from the facies architecture within morainal bank deposits. The Muir Inlet morainal bank complex was deposited between 1860 A.D. and 1899 A.D., and historical observations provide a record of terminus positions, glacial retreat rates and sedimentary sources. These data are used to reconstruct the depositional environment and to develop a correlation between sedimentary facies and conditions along the grounding line. Four seismic facies identified on the high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles are used to interpret sedimentary facies within the morainal bank complex. Terminus stability is interpreted from the distribution of sedimentary facies within three distinct submarine geomorphic features, a grounding-line fan; stratified ridges, and a field of push ridges. The grounding-line fan was deposited along a stable terminus and is represented on seismic-reflection profiles by two distinct seismic facies, a proximal and a distal fan facies. The proximal fan facies was deposited at the efflux of subglacial streams and indicates the location of former glacifluvial discharges into the sea. Stratified ridges formed as a result of the influence of a quasi-stable terminus on the distribution of sedimentary facies along the grounding line. A field of push ridges formed along the grounding line of an unstable terminus that completely reworked the grounding-line deposits through glacitectonic deformation. Between 1860 A.D. and 1899 A.D. (39 years), 8.96 x 108 m3 of sediment were

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  20. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  1. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  2. Monitoring change in the Bering Glacier region, Alaska: Using Landsat TM and ERS-1 imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.F.; Coffeen, M.; Macleod, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. The objective of this project was to extract information regarding the position of the terminus of the glacier from historic aerial photography, early 20{sup th} century ground photography, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data, and European Space Agency, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (ERS-1 SAR) data and integrate it into a single digital database that would lend itself to change detection analysis. ERS-1 SAR data was acquired from six dates between 1992-95 and was terrain corrected and co-registered A single Landsat TM image from June 1991 was used as the base image for classifying land cover types. Historic locations of the glacier terminus were generated using traditional photo interpretation techniques from aerial and ground photography. The result of this platform combination, along with the historical data, is providing land managers with the unique opportunity to generate complete assessments of glacial movement this century and determine land cover changes which may impact wildlife and recreational opportunities.

  3. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  4. Selective occurrence of Rhizobiales in frost flowers on the surface of young sea ice near Barrow, Alaska and distribution in the polar marine rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J S; Larose, C; Vogel, T M; Deming, J W

    2013-08-01

    Frost flowers are highly saline ice structures that grow on the surface of young sea ice, a spatially extensive environment of increasing importance in the Arctic Ocean. In a previous study, we reported organic components of frost flowers in the form of elevated levels of bacteria and exopolymers relative to underlying ice. Here, DNA was extracted from frost flowers and young sea ice, collected in springtime from a frozen lead offshore of Barrow, Alaska, to identify bacteria in these understudied environments. Evaluation of the distribution of 16S rRNA genes via four methods (microarray analysis, T-RFLP, clone library and shotgun metagenomic sequencing) indicated distinctive bacterial assemblages between the two environments, with frost flowers appearing to select for Rhizobiales. A phylogenetic placement approach, used to evaluate the distribution of similar Rhizobiales sequences in other polar marine studies, indicated that some of the observed strains represent widely distributed members of the marine rare biosphere in both the Arctic and Antarctic.

  5. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  6. Climatology of Extreme Winds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska Region Using the North American Regional Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegall, S. T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The high-resolution (32km, 3-hourly) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) surface winds were used to examine the detailed structures of the distribution and evolution of the surface wind across the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska region. First the NARR surface winds were verified against the station observations over the study area and the comparisons indicate that NARR essentially captures the distribution of the observed winds in summer. However, an obvious bias exists in winter, when the easterly component of the bimodal pattern is overestimated, while the westerly component is underestimated, particularly in January. Then we used the NARR surface wind data to examine the wind field climatological features, interannual variability and long-term change over the study area by analyzing the monthly maximums, 99th, 95th, 90th, and 50th percentile wind speeds (m/s) for each month of the year from 1979-2006. Decadal differences (i.e. the difference from 2000-2006 and 1990-1999 and 1990-1999 and 1980-1989) were also investigated to understand the long-term change in the area's surface winds. The results indicated that the maximum wind speeds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas have lower values from January through May. Then there is a progression northward of the higher wind speeds beginning in the Bering Strait in June and continuing into the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during July-October; in November and December the maximum winds in the area start to decrease with a southward migration into the Chukchi Sea and eventually back through the Bering Strait into the Bering Sea, which is coincident with the sea ice retreat and advance in the area. The yearly variance of the wind speeds follow a similar northward and southward migration while the highest variance happened in October. The decadal differences mainly show a large increase in the maximum winds speeds in September and October in the Chukchi Sea.

  7. Distribution of Ground-Nesting Marine Birds Along Shorelines in Glacier Bay, Southeastern Alaska: An Assessment Related to Potential Disturbance by Back-Country Users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of a few large colonies, the distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay National Park in southeastern Alaska is largely unknown. As visitor use increases in back-country areas of the park, there is growing concern over the potential impact of human activities on breeding birds. During the 2003i??05 breeding seasons, the shoreline of Glacier Bay was surveyed to locate ground-nesting marine birds and their nesting areas, including wildlife closures and historical sites for egg collection by Alaska Native peoples. The nesting distribution of four common ground-nesting marine bird species was determined: Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), Mew Gull (Larus canus), and Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens). Observations of less abundant species also were recorded, including Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata), Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia), Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), and Aleutian Tern (Sterna aleutica). Nesting distribution for Arctic Terns was largely restricted to the upper arms of the bay and a few treeless islets in the lower bay, whereas Black Oystercatchers were more widely distributed along shorelines in the park. Mew Gulls nested throughout the upper bay in Geikie Inlet and in Fingers and Berg Bays, and most Glaucous-winged Gull nests were found at wildlife closures in the central and lower bays. Several areas were identified where human disturbance could affect breeding birds. This study comprises the first bay-wide survey for the breeding distribution of ground-nesting marine birds in Glacier Bay National Park, providing a minimum estimate of their numbers and distribution within the park. This information can be used to assess future human disturbance and track natural

  8. Controls on Carbon Consumed by Wildland Fires in the Boreal Forest Region of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; French, N. H.; Barrett, K. M.; de Groot, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    The burned area from fires in the boreal forest region of Alaska have been increasing over the past three decades, which will have significant impacts on terrestrial carbon cycling in this region. The most immediate impact from these fires is the consumption of biomass and release of carbon-based trace gases into the atmosphere. A study was conducted where carbon consumed during fires was estimated from 169 different fire events from 2002 to 2008. The fires events used in this study contained 93 percent of the area burned for the study period (6 million ha). We used a new approach to estimate carbon consumed for Alaskan boreal fires which mapped topography and fuel type at a high spatial resolution (60 m), and accounted for the factors that control burning deep burning of surface organic layers present in all fuel types. The estimates of total carbon consumption were substantially higher than those from previous studies, with the highest emissions in 2004 and 2005 (64.7 and 43.5 Tg C, respectively), and average carbon consumption for individual years ranged from 1.48 to 3.04 kg/sq m. Burning of surface organic layer fuels accounted for 84 percent of all emissions. Factors shown to contribute to variations in average fuel consumption between different years included fraction of spruce fuels present and burned area during the season. It was also shown that the dramatic increase in late season fires that occurred in the 2000s was a contributing factor to the high emissions. For aboveground fuels, variations in fuel moisture at the time of burning were also important.

  9. Regional variations in the fluvial Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate, Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Nilsen, Tor H.

    1984-03-01

    The wholly allochthonous Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate is one of the most extensive fluvial deposits in North America. It crops out for 950 km along the crest of the Brooks Range in a series of thrust plates and is as thick as 2615 m. The Kanayut forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta. The lower part of the Kanayut (the Ear Peak Member) overlies marginal-marine and prodelta turbidite deposits and consists of fining-upward meandering-stream-channel cycles of conglomerate and sandstone within black to maroon floodplain shale deposits. The middle part of the Kanayut (the Shainin Lake Member) lacks shale and consists of fining-upward couplets of channelized conglomerate and parallel- to cross-stratified sandstone interpreted as braidplain deposits. These deposits contain the largest clasts (23 cm) and were deposited during maximum progradation of the fluvial sequence. The upper part of the Kanayut (the Stuver Member), which consists of fining-upward meandering stream cycles similar to those of the lower part, grades upward into overlying Lower Mississippian tidal and marginal-marine deposits. Paleocurrent data and distribution of largest clasts indicate that the Kanayut was deposited by southwest-flowing streams fed by at least two major trunk streams that drained a mountainous region to the north and east. Comparison of stratigraphic and sedimentologic data collected at three selected locations representative of proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the Kanayut basin reveal regional variations in its fluvial character. These include a decrease in total thickness of fluvial strata, an increase in total thickness of associated marine sandstone, the pinch-out of the coarse-grained middle part of the Kanayut and decreases in the conglomerate/sandstone and sandstone/shale ratios from proximal to distal areas of the basin. The coarse-grained parts of the fluvial cycles decrease in thickness and lateral extent from

  10. Regional variations in the fluvial Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wholly allochthonous Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate is one of the most extensive fluvial deposits in North America. It crops out for 950 km along the crest of the Brooks Range in a series of thrust plates and is as thick as 2615 m. The Kanayut forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta. The lower part of the Kanayut (the Ear Peak Member) overlies marginal-marine and prodelta turbidite deposits and consists of fining-upward meandering-stream-channel cycles of conglomerate and sandstone within black to maroon floodplain shale deposits. The middle part of the Kanayut (the Shainin Lake Member) lacks shale and consists of fining-upward couplets of channelized conglomerate and parallel- to cross-stratified sandstone interpreted as braidplain deposits. These deposits contain the largest clasts (23 cm) and were deposited during maximum progradation of the fluvial sequence. The upper part of the Kanayut (the Stuver Member), which consists of fining-upward meandering stream cycles similar to those of the lower part, grades upward into overlying Lower Mississippian tidal and marginal-marine deposits. Paleocurrent data and distribution of largest clasts indicate that the Kanayut was deposited by southwest-flowing streams fed by at least two major trunk streams that drained a mountainous region to the north and east. Comparison of stratigraphic and sedimentologic data collected at three selected locations representative of proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the Kanayut basin reveal regional variations in its fluvial character. These include a decrease in total thickness of fluvial strata, an increase in total thickness of associated marine sandstone, the pinch-out of the coarse-grained middle part of the Kanayut and decreases in the conglomerate/sandstone and sandstone/shale ratios from proximal to distal areas of the basin. The coarse-grained parts of the fluvial cycles decrease in thickness and lateral extent from

  11. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  12. Potential for Expanding the Near Real Time ForWarn Regional Forest Monitoring System to Include Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    The on-line near real time (NRT) ForWarn system is currently deployed to monitor regional forest disturbances within the conterminous United States (CONUS), using daily MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI data to derive monitoring products. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated such a system. Work on ForWarn began in 2006 with development and validation of retrospective MODIS NDVI-based forest monitoring products. Subsequently, NRT forest disturbance monitoring products were demonstrated, leading to the actual system deployment in 2010. ForWarn provides new CONUS forest disturbance monitoring products every 8 days, using USGS eMODIS data for current NDVI. ForWarn currently does not cover Alaska, which includes extensive forest lands at risk to multiple biotic and abiotic threats. This poster discusses a case study using Alaska eMODIS Terra data to derive ForWarn like forest change products during the 2010 growing season. The eMODIS system provides current MODIS Terra NDVI products for Alaska. Resulting forest change products were assessed with ground, aerial, and Landsat reference data. When cloud and snow free, these preliminary products appeared to capture regional forest disturbances from insect defoliation and fires; however, more work is needed to mitigate cloud and snow contamination, including integration of eMODIS Aqua data.

  13. Contaminants in tracked seabirds showing regional patterns of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsuo; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shiomi, Kozue; Zavalaga, Carlos; Abe, Tomoya; Watanabe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Maki; Sato, Katsufumi; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Yoda, Ken; Iida, Tomohiko; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-07-16

    Ocean-scale monitoring of pollution is challenging. Seabirds are useful indicators because they travel over a broad foraging range. Nevertheless, this coarse spatial resolution is not fine enough to discriminate pollution in a finer scale. Previous studies have demonstrated that pollution levels are higher in the Sea of Japan and South and East China Seas than the Northen Pacific Ocean. To test these findings in a wide-ranging animal, we tracked streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) from four islands in Japan using global positioning system (GPS) and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the oil of their preen glands. The POPs did not change during 6 to 21 days when birds from Awashima were foraging only in the Sea of Japan, while it increased when they crossed to the Pacific through the Tsugaru Strait and foraged along the eastern coast of Hokkaido where industrial cities occur. These results indicate that POPs in the oil reflect relatively short-term exposure. Concentrations of POPs displayed greater variation among regions. Total polychlorinated biphenyls were highest in birds foraging in a small area of the semiclosed Seto Inland Sea surrounded by urbanized coast, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was highest in birds foraging in the East China Sea, and total hexachlorocyclohexanes were highest in birds foraging in the Sea of Japan. All were lowest in birds foraging in the Pacific. This distribution of POPs concentration partly agrees with previous findings based on mussels, fish, and seawater and possibly reflects the mobility and emission sources of each type of POP. These results highlight the importance of information on the foraging area of highly mobile top predators to make them more effective monitors of regional marine pollution.

  14. Historical Trends and Regional Differences in All-Cause and Amenable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Since 1950

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated. PMID:24754651

  15. Historical trends and regional differences in all-cause and amenable mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives since 1950.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, Stephen J; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-06-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated.

  16. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  17. Use of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) for Geological Studies in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, G. R.; Hodson, T. O.; Allee, R.; Cicchetti, G.; Finkbeiner, M.; Goodin, K.; Handley, L.; Madden, C.; Mayer, G.; Shumchenia, E.

    2012-12-01

    The U S Geological Survey (USGS) is one of four primary organizations (along with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the Evironmental Protection Agency, and NatureServe) responsible for the development of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) over the past decade. In June 2012 the Federal Geographic Data Committee approved CMECS as the first-ever comprehensive federal standard for classifying and describing coastal and marine ecosystems. The USGS has pioneered the application of CMECS in Glacier Bay, Alaska as part of its Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitat Studies Project. This presentation briefly describes the standard and its application as part of geological survey studies in the Western Arm of Glacier Bay. CMECS offers a simple, standard framework and common terminology for describing natural and human influenced ecosystems from the upper tidal reaches of estuaries to the deepest portions of the ocean. The framework is organized into two settings, biogeographic and aquatic, and four components, water column, geoform, substrate, and biotic. Each describes a separate aspect of the environment and biota. Settings and components can be used in combination or independently to describe ecosystem features. The hierarchical arrangement of units of the settings and components allows users to apply CMECS to the scale and specificity that best suits their needs. Modifiers allow users to customize the classification to meet specific needs. Biotopes can be described when there is a need for more detailed information on the biota and their environment. USGS efforts focused primarily on the substrate and geoform components. Previous research has demonstrated three classes of bottom type that can be derived from multibeam data that in part determine the distribution of benthic organisms: soft, flat bottom, mixed bottom including coarse sediment and low-relief rock with low to moderate rugosity, and rugose, hard bottom. The

  18. The Kingak shale of northern Alaska-regional variations in organic geochemical properties and petroleum source rock quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Kingak Shale, a thick widespread rock unit in northern Alaska that ranges in age from Early Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, has adequate to good oil source rock potential. This lenticular-shaped rock unit is as much as 1200 m thick near the Jurassic shelf edge, where its present-day burial depth is about 5000 m. Kingak sediment, transported in a southerly direction, was deposited on the then marine continental shelf. The rock unit is predominantly dark gray Shale with some interbeds of thick sandstone and siltstone. The thermal maturity of organic matter in the Kingak Shale ranges from immature (2.0%R0) in the Colville basin toward the south. Its organic carbon and hydrogen contents are highest in the eastern part of northern Alaska south of and around the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields. Carbon isotope data of oils and rock extracts indicate that the Kingak Shale is a source of some North Slope oil, but is probably not the major source. ?? 1984.

  19. Impact of source region on the δ18O signal in snow: A case study from Mount Wrangell Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kent; Field, Robert; Benson, Carl

    2016-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water in ice cores is an important source of information on past climate variability. At its simplest level, the underlying assumption is that there is an empirical relationship between the normalized difference in the concentration for these stable isotopes and a specified local temperature at the ice core site. There are however non-local processes, such as a change in source region or a change in the atmospheric pathway, that can impact the stable isotope signal thereby complicating its use as a proxy for temperature. Here we investigate the importance of these non-local processes through the analysis of the synoptic-scale circulation during a snowfall event at the summit of Mount Wrangell, in south-central Alaska just to the east of the Gulf of Alaska. During this event there was, over a one-day period in which the local temperature was approximately constant, a change in δ18O that exceeded half that normally seen to occur between summer and winter in the region. As we shall show, this arose from a change in the source region, from the sub-tropical eastern Pacific to northeastern Asia for the snow that fell on Mount Wrangell during the event. The recognition that non-local processes play a role in the stable isotope record from the Gulf of Alaska region suggests that these records, in addition to a local temperature signal, also contain signals of large-scale modes of climate variability that impact the North Pacific region such as the Pacific North America teleconnection and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation.

  20. Provenance of Marine Sediment in the Gulf of Alaska, IODP Expedition 341: Links Between Sediment Derivation, Glacial Systems, and Exhumation of the Coastal Mountain Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, W. K.; Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Ridgway, K.; Colliver, L.

    2015-12-01

    Provenance analysis of Neogene sand and diamict beds from marine boreholes drilled by the IODP Expedition 341 provides a marine sedimentary record of the interactions between tectonics, climate and sediment deposition along a glaciated convergent margin. The 341 boreholes represent a cross-margin transect that sampled the continental shelf, slope, and deep sea Surveyor Fan of the Gulf of Alaska. Our dataset currently consists of ~ 650 detrital zircons selected for double dating method utilizing both detrital zircon fission track (FT) and U-Pb analysis from sand and diamict beds, as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology and apatite FT from igneous and gneissic clasts. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of sand records dominant peak ages of 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. Most of these ages can be correlated to primary igneous sources in the Coast Plutonic Complex, the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, the plutonic rocks of Wrangellia, and the Sanak-Baranoff plutonic belt. All samples analyzed to date, covering a 10 Myr range, share nearly identical detrital zircon populations suggesting similar primary sediment sources and reworking of sediment in thrust belts and accretionary prisms along this convergent margin. Plutonic and gneissic clasts collected from the boreholes on the shelf have already been double dated. These clasts have general U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 52-54 Ma and apatite fission track cooling ages of 10-12 Ma. These results, along with previous published studies, indicate that these clasts were derived from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex and were eroded and transported by the Bagley Ice Field and Bering Glacier. Future results using this approach should allow us to pinpoint which parts of the exhumed onshore ranges and which glacial systems provided sediment to marine environments in the Gulf of Alaska.

  1. 76 FR 3653 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...The Lake Clark National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS) subsistence hunting program recommendations and other related subsistence management issues. The NPS SRC program is authorized under Title VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law 96- 487, to operate in accordance with the provisions of the Federal......

  2. New insights into the influence of ice on the coastal marine environment of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, P. W.; Reimnitz, E.

    1973-01-01

    Areal patterns from field data and ERTS-1 imagery have shown a close relationship between geologic processes and the influence of sea ice along Alaska's northern coast, perhaps the nation's least known continental margin. Ice acts as; (1) a bottom-gouging agent; (2) an influence on water circulation; (3) a carrier of sediments; and (4) an influence on water types.

  3. Erosion and deposition on a beach raised by the 1964 earthquake, Montague Island, Alaska: Chapter H in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkby, M.J.; Kirkby, Anne V.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, tectonic deformation uplifted the southern end of Montague Island as much as 33 feet or more. The uplifted shoreline is rapidly being modified by subaerial and marine processes. The new raised beach is formed in bedrock, sand, gravel, and deltaic bay-head deposits, and the effect of each erosional process was measured in each material. Fieldwork was concentrated in two areas—MacLeod Harbor on the northwest side and Patton Bay on the southeast side of Montague Island. In the unconsolidated deltaic deposits of MacLeod Harbor, 97 percent of the erosion up to June 1965, 15 months after the earthquake, was fluvial, 2.2 percent was by rainwash, and only 0.8 percent was marine; 52 percent of the total available raised beach material had already been removed. The volume removed by stream erosion was proportional to low-flow discharge raised to the power of 0.75 to 0.95, and this volume increased as the bed material became finer. Stream response to the relative fall in base level was very rapid, most of the downcutting in unconsolidated materials occurring within 48 hours of the uplift for streams with low flows greater than 10 cubic feet per second. Since then, erosion by these streams has been predominantly lateral. Streams with lower discharges, in unconsolidated materials, still had knickpoints after 15 months. No response to uplift could be detected in stream courses above the former preearthquake sea level. Where the raised beach is in bedrock, it is being destroyed principally by marine action but at such a low rate that no appreciable erosion of bedrock was found 15 months after the earthquake. A dated rock platform raised earlier has eroded at a mean rate of 0.49 foot per year. In this area the factor limiting the rate of erosion was rock resistance rather than the transporting capacity of the waves. The break in slope between the top of the raised beach and the former seacliff is being obliterated by debris which is

  4. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  5. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964 in the Copper River Basin area, Alaska: Chapter E in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrians, Oscar J.

    1966-01-01

    The Copper River Basin area is in south-central Alaska and covers 17,800 square miles. It includes most of the Copper River Basin and parts of the surrounding Alaska Range and the Talkeetna, Chugach, and Wrangell Mountains. On March 27, 1964, shortly after 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time, a great earthquake having a Richter magnitude of about 8.5 struck south-central Alaska. Computations by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey place the epicenter of the main shock at lat 61.1° N. and long 147.7° W., and the hypocenter, or actual point of origin, from 20 to 50 kilometers below the surface. The epicenter is near the western shore of Unakwik Inlet in northern Prince William Sound; it is 30 miles from the closest point within the area of study and 180 miles from the farthest point. Releveling data obtained in 1964 after the earthquake indicates that broad areas of south-central Alaska were warped by uplift and subsidence. The configuration of these areas generally parallels the trend of the major tectonic elements of the region. Presumably a large part of this change took place during and immediately after the 1964 earthquake. The water level in several wells in the area lowered appreciably, and the water in many became turbid; generally, however, within a few days after the earthquake the water level returned to normal and the suspended sediment settled out. Newspaper reports that the Copper River was completely dammed and Tazlina Lake drained proved erroneous. The ice on most lakes was cracked, especially around the margins of the lakes where floating ice broke free from the ice frozen to the shore. Ice on Tazlina, Klutina, and Tonsina Lakes was intensely fractured by waves generated by sublacustrine landslides off the fronts of deltas. These waves stranded large blocks of ice above water level along the shores. River ice was generally cracked in the southern half of the area and was locally cracked in the northern half. In the area of study, the majority of the

  6. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  7. Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data of the Hubbard Glacier region, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, K.-M.; Zenone, C.

    1988-01-01

    In late May 1986, the advancing Hubbard Glacier blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord near Yakutat, Alaska, creating a large ice-dammed lake. Runoff from the surrounding glaciated mountains raised the level of the lake to about 25 m above sea level by 8 October, when the ice dam failed. Remote sensing offers one method to monitor this large tidal glacier system, particularly the glacier activity that would portend the re-closure of Russell Fiord. -Authors

  8. Volcanoes of the Wrangell Mountains and Cook Inlet region, Alaska: selected photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD-ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska's volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska. These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the 'images' folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, and UNIX platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format) or PCD (Kodak's PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD-ROM are Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak's policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD-ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD-ROM contains large (14.2'x19.5') and small (4'x6') screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the PhotoCD images.

  9. Establishing a baseline for regional scale monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Ward, David H.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Dau, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world’s most widespread and productive ecosystems, provide a wide range of services with real economic value. Worldwide declines in the distribution and abundance of seagrasses and increased threats to coastal ecosystems from climate change have prompted a need to acquire baseline data for monitoring and protecting these important habitats. We assessed the distribution and abundance of eelgrass (Zostera marina) along nearly 1200 km of shoreline on the lower Alaska Peninsula, a region of expansive eelgrass meadows whose status and trends are poorly understood. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-scale approach by using Landsat satellite imagery to map the total areal extent of eelgrass while integrating field survey data to improve map accuracy and describe the physical and biological condition of the meadows. Innovative use of proven methods and processing tools was used to address challenges inherent to remote sensing in high latitude, coastal environments. Eelgrass was estimated to cover ~31,000 ha, 91% of submerged aquatic vegetation on the lower Alaska Peninsula, nearly doubling the known spatial extent of eelgrass in the region. Mapping accuracy was 80%–90% for eelgrass distribution at locations containing adequate field survey data for error analysis.

  10. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Felzer, B.S.; Hu, S.

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are ???3 Tg CH 4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH 4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr). ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to estimate Holocene regional and local vegetation composition in the Boreal Forests of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopla, Emma-Jayne; Edwards, Mary; Langdon, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation is already responding to increasing global temperatures, with shrubs expanding northwards in the Arctic in a process called "greening". Lakes are important features within these changing landscapes, and lake ecosystems are affected by the vegetation in their catchments. Use of dated sediment archives can reveal how lake ecosystems responded to past changes over timescales relevant to vegetation dynamics (decades to centuries). Holocene vegetation changes have been reconstructed for small lake catchments in Alaska to help understand the long-term interactions between vegetation and within lake processes. A quantitative estimate of vegetation cover around these small lakes clarifies the catchment drivers of lake ecosystem processes. Pollen productivity is one of the major parameters used to make quantitative estimates of land cover from palaeodata. Based on extensive fieldwork, we obtained first Pollen Productivity Estimates (PPEs) for the main arboreal taxa in interior Alaska. We used the model REVEALS to estimate the regional vegetation abundance from existing pollen data from large lakes in the region based on Alaskan and European pollen productivity estimates (PPEs). Quantitative estimates of vegetation cover differ from those based on pollen percentages alone. The model LOVE will then be applied to smaller lake basins that are the subject of detailed palaeoliminological investigations in order to estimate the local composition at these sites.

  12. Isotope and trace element data bearing of the sources and evolution of magmas in the Katmai region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstone, J.L.; Langmuir, C.H.; Hildreth, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Katmai volcanic province, Alaska Peninsula, includes the catastrophic 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) eruption, and five andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes. The VTTS is markedly uniform in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd (0.51301) and delta/sup 18/O (6.0 per thousands) but has a small but significant variation in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr (0.70354 in andesite and dacite, 0.70368 in rhyolite). The rhyolite's low Sr content (63 ppm) makes it particularly susceptible to crustal contamination; assimilation of only 1% of Jurassic country rock (0.70480, 400 ppm Sr) is sufficient. Dacite from the 1959 eruption of nearby Mt. Trident and a basalt boulder from the rim of Mt. Katmai are isotopically similar to the VTTS andesite and dacite. Dacite from Mt. Mageik has higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, whereas the least-silicic in situ lava in the region, an andesite from Mt. Griggs, has the lowest /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr (0.70335). The Katmai Province falls within the narrow range of /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd for Quaternary lavas from the Aleutians and SW Alaska Peninsula (0.51298-0.51310) but at the high end of the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr range. Along with the greater abundance of evolved lavas, this probably reflects progressively thicker crust northward along the Alaska Peninsula, although simple assimilation of upper crust cannot explain all of the isotopic data. Isotopic systematics, and Aleutian-type trace-element patterns (La/Yb > chondrites, high Ba/La), indicate that the parental magmas at Katmai are likewise derived from a time-integrated depleted mantle, recently modified by a component from the subducted slab.

  13. FY10 RARE Final Report to Region 10: The functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin - report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peatlands in south central Alaska form the predominant wetland class in the lowlands that encompass Cook Inlet. These peatlands are also in areas of increasing human development in Alaska. Currently Alaska peatlands are extensive and largely pristine. This study focused onobtaini...

  14. Selective occurrence of Rhizobiales in frost flowers on the surface of young sea ice near Barrow, Alaska and distribution in the polar marine rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J S; Larose, C; Vogel, T M; Deming, J W

    2013-08-01

    Frost flowers are highly saline ice structures that grow on the surface of young sea ice, a spatially extensive environment of increasing importance in the Arctic Ocean. In a previous study, we reported organic components of frost flowers in the form of elevated levels of bacteria and exopolymers relative to underlying ice. Here, DNA was extracted from frost flowers and young sea ice, collected in springtime from a frozen lead offshore of Barrow, Alaska, to identify bacteria in these understudied environments. Evaluation of the distribution of 16S rRNA genes via four methods (microarray analysis, T-RFLP, clone library and shotgun metagenomic sequencing) indicated distinctive bacterial assemblages between the two environments, with frost flowers appearing to select for Rhizobiales. A phylogenetic placement approach, used to evaluate the distribution of similar Rhizobiales sequences in other polar marine studies, indicated that some of the observed strains represent widely distributed members of the marine rare biosphere in both the Arctic and Antarctic. PMID:23864572

  15. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  16. Post-breeding season migrations of a top predator, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), from a marine protected area in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Womble, Jamie N; Gende, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, is one of the largest marine mammal protected areas in the world and has the only enforceable protection measures for reducing disturbance to harbor seals in the United States. Yet harbor seals have declined by up to 11.5%/year from 1992 to 2009. We used satellite-linked transmitters that were attached to 37 female harbor seals to quantify the post-breeding season migrations of seals and the amount of time that seals spent inside vs. outside of the MPA of Glacier Bay. Harbor seals traveled extensively beyond the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay during the post-breeding season, encompassing an area (25,325 km(2)) significantly larger than that used by seals during the breeding season (8,125 km(2)). These movements included the longest migration yet recorded for a harbor seal (3,411 km) and extended use (up to 23 days) of pelagic areas by some seals. Although the collective utilization distribution of harbor seals during the post-breeding season was quite expansive, there was a substantial degree of individual variability in the percentage of days that seals spent in the MPA. Nevertheless, harbor seals demonstrated a high degree of inter-annual site fidelity (93%) to Glacier Bay the following breeding season. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the threats that seals may interact with outside of the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay for understanding population dynamics of seals in Glacier Bay.

  17. Post-Breeding Season Migrations of a Top Predator, the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), from a Marine Protected Area in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Womble, Jamie N.; Gende, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, is one of the largest marine mammal protected areas in the world and has the only enforceable protection measures for reducing disturbance to harbor seals in the United States. Yet harbor seals have declined by up to 11.5%/year from 1992 to 2009. We used satellite-linked transmitters that were attached to 37 female harbor seals to quantify the post-breeding season migrations of seals and the amount of time that seals spent inside vs. outside of the MPA of Glacier Bay. Harbor seals traveled extensively beyond the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay during the post-breeding season, encompassing an area (25,325 km2) significantly larger than that used by seals during the breeding season (8,125 km2). These movements included the longest migration yet recorded for a harbor seal (3,411 km) and extended use (up to 23 days) of pelagic areas by some seals. Although the collective utilization distribution of harbor seals during the post-breeding season was quite expansive, there was a substantial degree of individual variability in the percentage of days that seals spent in the MPA. Nevertheless, harbor seals demonstrated a high degree of inter-annual site fidelity (93%) to Glacier Bay the following breeding season. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the threats that seals may interact with outside of the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay for understanding population dynamics of seals in Glacier Bay. PMID:23457468

  18. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  19. 30 CFR 550.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.220 If I... propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must...

  20. 30 CFR 550.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.220 If I... propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must...

  1. 30 CFR 550.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.220 If I... propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must...

  2. 30 CFR 550.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 550.251 Section 550.251 Mineral Resources... activities. The procedures must identify ice conditions, weather, and other constraints under which...

  3. 30 CFR 550.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 550.251 Section 550.251 Mineral Resources... activities. The procedures must identify ice conditions, weather, and other constraints under which...

  4. 30 CFR 550.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 550.251 Section 550.251 Mineral Resources... activities. The procedures must identify ice conditions, weather, and other constraints under which...

  5. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  6. The giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding region, southwest Alaska: introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James R.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble deposit is located about 320 km southwest of and 27 km northwest of the village of Iliamna in Alaska (Fig. 1A). It is one of the largest porphyry deposits in terms of contained Cu (Fig. 2A) and it has the largest Au endowment of any porphyry deposit in the world (Fig. 2B). The deposit comprises the Pebble West and Pebble East zones that represent two coeval hydrothermal centers within a single system (Lang et al., 2013). Together the measured and indicated resources total 5,942 million metric tons (Mt) at 0.42% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au, and 250 ppm Mo with an inferred resource of 4,835 Mt at 0.24% Cu, 0.26 g/t Au, and 215 ppm Mo. In addition, the deposit contains significant concentrations of Ag, Pd, and Re (Northern Dynasty Minerals, 2011).

  7. 78 FR 30894 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Alaska Temporary Maritime...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... analysis confirmed detection of the following marine mammals: blue whale, fin whale, gray whale, humpback... became effective on May 4, 2011 (76 FR 25505), and remain in effect through May 4, 2016. For detailed... TMAA, to allow for multi-year LOAs (77 FR 4917). Summary of Request On December 15, 2012, NMFS...

  8. Glacier runoff as a source of labile dissolved organic matter for near-shore marine ecosystems in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J.; Spencer, R.; Edwards, R.; D'Amore, D.

    2008-12-01

    Northern rivers transport large quantities of dissolved organic matter (DOM), however this organic material is typically thought to be refractory and therefore of little significance for the biogeochemistry of downstream marine ecosystems. Recent research in both the arctic and sub-arctic has shown that terrigenous DOM may be more bioavailable than was previously thought. These findings suggest that riverine DOM has the potential to support both heterotrophic metabolism and primary productivity in near-shore marine ecosystems. Along the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), the ongoing loss of glacier ice in coastal watersheds is altering the land-to-ocean transfer of freshwater and DOM. In particular, DOM derived from glacial runoff appears to be derived largely from microbial precursor material while DOM in watersheds with little or no glacier coverage is predominantly derived from terrestrial plants. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the character and bioavailability of riverine DOM being exported to the GOA will be altered as glaciers recede and contribute less to streamflow. We sampled rivers draining 12 coastal watersheds along a 500 mile stretch of the GOA during the peak glacier runoff season in the summer of 2008. The study watersheds were typical of the thousands of moderately sized (50-450 km2) watersheds draining the coast mountains along the GOA and ranged in watershed glacier coverage from 0 to >60%. Concentrations of DOC were relatively low in all 12 watersheds ranging from 0.6-2.2 mg C L-1. However, the chemical character of DOM varied widely across the watersheds. As watershed glacial coverage increased and glacier runoff comprised a large proportion of streamflow, riverine DOM became enriched in 13C-DOC and protein content as measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. These findings are consistent with the idea that DOM in pro-glacial streams is largely derived from sub-glacial microbial populations. Moreover, incubations of riverine DOM from

  9. Universal primers for amplification of the complete mitochondrial control region in marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y Z; Xu, T J; Jin, X X; Tang, D; Wei, T; Sun, Y Y; Meng, F Q; Shi, G; Wang, R X

    2012-01-01

    Through multiple alignment analysis of mitochondrial tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Phe sequences from 161 fishes, new universal primers specially targeting the entire mitochondrial control region were designed. This new primer set successfully amplified the expected PCR products from various kinds of marine fish species, belonging to various families, and the amplified segments were confirmed to be the control region by sequencing. These primers provide a useful tool to study the control region diversity in economically important fish species, the possible mechanism of control region evolution, and the functions of the conserved motifs in the control region.

  10. Impact of Source Region on the delta18 O signal in snow: A case study from Mount Wrangell Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G.W.K.; Field, Robert D.; Benson, Carl S.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water in ice cores is an important source of information on past climate variability. At its simplest level, the underlying assumption is that there is an empirical relationship between the normalized difference in the concentration for these stable isotopes and a specified local temperature at the ice core site. There are, however, nonlocal processes, such as a change in source region or a change in the atmospheric pathway, which can impact the stable isotope signal, thereby complicating its use as a proxy for temperature. In this paper, the importance of these nonlocal processes are investigated through the analysis of the synoptic-scale circulation during a snowfall event at the summit of Mount Wrangell (62 deg N, 144 deg W; 4300 m MSL) in south-central Alaska. During this event there was, over a 1-day period in which the local temperature was approximately constant, a change in delta18 O that exceeded half that normally seen to occur in the region between summer and winter. As shall be shown, this arose from a change in the source region, from the subtropical eastern Pacific to northeastern Asia, for the snow that fell on Mount Wrangell during the event.

  11. Regional sea level change in response to ice mass loss in Greenland, the West Antarctic and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, S.-E.; Schröter, J.; Rietbroek, R.; Kusche, J.

    2015-11-01

    Besides the warming of the ocean, sea level is mainly rising due to land ice mass loss of the major ice sheets in Greenland, the West Antarctic, and the Alaskan Glaciers. However, it is not clear yet how these land ice mass losses influence regional sea level. Here, we use the global Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) to simulate sea surface height (SSH) changes caused by these ice mass losses and combine it with the passive ocean response to varying surface loading using the sea level equation. We prescribe rates of fresh water inflow, not only around Greenland, but also around the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the mountain glaciers in Alaska with approximately present-day amplitudes of 200, 100, and 50 Gt/yr, respectively. Perturbations in sea level and in freshwater distribution with respect to a reference simulation are computed for each source separately and in their combination. The ocean mass change shows an almost globally uniform behavior. In the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean, mass is redistributed toward coastal regions. Steric sea level change varies locally in the order of several centimeters on advective timescales of decades. Steric effects to local sea level differ significantly in different coastal locations, e.g., at North American coastal regions the steric effects may have the same order of magnitude as the mass driven effect, whereas at the European coast, steric effects remain small during the simulation period.

  12. Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuthill, Samuel J.; Laird, Wilson M.

    1966-01-01

    The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10) gravel-coated snow cones, (11) lake ice fractures, and (12) uplift accompanied the earthquake. In addition to geomorphic effects, the earthquake affected the animal populations of the area. These include migratory fish, terrestrial mollusks, fur-bearing animals, and man. The Alaska earthquake clearly delineated areas of alluvial fill, snow and rock avalanche corridors, and deltas of the deeper lakes as unsuitable for future construction.

  13. Evidence for marine origin and microbial-viral habitability of sub-zero hypersaline aqueous inclusions within permafrost near Barrow, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Colangelo-Lillis, J; Eicken, H; Carpenter, S D; Deming, J W

    2016-05-01

    Cryopegs are sub-surface hypersaline brines at sub-zero temperatures within permafrost; their global extent and distribution are unknown. The permafrost barrier to surface and groundwater advection maintains these brines as semi-isolated systems over geological time. A cryopeg 7 m below ground near Barrow, Alaska, was sampled for geochemical and microbiological analysis. Sub-surface brines (in situtemperature of -6 °C, salinity of 115 ppt), and an associated sediment-infused ice wedge (melt salinity of 0.04 ppt) were sampled using sterile technique. Major ionic concentrations in the brine corresponded more closely to other (Siberian) cryopegs than to Standard seawater or the ice wedge. Ionic ratios and stable isotope analysis of water conformed to a marine or brackish origin with subsequent Rayleigh fractionation. The brine contained ∼1000× more bacteria than surrounding ice, relatively high viral numbers suggestive of infection and reproduction, and an unusually high ratio of particulate to dissolved extracellular polysaccharide substances. A viral metagenome indicated a high frequency of temperate viruses and limited viral diversity compared to surface environments, with closest similarity to low water activity environments. Interpretations of the results underscore the isolation of these underexplored microbial ecosystems from past and present oceans. PMID:26976841

  14. Gulf of Alaska: Physical Environment and Biological Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, D.W.; Zimmerman, S.T.

    1987-06-01

    The Gulf of Alaska: Physical Environment and Biological Resources' is a comprehensive treatise of over 600 pages. The multi-author document contains twenty chapters on a broad spectrum of marine disciplines that consolidate the authors knowledge of the region into a single document. It is heavily referenced and, in addition, includes a glossary and extensive index. The book is intended for a broad audience: students, researchers, resource managers and the public.

  15. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  16. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  17. At-sea observations of marine birds and their habitats before and after the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, G.S.; Dragoo, D.E.; Renner, M.; Piatt, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi volcano, an island volcano in the Aleutian chain, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. The resulting ash and pyroclastic flows blanketed the island, covering terrestrial habitats. We surveyed the marine environment surrounding Kasatochi Island in June and July of 2009 to document changes in abundance or distribution of nutrients, fish, and marine birds near the island when compared to patterns observed on earlier surveys conducted in 1996 and 2003. Analysis of SeaWiFS satellite imagery indicated that a large chlorophyll-a anomaly may have been the result of ash fertilization during the eruption. We found no evidence of continuing marine fertilization from terrestrial runoff 10 months after the eruption. At-sea surveys in June 2009 established that the most common species of seabirds at Kasatochi prior to the eruption, namely crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) and least auklets (Aethia pusilla) had returned to Kasatochi in relatively high numbers. Densities from more extensive surveys in July 2009 were compared with pre-eruption densities around Kasatochi and neighboring Ulak and Koniuji islands, but we found no evidence of an eruption effect. Crested and least auklet populations were not significantly reduced by the initial explosion and they returned to attempt breeding in 2009, even though nesting habitat had been rendered unusable. Maps of pre- and post-eruption seabird distribution anomalies indicated considerable variation, but we found no evidence that observed distributions were affected by the 2008 eruption. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  18. The relationship between regional and local species diversity in marine benthic communities: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Witman, Jon D; Etter, Ron J; Smith, Franz

    2004-11-01

    The number of species coexisting in ecological communities must be a consequence of processes operating on both local and regional scales. Although a great deal of experimental work has been devoted to local causes of diversity, little is known about the effects of regional processes on local diversity and how they contribute to global diversity patterns in marine systems. We tested the effects of latitude and the richness of the regional species pool on the species richness of local epifaunal invertebrate communities by sampling the diversity of local sites in 12 independent biogeographic regions from 62 degrees S to 63 degrees N latitude. Both regional and local species richness displayed significant unimodal patterns with latitude, peaking at low latitudes and decreasing toward high latitudes. The latitudinal diversity gradient was represented at the scale of local sites because local species richness was positively and linearly related to regional species richness. The richness of the regional species pool explained 73-76% of local species richness. On a global scale, the extent of regional influence on local species richness was nonrandom-the proportion of regional biota represented in local epifaunal communities increased significantly from low to high latitudes. The strong effect of the regional species pool implies that patterns of local diversity in temperate, tropical, and high-latitude marine benthic communities are influenced by processes operating on larger spatiotemporal scales than previously thought.

  19. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  20. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  1. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  2. Revealing basin and regional scale snow accumulation magnitude and variability on glaciers throughout Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Oneel, S.; Sass, L. C., III; Gusmeroli, A.; Arendt, A. A.; Wolken, G. J.; Kienholz, C.; McNeil, C.

    2014-12-01

    Mass loss from Alaskan glaciers (-50 ± 17 Gt/a, 2003-2009) constitutes one of the largest contributions to global sea level rise outside of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The largest process-related uncertainties in this calculation arise from the difficulty in accurately measuring accumulation on glaciers and from the large variability of accumulation over a range of spatio-temporal scales. Further, the physical processes governing snow distribution in complex terrain elude model parameterization. Using ground-penetrating radar, constrained with probe and pit observations, we quantify the magnitude and variability of snow accumulation at six prominent glaciers throughout Alaska at the end of 2013 winter. We find that total SWE magnitude and variability are strongly controlled by the large-scale climate system (i.e. distance from the coastal moisture source along prevailing storm track). On average, total SWE decreases by 0.33 m per 100 km from the coast, while the SWE elevation gradient decreases by 0.06 m / 100 m per 100 km from the coast. SWE variability over small spatial scales (<200 m) is similar at most sites, although two glaciers exhibit notably low and high variability, likely related to their respective climatic provenance. On individual glaciers, strong elevation gradients, increasing from 0.07 m SWE / 100 m at the interior Gulkana Glacier to 0.30 m SWE / 100 m at the coastal Scott Glacier, exert the primary control on accumulation. Results from multi-variable linear regression models (based on topographic variables) find wind exposure/shelter is the most frequent secondary control on accumulation variability. Finally, we find strong agreement (<10% difference) between the radar derived and stake derived total SWE estimates at two glaciers in the USGS Benchmark Glacier Program.

  3. Regional correlation of deposition sequences in the southern Mesozoic marine province, northwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Satterfield, J.I.; Oldow, J.S. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Mesozoic marine province of a northwestern Nevada, deposited in subaerial to deep marine environment in a backarc basin, underwent severe deformation during the late Mesozoic. Restoration of stratigraphic relations among constituent volcanic, volcanogenic, carbonate, and continentally-derived siliciclastic rocks has been hampered by sparse biostratigraphic age control. Regional correlation of coeval facies is made possible by coupling depositional sequences with biostratigraphic control in the southwestern Gabbs Valley Range, the southern Shoshone Mountains, and the southern Clan Alpine Mountains, which serve as reference sections for Late Triassic and Early Jurassic ammonite zonation of western North America. Differentiation between regionally significant sequence boundaries and those of limited areal extent is possible only by linking the biostratigraphy and physical stratigraphic relations, such as abrupt vertical transitions in lithology corresponding to large facies changes. Physical stratigraphic relations alone are not adequate for correlation ad indicated by the diachronous initiation of Early to Middle( ) Jurassic deposition in half-graben basins (Dunlap Formation) which locally cloaks eustatically( ) controlled depositional sequences. Within these limitations, three regionally extensive sequences are recognized in the reference sections and have lower boundaries at the base of Upper Triassic shallow marine to deltaic carbonate-clastic rocks (Luning Formation) and at the base and within subtidal to offshore-marine carbonate and clastic rocks (Triassic and Jurassic Volcano Peak Group).

  4. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  5. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  6. Effects of UV radiation on marine ectotherms in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans-U; Dobretsov, Sergey; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2011-05-01

    Ozone-related increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during the last decades provided an important ecological stressor, particularly for polar ecosystems since these are less adapted to such changes. All life forms appear to be susceptible to UVR to a highly variable extent that depends on individual species and their environment. Differences in sensitivity between organisms may relate to efficiency differences of their protection mechanisms and repair systems. UVR impacts are masked by large seasonal and geographic differences even in confined areas like the polar regions. UVR has effects and responses on various integration levels: from genetics, physiology, biology, populations, communities, to functional changes as in food webs with consequences on material and energy circulations through ecosystems. Even at current levels, solar UV-B affects consumer organisms, such as ectotherms (invertebrates and fish), particularly through impediments on critical phases of their development (early life history stages such as gametes, zygotes and larvae). Despite the overall negative implications of UVR, effect sizes vary widely in, e.g., molecular damage, cell and tissue damage, survival, growth, behavior, histology, and at the level of populations, communities and ecosystems.

  7. A study on marine region carrying capacity and eco-compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Ma, Weiwei; Xie, Jun; Li, Fengqi

    2012-06-01

    With the using up of land resources, people are beginning to pay attention to the exploitation of the ocean and the use of marine resources is becoming more and more intense. Whether and how the ocean can be sustainably exploited as it is being exploited is an academic hot topic. This question is addressed in this paper based on the theories of carrying capacity of a marine region and marine eco-compensation, and the amount of the loss is calculated by the method of Time Value of Capital. This thesis covers the study of eco-compensation between two specific subjects with clear compensation objects, and as a defined approach and standard, the proposed method has good operability and positive practical significance in the good use of the ocean.

  8. Digital Data for the Reconnaissance Geologic Map for the Kuskokwim Bay Region of Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Digital Files Preparation: Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Shew, Nora; Labay, Keith A.; Geologic Map Compilers: Wilson, Frederic H.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  9. Chronostratigraphical Subdivision of the Late Glacial and the Holocene for the Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michczynska, D. J.; Hajdas, I.

    2009-04-01

    Our work is a kind of so called data mining. The first step of our work was collection of the radiocarbon data for samples coming from Alaska. We construct data base using Radiocarbon Measurements Lists published by different radiocarbon laboratories (mainly in the journal 'Radiocaron'). The next step was careful analysis of collected dates. We excluded from our analysis all dates suspected of contamination by younger or older organic matter. Such fact could be stated, for instance, on the base of inconsistency of radiocarbon age and stratigraphy or palynology. Finally, we calibrated whole large set of chosen radiocarbon dates and construct probability density function (PDF). Analysis of the shape of PDF was the subject of the previous research (eg. Michczynska and Pazdur, 2004; Macklin et al., 2006; Starkel et al., 2006, Michczynska et al., 2007). In our analysis we take into account the distinct tendency to collect samples from specific horizons. It is a general rule to take samples for radiocarbon dating from places of visible sedimentation changes or changes in palynological diagram. Therefore the culminations of the PDF represent periods of environmental changes and could be helpful in identifying the chronostratigraphical boundaries on the calendar time scale. References: Michczyńska D.J., Pazdur A., 2004. A shape analysis of cumulative probability density function of radiocarbon dates set in the study of climate change in Late Glacial and Holocene. Radiocarbon 46(2): 733-744. Michczyńska D.J., Michczyński A., Pazdur A. 2007. Frequency distribution of radiocarbon dates as a tool for reconstructing environmental changes. Radiocarbon 49(2): 799-806. Macklin M.G., Benito G., Gregory K.J., Johnstone E., Lewin J., Michczyńska D.J., Soja R., Starkel L., Thorndycraft V.R., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial record of Europe. CATENA 66: 145-154. Starkel L., Soja R., Michczyńska D.J., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in

  10. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  11. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... extension of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  12. Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierstein, Judy

    2007-03-01

    At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai cluster of volcanoes and another nine from other volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between Kaguyak volcano and Mount Martin and from Shelikof Strait to Bristol Bay (˜8,500 km2). Five tephra layers are distinctive and widespread enough to be used as marker horizons in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes area, and 140 radiocarbon dates on enclosing soils have established a time framework for entire soil tephra sections to 10 ka; the white rhyolitic ash from the 1912 plinian eruption of Novarupta caps almost all sections. Stratigraphy, distribution and tephra characteristics have been combined with microprobe analyses of glass and Fe Ti oxide minerals to correlate ash layers with their source vents. Microprobe analyses (typically 20 50 analyses per glass or oxide sample) commonly show oxide compositions to be more definitive than glass in distinguishing one tephra from another; oxides from the Kaguyak caldera-forming event are so compositionally coherent that they have been used as internal standards throughout this study. Other than the Novarupta and Trident eruptions of the last century, the youngest locally derived tephra is associated with emplacement of the Snowy Mountain summit dome (<250 14C years B.P.). East Mageik has erupted most frequently during Holocene time with seven explosive events (9,400 to 2,400 14C years B.P.) preserved as tephra layers. Mount Martin erupted entirely during the Holocene, with lava coulees (>6 ka), two tephras (˜3,700 and ˜2,700 14C years B.P.), and a summit scoria cone with a crater still steaming today. Mount Katmai has three times produced very large explosive plinian to sub-plinian events (in 1912; 12 16 ka; and 23 ka) and many smaller pyroclastic deposits show that explosive

  13. The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Emmanouil, George; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Lardner, Robin; Sofianos, Sarantis; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Marios

    2016-04-01

    The CYCOFOS new forecasting systems at regional and sub-regional scales for supporting the marine safety George Zodiatis1, Hari Radhakrishnan1, George Galanis1,2, Andreas Nikolaidis1, George Emmanouil1,2, Georgios Nikolaidis1, Robin Lardner1, Sarantis Sofianos3, Stavros Stylianou1 and Marios Nikolaidis1 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus 2 Hellenic Naval Academy, Section of Mathematics, Piraeus 18539, Greece 3 University of Athens, Ocean Physics and Modeling Group, Athens 15784, Greece The Cyprus Coastal Ocean FOrecasting System-CYCOFOS has been providing operational hydrodynamic and sea state forecasts in the Eastern Mediterranean since early 2002. Recently, it has been improved with the implementation of new hydrodynamic, wave and atmospheric models, targeting larger and higher resolution domains at regional and sub-regional scales. For the new CYCOFOS hydrodynamic system a novel parallel version of POM has been implemented. The new flow model covers the Eastern Mediterranean with a resolution of 2 km and the Levantine with 500 m, both nested in Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service-CMEMS. The CYCOFOS hydrodynamic model is coupled with the latest ECMWF WAM model. The surface currents produced from the Copernicus marine service and CYCOFOS has been incorporated in the wave integration, providing a second independent forcing input to the new CYCOFOS wave model, in addition to the winds. The Weather Research and Forecasting atmospheric model-WRF has been implemented in the same domain as SKIRON atmospheric model, in order to provide the backup forcing for the CYCOFOS models. The improved CYCOFOS forecasting data are used for the EU CISE 2020 project to establish an ΕU Common Information Sharing Environment to improve the Maritime Situational Awareness, particularly for SAR operations, as well as for the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction service, for operational oil spill predictions in the Mediterranean.

  14. Regional Geochemical Results from the Reanalysis of NURE Stream Sediment Samples - Eagle 3? Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Brown, Z.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents reconnaissance geochemical data for a cooperative study in the Fortymile Mining District, east-central Alaska, initiated in 1997. This study has been funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program. Cooperative funds were provided from various State of Alaska sources through the Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Results presented here represent the initial reconnaissance phase for this multidisciplinary cooperative study. In this phase, 239 sediment samples from the Eagle 3? Quadrangle of east-central Alaska, which had been collected and analyzed for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE) of the 1970's (Hoffman and Buttleman, 1996; Smith, 1997), are reanalyzed by newer analytical methods that are more sensitive, accurate, and precise (Arbogast, 1996; Taggart, 2002). The main objectives for the reanalysis of these samples were to establish lower limits of determination for some elements and to confirm the NURE data as a reliable predictive reconnaissance tool for future studies in Alaska's Eagle 3? Quadrangle. This study has wide implications for using the archived NURE samples and data throughout Alaska for future studies.

  15. Pliocene terrace gravels of the ancestral Yukon River near Circle, Alaska: Palynology, paleobotany, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Matthews, J.V.; Yeend, W.

    1994-01-01

    Gravels deposited by the ancestral Yukon River are preserved in terrace remnants on the margins of the Yukon River valley near the village of Circle in east-central Alaska. Plant fossils recovered from sandy silt lenses within these gravels include cones and needles of Picea and Larix and a variety of seeds. Seed types include several taxa which no longer grow in Alaska, such as Epipremnum, Prunus and Weigela. Pollen types recovered from these deposits represent tree and shrub taxa that grow in interior Alaska today, such as Picea, Larix, Betula and Alnus, as well as several taxa that no longer grow in interior Alaska today, such as Pinus, Tsuga, Abies and Corylus. Pollen of herb taxa identified include Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Compositae, Polemonium and Epilobium. The fossil flora from the gravels near Circle are similar and probably age-equivalent to the flora recovered from the Nenana Gravel in the Alaska Range 250 km to the south. Palynological and tectonic evidence summarized in this paper now suggests that the Nenana Gravel was deposited during the early and middle Pliocene. The presence of plant fossils of Tsuga, Abies, Pinus, Weigela and Prunus suggests that the mean annual temperature (MAT) of eastern interior Alaska during the early and middle Pliocene was perhaps 7-9??C warmer and less continental than today's MAT of -6.4??C. ?? 1994.

  16. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Campanian to Maastrichtian pollen biostratigraphy and floral turnover rates, Colville River region, north slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiksen, N.O.; Schindler, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study is based on occurrence data for 104 angiosperm pollen taxa from 83 pollen-bearing outcrop and core samples taken along the Colville River and stratigraphically distributed from the base of the Sentinel Hill Member of the Schrader Bluff Formation to the top of the Cretaceous section. Many of the pollen taxa are highly useful for intraregional correlations because they have remarkably short stratigraphic ranges and are consistently present within these ranges. Important similarities are present between North Slope pollen assemblages and those of western Canada, Siberia, and China. The Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary is approximately marked by the range bases of Wodehouseia edmontonicola and Senipites drummhellerensis and is nearly as far south (downsection) as Sentinel Hill core test 1. Based on pollen correlations with Alberta, the marine beds at Ocean Point are probably within the middle part of the Maastrichtian, and strata north of Ocean Point that contain Aquilapollenites conatus are uppermost Maastrichtian. Thus, if the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the study area is represented by an unconformity as their data suggest, the lowermost Paleocene is missing, not the uppermost Cretaceous. Maximum diversities of species of the stratigraphically significant Triprojectacites and Expressipollis groups are in the upper Campanian. Major turnovers of angiosperm taxa occurred late in the Campanian and in the Maastrichtian, but high rates of first appearances coincided with high rates of last appearances. Thus, once a fairly high overall angiosperm diversity was established in the middle(.) Campanian, the diversity remained relatively constant until at or near the end of the Maastrichtian.

  18. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  19. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  20. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  1. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  2. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific walrus (Alaska). 18.94 Section 18... Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109... walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in waters or on lands subject to the jurisdiction of the State of Alaska,...

  3. Geochemistry and exploration criteria for epithermal cinnabar and stibnite vein deposits in the Kuskokwim River region, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Detra, D.E.; Slaughter, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    Cinnabar- and stibnite-bearing epithermal vein deposits are found throughout the Kuskokwim River region of southwestern Alaska. A geochemical orientation survey was carried out around several of these epithermal lodes to obtain information for planning regional geochemical surveys and to develop procedures which maximize the anomaly: threshold contrast of the deposits. Stream sediment, heavy-mineral concentrate, stream water, and vegetation samples were collected in drainages surrounding the Red Devil, Cinnabar Creek, White Mountain, Rhyolite, and Mountain Top deposits. Three sediment size fractions; nonmagnetic, paramagnetic and magnetic splits of the concentrate samples; stream waters; and the vegetation samples were analyzed for multi-element suites by a number of different chemical procedures. Nonmagnetic, heavy-mineral concentrates were also examined microscopically to identify their mineralogy. Results confirm Hg, Sb and As concentrations in minus-80-mesh stream sediments as effective pathfinder elements in exploration for epithermal cinnabar and stibnite deposits. Coarser-grained sediments are much less effective in the exploration for these deposits. Concentrations greater than 3 ppm Hg, 1 ppm Sb, and 15 ppm As in the minus-80-mesh stream sediment, regardless of the host lithology, are indicative of upstream cinnabar-stibnite deposits. Gold, Ag and base metals in the stream sediments are ineffective pathfinders for this epithermal deposit type. Collection of heavy-mineral concentrates provides little advantage in the exploration for these mineral deposits. Antimony and As dispersion patterns downstream from mineralized areas are generally more restricted in the concentrates than those in the stream sediments. Anomalous placer cinnabar observed in the concentrates has a similar spatial distribution pattern as anomalous Hg and Sb in corresponding sediments. Stream waters are less effective than the stream sediments or heavy-mineral concentrates, and

  4. A Contribution to Regional Bibliography: Alaska; A Pilot Study in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Margaret P.

    A pilot study to develop a feasible multi-media index to regional material has just been completed. Its primary objective is to develop a tool for general user access to information in various formats by combining old and new methods and techniques of information retrieval. Simple computer programs manipulate the information on 106 sample items to…

  5. Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, Judy

    2007-01-01

    At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai cluster of volcanoes and another nine from other volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between Kaguyak volcano and Mount Martin and from Shelikof Strait to Bristol Bay (∼8,500 km2 ). Five tephra layers are distinctive and widespread enough to be used as marker horizons in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes area, and 140 radiocarbon dates on enclosing soils have established a time framework for entire soil–tephra sections to 10 ka; the white rhyolitic ash from the 1912 plinian eruption of Novarupta caps almost all sections. Stratigraphy, distribution and tephra characteristics have been combined with microprobe analyses of glass and Fe– Ti oxide minerals to correlate ash layers with their source vents. Microprobe analyses (typically 20–50 analyses per glass or oxide sample) commonly show oxide compositions to be more definitive than glass in distinguishing one tephra from another; oxides from the Kaguyak caldera-forming event are so compositionally coherent that they have been used as internal standards throughout this study. Other than the Novarupta and Trident eruptions of the last century, the youngest locally derived tephra is associated with emplacement of the Snowy Mountain summit dome (<250 14C years B.P.). East Mageik has erupted most frequently during Holocene time with seven explosive events (9,400 to 2,400 14C years B.P.) preserved as tephra layers. Mount Martin erupted entirely during the Holocene, with lava coulees (>6 ka), two tephras (∼3,700 and ∼2,700 14C years B.P.), and a summit scoria cone with a crater still steaming today. Mount Katmai has three times produced very large explosive plinian to sub-plinian events (in 1912; 12– 16 ka; and 23 ka) and many smaller pyroclastic deposits show that

  6. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  7. The deep permafrost carbon pool of the Yedoma region in Siberia and Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Jens; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grosse, Guido; Wetterich, Sebastian; Ulrich, Mathias; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    [1] Estimates for circumpolar permafrost organic carbon (OC) storage suggest that this pool contains twice the amount of current atmospheric carbon. The Yedoma region sequestered substantial quantities of OC and is unique because its deep OC, which was incorporated into permafrost during ice age conditions. Rapid inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term sink. We show that the deep frozen OC in the Yedoma region consists of two distinct major subreservoirs: Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalized as thermokarst deposits). We quantified the OC pool based on field data and extrapolation using geospatial data sets to 83 + 61/−57 Gt for Yedoma deposits and to 128 + 99/−96 Gt for thermokarst deposits. The total Yedoma region 211 + 160/−153 Gt is a substantial amount of thaw-vulnerable OC that must be accounted for in global models. PMID:26074633

  8. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lance, B K; Irons, D B; Kendall, S J; McDonald, L L

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwaka Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilize shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  10. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lance, B K; Irons, D B; Kendall, S J; McDonald, L L

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwaka Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilize shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  11. Stress transfer to the Denali and other regional faults from the M 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    Stress transfer from the great 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake is modeled on the Denali fault, including the Denali-Totschunda fault segments that ruptured in 2002, and on other regional fault systems where M 7.5 and larger earthquakes have occurred since 1900. The results indicate that analysis of Coulomb stress transfer from the dominant earthquake in a region is a potentially powerful tool in assessing time-varying earthquake hazard. Modeled Coulomb stress increases on the northern Denali and Totschunda faults from the great 1964 earthquake coincide with zones that ruptured in the 2002 Denali fault earthquake, although stress on the Susitna Glacier thrust plane, where the 2002 event initiated, was decreased. A southeasterlytrending Coulomb stress transect along the right-lateral Totschunda-Fairweather-Queen Charlotte trend shows stress transfer from the 1964 event advancing slip on the Totschunda, Fairweather, and Queen Charlotte segments, including the southern Fairweather segment that ruptured in 1972. Stress transfer retarding right-lateral strike slip was observed from the southern part of the Totschunda fault to the northern end of the Fairweather fault (1958 rupture). This region encompasses a gap with shallow thrust faulting but with little evidence of strike-slip faulting connecting the segments to the northwest and southeast. Stress transfer toward failure was computed on the north-south trending right-lateral strike-slip faults in the Gulf of Alaska that ruptured in 1987 and 1988, with inhibitory stress changes at the northern end of the northernmost (1987) rupture. The northern Denali and Totschunda faults, including the zones that ruptured in the 2002 earthquakes, follow very closely (within 3%), for about 90??, an arc of a circle of radius 375 km. The center of this circle is within a few kilometers of the intersection at depth of the Patton Bay fault with the Alaskan megathrust. This inferred asperity edge may be the pole of counterclockwise

  12. The Antarctic region as a marine biodiversity hotspot for echinoderms: Diversity and diversification of sea cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark O'Loughlin, P.; Paulay, Gustav; Davey, Niki; Michonneau, François

    2011-03-01

    The Antarctic region is renowned for its isolated, unusual, diverse, and disharmonic marine fauna. Holothuroids are especially diverse, with 187 species (including 51 that are undescribed) recorded south of the Antarctic Convergence. This represents ˜4% of the documented Antarctic marine biota, and ˜10% of the world's holothuroid diversity. We present evidence that both inter-regional speciation with southern cold-temperate regions and intra-regional diversification has contributed to species richness. The Antarctic fauna is isolated, with few shallow-water Antarctic species known from north of the Convergence, yet several species show recent transgression of this boundary followed by genetic divergence. Interchange at longer time scales is evidenced by the scarcity of endemic genera (10 of 55) and occurrence of all six holothuroid orders within the region. While most Antarctic holothuroid morphospecies have circum-polar distributions, mtDNA sequence data demonstrate substantial geographic differentiation in many of these. Thus, most of the 37 holothuroid species recorded from shelf/slope depths in the Weddell Sea have also been found in collections from Prydz Bay and the Ross Sea. Yet 17 of 28 morphospecies and complexes studied show allopatric differentiation around the continent, on average into three divergent lineages each, suggesting that morphological data fails to reflect the level of differentiation. Interchange and local radiation of colonizers appear to have rapidly built diversity in the Antarctic, despite the potential of cold temperatures (and associated long generation times) to slow the rate of evolution.

  13. Initial assessment of the hydrothermal resources of the Summer Bay region on Unalaska Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    As the result of geologic investigations and shallow exploratory drilling, a potentially developable warm-water artesian aquifer was found in shallow unconsolidated deposits near the Summer Bay warm spring, which is located near the Unalaska community on Unalaska Island. The actual water source for the warm spring and the warm-water aquifer is not well understood, but the source is probably directly related to deep N. 50/sup 0/W fractures. Magma is suspected to exist in such fractures at great depths in this region.

  14. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  15. Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in a subarctic region of western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of arctic fox dens located in coastal tundra communities of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta were determined in studies from 1985 to 1990. Dens were denser and less complex than those described in studies conducted above the Arctic Circle. Eighty-three dens of varying complexity were found in the 52-km2 study area. Nineteen dens were used by arctic foxes for whelping or rearing pups. Three females relocated litters to multiple dens; a maximum of four dens were used concurrently by pups from one litter. Although red foxes were common in the region, their use of dens in the study area was minimal. Differences in vegetation at den sites and nearby unoccupied sites were minimal. Furthermore, den sites could not be distinguished from non-den sites during aerial surveys.

  16. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Shelly, Alice

    2013-08-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of "vertical" line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  17. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  18. Controls on northern wetland methane emissions: insights from regional synthesis studies and the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Czimczik, C. I.; Waldrop, M. P.; Olefeldt, D.; Fan, Z.; Kane, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Static chambers have been used to quantify variation in wetland CH4 flux for many decades. Regional to global scale synthesis studies of static chamber measurements show that relationships between temperature, water availability and CH4 emissions depend on wetland type (bog, fen, swamp), region (tropical, temperate, arctic) and disturbance. For example, while water table position and temperature serve as the dominant controls on bog and swamp CH4 flux, vegetation is an important control on emissions from fens. These studies highlight the fact that wetland types have distinct controls on CH4 emissions; however, it is unlikely that modeling of wetland CH4 flux will improve without a better mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying CH4 production, transport, and oxidation. At the Alaska Peatland Experiment, we are quantifying CH4 emission using static chambers, automated chambers, and towers. Our sites vary in permafrost regime, including groundwater fens without permafrost, forested peat plateaus with intact permafrost, and collapse scar bogs formed through permafrost thaw. Experimental studies that examine plant and microbial responses to altered water table position and soil temperature are complemented by a gradient approach, where we use a space-for-time substitutions to examine the consequences of thaw on time-scales of decades to centuries. Our results thus far have documented the importance of soil rewetting in governing large CH4 fluxes from northern wetland soils. Accounting for CH4, our collapse scar bog significantly contributed to the global warming potential of the landscape. A major objective of our work is to explore the role of permafrost C release in greenhouse gas fluxes from wetland soils, which we are assessing using radiocarbon as a natural tracer. We have shown, for example, that ebullition of CH4 is dominated by recently fixed C, but a significant fraction of CH4 in

  19. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  20. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, T. E. C.; Thompson, J. M.; Hutchinson, R. A.; White, L. D.

    1992-02-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8°C in early summer and from 15 to 17°C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation.

  2. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

  3. Regional Geochemical Results from Analyses of Stream-Water, Stream-Sediment, Soil, Soil-Water, Bedrock, and Vegetation Samples, Tangle Lakes District, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Lee, G.K.; Vohden, James; O'Neill, J. M.; Kerin, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report chemical analyses of stream-water, stream-sediment, soil, soil-water, bedrock, and vegetation samples collected from the headwaters of the Delta River (Tangle Lakes District, Mount Hayes 1:250,000-scale quadrangle) in east-central Alaska for the period June 20-25, 2006. Additionally, we present mineralogic analyses of stream sediment, concentrated by panning. The study area includes the southwestward extent of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Delta River Mining District (Bittenbender and others, 2007), including parts of the Delta River Archeological District, and encompasses an area of about 500 km2(approximately bordered by the Denali Highway to the south, near Round Tangle Lake, northward to the foothills of the Alaska Range (fig. 1). The primary focus of this study was the chemical characterization of native materials, especially surface-water and sediment samples, of first-order streams from the headwaters of the Delta River. The impetus for this work was the need, expressed by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR), for an inventory of geochemical and hydrogeochemical baseline information about the Delta River Mining District. This information is needed because of a major upturn in exploration, drilling, and general mineral-resources assessments in the region since the late 1990s. Currently, the study area, called the 'MAN Project' area is being explored by Pure Nickel, Inc. (http://www.purenickel.com/s/MAN_Alaska.asp), and includes both Cu-Au-Ag and Ni-Cu-PGE (Pt-Pd-Au-Ag) mining claims. Geochemical data on surface-water, stream-sediment, soil, soil-water, grayleaf willow (Salix glauca L.), and limited bedrock samples are provided along with the analytical methodologies used and panned-concentrate mineralogy. We are releasing the data at this time with only minimal interpretation.

  4. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  5. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise. PMID:24598866

  6. Identifying Modeled Ship Noise Hotspots for Marine Mammals of Canada's Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called “hotspot” maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise. PMID:24598866

  7. Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Williams, Rob; Sandilands, Doug; Ashe, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot" maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise.

  8. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  10. A comparison of regional and national values for recovering threatened and endangered marine species in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for environmental goods exhibit some degree of spatial variation. In a policy context, spatial variation in threatened and endangered species values is important to understand, as the benefit stream from policies affecting threatened and endangered species may vary locally, regionally, or among certain population segments. In this paper we present WTP estimates for eight different threatened and endangered marine species estimated from a stated preference choice experiment. WTP is estimated at two different spatial scales: (a) a random sample of over 5000 U.S. households and (b) geographically embedded samples (relative to the U.S. household sample) of nine U.S. Census regions. We conduct region-to-region and region-to-nation statistical comparisons to determine whether species values differ among regions and between each region and the entire U.S. Our results show limited spatial variation between national values and values estimated from regionally embedded samples, and differences are only found for three of the eight species. More variation exists between regions, and for all species there is a significant difference in at least one region-to-region comparison. Given that policy analyses involving threatened and endangered marine species can often be regional in scope (e.g., ecosystem management) or may disparately affect different regions, our results should be of high interest to the marine management community.

  11. A comparison of regional and national values for recovering threatened and endangered marine species in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for environmental goods exhibit some degree of spatial variation. In a policy context, spatial variation in threatened and endangered species values is important to understand, as the benefit stream from policies affecting threatened and endangered species may vary locally, regionally, or among certain population segments. In this paper we present WTP estimates for eight different threatened and endangered marine species estimated from a stated preference choice experiment. WTP is estimated at two different spatial scales: (a) a random sample of over 5000 U.S. households and (b) geographically embedded samples (relative to the U.S. household sample) of nine U.S. Census regions. We conduct region-to-region and region-to-nation statistical comparisons to determine whether species values differ among regions and between each region and the entire U.S. Our results show limited spatial variation between national values and values estimated from regionally embedded samples, and differences are only found for three of the eight species. More variation exists between regions, and for all species there is a significant difference in at least one region-to-region comparison. Given that policy analyses involving threatened and endangered marine species can often be regional in scope (e.g., ecosystem management) or may disparately affect different regions, our results should be of high interest to the marine management community. PMID:27160027

  12. Sampling and Studying Permafrost in Alaska and on Mars: Mars Arctic Regions Science Field Experience for Secondary Teachers (MARSFEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Buxner, S. R.; Douglas, T. A.; Lombardi, D. A.; Shaner, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Both neutron and gamma ray data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft provide compelling evidence for the presence of water ice buried within the upper few tens of centimeters of Mars at high latitudes.^{1-3} In May 2008, the Phoenix Mars Lander mission will arrive at the northern high latitudes of Mars to ground-truth the presence of this water ice. The mission will use a robotic arm to deliver samples of permafrost to several instruments on the deck of the spacecraft for detailed chemical and microscopic analyses. Two primary science objectives at the landing site are to study the history of water in all its phases and to characterize soil habitability.4 As part of the Education and Public Outreach efforts for both the Phoenix and Odyssey missions, 20 secondary science teachers from across the U.S. and Canada were selected to spend a week in Summer 2006 immersed in arctic region science around Fairbanks, Alaska. The focal point of the experience involved investigations conducted at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Tunnel.5 Teacher participants combined remote sensing and in situ observations of permafrost regions, conducted sample collection and analyses to investigate research questions generated by participants at the Permafrost Tunnel, explored comparisons between the terrestrial and Martian arctic, and completed inquiry- based classroom curriculum activities related to Mars and arctic science. A video documentary of the field experience is being produced by the NASA Mars Public Engagement program for education and public outreach purposes. The ten teacher teams involved in the workshop will now serve as educational ambassadors for the Phoenix Mars Lander mission over the next two years through to the completion of surface operations for the mission. They will be supported through monthly teleconferences updating them on mission status and continued research

  13. Biogeochemical Indicators in High- and Low-Arctic Marine and Terrestrial Avian Community Changes: Comparative Isotopic (13C, 15N, and 34S) Studies in Alaska and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causey, D.; Bargmann, N. A.; Burnham, K. K.; Burnham, J. L.; Padula, V. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Welker, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complex dynamics of environmental change in northern latitudes is of paramount importance today, given documented rapid shifts in sea ice, plant phenology, temperatures, deglaciation, and habitat fidelity. This knowledge is particularly critical for Arctic avian communities, which are integral components by which biological teleconnections are maintained between the mid and northern latitudes. Furthermore, Arctic birds are fundamental to Native subsistence lifestyles and a focus for conservation activities. Avian communities of marine and terrestrial Arctic environments represent a broad spectrum of trophic levels, from herbivores (eg., geese Chen spp.), planktivores (eg., auklets Aethia spp.), and insectivores (eg., passerines: Wheatears Oenanthe spp., Longspurs Calcarius spp.), to predators of marine invertebrates (eg., eiders Somateria spp.), nearshore and offshore fish (eg., cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, puffins Fratercula spp.), even other bird species (eg., gulls Larus spp., falcons Peregrinus spp.). This diversity of trophic interconnections is an integral factor in the dynamics of Arctic ecosystem ecology, and they are key indicators for the strength and trajectories of change. We are especially interested in their feeding ecology, using stable isotope-diet relations to examine historical diets and to predict future feeding ecology by this range of species. Since 2009, we have been studying the foodweb ecology using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) of contemporaneous coastal and marine bird communities in High Arctic (Northwest Greenland) and Low Arctic (western Aleutian Islands, AK). We are quantifying the isotopic values of blood, organ tissues, and feathers, and have carried out comparisons between native and lipid-extracted samples. Although geographically distant, these communities comprise similar taxonomic and ecological congeners, including several species common to both (eg., Common Eider, Black-legged Kittiwake, Northern

  14. Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Susa; Yletyinen, Johanna; Tomczak, Maciej T; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Mackenzie, Brian R; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Meier, H E Markus

    2013-11-01

    Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-based management context.

  15. Ground breakage and associated effects in the Cook Inlet area, Alaska, resulting from the March 27, 1964 earthquake: Chapter F in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen L.; Karlstrom, Thor N.V.

    1967-01-01

    The great 1964 Alaska earthquake caused considerable ground breakage in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska. The breakage occurred largely in thick deposits of unconsolidated sediments. The most important types of ground breakage were (1) fracturing or cracking and the extrusion of sand and gravel with ground water along fractures in various types of landforms, and (2) slumping and lateral extension of unconfined faces, particularly along delta fronts. The principal concentration of ground breakage within the area covered by this report was in a northeast-trending zone about 60 miles long and 6 miles wide in the northern part of the Kenai Lowland. The zone cut across diverse topography and stratigraphy. Cracks were as much as 30 feet across and 25 feet deep. Sand, gravel, and pieces of coal and lignite were extruded along many fissures. It is suggested that the disruption in this zone may be due to movement along a fault in the underlying Tertiary rocks. The outwash deltas of Tustumena and Skilak Lakes in the Kenai Lowland, of Eklutna Lake and Lake George in the Chugach Mountains, of Bradley Lake in the Kenai Mountains, and at the outlet of upper Beluga Lake at the base of the Alaska Range showed much slumping, as did the delta of the Susitna River. Parts of the flood plains of the Skilak River, Fox River, and Eagle River were extensively cracked. A few avalanches and slumps occurred along the coast of Cook Inlet in scattered localities. Some tidal flats were cracked. However, in view of the many thick sections of unconsolidated sediments and the abundance of steep slopes, the cracking was perhaps less than might have been expected. Observations along the coasts indicated changes in sea level which, although caused partly by compaction of unconsolidated sediments, may largely be attributed to crus1tal deformation accompanying the earthquake. Most of the Cook Inlet area was downwarped, although the northwest side of Cook Inlet may have been slightly unwarped

  16. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cooley, S. R.; Lucey, N.; Colt, S.; Ekstrom, J.; Hurst, T.; Hauri, C.; Evans, W.; Cross, J. N.; Feely, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The highly productive fisheries of Alaska are located in seas projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that are most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) contribute substantially to the state's commercial fisheries and traditional subsistence way of life. Prior studies of OA's potential impacts on human communities have focused only on possible direct economic losses from specific scenarios of human dependence on commercial harvests and damages to marine species. However, other economic and social impacts, such as changes in food security or livelihoods, are also likely to result from climate change. This study evaluates patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. Here, we used a risk assessment framework based on one developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze earth-system global ocean model hindcasts and projections of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The fisheries examined were: shellfish, salmon and other finfish. The final index incorporates all of these data to compare overall risk among Alaska's federally designated census areas. The analysis showed that regions in southeast and southwest Alaska that are highly reliant on fishery harvests and have relatively lower incomes and employment alternatives likely face the highest risk from OA. Although this study is an intermediate step toward our full understanding, the results presented here show that OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains.

  17. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  18. Marine Records of Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironments Vs Anthropological Archives in Arctic-Subarctic Regions: Missing Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic changes are recorded by biogenic remains fossilized in marine sediment. These remains and their chemical and isotopic properties allow the establishment of times series of ocean/climate parameters (temperature, sea ice cover, salinity, productivity), as well as of inland vegetation (from pollen grains in continental margin sediments). Such "paleoclimate" studies provide a comprehensive picture of Holocene climate changes at low to mid latitudes but Arctic-subarctic regions remain poorly documented. The rarity of representative records is mostly due to their remote and difficult access, as well as to the generally low biogenic content of marine sediment because of low productivity and/or poor preservation of biominerals (carbonates and opal). Moreover, when available, time series from Arctic-subarctic often suffer poor time resolution and chronological control. Nevertheless, a few paleoclimate records are available. Some of the best-resolved time series are from the Canadian Arctic (eastern and northern Baffin bay, Hudson Strait). They show large amplitude changes during the glacial/interglacial transition in relation with meltwater discharge rates and sea-level changes, and point to the inception of full "postglacial conditions" some 7000 years ago only. Since then, they also recorded millennial type oscillations of smaller amplitude, but out of phase in the western vs eastern subpolar North Atlantic. Paleoclimate reconstructions from marine cores often provide a picture of a "mean" decadal to centennial state of the environment because of the time span represented by sediment samples adding to smoothing effect of sea-floor sediment mixing by benthic organisms. In contradistinction, humane occupation and mobility might be more directly influenced by climate instabilities and extreme events, whose documentation from sedimentary archives represents a real challenge for the geoscience community.

  19. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Alejandro; Casas-Valdez, Margarita; Carrillo, Silvia; Hernández, Hugo; Monroy, Alberto; Sanginés, Leonor; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Sargassum meal as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen. The Sargassum algae used in this experiment were collected at the end of spring, when they are more abundant, bigger, and have completed their reproductive cycle. Four tons (wet weigth) were collected manually from the intertidal zone of La Paz bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These algae were sun-dried and ground in a hammer mill to obtain the Sargassum meal. Four fistulated Pelibuey sheep, were fed daily with diets containing the marine algae (MA) at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 %), using a 4 x 4 Latin-square design experiment. Feed intake was not affected (p>0.05). Water consumption and urine excretion increased with MA (p<0.05; r2=0.54 and r2=0.74, respectively). In all treatments dry matter digestibility was of 74%-79%, and crude protein digestibility was of 85%-88%. Acid detergent fiber (59%-65%) and neutral detergent fiber (55%-66%) digestibility were greater in all treatments with MA. Ruminal pH was greater in all groups fed with MA (p<0.05). Ammonium concentration was not influenced (p>0.05) by MA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased in all MA groups (p<0.05). The marine algae Sargassum spp. can be used as a feed supplement for sheep, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where these marine algae are available.

  20. Marine bird and sea otter population abundance of Prince william sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1989-93. Restoration project 93045. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to estimate marine bird and sea otter (Enhdra lutris) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March and July 1993, using methods developed for the 1989-91 surveys (Klosiewski and Laing 1994). During 1993, we recorded 65 birds and 13 mammal species. We estimated that 402,760 + or - 167,697 marine birds were in the Sound during March 1993, an increase of >200,000 birds over 1990 and 1991. To examine trends in our marine bird population estimates from 1989-93, we assumed that in the absence of oil spill effects, population estimates in the oiled zone would change at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we examined population trends from 1989-1993, using regression analyses. We also examined the relative abundance of the species groups seen in Prince William Sound from 1972 to 1993. Sea otter populations in 1993 were estimated at 6,813 + or - 1,861 for March and 8,216 + or - 2,435 for July. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1989-93 for either the March or July population estimates. There was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1989-93.

  1. Winter marine bird and sea otter abundance of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Trends following the t/v Exxon Valdez oil spill from 1990-94. Restoration project 94159. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agler, B.A.; Seiser, P.E.; Kendall, S.J.; Irons, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    We conducted small boat surveys to determine population abundance of marine birds and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska during March 1994. We observed 45 bird and 8 mammal species in Prince William Sound, and we estimated that 320,470 + or - 63,640 marine birds were present. We estimated trends in the March population estimates from 1990-94 by determining whether estimates in the oiled zone changed at the same rate as those in the unoiled zone. For Prince William Sound as a whole, we also examined the population trends from 1990-94 using regression analyses. We found significant positive trends for harlequin duck (Histrionicus), goldeneye, merganser, bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and gull (Larus and Rissa spp.) populations. We also examined the relative abundance of marine bird species groups from 1972 to 1994. During March 1994, we estimated that the sea otter population was 7,746 + or - 2,073 otters. We found no difference in the rate of change between the oiled and unoiled zones from 1990-94, and there was no significant trend in the total number of sea otters in Prince William Sound from 1990-94.

  2. What Are the ABC's of Marine Education? An Introduction to Marine Education in the Gulf of Maine Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; And Others

    Presented are 26 units (each title beginning with a letter of the alphabet) intended to serve as points of departure for teachers and students who desire to increase their awareness of the marine environment. Each unit includes ideas and activities drawn from a variety of content areas so that teachers of many different subjects at the junior high…

  3. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  4. Mariner 9 observations of the surface of Mars in the north polar region.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Malin, M. C.; Murray, B. C.; Cutts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the Mariner 9 extended mission the recession of the north polar ice caps was monitored for 130 days. The edge of the cap displayed a peculiar polygonal outline during most of this period. Regional topographic control is suggested as the most likely cause of the polygonality. Whereas densely cratered terrain dominates the south polar region, moderately cratered plains underlie the polar deposits in the north polar region. The mottled cratered plains have been mantled by light deposits located in annular rings south of 70 N. The erosional boundaries between these deposits and the subjacent cratered plains are gradational, show no local topographic relief, and display a spiral serrated circumpolar pattern suggesting eolian erosion. Smooth plains and 'etch-pitted' plains underlie the central polar layered deposits in both polar regions. In addition, these plains have one other morphological variant in the north. Here they display a pattern of very coherent ripple-like waveforms varying in wavelength from several hundred meters to a few kilometers.

  5. Marine accident report - grounding of the US Tankship EXXON Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Near Valdez, Alaska, March 24, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    The report explains the grounding of the U.S. Tankship EXXON VALDEZ near Valdez, Alaska on March 24, 1989. The safety issues discussed in the report are the vessel's navigation watch, the role of human factors, manning standards, the company's drug/alcohol testing and rehabilitation program, drug/alcohol testing, vessel traffic service, and oil spill response.

  6. Multi-biomarker responses in fishes from two typical marine aquaculture regions of South China.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuting; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Xinyu; Pan, Debo; Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Ximei

    2012-11-01

    The impact of typical pollutants upon the fish-farming was assessed by use of a battery of biomarkers in two typical marine aquaculture regions in South China. Biotransformation parameters including 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in five cultured fish species. Pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), heavy metals and antibiotics (quinolones and sulfonamides) in sediments were characterized. Higher pollutant residue levels were observed in Dapeng Cove. EROD, APND and ERND activities were lower in fish from Dapeng Cove compared with fish from Hailing Island, while it is just on the contrary for GST and MDA. ERND, APND and GST showed sensitivity corresponding to different pollutants. Small fish species seemed to exhibit more sensitive to pollutants. The study further supports usefulness of multi-biomarker approach considering multiple species to define the effects of anthropogenic inputs in marine aquaculture systems.

  7. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  8. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  9. Marine bird populations of Prince William Sound, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 2. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosiewski, S.P.; Laing, K.K.

    1994-06-01

    We estimated the summer and winter abundance of marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, examined changes in population size between pre-spill and post-spill surveys, and compared pre- to post-oil spill population trends in the oiled zone of the Sound relative to trends in the unoiled zone. Ninety-nine species of birds were observed on surveys. Estimated populations of 15 to 32 species/species groups demonstrated declines over the 17-19 year period between pre- and post-spill surveys. However, because of the long time period between surveys, we could not directly associate overall population declines with the oil spill.

  10. Tropical Marginal Seas: Priority Regions for Managing Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, A. David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems - coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes - and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence - from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas - but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

  11. Tropical marginal seas: priority regions for managing marine biodiversity and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, A David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J W; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems-coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes-and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence-from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas-but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

  12. Spectral Anomalies in the 11 and 12 micron Region From the Mariner Mars 7 Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    Two hundred-forty infrared spectra acquired by the 1969 Mariner Mars 7 Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), spanning the wavelength region 1.8-14.4 micron (5550-690/cm), have recently been recovered and calibrated in both wavelength and intensity. An examination of these IRS spectra has revealed absorptions at 11.25 and 12.5 micron that have not previously been reported for Mars. A search of the literature and spectral data bases shows that materials that exhibit a doublet at 11.25 and 12.5 micron are rare. In this paper we examine potential causes for these features and include a detailed discussion of carbonates, goethite, CO2 ice, and water ice. CO2 ice and water ice measured in transmission do not exhibit bands that match those recorded at 11.25 and 12.5 micron for Mars, which indicates that CO2 or water ice clouds are not the source of these features. Since these bands show no clear correlation with atmospheric path length, they are most likely caused by a surface material. In the IRS database they appear to be exceptionally intense in the western part of the Hellas basin. Goethite exhibits bands that are a good spectral match, but confirming whether goethite causes the features will require additional studies of the 20-50 micron region. These studies will require laboratory measurements of weathering coatings and an examination of spectra recorded of Mars by the 1971 Mariner Mars Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS; 5-50 micron 2000200/cm) and the 1996 Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES; 6-50 micron 1667-200/cm).

  13. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  14. The VOCALS Regional Experiment: Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    Robert Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. J. Huebert, H. Coe, B. A. Albrecht, P. H. Daum, D. Leon, A. Clarke, P. Zuidema, C. W. Fairall, G. Allen, S. deSzoeke, G. Feingold, J. Kazil, S. Yuter, R. George, A. Berner, C. Terai, G. Painter, H. Wang, M. Wyant, D. Mechem The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) is an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific (SEP), a region dominated by strong coastal upwelling, extensive cold SSTs, and home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northen Chile. A central theme of VOCALS-REx is the improved understanding of links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties. In this presentation, we will present a synthesis of results from VOCALS-REx focusing on the following questions: (a) how are aerosols, clouds and precipitation inter-related in the SEP region? (b) what microphysical-macrophysical interactions are necessary for the formation and maintenance of open cells? (c) how do cloud and MBL properties change across the strong microphysical gradients from the South American coast to the remote ocean?

  15. Salinization of aquifers at the regional scale by marine transgression: Time scales and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armandine Les Landes, A.; Davy, P.; Aquilina, L.

    2014-12-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled and reported in the Armorican basement at the regional scale (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) at the regional scale support the marine origin and provide constraints on the age of these saline fluids. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and only slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this study, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers. We argue that one of the most efficient processes in macrotidal environments is the gravity-driven downconing instability below coastal salinized rivers. 2-D numerical experiments have been used to quantify this process according to four main parameter types: (1) the groundwater system permeability, (2) the salinity degree of the river, (3) the river width and slope, and (4) the tidal amplitude. A general expression of the salinity inflow rates have been derived, which has been used to estimate groundwater salinization rates in Brittany, given the geomorphological and environmental characteristics (drainage basin area, river widths and slopes, tidal range, aquifer permeability). We found that downconing below coastal rivers entail very high saline rates, indicating that this process play a major role in the salinization of regional aquifers. This is also likely to be an issue in the context of climate change, where sea-level rise is expected.

  16. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  17. Anthropogenic disturbance and biodiversity of marine benthic communities in Antarctica: a regional comparison.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Kim, Stacy L; Oliver, John S

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of two Antarctic stations in different regions, on marine sediment macrofaunal communities were compared: McMurdo, a very large station in the Ross Sea; and Casey, a more typical small station in East Antarctica. Community structure and diversity were compared along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance from heavily contaminated to uncontaminated locations. We examined some of the inherent problems in comparing data from unrelated studies, such as different sampling methods, spatial and temporal scales of sampling and taxonomic uncertainty. These issues generated specific biases which were taken into account when interpreting patterns. Control sites in the two regions had very different communities but both were dominated by crustaceans. Community responses to anthropogenic disturbance (sediment contamination by metals, oils and sewage) were also different. At McMurdo the proportion of crustaceans decreased in disturbed areas and polychaetes became dominant, whereas at Casey, crustaceans increased in response to disturbance, largely through an increase in amphipods. Despite differing overall community responses there were some common elements. Ostracods, cumaceans and echinoderms were sensitive to disturbance in both regions. Capitellid, dorvelleid and orbiniid polychaetes were indicative of disturbed sites. Amphipods, isopods and tanaids had different responses at each station. Biodiversity and taxonomic distinctness were significantly lower at disturbed locations in both regions. The size of the impact, however, was not related to the level of contamination, with a larger reduction in biodiversity at Casey, the smaller, less polluted station. The impacts of small stations, with low to moderate levels of contamination, can thus be as great as those of large or heavily contaminated stations. Regional broad scale environmental influences may be important in determining the composition of communities and thus their response to disturbance, but there are

  18. Causes and biogeochemical implications of regional differences in silicification of marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Nelson, David M.; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2010-12-01

    Diatoms facilitate the export of organic carbon and associated nutrient elements in the ocean because their dense opaline silica shells provide ballast to sinking particles. Marine ecosystem models generally assume that cellular silicification is either constant or varies solely due to physiological responses. Using a cell-specific technique, synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy, we show that diatom cells in the cold, high-silicic-acid waters of the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (SOAZ) had 6 times more Si per volume than did those inhabiting the warm, low-silicic-acid waters of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Ratios of Si:P and Si:S differed less than this because cellular P and S concentrations were higher in SOAZ cells. Resulting differences in excess density and frustule surface area-to-volume ratios should result in more efficient removal and slower dissolution of biogenic silica in the SOAZ compared to the EEP. Moreover, the difference between the excess densities of diatoms and nondiatoms was 15-fold greater in the SOAZ than in the EEP. Several possible causes of the regional differences in silicification are evaluated. Differences in cell volume between regions and additions of silicic acid and iron had minor effects on silicification. Instead, cellular silicification varied substantially among diatom morphological types within each region, suggesting that community composition largely determined the community silicification in these regions. We suggest that ecological processes may cause much larger systematic regional and temporal differences in cellular stoichiometry than is currently accommodated by ecosystem models.

  19. Anthropogenic Disturbance and Biodiversity of Marine Benthic Communities in Antarctica: A Regional Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Jonathan S.; Kim, Stacy L.; Oliver, John S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of two Antarctic stations in different regions, on marine sediment macrofaunal communities were compared: McMurdo, a very large station in the Ross Sea; and Casey, a more typical small station in East Antarctica. Community structure and diversity were compared along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance from heavily contaminated to uncontaminated locations. We examined some of the inherent problems in comparing data from unrelated studies, such as different sampling methods, spatial and temporal scales of sampling and taxonomic uncertainty. These issues generated specific biases which were taken into account when interpreting patterns. Control sites in the two regions had very different communities but both were dominated by crustaceans. Community responses to anthropogenic disturbance (sediment contamination by metals, oils and sewage) were also different. At McMurdo the proportion of crustaceans decreased in disturbed areas and polychaetes became dominant, whereas at Casey, crustaceans increased in response to disturbance, largely through an increase in amphipods. Despite differing overall community responses there were some common elements. Ostracods, cumaceans and echinoderms were sensitive to disturbance in both regions. Capitellid, dorvelleid and orbiniid polychaetes were indicative of disturbed sites. Amphipods, isopods and tanaids had different responses at each station. Biodiversity and taxonomic distinctness were significantly lower at disturbed locations in both regions. The size of the impact, however, was not related to the level of contamination, with a larger reduction in biodiversity at Casey, the smaller, less polluted station. The impacts of small stations, with low to moderate levels of contamination, can thus be as great as those of large or heavily contaminated stations. Regional broad scale environmental influences may be important in determining the composition of communities and thus their response to disturbance, but there are

  20. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  1. Surface faults on Montague Island associated with the 1964 Alaska earthquake: Chapter G in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafter, George

    1967-01-01

    -half foot near the southern end of the scarp. Warping and extension cracking occurred in bedrock near the midpoint on the upthrown block within about 1,000 feet of the fault scarp. The reverse faults on Montague Island and their postulated submarine extensions lie within a tectonically important narrow zone of crustal attenuation and maximum uplift associated with the earthquake. However, there are no significant lithologic differences in the rock sequences across these faults to suggest that they form major tectonic boundaries. Their spatial distribution relative to the regional uplift associated with the earthquake, the earthquake focal region, and the epicenter of the main shock suggest that they are probably subsidiary features rather than the causative faults along which the earthquake originated. Approximately 70 percent of the new breakage along the Patton Bay and the Hanning Bay faults on Montague Island was along obvious preexisting active fault traces. The estimated ages of undisturbed trees on and near the fault trace indicate that no major disc placement had occurred on these faults for at least 150 to 300 years before the 1964 earthquake.

  2. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  3. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Parham, James F.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M.; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M.; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Suárez, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  4. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

  5. High Arctic sea ice conditions influence marine birds wintering in Low Arctic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane Tranquilla, Laura; Hedd, April; Burke, Chantelle; Montevecchi, William A.; Regular, Paul M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Stapleton, Leslie Ann; Wilhelm, Sabina I.; Fifield, David A.; Buren, Alejandro D.

    2010-09-01

    Ocean climate change is having profound biological effects in polar regions. Such change can also have far-reaching downstream effects in sub-polar regions. This study documents an environmental relationship between High Arctic sea ice changes and mortality events of marine birds in Low Arctic coastal regions. During April 2007 and March 2009, hundreds of beached seabird carcasses and moribund seabirds were found along the east and northeast coasts of Newfoundland, Canada. These seabird "wrecks" (i.e. dead birds on beaches) coincided with a period of strong, persistent onshore winds and heavily-accumulated sea ice that blocked bays and trapped seabirds near beaches. Ninety-two percent of wreck seabirds were Thick-billed Murres ( Uria lomvia). Body condition and demographic patterns of wreck murres were compared to Thick-billed Murres shot in the Newfoundland murre hunt. Average body and pectoral masses of wreck carcasses were 34% and 40% lighter (respectively) than shot murres, indicating that wreck birds had starved. The acute nature of each wreck suggested that starvation and associated hypothermia occurred within 2-3 days. In 2007, first-winter murres (77%) dominated the wreck. In 2009, there were more adults (78%), mostly females (66%). These results suggest that spatial and temporal segregation in ages and sexes can play a role in differential survival when stochastic weather conditions affect discrete areas where these groups aggregate. In wreck years, southward movement of Arctic sea ice to Low Arctic latitudes was later and blocked bays longer than in most other years. These inshore conditions corresponded with recent climate-driven changes in High Arctic ice break-up and ice extent; coupled with local weather conditions, these ice conditions appeared to be the key environmental features that precipitated the ice-associated seabird wrecks in the Low Arctic region.

  6. Nesting phenology of marine turtles: insights from a regional comparative analysis on green turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Dalleau, Mayeul; Ciccione, Stéphane; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Garnier, Julie; Benhamou, Simon; Bourjea, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Changes in phenology, the timing of seasonal activities, are among the most frequently observed responses to environmental disturbances and in marine species are known to occur in response to climate changes that directly affects ocean temperature, biogeochemical composition and sea level. We examined nesting seasonality data from long-term studies at 8 green turtle (Chelonia mydas) rookeries that include 21 specific nesting sites in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO). We demonstrated that temperature drives patterns of nesting seasonality at the regional scale. We found a significant correlation between mean annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and dates of peak nesting with rookeries exposed to higher SST having a delayed nesting peak. This supports the hypothesis that temperature is the main factor determining peak nesting dates. We also demonstrated a spatial synchrony in nesting activity amongst multiple rookeries in the northern part of the SWIO (Aldabra, Glorieuses, Mohéli, Mayotte) but not with the eastern and southern rookeries (Europa, Tromelin), differences which could be attributed to females with sharply different adult foraging conditions. However, we did not detect a temporal trend in the nesting peak date over the study period or an inter-annual relation between nesting peak date and SST. The findings of our study provide a better understanding of the processes that drive marine species phenology. The findings will also help to predict their ability to cope with climate change and other environmental perturbations. Despite demonstrating this spatial shift in nesting phenology, no trend in the alteration of nesting dates over more than 20 years was found.

  7. Nesting Phenology of Marine Turtles: Insights from a Regional Comparative Analysis on Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    PubMed Central

    Dalleau, Mayeul; Ciccione, Stéphane; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Garnier, Julie; Benhamou, Simon; Bourjea, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Changes in phenology, the timing of seasonal activities, are among the most frequently observed responses to environmental disturbances and in marine species are known to occur in response to climate changes that directly affects ocean temperature, biogeochemical composition and sea level. We examined nesting seasonality data from long-term studies at 8 green turtle (Chelonia mydas) rookeries that include 21 specific nesting sites in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO). We demonstrated that temperature drives patterns of nesting seasonality at the regional scale. We found a significant correlation between mean annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and dates of peak nesting with rookeries exposed to higher SST having a delayed nesting peak. This supports the hypothesis that temperature is the main factor determining peak nesting dates. We also demonstrated a spatial synchrony in nesting activity amongst multiple rookeries in the northern part of the SWIO (Aldabra, Glorieuses, Mohéli, Mayotte) but not with the eastern and southern rookeries (Europa, Tromelin), differences which could be attributed to females with sharply different adult foraging conditions. However, we did not detect a temporal trend in the nesting peak date over the study period or an inter-annual relation between nesting peak date and SST. The findings of our study provide a better understanding of the processes that drive marine species phenology. The findings will also help to predict their ability to cope with climate change and other environmental perturbations. Despite demonstrating this spatial shift in nesting phenology, no trend in the alteration of nesting dates over more than 20 years was found. PMID:23056527

  8. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  9. NASA's DESDynI in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J. M.; Hofton, M. A.; Bruhn, R. L.; Forster, R. R.; Burgess, E. W.; Cotton, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 the National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey, Earth Science Applications from Space, recommended an integrated L-band InSAR and multibeam Lidar mission called DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) and it is scheduled for launch in 2017. The NASA InSAR and Lidar mission is optimized for studying geohazards and global environmental change. The complex plate boundary in southern coastal Alaska provides an excellent setting for testing DESDynI capabilities to recover fundamental parameters of glacio-seismotectonic processes. Also, aircraft and satellites acquisitions of Lidar and L-band SAR have been made in this region in the last decade that can be used for DESDynI performance simulations. Since the Lidar observations would penetrate most vegetation, the accurate bald Earth elevation profiles will give new elevation information beyond the standard 30-m digital elevation models (DEM) and the Lidar-derived elevations will provide an accurate georeferenced surface for local and regional scale studies. In an earlier study we demonstrated how the Lidar observations could be used in combination with SAR to generate an improved InSAR derived DEM in the Barrow, Alaska region [Atwood et al., 2007]; here we discuss how Lidar could be fused with L-band SAR in more rugged, vegetated terrane. Based on simulations of multi-beam Lidar instrument performance over uplifted marine terraces, active faults and folds, uplift associated with the 1899 Yakataga seismic event (M=8), and elevation change on the glaciers in southern, coastal Alaska, we report on the significance of the DESDynI Lidar contiguous 25 m footprint elevation profiles for EarthScope related studies in Alaska. We are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-band SAR ice velocities to infer the large scale sub-ice structures that form the structural framework of the Seward-Bagley Basins. Using primarily winter acquisitions of L-band SAR data from ALOS

  10. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones

  11. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The transects, along with other seismic-reflection examples, illustrate four play concepts being used in the deformed area for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). The Brookian topset structural play includes broad west-northwest-trending anticlines in the Cretaceous Nanushuk Group, developed above structurally thickened Torok mudstones in the incipiently-deformed, most northerly part of the thrust system. The Torok structural play includes prominent anticlines affecting deep-basin sandstones, many of which are detached from folds exposed at the surface. The Ellesmerian structural play includes closures developed in the clastic part of the Ellesmerian sequence, mainly above a detachment in the Shublik Formation. The thrust belt play includes antiformal stacks of allochthonous Endicott Group clastic rocks and Lisburne Group carbonates; these stacks were assembled at about 120 Ma, and were transported to their present positions in the foothills at about 60 Ma.

  12. Marine Cloud Brightening: regional applications to the weakening of hurricanes and reduction in coral bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadian, A.; Hauser, R.; Kleypas, J. A.; Latham, J.; Parkes, B.; Salter, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the potential to cool ocean surface waters in regions of hurricane genesis and early development. This would be achieved by seeding, with copious quantities of seawater cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), low-level maritime stratocumulus clouds covering these regions or those at the source of incoming currents. Higher cloud droplet density would increase these clouds' reflectivity to incoming sunlight, and possibly their longevity. This approach is a more localized application of the Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique promoting global cooling. By utilizing a climate ocean/atmosphere coupled model, HadGEM1, and by judicious seeding of maritime stratocumulus clouds, we demonstrate that we may be able to significantly reduce sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in hurricane development regions. Thus artificial seeding may reduce hurricane intensity; but how well the magnitude of this effect is yet to be determined. Increases in coral bleaching events over the last few decades have been largely caused by rising SSTs, and continued warming is expected to cause even greater increases through this century. Using thr same Global Climate Model to examine the potential of MCB to cool oceanic surface waters in three coral reef provinces. Our simulations indicate that under doubled CO2 conditions, the substantial increases in coral bleaching conditions from current values in three reef regions (Caribbean, French Polynesia, and the Great Barrier Reef) were eliminated when MCB was applied, which reduced the SSTs at these sites roughly to their original values. In this study we also illustrate how even regional application of MCB can affect the planetary meridional heat flux and the reduction in poleward heat transfer. (a) Change in annual average sea surface temperature, Celsius, between the 2xCO2 and CONTROL simulations. (b) Change in annual average sea surface temperature, Celsius, between the CONTROL and 2xCO2+MCB simulations. The dashed black

  13. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  14. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  15. 76 FR 61985 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ..., Rehfeld, Mertz, LLC, Professional Plaza Building B, 9309 Glacier Highway, Suite B-200, Juneau, Alaska... Building B, 9309 Glacier Highway, Suite B-200, Juneau, Alaska 99801. The initial determination that an... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  16. 76 FR 29707 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... an industry fee system to repay a $23.5 million loan for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon... Mail: Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine...

  17. 76 FR 32142 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Saltwater Sportfishing Economic Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... trip value. The Federal Government is responsible for the management of the Pacific halibut sport fishery off Alaska, while the State of Alaska manages the salmon sport fisheries (chinook, coho, sockeye... economic analyses of marine sport fishing in Alaska. This survey is necessary to understand the...

  18. Large scale, regional, CH4 and net CO2 fluxes using nested chamber, tower, aircraft flux, remote sensing, and modeling approaches in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Moreaux, Virginie; Kalhori, Aram; Losacco, Salvatore; Murphy, Patrick; Wilkman, Eric; Zona, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. We evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on GHG fluxes over varying spatial scales and compare to standard estimates of NEE and other greenhouse gas fluxes. Data from the north slope of Alaska from up to a 16 year flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, and hundreds of hours of aircraft fluxes, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of tower, flux aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4and CO2 fluxes or large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  19. Heterogeneity of CH4 and net CO2 Fluxes Using Nested Chamber, Tower, Aircraft, Remote Sensing, and Modeling Approaches in Arctic Alaska for Regional Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Moreaux, V.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Murphy, P.; Wilkman, E.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Zhuang, Q.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Gioli, B.; Zona, D.

    2014-12-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. Here we evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on CH4 and CO2 fluxes over varying spatial scales. Data from the north slope of Alaska from chambers, up to a 16 year CO2 flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, eddy covariance CH4 fluxes over several years and sites, new year-around CO2 and CH4 flux installations, hundreds of hours of aircraft concentration and fluxes, and terrestrial biosphere and flux inverse modeling, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of eddy covariance tower flux, aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  20. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  1. Tropical marginal seas: priority regions for managing marine biodiversity and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, A David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J W; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems-coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes-and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence-from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas-but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs. PMID:24128091

  2. Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

  3. Improving the Gap between Model Predictions and Observations of Formaldehyde over the Remote Marine Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, J.; Meskhidze, N.

    2013-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a ubiquitous oxidation product that exists in polluted rural and urban areas, as well as remote background sites where it is an important photochemical intermediate. HCHO levels of up to six times above what is typically predicted by photochemical models have been reported over the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). As proposed mechanisms for HCHO production remain to be insufficient to explain such large discrepancies between model predictions and measured values, the role of marine regions in the creation of HCHO continues to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in current global chemistry-transport models. Here we examine the viability of a proposed mechanism for the photochemical production of formaldehyde involving aerosols enriched with biologically produced organic matter. In this study, the phytoplankton Emiliania Huxleyi was incubated in autoclaved seawater contained within a 9 liter Pyrex glass bottle. Quantitative analysis of the enrichment of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and other biologically produced organic matter (dissolved and particulate) in the surface microlayer was carried out by employing Alldredge's alcian blue staining technique. To produce organic aerosols, enriched seawater was bubbled with hydrocarbon free air using a sintered glass filter placed 5 cm below the surface. Utilizing a mixed flow reaction scheme, produced aerosols were then pushed through stainless steel flow tubes into a separate 9-liter Pyrex glass container acting as a residence chamber. The container was surrounded with six Ushio 9W Midrange UVB lights to allow for the irradiation of aerosols at 306 nm. A flow rate of approximately 0.1 l/min allowed for an average aerosol residence time of 90 minutes inside the residence chamber. All air from the chamber was then passed through a 5" long Pyrex desorber tube packed with 60/80 Tenax that had been soaked in the derivatizing agent pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH). Subsequent thermal

  4. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  5. Genetic relationships of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska: inference from microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and field observations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M; Shideler, R; Hechtel, J; Strobeck, C; Paetkau, D

    1999-01-01

    Grizzly bears are abundant in the region of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in northern Alaska. We used field observations and molecular genetic data to identify parent-offspring and sibling relationships among bears in this region. We determined genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci and the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for 36 bears. We identified 17 possible mother-offspring pairs and 8 possible father-offspring pairs. This includes verification of the relationships of 14 mother-offspring pairs identified from field observations. Three additional mother-offspring pairs and all eight father-offspring pairs were determined from genetic and age data. Relatedness coefficients based on numbers of shared alleles between individuals were as expected: approximately 0.50 for parent-offspring and sibling pairs and approximately 0.75 for a father-offspring pair resulting from a father-daughter mating. The level of genetic variation (mean number of alleles per locus = 6.6, mean heterozygosity = 70%) and allele frequencies in grizzly bears in the Prudhoe Bay region are similar to those in other parts of the species' range.

  6. Mercury and selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, and regions of the heart and kidney in bearded seals from Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Castellini, J Margaret; Quakenbush, Lori T; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-10-01

    Mean concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) (mass and molar-based) were determined for 5 regions of the heart and 2 regions of the kidney of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) harvested in Alaska, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Mean [THg] and [TSe] of bearded seal liver and skeletal muscle tissues were used for intertissular comparison. The Se:Hg molar ratios were used to investigate elemental associations and potential antioxidant protection against Hg toxicosis. Age was an important factor in [THg] and Se:Hg molar ratios in heart and kidney. Small but statistically significant differences in mean [THg] occurred among some of the 5 heart regions (p < 0.05). Mean [THg] was highest in liver, 3.057 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.017 µg/g. Mean [THg] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). Mean [TSe] was highest in liver, 3.848 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.632 µg/g. Mean [TSe] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). The Se:Hg molar ratios were significantly greater than 1.0 in all tissues (p < 0.001) and represented baselines for normal [TSe] under relatively low [THg]. Mean Se:Hg molar ratios ranked: heart left ventricle > kidney medulla > kidney cortex (p < 0.001).

  7. Beringian Sea Level and Marine Climate History: Investigations into Regional & Global Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Driscoll, N.; Keigwin, L.; Lundeen, Z.; Hill, J.; Cook, M.; Donnelly, J.

    2003-12-01

    Glacial-interglacial cycles have imposed on the Bering Strait region some of the most radical changes in paleogeography documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Only 20,000 years ago during the last glaciation when sea level was about 130 m below present, the Bering Land Bridge separated the deeper Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from the Arctic Ocean by more than 1000 kilometers of herb-dominated tundra. Missing from existing literature are studies of how the Bering and Chukchi seas participate in controlling Beringian and global climate. Fluctuations in sea level caused the rapid migration of shorelines changing gradients in temperature and moisture with considerable downwind effects based on regional terrestrial records. The greatest east-west heterogeneity across Beringia occurred during warm (flooded) or warming (partially flooded) periods of late Pleistocene summers, when the cool maritime influence bifurcated the relatively warm continental interior. Oceanographic changes were also radically influenced by changes in sea level across the Bering Straits that regulated the northward flow of Pacific waters into the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. Especially important in our collective research is an understanding of how the flow of water through the Bering Strait may have influenced documented changes in thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic (e.g., Younger Dryas) by changing the flux of fresher Pacific water into the Arctic Ocean. On board the USCGC Healy in the summer of 2002, we collected from -2800m to -50 m water depth, a set of nearly 100 different marine cores measuring over 500 meters in total length. Some are up to 21 meters long, from -1300 m water depth, the longest cores taken in this part of the western Arctic. Specific cores appear to hold a high-resolution record of the deglacial and Holocene history in this region and a few of the cores likely contain sediments back to nearly 140,000 yrs BP. We also learned that the stratigraphic

  8. Volcanic Eruptions, Landscape Disturbance, and Potential Impacts to Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems in Alaska: An Example from the August 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Drew, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    The magnitude, style, and sometimes-prolonged nature of volcanic activity in Alaska has had significant impact on ecological habitat. The accumulation of volcaniclastic deposits during eruptions have destroyed or altered areas important to the success of various species and it may take years to decades for landforms and surfaces to recover and become habitable again. Kasatochi volcano, in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, erupted explosively on August 7-8, 2008 and the rich nesting habitat for several species of seabirds on the island was completely destroyed. The eruption produced thick pyroclastic fall and flow deposits and several SO2 rich ash-gas plumes that reached 14 to 18 km above sea level. Pyroclastic deposits are several tens of meters thick, blanket the entire island, and initially extended seaward to increase the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Wave and gully erosion have modified these deposits and have exhumed some pre-eruption surfaces. Analysis of surface erosional features observed in satellite and time-lapse camera images and field studies have shown that by September 2009, gully erosion removed 300,000-600,000 m3 of mostly fine-grained volcanic sediment from the volcano flanks and much of this has reached the ocean. Sediment yield estimates from two representative drainage basins are about 104 m3km-2yr-1 and are comparable to sediment yields at other active volcanoes outside of Alaska. Coastal erosion rates at Kasatochi are as high as 80-140 myr-1 and parts of the northern coastline have already been eroded back to pre-eruption positions. As of March, 2011 about 72% of the material emplaced beyond the pre-eruption coastline on the northern sector of the island has been removed by wave erosion. Parts of the southern coastline have prograded beyond the post-eruption shoreline as a result of long-shore transport of sediment from north to south. As of March 2011, the total volume of material eroded by wave action was about 107 m3. The preferred

  9. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  10. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  11. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  12. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  13. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M.

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Marine aerosol source regions to Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, and influence from the tropical Pacific, 1979-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscitiello, Alison S.; Marshall, Shawn J.; Evans, Matthew J.; Kinnard, Christophe; Norman, Ann-Lise; Sharp, Martin J.

    2016-08-01

    Using a coastal ice core collected from Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield on Ellesmere Island, we investigate source regions of sea ice-modulated chemical species (methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and chloride (Cl-)) to POW Icefield and the influence of large-scale atmospheric variability on the transport of these marine aerosols (1979-2001). Our key findings are (1) MSA in the POW Icefield core is derived primarily from productivity in the sea ice zone of Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea, with influence from waters within the North Water (NOW) polynya, (2) sea ice formation processes within the NOW polynya may be a significant source of sea-salt aerosols to the POW core site, in addition to offshore open water source regions primarily in Hudson Bay, and (3) the tropical Pacific influences the source and transport of marine aerosols to POW Icefield through its remote control on regional winds and sea ice variability. Regression analyses during times of MSA deposition reveal sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies favorable for opening of the NOW polynya and subsequent oceanic dimethyl sulfide production. Regression analyses during times of Cl- deposition reveal SLP anomalies that indicate a broader oceanic region of sea-salt sources to the core site. These results are supported by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer- and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager-based sea ice reconstructions and air mass transport density analyses and suggest that the marine biogenic record may capture local polynya variability, while sea-salt transport to the site from larger offshore source regions in Baffin Bay is likely. Regression analyses show a link to tropical dynamics via an atmospheric Rossby wave.

  16. Accretion tectonics and crustal structure in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coney, P.J.; Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The entire width of the North American Cordillera in Alaska is made up of "suspect terranes". Pre-Late Cretaceous paleogeography is poorly constrained and the ultimate origins of the many fragments which make up the state are unclear. The Prince William and Chugach terranes accreted since Late Cretaceous time and represent the collapse of much of the northeast Pacific Ocean swept into what today is southern Alaska. Greater Wrangellia, a composite terrane now dispersed into fragments scattered from Idaho to southern Alaska, apparently accreted into Alaska in Late Cretaceous time crushing an enormous deep-marine flysch basin on its inboard side. Most of interior eastern Alaska is the Yukon Tanana terrane, a very large entirely fault-bounded metamorphic-plutonic assemblage covering thousands of square kilometers in Canada as well as Alaska. The original stratigraphy and relationship to North America of the Yukon-Tanana terrane are both obscure. A collapsed Mesozoic flysch basin, similar to the one inboard of Wrangellia, lies along the northern margin. Much of Arctic Alaska was apparently a vast expanse of upper Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic deep marine sediments and mafic volcanic and plutonic rocks now scattered widely as large telescoped sheets and Klippen thrust over the Ruby geanticline and the Brooks Range, and probably underlying the Yukon-Koyukuk basin and the Yukon flats. The Brooks Range itself is a stack of north vergent nappes, the telescoping of which began in Early Cretaceous time. Despite compelling evidence for thousands of kilometers of relative displacement between the accreted terranes, and large amounts of telescoping, translation, and rotation since accretion, the resulting new continental crust added to North America in Alaska carries few obvious signatures that allow application of currently popular simple plate tectonic models. Intraplate telescoping and strike-slip translations, delamination at mid-crustal levels, and large-scale lithospheric

  17. Earliest Marine beds in the Jurassic sedimentary record near the Huajuapan-Petlalcingo region, southern Mexico and their paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contla, D.

    2008-12-01

    A paleogeographic model of Jurassic-Cretaceous is presented, the study area is the region near Huajuapan de Leon in the Mixteca Terrane, Mexico where a sedimentary successions constituted by interlayered terrestrial and marine beds, provides evidence of transgression and regression episodes. The sediments in the study zone were deposited over a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, the Acatlan Complex. The stratigraphic features in the Middle Jurassic of the terrestrial beds indicate a depositional elements varying from alluvial fans to floodplains and channel deposits, represented by conglomerates, sandy conglomerates and sandstones. After, in the same epoch (Bajocian and Bathonian age) a transgression coming from the Pacific Ocean covered the region. A transitional zone between continental and marine sediments is situated between Tezoatlan and Petlalcingo, the actual cross section consists in the earliest marine beds: limestones interlayered with terrestrial beds. Fossil contents in this beds indicate an age between the Oxfordian and the Tithonian. During this period of transgression the paleogeography was dominated by a small bay with shallow waters connected in the south with the Pacific Ocean, represented principally by limestone and dolomite units. At the end of the transgression, volcanic episodes occurred and the land emerged again. The sedimentary beds were later affected by tectonic activity that produced a normal fault near Zapotitlan, putting the metamorphic basement in contact with the sedimentary sequence.

  18. Observations of the Global Characteristics and Regional Radiative Effects of Marine Cloud Liquid Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Vonder Harr, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution and temporal variability of cloud liquid water path (LWP) over the world's oceans and the relationship of cloud LWP to temperature and the radiation budget are investigated using recent satellite measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Observations of cloud liquid water on a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg and are used over a 53-month period beginning July 1987 and ending in December 1991. The highest values of cloud liquid water (greater than 0.13 kg/sq m) occur largely along principal routes of northern midlatitude storms and in areas dominated by tropical convection. The zonally averaged structure is distinctly trimodal, where maxima appear in the midlatitudes and near the equator. The average marine cloud LWP over the globe is estimated to be about 0.113 kg/sq m. Its highest seasonal variability is typically between 15% and 25% of the annual mean but in certain locations can exceed 30%. Comparisons of cloud LWP to temperature for low clouds during JJA and DJF of 1990 show significant positive correlations at colder temperatures and negative correlations at warmer temperatures. The correlations also exhibit strong seasonal and regional variation. Coincident and collocated observations of cloud LWP from the SSM/I and albedo measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-10 satellite are compared for low clouds in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The observed albedo-LWP relationships correspond reasonably well with theory, where the average cloud effective radius (r(sub e)) is 11.1 microns and the standard deviation is 5.2 microns. The large variability in the inferred values of r(sub e) suggests that other factors may be important in the albedo-LWP relationships. In terms of the effect of the LWP on the net cloud forcing, the authors find that a 0.05 kg/sq m increase in LWP

  19. [Effects of artificial reef construction to marine ecosystem services value: a case of Yang-Meikeng artificial reef region in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Qin, Chuan-xin; Chem, Pi-mao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-08-01

    Based on the researches and statistic data of Yangmeikeng artificial reef region in Shenzhen in 2008 and by the method of ecosystem services value, this paper analyzed the effects of artificial reef construction in the region on the marine ecosystem services. After the artificial reef construction, the tourism service value in the region decreased from 87% to 42%, food supply service value increased from 7% to 27%, and the services value of raw material supply, climatic regulation, air quality regulation, water quality regulation, harmful organism and disease regulation, and knowledge expansion had a slight increase, as compared to the surrounding coastal areas. The total services value per unit area of Yangmeikeng artificial reef region in 2008 was 1714.7 x 10(4) yuan x km(-2), far higher than the mean services value of coastal marine ecosystem in the surrounding areas of Shenzhen and in the world. Artificial reef construction affected and altered the structure of regional marine ecosystem services value, and improved the regional ecosystem services value, being of significance for the rational exploitation and utilization of marine resources and the successful recovery of damaged marine eco-environment and fish resources. Utilizing the method of ecosystem services value to evaluate artificial reef construction region could better elucidate the benefits of artificial reef construction, effectively promote the development of our artificial reef construction, and improve the management of marine ecosystem.

  20. Methane Flux Measurements from a Low Flying Aircraft: What they tell us about Regional Heterogeneity in Carbon Flux over the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Kochendorfer, J.; Wilkerson, J.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic contains a large reservoir of organic matter stored in permafrost and clathrates. Varying geology and hydrology across the Arctic, even on small scales, can cause large variability in surface carbon fluxes and partitioning between methane and carbon dioxide. In situ measurements are further complicated by the presence of gas and oil extraction, natural gas seeps, and biomass burning. Ground based measurements can yield high temporal resolution and detailed information about a specific location, but due to the inaccessibility of most of the Arctic to date in situ measurements have been made at very few sites. In August 2013, a small aircraft, flying low over the surface (5-30 m), and carrying an air turbulence probe and spectroscopic instruments to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and their isotopologues, flew over the North Slope of Alaska. During the ten flights multiple comparisons were made with a ground based Eddy Covariance tower as well as three region surveys of fluxes over three areas each approximately 2500 km2. We present analysis using the Flux Fragment Method and surface landscape classification maps to relate the fluxes to different surface land types.

  1. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  2. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. PMID:23761259

  3. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Debroy, C.; Flint, P.L.; Safine, D.E.; Schamber, J.L.; Riddle, A.E.; Trust, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n=122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n=21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n=48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds. ?? 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Assessment of marine-derived nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, using natural abundance of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kline, Thomas C.; Woody, Carol Ann; Bishop, Mary Anne; Powers, Sean P.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2007-01-01

    We performed nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon stable isotope analysis (SIA) on maturing and juvenile anadromous sockeye and coho salmon, and periphyton in two Copper River delta watersheds of Alaska to trace salmonderived nutrients during 2003–2004. Maturing salmon were isotopically enriched relative to alternate freshwater N, S, and C sources as expected, with differences consistent with species trophic level differences, and minor system, sex, and year-to-year differences, enabling use of SIA to trace these salmon-derived nutrients. Periphyton naturally colonized, incubated, and collected using Wildco Periphtyon Samplers in and near spawning sites was 34S- and 15N-enriched, as expected, and at all freshwater sites was 13C-depleted. At nonspawning and coho-only sites, periphyton 34S and 15N was generally low. However, 34S was low enough at some sites to be suggestive of sulfate reduction, complicating the use of S isotopes. Juvenile salmon SIA ranged in values consistent with using production derived from re-mineralization as well as direct utilization, but only by a minority fraction of coho salmon. Dependency on salmon-derived nutrients ranged from relatively high to relatively low, suggesting a space-limited system. No one particular isotope was found to be superior for determining the relative importance of salmon-derived nutrients.

  5. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of south-west Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Debroy, Chitrita; Flint, Paul L; Safine, David E; Schamber, Jason L; Riddle, Ann E; Trust, Kimberly A

    2011-04-01

    In Alaska, sea ducks winter in coastal habitats at remote, non-industrialized areas, as well as in proximity to human communities and industrial activity. We evaluated prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in faecal samples of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri; n = 122) and harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus; n = 21) at an industrialized site and Steller's eiders (n = 48) at a reference site, and compared these strains with those isolated from water samples from near-shore habitats of ducks. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 16% and 67% in Steller's eiders and harlequin ducks, respectively, at the industrialized study site, and 2% in Steller's eiders at the reference site. Based on O and H antigen subtyping and genetic characterization by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we found evidence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains associated with both species and detected E. coli strains carrying virulence genes associated with mammals in harlequin ducks. Steller's eiders that carried APEC had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations, providing further evidence of pathogenicity. The genetic profile of two E. coli strains from water matched an isolate from a Steller's eider providing evidence of transmission between near-shore habitats and birds.

  6. 75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610... catch (TAC) of pollock for Statistical Area 610 in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  7. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  8. Statistical dependence of albedo and cloud cover on sea surface temperature for two tropical marine stratocumulus regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Davies, Roger

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and albedo or cloud cover is examined for two tropical regions with high values of cloud radiative forcing and persistent marine stratocumulus (mSc)-one off the west coast of Peru, the other off the west coast of Angola. The data span five years, from December 1984 to November 1989. Albedos are from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), cloud covers are from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), and SSTS are from the Climate Analysis Center. Negative correlation coefficients between albedo and SST are found to be about -0.8 when the seasonal variation of the entire dataset is analyzed. The interannual variation and the spatial variation of individual months also yields correlation coefficients that are negative. The correlation between cloud cover and SST is found to be similar to but weaker than the correlation between albedo and SST, suggesting a decrease in cloud amount and a decrease in cloud albedo with increasing SST for these regions. The corresponding albedo sensitivity averages -0.018/K with local values reaching -0.04/K. These findings are valid from 19 C to 25 C for the Peru mSc and 22 C to 27 C for the Angola mSc. These temperatures approximately bound the domains over which mSc is the prevalent cloud type within each region. These results imply a potential positive feedback to global warming by marine stratocumulus that ranges from approximately 0.14 W/sq m/K to approximately 1 W/sq m/K, depending on whether or not our results apply to all marine stratocumulus. While these values are uncertain to at least +/- 50%, the sensitivity of albedo to sea surface temperature in the present climate may serve as a useful diagnostic tool in monitoring the performance of global climate models.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens. PMID:26259681

  10. Antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria and human uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a region of intensive aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Rioseco, Maria Luisa; Kalsi, Rajinder K; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobials are heavily used in Chilean salmon aquaculture. We previously found significant differences in antimicrobial-resistant bacteria between sediments from an aquaculture and a non-aquaculture site. We now show that levels of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) are significantly higher in antimicrobial-selected marine bacteria than in unselected bacteria from these sites. While ARG in tetracycline- and florfenicol-selected bacteria from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites were equally frequent, there were significantly more plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes per bacterium and significantly higher numbers of qnrB genes in quinolone-selected bacteria from the aquaculture site. Quinolone-resistant urinary Escherichia coli from patients in the Chilean aquacultural region were significantly enriched for qnrB (including a novel qnrB gene), qnrS, qnrA and aac(6')-1b, compared with isolates from New York City. Sequences of qnrA1, qnrB1 and qnrS1 in quinolone-resistant Chilean E. coli and Chilean marine bacteria were identical, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between antimicrobial-resistant marine bacteria and human pathogens.

  11. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The ~2000 km long Denali Fault System (DFS) of Alaska is an example of an extra-regional strike-slip fault system that terminates in a zone of widely-distributed deformation. The ~1200 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of Patagonia (southern Chile) is another. Both systems are active, having undergone large-magnitude seismic rupture is 2002 (DFS) and 2007 (LOFZ). Both systems appear to be long-lived: the DFS juxtaposes terranes that docked in at least early Tertiary time, whilst the central LOFZ appears to also record early Tertiary or Mesozoic deformation. Both fault systems comprise a relatively well-defined central zone where individual fault traces can be identified from topographic features or zones of deformed rock. In both cases the proximal and distal traces are much more diffuse tributary and distributary systems of individual, branching fault traces. However, since their inception the DFS and LOFZ have followed very different evolutionary paths. Copious Alaskan paleomagnetic data are consistent with vertical axis small block rotation, long-distance latitudinal translation, and a recently-postulated tectonic extrusion towards a distributary of subordinate faults that branch outward towards the Aleution subduction zone (the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream; see Redfield et al., 2007). Paleomagnetic data from the LOFZ region are consistent with small block rotation but preclude statistically-significant latitudinal transport. Limited field data from the southernmost LOFZ suggest that high-angle normal and reverse faults dominate over oblique to strike-slip structures. Rather than the high-angle oblique 'slivering regime' of the southeasternmost DFS, the initiation of the LOFZ appears to occur across a 50 to 100 km wide zone of brittly-deformed granitic and gneissic rock characterized by bulk compression and vertical pathways of exhumation. In both cases, relative plate motions are consistent with the hypothetical style, and degree, of offset, leading

  12. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  13. Marine center is lightning rod in dispute over restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, L.

    1995-07-14

    A $47 million marine research and rehabilitation facility being built near Prince William Sound in south central Alaska is at the center of a debate about how to spend $900 million from Exxon to help the region recover from the 40 million liters of crude oil that gushed from the supertanker Exxon Valdez in 1989. On one side are scientists, who say that studying the region`s marine mammal, sea bird, and fish genetics is the only way to obtain the data needed to protect and preserve the sound`s ecosystem. Squaring off against them are fishing industry and environmental groups, which argue that the facility is an expensive scientific toy and that the money could be better spent protecting the region by acquiring land and making it off-limits to loggers and developers. This article describes the conflicting interests and ideas about the center.

  14. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  15. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  16. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE PAGES

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore » observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds

  17. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL

  18. Three-dimensional distribution of igneous rocks near the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska: constraints from regional-scale aeromagnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yaoguo; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Lang, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data helped us to understand the 3D distribution of plutonic rocks near the Pebble porphyry copper deposit in southwestern Alaska, USA. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that rocks in the Pebble district are more magnetic than rocks of comparable compositions in the Pike Creek–Stuyahok Hills volcano-plutonic complex. The reduced-to-pole transformation of the aeromagnetic data demonstrated that the older rocks in the Pebble district produce strong magnetic anomaly highs. The tilt derivative transformation highlighted northeast-trending lineaments attributed to Tertiary volcanic rocks. Multiscale edge detection delineated near-surface magnetic sources that are mostly outward dipping and coalesce at depth in the Pebble district. The total horizontal gradient of the 10-km upward-continued magnetic data showed an oval, deep magnetic contact along which porphyry deposits occur. Forward and inverse magnetic modeling showed that the magnetic rocks in the Pebble district extend to depths greater than 9 km. Magnetic inversion was constrained by a near-surface, 3D geologic model that is attributed with measured magnetic susceptibilities from various rock types in the region. The inversion results indicated that several near-surface magnetic sources with moderate susceptibilities converge with depth into magnetic bodies with higher susceptibilities. This deep magnetic source appeared to rise toward the surface in several areas. An isosurface value of 0.02 SI was used to depict the magnetic contact between outcropping granodiorite and nonmagnetic sedimentary host rocks. The contact was shown to be outward dipping. At depths around 5 km, nearly the entire model exceeded the isosurface value indicating the limits of nonmagnetic host material. The inversion results showed the presence of a relatively deep, northeast-trending magnetic low that parallels lineaments mapped by the tilt derivative. This deep low represents a strand of the Lake Clark fault.

  19. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  20. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...NMFS received an application from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a proposed marine seismic survey in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, between October and December 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to......

  1. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  2. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    . , Romanovsky, V. , Cable, W. and Kholodov, A. (2015) Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 through 2014. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (1), 12-41. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61002.

  3. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  4. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-01-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation. PMID:27556689

  5. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia–a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  6. A cloud classification scheme applied to the breakup region of marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh; Gautier, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the marine stratocumulus (MSc) segment of FIRE is to describe and explain the temporal and spatial variability in fractional cloud cover. The challenge from a theoretical standpoint is to correctly represent the mechanisms leading to the transitions between solid stratus, stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus. The development and testing of models accounting for fractional cloudiness require an observational data base that will come primarily from satellites. This, of course, is one of the missions of the ISCCP. There are a number of satellite cloud analysis programs that are being undertaken as part of FIRE. One that has already produced data from the FIRE MSc experiment is the spatial coherence method (COAKLEY and Baldwin, 1984). This method produces information on fractional cloud coverage and cloud heights. It may be possible, however, to extract more information on cloud structure from satellite data that might be of use in describing the transitions in the marine stratocumulus cloud deck. Potential applications are explored of a cloud analysis scheme relying on more detailed analysis of visible and infrared cloud radiance statistics. For this preliminary study, data is examined from three days during the 1987 FIRE MSc field work. These case studies provide a basis for comparison and evaluation of the technique.

  7. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cordelia H; Radford, Ben T; Possingham, Hugh P; Heyward, Andrew J; Stewart, Romola R; Watts, Matthew E; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W; Lowe, Ryan J; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-01-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation. PMID:27556689

  8. Geologic assessments and characterization of marine sand resources - Gulf of Mexico region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Cichon, Helena A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts geologic surveys and research in marine areas of the United States and its territories and possessions. An objective in some of the investigations is locating and evaluating marine sand and gravel resources and interpretation of the origins of the sand body deposits. Results from such studies over the past 30 years show that many extremely large deposits are located close to expanding metropolitan areas, which have a need for aggregate materials for construction, and near-developed coastal areas, where beach replenishment may be used to mitigate coastal erosion. The Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from the Florida Peninsula to the Mexico border is an enormous area, but little attention has been directed on sand and gravel resources. Based on limited surveys, the total sand and gravel resources for the entire Gulf of Mexico is estimated to be 269 billion cubic meters. However, the sand tends to be fine-grained and is often mixed with mud; gravel deposits, except for shell, are mostly nonexistent.

  9. Seascape analysis reveals regional gene flow patterns among populations of a marine planktonic diatom

    PubMed Central

    Godhe, Anna; Egardt, Jenny; Kleinhans, David; Sundqvist, Lisa; Hordoir, Robinson; Jonsson, Per R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the gene flow of the common marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi, in Scandinavian waters and tested the null hypothesis of panmixia. Sediment samples were collected from the Danish Straits, Kattegat and Skagerrak. Individual strains were established from germinated resting stages. A total of 350 individuals were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Conventional F-statistics showed significant differentiation between the samples. We therefore investigated whether the genetic structure could be explained using genetic models based on isolation by distance (IBD) or by oceanographic connectivity. Patterns of oceanographic circulation are seasonally dependent and therefore we estimated how well local oceanographic connectivity explains gene flow month by month. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and geographical distance. Instead, the genetic structure of this dominant marine primary producer is best explained by local oceanographic connectivity promoting gene flow in a primarily south to north direction throughout the year. Oceanographic data were consistent with the significant FST values between several pairs of samples. Because even a small amount of genetic exchange prevents the accumulation of genetic differences in F-statistics, we hypothesize that local retention at each sample site, possibly as resting stages, is an important component in explaining the observed genetic structure. PMID:24174105

  10. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cordelia H; Radford, Ben T; Possingham, Hugh P; Heyward, Andrew J; Stewart, Romola R; Watts, Matthew E; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W; Lowe, Ryan J; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-24

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  11. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  12. Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Catherine M.; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G.; Cucknell, Anna-C.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C.; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management. PMID:24586985

  13. Oil-source rock correlation using carbon isotope data and biological marker compounds, Cook Inlet-Alaska Peninsula, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B. ); Anders, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Rock and oil samples from the Cook Inlet-Alaska Peninsula area were analyzed to determine the source of the commercial hydrocarbons produced in the Cook Inlet basin from lower Tertiary nonmarine sandstone reservoirs. Rock-Eval (hydrogen index) analysis and organic carbon content were used to identify the most favorable rock samples for solvent extraction and carbon isotope, gas-chromatographic (GC), and gas-chromatrographic/mass-spectrometric (GCMS) analyses. On the basis of organic-matter richness, five nonmarine Tertiary coal and shale samples and 12 marine Mesozoic (Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic) shale samples were selected. A total of 28 oil and condensate samples from producing wells, oil-stem tests, field separators, and seeps were used for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation. On the basis of biomarker and carbon isotope data, four of the shallower oils and condensates are from nonmarine source rocks, and 24 of the deeper oils are sourced from marine shales. Geochemical and regional geologic considerations indicate the following conclusions. The upper Tertiary nonmarine oils and condensates associated with commercial microbial gas accumulations are geochemically similar to the immature organic matter in the Tertiary nonmarine rocks. In the upper Cook Inlet, marine oils in lower Tertiary nonmarine reservoirs originated from Middle Jurassic rocks that matured during the Pliocene to Holocene; in the lower Cook Inlet-Alaska Peninsula area, oils migrated from both Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic source rocks during the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Although three petroleum systems are identified, this study on the petroleum potential in a convergent-margin setting indicates that only one of these three systems was responsible for the 1.2 billion bbl of recoverable oil in the lower Tertiary nonmarine reservoirs.

  14. A Regional Analysis of Cloudy Mean Spherical Albedo over the Marine Stratocumulus Region and the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginger, Kathryn M.

    1993-01-01

    Since clouds are the largest variable in Earth's radiation budget, it is critical to determine both the spatial and temporal characteristics of their radiative properties. This study examines the relationships between cloud properties and cloud fraction in order to supplement grid scale parameterizations. The satellite data used in this study is from three hourly ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) and monthly ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) data on a 2.50 x 2.50 latitude-longitude grid. Mean cloud spherical albedo, the mean optical depth distribution and cloud fraction are examined and compared off the coast of California and the mid-tropical Atlantic for July 1987 and 1988. Individual grid boxes and spatial averages over several grid boxes are correlated to Coakleys (1991) theory of reflection for uniform and broken layered cloud and to Kedem, et al.(1990) findings that rainfall volume and fractional area of rain in convective systems is linear. Kedem's hypothesis can be expressed in terms of cloud properties. That is, the total volume of liquid in a box is a linear function of cloud fraction. Results for the marine stratocumulus regime indicate that albedo is often invariant for cloud fractions of 20% to 80%. Coakley's satellite model of small and large clouds with cores (1 km) and edges (100 in) is consistent with this observation. The cores maintain high liquid water concentrations and large droplets while the edges contain low liquid water concentrations and small droplets. Large clouds are just a collection of cores. The mean optical depth (TAU) distributions support the above observation with TAU values of 3.55 to 9.38 favored across all cloud fractions. From these results, a method based upon Kedem, et al. theory is proposed to separate the cloud fraction and liquid water path (LWP) calculations in a general circulation model (GCM). In terms of spatial averaging, a linear relationship between albedo and cloud fraction is

  15. 76 FR 27308 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... vehicle and missile launch operations at the KLC, were issued on March 22, 2011 (76 FR 16311, March 23... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... Kodiak Launch Complex (KLC) in Kodiak, Alaska. DATES: Effective from April 30, 2011, through April...

  16. Call types of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca) in western Alaska: Using vocal dialects to assess population structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Deborah Lynn

    Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.

  17. Assessing the main threats to marine ecosystem components of the Adriatic - Ionian Region for the implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems and the related benefits they provide for humans are threatened by increasing pressures and competing usages. To address these issues, in the last decade, several EU legislations have been formulated to guarantee and promote sustainable use of the sea (e.g. Common Fishery Policy, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Maritime Spatial Planning). As a first step to implement cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Adriatic - Ionian Seas, a review of the main anthropogenic pressures due to maritime activities involving the Adriatic - Ionian Region (AIR) as well as of the most relevant environmental components has been carried out. The main objective of the analysis is to better identify the spatial distribution of human uses of the sea and of the key environmental components and the ecosystem services provided. The analysis of the existing conditions includes a description of the human activities per economic sector, considering type, location, dimension and magnitude of the activity in the AIR and the spatial extent of the main environmental and ecological values present in the AIR. The environmental status has been characterized according to the descriptors proposed by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD Directive 2008/56/EC) and the most sensitive ecosystem components in the AIR have been pointed out. A qualitative analysis of the relationships between good environmental status descriptors sensu MSFD and ecosystem services in the AIR has been carried out to provide useful information for the implementation of MSP. Cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning is particularly needed in a semi-enclosed basin such as the Adriatic Sea, hosting very diverse human activities, ranging from fishery to tourism, sand extraction, commercial and passenger transport, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, which may partially overlap and severely threaten ecosystem functioning and the associated services.

  18. Mariner 9 observations of the surface of Mars in the north polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Malin, M. C.; Murray, B. C.; Cutts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The recession rate of the north polar cap, as monitored by Mariner 9, was not significantly different than has been observed from earth in the past. Thus, the dynamic planet-wide dust storm does not seem to have had a noticeable effect on the thickeness of the CO2 deposit which developed during the standard mission. The dominant role of local topography in controlling the configuration of the retreating cap is confirmed. At narrow-angle resolution the retreating frost has high-lighted topographic detail that may represent Martian polar eolian deposits. At wide angle resolution the topography of the smooth plains, rugged etch pitted terrain, and complex central polar deposits is emphasized by the frost.

  19. Random error analysis of marine xCO2 measurements in a coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cueva, Alejandro; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and identifying measurement error is an ongoing challenge for carbon cycle science to constrain measurable uncertainty related to the sources and sinks of CO2. One source of uncertainty in measurements is derived from random errors (ε); thus, it is important to quantify their magnitude and their relationship to environmental variability in order to constrain local-to-global carbon budgets. We applied a paired-observation method to determine ε associated with marine xCO2 in a coastal upwelling zone of an eastern boundary current. Continuous data (3-h resolution) from a mooring platform during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons was analyzed off of northern Baja California in the California Current. To test the rigor of the algorithm to calculate ε we propose a method for determining daily mean time series values that may be affected by ε. To do this we used either two or three variables in the function, but no significant differences for ε mean values were found due to the large variability in ε (-0.088 ± 27 ppm for two variables and -0.057 ± 28 ppm for three variables). Mean ε values were centered on zero, with low values of ε more frequent than greater values, and follow a double exponential distribution. Random error variability increased with higher magnitudes of xCO2, and in general, ε variability increased in relation to upwelling conditions (up to ∼9% of measurements). Increased ε during upwelling suggests the importance of meso-scale processes on ε variability and could have a large influence seasonal to annual CO2 estimates. This approach could be extended and modified to other marine carbonate system variables as part of data quality assurance/quality control and to quantify uncertainty (due to ε) from a wide variety of continuous oceanographic monitoring platforms.

  20. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1° x 1°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6m. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4º by 5º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between clean marine aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses were carried out over 15 regions selected to be representative of different areas of the global ocean for the time period from June 2006 to April 2011. We show that for very low (less than 4 m s-1) and very high (more than 12 m s-1) wind speed conditions the mean CALIPSO-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) has little dependency on the surface wind speed. For an intermediate (between 4 and 12 m s-1) marine AOD was linearly correlated with the surface wind speed values, with a slope of 0.0062 s m-1. Results of our study suggest that considerable improvements to both optical properties of marine aerosols and their production mechanisms can be

  1. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  2. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  3. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  4. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  5. RECOSCIX-WIO: Providing Scientific Information to Marine Scientists in the Western Indian Ocean Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.; Pissierssens, P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes RECOSCIX-WIO (Regional Cooperation in Scientific Information Exchange in the Western Indian Ocean Region). Details are given on the project's history, operational structure, and communication facilities, as well as services and products including query handling and document delivery. Future plans are also discussed, including CD-ROMs and…

  6. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  7. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  8. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s.

  9. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, P.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (,5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasmagondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in nai{dotless}??ve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virusto otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak,Alaska, USA, since the 1990s. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2011.

  10. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (<5% difference from ASD shortwave broadband data), but low biases in MODIS albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This

  11. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  12. 75 FR 1595 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Access System for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska. Potential eligible applicants are notified of... sport fishery for Pacific halibut in waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission Regulatory...

  13. Alaska High School Students Integrate Forest Ecology, Glacial Landscape Dynamics, and Human Maritime History in a Field Mapping Course at Cape Decision Lighthouse, Kuiu Island, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Carstensen, R.; Domke, L.; Donohoe, S.; Clark, A.; Cordero, D.; Otsea, C.; Hakala, M.; Parks, R.; Lanwermeyer, S.; Discover Design Research (Ddr)

    2010-12-01

    Alaskan 10th and 11th graders earned college credit at Cape Decision Lighthouse as part of a 12-day, summer field research experience. Students and faculty flew to the southern tip of Kuiu Island located 388 km south of Juneau. Kuiu is the largest uninhabited island in southeastern Alaska. This field-based, introduction-to-research course was designed to engage students in the sciences and give them skills in technology, engineering, and mathematics. Two faculty, a forest naturalist and a geologist, introduced the students to the use of hand held GPS receivers, GIS map making, field note-taking and documentary photography, increment borer use, and soil studies techniques. Daily surveys across the region, provided onsite opportunities for the faculty to introduce the high schoolers to the many dimensions of forest ecology and plant succession. Students collected tree cores using increment borers to determine “release dates” providing clues to past wind disturbance. They discovered the influence of landscape change on the forest by digging soil pits and through guided interpretation of bedrock outcrops. The students learned about glacially influenced hydrology in forested wetlands during peat bog hikes. They developed an eye for geomorphic features along coastal traverses, which helped them to understand the influences of uplift through faulting and isostatic rebound in this tectonically active and once glaciated area. They surveyed forest patches to distinguish between regions of declining yellow-cedar from wind-disturbed spruce forests. The students encountered large volumes of primarily plastic marine debris, now stratified by density and wave energy, throughout the southern Kuiu intertidal zone. They traced pre-European Alaska Native subsistence use of the area, 19th and 20th century Alaska Territorial Maritime history, and learned about the 21st century radio tracking of over 10,000 commercial vessels by the Marine Exchange of Alaska from its many stations

  14. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U. S. Geological survey during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, J.P.; Hamilton, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The reports presented in this book begin with an article on the advance of Hubbard Glacier and its damming of Russell Fiord in southern Alaska followed by 40 short papers related to the five regional subdivision of Alaska and to areas offshore on the Alaska continental shelf. These papers provide a representative sample of current U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research in Alaska. Two bibliographies cover reports about Alaska in USGS publications released in 1987 and reports about Alaska by USGS authors in outside publications in 1987.

  15. 76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA747 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public Workshops AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. C-N-P interactions control climate driven changes in regional patterns of C storage on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rocha, Adrian; Rastetter, Edward; Shaver, Gaius; Mishra, U.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    As climate warms, changes in the carbon (C) balance of arctic tundra will play an important role in the global C balance. The C balance of tundra is tightly coupled to the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles because soil organic matter is the principal source of plant-available nutrients and determines the spatial variation of vegetation biomass across the North Slope of Alaska. Warming will accelerate these nutrient cycles, which should stimulate plant growth.

  17. Manual for the Training of United States Fisheries Observer Corps Atlantic Region. Marine Bulletin 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merdinyan, Mark E.; Mortimer, Christine D.

    This manual has been produced for use in a four-week training program developed by University of Rhode Island fisheries educators for the training of United States citizens in the duties and responsibilities of observers placed on foreign fishing vessels operating in the Fisheries Conservation Zone in the Atlantic Region. The program combines…

  18. Curriculum Digest for the Training of United States Fisheries Observer Corps Atlantic Region. Marine Bulletin 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merdinyan, Mark E.; Mortimer, Christine D.

    This digest is intended to be used in conjunction with the text Manual for the Training of United States Fisheries Observers - Atlantic Region. The digest contains five elements; an organization of the training program into sections that allow cumulative learning experience; provides a chronology of these sections to provide optimum coverage and…

  19. Where were Arctic Alaska and Beringia during the Cretaceous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawver, L. A.; Gahagan, L. M.; Norton, I. O.

    2010-12-01

    Tectonically, the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean is in many ways, the least known in the global system. Even though Cretaceous biomes for northern Alaska and Beringia appear to have been mild, major plate motions indicate that this region was not only at high latitudes at the start of the Cretaceous but they then moved northward. They reached their northernmost position during the Campanian into the Maastrictian before moving southward during the latest Maastrictian until the Late Eocene (~40 Ma) when southward motion slowed but continued. Aerogeophysical data collected by the Naval Research Lab in the 1990s did not find easily correlateable magnetic anomalies in the Canada Basin as hoped but do confirm the suggestion of a multi-stage opening that finished prior to the beginning of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron or before 120 Ma (Aptian). At the beginning of the Cretaceous, Arctic Alaska was influenced by a marine climate to the west since it was oriented nearly north-south, with Arctic Canada to the east. As Arctic Alaska with the Chukotka block first translated westward, Beringia developed with open seas both to the east and west. The combined terranes entered the final phase of rotational opening, estimated to have been between Hauterivian to Aptian time (135 Ma to 120 Ma), ending in a more east to west orientation with the fully-open Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean to the north and a collection of accreting terranes to the south. Beringia began the Cretaceous straddling 60 N and moved northward to 85 N by ~82 Ma before beginning a slow drift southward.

  20. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background information on faults in the San Francisco Bay region was sought. Much of the structural information presented here comes from experiments of a style unlikely to be conducted by the USGS in the near future. Together, the chapters in this volume provide a structural framework for a major part of a complex strike-slip fault system.

  1. Conceptual ecological models to support detection of ecological change on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Beever, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Unified Ecoregions of Alaska. Ecoregional models were then developed to illustrate resources and processes that operate at spatial scales larger than individual refuges within each ecoregion. Conceptual models also were developed for adjacent marine areas, designated as the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Beaufort-Chukchi Sea Marine Ecoregions. Although many more conceptual models will be required to support development of a regional monitoring program, these definitions of ecoregions and associated conceptual models are an important foundation.

  2. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2011-02-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements was nearly 72%. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. Water column depth was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color NPP models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters, thus using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a to

  3. Reactive Halogen Species in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Comparision of the Mauretanian and the Peruvian upwelling regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, Johannes; Tschritter, Jens; Pöhler, Denis; Großmann, Katja; Horbanski, Martin; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine oxide (BrO) or iodine oxide (IO) play a major role in the chemistry of ozone in both, the troposphere, and the stratosphere and possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In order to estimate the amount of RHS release from marine sources DOAS measurements in three different upwelling regions (Mauritanian, African equatorial and Peruvian) as well as long-term-observations at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) were performed within the SOPRAN Project (BMBF Förderkennzeichen 03F0611F). In 2010 the HaloCaVe campaign with a set of DOAS instruments on the CVAO and RV Poseidon allowed for an intercomparision of Long-Path-DOAS (LP), Multi-Axis-DOAS (MAX) and Cavity-Enhanced-DOAS (CE) measurements on shore as well as for extending these observations to a larger area with the simultaneous ship-borne MAX-DOAS measurements during the DRIVE campaign from Gran Canaria to Cape Verde and back along the mauretanian coast. A re-evaluation of the entire data set is presented. LP- and MAX-DOAS observations show significant BrO concentrations of several ppt with strong variations from day to day and a diurnal cycle with a maximum at sunrise and sunset and a minimum during noon. In opposite to previous measurements, IO was below the detection limit of 0.5 ppt for the LP-DOAS and CE-DOAS instrument. From the ship (DRIVE campaign) locally restricted BrO hotspots with mixing ratios of up to 10ppt were observed in the Mauritanian costal upwelling. These findings allow new conclusions on the relevance of halogens on this marine environment which will be presented. Within the SOPRAN cruise M91 on RV Meteor the upwelling region along the coast of Peru has been investigated in December 2012. First results from MAX-DOAS and CE-DOAS measurements will be presented and compared to those from the Atlantic. Both instruments measured NO2, IO and glyoxal mixing ratios, the MAX-DOAS additionally BrO and formaldehyde. We observed

  4. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  5. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  6. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  7. A native corporation evaluates potential of Alaska`s Kandik area

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, D.M.

    1997-11-17

    Alaska`s regional Native corporations control large tracts of land with significant mineral and hydrocarbon potential. One of these 12 corporations, Doyon Ltd., has extensive holdings with the potential for large oil and gas accumulations. The most promising is the Kandik region of east-central Alaska. Recent compilations and research involving the organic geochemistry, stratigraphy, and timing of structural deformation in the Kandik area have resulted in much more optimistic appraisals of the oil potential. These studies indicate that known oil-prone source units may have generated 50--100 billion bbl of oil. Some of these data have recently been made available to the public through the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. The paper discusses the exploration history, stratigraphy, geologic structure, hydrocarbon potential, and prospective areas.

  8. 75 FR 10463 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU87 Marine Mammals; File No. 15126 AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NMFS National Marine Mammal... conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must...

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  10. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  11. Authentic Alaska: Voices of Its Native Writers. American Indian Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Susan B., Ed.; Creed, John, Ed.

    This book compiles the best selections from the Chukchi News and Information Service, a University of Alaska project that for the past decade, has published the writings of Native college students from rural and remote regions of Alaska. The writers are primarily nontraditional older students who are Inupiaq, Yup'ik, or Siberian Yup'ik Eskimos or…

  12. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kleisner, Kristin M; Fogarty, Michael J; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A; Lucey, Sean M; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J; Pinsky, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    conjunction with expansion or contraction of thermal habitat acts to compress or stretch marine species assemblages, which may respectively amplify or dilute species interactions to an extent that is rarely considered. Overall, regional differences in climate change effects on the movement and extent of species assemblages hold important implications for management, mitigation, and adaptation on the U.S. Northeast Shelf.

  13. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kleisner, Kristin M; Fogarty, Michael J; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A; Lucey, Sean M; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J; Pinsky, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    conjunction with expansion or contraction of thermal habitat acts to compress or stretch marine species assemblages, which may respectively amplify or dilute species interactions to an extent that is rarely considered. Overall, regional differences in climate change effects on the movement and extent of species assemblages hold important implications for management, mitigation, and adaptation on the U.S. Northeast Shelf. PMID:26901435

  14. The Effects of Sub-Regional Climate Velocity on the Distribution and Spatial Extent of Marine Species Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Kleisner, Kristin M.; Fogarty, Michael J.; McGee, Sally; Barnett, Analie; Fratantoni, Paula; Greene, Jennifer; Hare, Jonathan A.; Lucey, Sean M.; McGuire, Christopher; Odell, Jay; Saba, Vincent S.; Smith, Laurel; Weaver, Katherine J.; Pinsky, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    conjunction with expansion or contraction of thermal habitat acts to compress or stretch marine species assemblages, which may respectively amplify or dilute species interactions to an extent that is rarely considered. Overall, regional differences in climate change effects on the movement and extent of species assemblages hold important implications for management, mitigation, and adaptation on the U.S. Northeast Shelf. PMID:26901435

  15. Spatial distribution of thermokarst terrain in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    In landscapes underlain by ice-rich permafrost, the development of thermokarst landforms can have drastic impacts on ecosystem processes and human infrastructure. Here we describe the distribution of thermokarst landforms in the continuous permafrost zone of Arctic Alaska, analyze linkages to the underlying surficial geology, and discuss the vulnerability of different types of landscapes to future thaw. We identified nine major thermokarst landforms and then mapped their distributions in twelve representative study areas totaling 300-km2. These study areas differ in their geologic history, permafrost-ice content, and ground thermal regime. Results show that 63% of the entire study area is occupied by thermokarst landforms and that the distribution of thermokarst landforms and overall landscape complexity varies markedly with surficial geology. Areas underlain by ice-rich marine silt are the most affected by thermokarst (97% of total area), whereas areas underlain by glacial drift are least affected (14%). Drained thermokarst-lake basins are the most widespread thermokarst landforms, covering 33% of the entire study region, with greater prevalence in areas of marine silt (48% coverage), marine sand (47%), and aeolian silt (34%). Thermokarst-lakes are the second most common thermokarst landform, covering 16% of the study region, with highest coverage in areas underlain by marine silt (39% coverage). Thermokarst troughs and pits cover 7% of the study region and are the third most prevalent thermokarst landform. They are most common in areas underlain by deltaic sands and gravels (18% coverage) and marine sand (12%). Alas valleys are widespread in areas of aeolian silt (14%) located in gradually sloping uplands. Areas of marine silt have been particularly vulnerable to thaw in the past because they are ice-rich and have low-gradient topography facilitating the repeated development of thermokarst-lakes. In the future, ice-rich aeolian, upland terrain (yedoma) will be

  16. Spatial distribution of thermokarst terrain in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquharson, Louise; Mann, Dan H; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes underlain by ice-rich permafrost, the development of thermokarst landforms can have drastic impacts on ecosystem processes and human infrastructure. Here we describe the distribution of thermokarst landforms in the continuous permafrost zone of Arctic Alaska, analyze linkages to the underlying surficial geology, and discuss the vulnerability of different types of landscapes to future thaw. We identified nine major thermokarst landforms and then mapped their distributions in twelve representative study areas totaling 300-km2. These study areas differ in their geologic history, permafrost-ice content, and ground thermal regime. Results show that 63% of the entire study area is occupied by thermokarst landforms and that the distribution of thermokarst landforms and overall landscape complexity varies markedly with surficial geology. Areas underlain by ice-rich marine silt are the most affected by thermokarst (97% of total area), whereas areas underlain by glacial drift are least affected (14%). Drained thermokarst-lake basins are the most widespread thermokarst landforms, covering 33% of the entire study region, with greater prevalence in areas of marine silt (48% coverage), marine sand (47%), and aeolian silt (34%). Thermokarst-lakes are the second most common thermokarst landform, covering 16% of the study region, with highest coverage in areas underlain by marine silt (39% coverage). Thermokarst troughs and pits cover 7% of the study region and are the third most prevalent thermokarst landform. They are most common in areas underlain by deltaic sands and gravels (18% coverage) and marine sand (12%). Alas valleys are widespread in areas of aeolian silt (14%) located in gradually sloping uplands. Areas of marine silt have been particularly vulnerable to thaw in the past because they are ice-rich and have low-gradient topography facilitating the repeated development of thermokarst-lakes. In the future, ice-rich aeolian, upland terrain (yedoma) will be

  17. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  18. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...NMFS has received an application from the University of Alaska Geophysics Institute (UAGI) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during September- October 2011. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to......

  19. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Q.; Lee Y.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02

    This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations

  20. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02

    In the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model, we have coupled the Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme with interactive aerosols so that full two-way aerosol-cloud interactions are included in simulations. We have used this new WRF-Chem functionality in a study focused on assessing predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus clouds, and their interactions over the Southeast Pacific using measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals. This study also serves as a detailed analysis of our WRF-Chem simulations contributed to the VOCALS model Assessment (VOCA) project. The WRF-Chem 31-day (October 15-November 16, 2008) simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations assumed by the default in Morrison microphysics scheme with no interactive aerosols. The well-predicted aerosol properties such as number, mass composition, and optical depth lead to significant improvements in many features of the predicted stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness, and cloud macrostructure such as cloud depth and cloud base height. These improvements in addition to the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, in turn, feed back to the prediction of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengths temperature and humidity gradients within capping inversion layer and lowers the MBL depth by 150 m from that of the MET simulation. Mean top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated

  1. Slide-induced waves, seiching and ground fracturing caused by the earthquake of March 27, 1964 at Kenai Lake, Alaska: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloch, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake dislodged slides from nine deltas in Kenai Lake, south-central Alaska. Sliding removed protruding parts of deltas-often the youngest parts-and steepened delta fronts, increasing the chances of further sliding. Fathograms show that debris from large slides spread widely over the lake floor, some reaching the toe of the opposite shore; at one place debris traveled 5,000 feet over the horizontal lake floor. Slides generated two kinds of local waves: a backfill and far-shore wave. Backfill waves were formed by water that rushed toward the delta to fill the void left by the sinking slide mass, overtopped the slide scrap, and came ashore over the delta. Some backfill waves had runup heights of 30 feet and ran inland more than 300 feet, uprooting and breaking off large trees. Far-shore waves hit the shore opposite the slides. They were formed by slide debris that crossed the lake floor and forced water ahead of it, which then ran up the opposite slope, burst above the lake surface, and struck the shore. One far-shore wave had a runup height of 72 feet. Kenai Lake was tilted and seiched; a power spectrum analysis of a limnogram shows a wave having the period of the calculated uninodal seiche (36 minutes) and several shorter period waves. In constricted and shallow reaches, waves caused by seiching had 20- and 30-foot runup heights. Deep lateral spreading of sediments toward delta margins displaced deeply driven railroad-bridge piles, and set up stress fields in the surface sediments which resulted in the formation of many shear and some tension fractures on the surface of two deltas.

  2. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  3. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  4. Soils, vegetation, and woody debris data from the 2001 Survey Line fire and a comparable unburned site, Tanana Flats region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Holingsworth, Teresa N.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the collection and processing methodologies for samples obtained at two sites within Interior Alaska: (1) a location within the 2001 Survey Line burn, and (2) an unburned location, selected as a control. In 2002 and 2004 U.S. Geological Survey investigators measured soil properties including, but not limited to, bulk density, volumetric water content, carbon content, and nitrogen content from samples obtained from these sites. Stand properties, such as tree density, the amount of woody debris, and understory vegetation, were also measured and are presented in this report.

  5. Unified Ecoregions of Alaska: 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowacki, Gregory J.; Spencer, Page; Fleming, Michael; Brock, Terry; Jorgenson, Torre

    2003-01-01

    Major ecosystems have been mapped and described for the State of Alaska and nearby areas. Ecoregion units are based on newly available datasets and field experience of ecologists, biologists, geologists and regional experts. Recently derived datasets for Alaska included climate parameters, vegetation, surficial geology and topography. Additional datasets incorporated in the mapping process were lithology, soils, permafrost, hydrography, fire regime and glaciation. Thirty two units are mapped using a combination of the approaches of Bailey (hierarchial), and Omernick (integrated). The ecoregions are grouped into two higher levels using a 'tri-archy' based on climate parameters, vegetation response and disturbance processes. The ecoregions are described with text, photos and tables on the published map.

  6. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  7. Stable Isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) Analysis and Satellite Telemetry Depict the Complexity of Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Diets in Southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, A.; Watts, D. E.; Cohn, B. R.; Spencer, P.; Mangipane, B.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Alaska, gray wolves (Canis lupus) are a top predator of large ungulates. While they primarily rely on ungulates such as moose (Alces alces) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) as food, they are opportunistic and use alternative resources. The variation and supplemental protein sources in wolf diet has not been studied extensively on live animals currently using the landscape. With large seasonal influxes of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) into Alaska, terrestrial carnivore use of marine species is of particular interest. Using stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) analysis of wolf guard hair and blood, this study aims to determine the proportion of marine derived nutrients (MDN) in the diet of wolf packs within and surrounding Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges in Southwest Alaska. Satellite telemetry from the animals sampled facilitates quantification of landscape use patterns in correspondence with isotopic traits. Wolf pack territories within and surrounding the Lake Clark region appear to vary in spatial extent and in availability of MDN, such as salmon. Initial analysis shows that two packs with smaller home ranges, centrally located around areas with greater salmon availability, have enriched δ15N values compared to packs that have larger home ranges not centralized around salmon spawning waters. This pattern of isotopic enrichment is found in red blood cells, blood serum and hair, representing diets over different time scales. The enrichment in both blood and hair indicates a sustained use of MDN over the previous six to nine months. In the Lake Clark region, simple mixing model estimates suggest that up to 30% of wolf pack diets may be from marine sources. In contrast, packs with larger home ranges and less access to salmon have stable isotope values representative of a terrestrial diet.

  8. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  9. Glacier Change and Biologic Succession: a new Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) Science Camp Module for Grades 8-12 in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Drake, J.; Good, C.; Fatland, R.; Hakala, M.; Woodford, R.; Donohoe, R.; Brenner, R.; Moriarty, T.

    2008-12-01

    During the summer of 2008, university faculty and instructors from southeast Alaska joined the University Alaska Fairbanks(UAF)Alaska Summer Research Academy(ASRA)to initiate a 12-day module on glacier change and biologic succession in Glacier Bay National Park. Nine students from Alaska, Colorado, Massachusetts, and Texas, made field observations and collected data while learning about tidewater glacier dynamics, plant succession, post-glacial uplift, and habitat use of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates in this dynamic landscape that was covered by 6,000 km2 of ice just 250 years ago. ASRA students located their study sites using GPS and created maps in GIS and GOOGLE Earth. They deployed salinometers and temperature sensors to collect vertical profiles of seawater characteristics up-bay near active tidewater glacier termini and down-bay in completely deglaciated coves. ASRA student data was then compared with data collected during the same time period by Juneau undergraduates working on the SEAMONSTER project in Mendenhall Lake. ASRA students traversed actively forming, up-bay recessional moraines devoid of vegetation, and the fully reforested Little Ice Age terminal moraine near Park Headquarters in the lower bay region. Students surveyed marine organisms living between supratidal and subtidal zones near glaciers and far from glaciers, and compared up-bay and down-bay communities. Students made observations and logged sightings of bird populations and terrestrial mammals in a linear traverse from the bay's northwestern most fjord near Mt. Fairweather for 120 km to the bay's entrance, south of Park Headquarters at Bartlett Cove. One student constructed an ROV and was able to deploy a video camera and capture changing silt concentrations in the water column as well as marine life on the fjord bottom. Students also observed exhumed Neoglacial spruce forests and visited outcrops of Silurian reef faunas, now fossilized in Alexander terrane

  10. [Residues and health risk assessment of sulfonamides in sediment and fish from typical marine aquaculture regions of Guangdong Province, China].

    PubMed

    He, Xiu-Ting; Wang, Qi; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Yong-Tao; Cheng, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of sulfonamides including sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidin (SM2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in sediments, muscle and liver tissues of 7 kinds of fish species collected from two marine aquaculture regions along the coast of Guangdong Provice were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a ultraviolet detector. Assessment of the health risks were conducted based on the values of maximum residue limits (MRL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results showed that sulfonamides were found in all the sediment samples. The concentrations (dry wet) ranged from 2.1 - 35.2 ng x g(-1), the detected frequency of the 3 sulfonamide antibiotics ranked as SDZ (85.7%) > SM2 (71.4%) > SMX (28.6%). The detection rate of sulfonamides in samples from Daya Bay was higher than that from Hailing Island. Higher concentrations were detected in liver tissues rather than in muscle tissues (P < 0.05). The residues of SDZ, SM2 and SMX in fish muscle tissues (wet weight) ranged from 11.6-37.9, 16.3-27.8 and 4.9-20.0 ng x g(-1), respectively. The calculated daily intakes of sulfonamides in the present study ranged from 3.37-36.72 ng x kg(-1), which accounted for 0.007% -0.073% of the ADI (50 microg x kg(-1)). Health risks to human body were negligible as the estimated intake was less than 1% ADI, therefore the security of dietary was high.

  11. Marine geology and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf region, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Michael A.; Normark, William R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, Andrew J.; Sliter, Ray

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data have been com- bined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington Graben, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, various faults below the western part of the shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro Basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone changes mark- edly southeastward across the San Pedro Shelf and slope. Under the northern part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, but the main strand dips west and is probably an oblique-slip fault. Under the slope, this fault zone con- sists of several fault strands having normal separation, most of which dip moderately east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone locally is a low-angle fault that dips east, but elsewhere near this knoll the fault appears to dip steeply. Fresh sea-floor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indi- cate recent fault movement. The observed regional structural variation along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone is explained as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master strike-slip fault at depth. The shallow summit and possible wavecut terraces on Lasuen knoll indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea-level lowstand. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates the presence of a large magnetic body under the western part of the San Pedro Shelf and upper slope. This is interpreted to be a thick body of basalt of Miocene(?) age. Reflective sedimentary rocks overlying the basalt are tightly folded, whereas folds in sedimentary rocks east of the basalt have longer wavelengths. This difference might mean that the basalt was more competent during folding than the encasing sedimentary rocks. West of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these

  12. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  13. RNA-seq reveals regional differences in transcriptome response to heat stress in the marine snail Chlorostoma funebralis.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Lani U; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the role of gene expression in adaptation of marine ectotherms to different temperatures, we examined the transcriptome-wide thermal stress response in geographically separated populations of the intertidal snail Chlorostoma funebralis. Snails from two southern (heat tolerant) and two northern (heat sensitive) populations were acclimated to a common thermal environment, exposed to an environmentally relevant thermal stress and analysed using RNA-seq. Pooling across all populations revealed 306 genes with differential expression between control and heat-stressed samples, including 163 significantly upregulated and 143 significantly downregulated genes. When considered separately, regional differences in response were widely apparent. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) were upregulated in both regions, but the magnitude of response was significantly greater in northern populations for most Hsp70s, while the southern populations showed greater upregulation for approximately half of the Hsp40s. Of 177 stress-responsive genes in northern populations, 55 responded to heat stress only in northern populations. Several molecular chaperones and antioxidant genes that were not differentially expressed in southern populations showed higher expression under control conditions compared with northern populations. This suggests that evolution of elevated expression of these genes under benign conditions preadapts the southern populations to frequent heat stress and contributes to their higher thermal tolerance. These results indicate that evolution has resulted in different transcriptome responses across populations, including upregulation of genes in response to stress and preadaptation of genes in anticipation of stress (based on evolutionary history of frequent heat exposure). The relative importance of the two mechanisms differs among gene families and among populations.

  14. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  15. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  16. Mortality and reproduction of female sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine mammal study 6-13. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    Ninety-six female sea otters were instrumeted with implanted radio-transmitters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989-1990. Females in eastern Prince William Sound exhibited a lower survival rate than those in western Prince William Sound. No differences were observed between rates of pupping or between rates of survival of dependent pups for sea otters in the two areas.

  17. Broad-band calibration of marine seismic sources used by R/V Polarstern for academic research in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, Monika; Boebel, Olaf; El Naggar, Saad; Jokat, Wilfried; Werner, Berthold

    2008-08-01

    Air guns and air-gun arrays of different volumes are used for scientific seismic surveys with R/V Polarstern in polar regions. To assess the potential risk of these research activities on marine mammal populations, knowledge of the sound pressure field of the seismic sources is essential. Therefore, a broad-band (0-80 kHz) calibration study was conducted at the Heggernes Acoustic Range, Norway. A GI (2.4 l), a G (8.5 l) and a Bolt gun (32.8 l) were deployed as single sources, 3 GI (7.4 l), 3 G (25.6 l) and 8 VLF™ Prakla-Seismos air guns (24.0 l) as arrays. Each configuration was fired along a line of 3-4 km length running between two hydrophone chains with receivers in 35, 100, 198 and 263 m depth. Peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, rms and sound exposure levels (SEL) were analysed as functions of range. They show the typical dipole-like directivity of marine seismic sources with amplitude cancellation close to the sea surface, higher amplitudes in greater depths, and sound pressure levels which continuously decrease with range. Levels recorded during the approach are lower than during the departure indicating a shadowing effect of Polarsterns's hull. Backcalculated zero-to-peak source levels range from 224-240 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. Spectral source levels are highest below 100 Hz and amount to 182-194 dB re 1 μPa Hz-1. They drop off continuously with range and frequency. At 1 kHz they are ~30 dB, at 80 kHz ~60 dB lower than the peak level. Above 1 kHz amplitude spectra are dominated by Polarstern's self-noise. From the rms and sound exposure levels of the deepest hydrophone radii for different thresholds are derived. For a 180 dB rms-level threshold radii maximally vary between 200 and 600 m, for a 186 dB SEL threshold between 50 and 300 m.

  18. Source and Seasonality Effects on Precipitation Isotope Values in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, H. L.; Welker, J. M.; Klein, E. S.; Rogers, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    A number of paleoisotope records from the Gulf of Alaska region attribute long-term shifts in δ18O and δ2H to changes in moisture source and air mass trajectory. However, the inability to fully quantify the modern relationship between proxy and climate has been problematic due to the paucity of modern precipitation isotopedata in this region. To provide these data, event-based sampling was used between 2005-2014 at Tideview sampling station in Anchorage, Alaska. Precipitation samples were analyzed for stable isotope ratios (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) and examined in context of climate variables including temperature, air mass source and trajectory, precipitation amount, and relative humidity. Local surface air temperature explains a relatively small (< 30%) proportion of isotope variability, suggesting that paleoisotope archives related to precipitation might not be useful for quantitative temperature reconstructions in this area. Instead, results from a Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model demonstrate that air mass source and trajectory has the greatest influence on the isotopic composition of precipitation at our site. Specifically, lower (higher) δ18O (d-excess) values are associated with Arctic sourced moisture from the north, while Pacific marine sourced moisture from the south is characterized by the reverse (higher δ18O, lower d-excess).These findings have important implications for local and regional paleoisotope reconstructions which are often interpreted in terms of moisture source and trajectory variations, and which currently rely on a sparse network of isotope measurement sites from across NW North America. Furthermore, these new data highlight the relative importance of regional atmospheric circulation patterns and climate indices (e.g. the North Pacific Index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) for determining the source, transport, and rain-out history of precipitating moisture in the Gulf of Alaska region.

  19. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  20. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  1. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  2. Evaluation of the aggressive potential of marine chloride and sulfate salts on mortars applied as renders in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador--Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eduardo A L; Campos, Vânia P; da Silva Filho, Luiz C P; Greven, Hélio A

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, growing interest has focused on determining the performance of materials and evaluating the service life of structures exposed to various environmental forces. In this context, the determination of the aggressive potential of marine salts on mortars used as external renders is critical. The present study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of marine salts relative to distance from the sea. This was done by monitoring the deposition rate of chlorides and sulfates in wet candle sensors, located at nine stations scattered around the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study also determined the effectiveness of water-soluble salts at penetrating three different types of mortars of varying cement content via deposition and diffusion. The methodology employed enabled an evaluation of the efficiency of the monitoring sensors' measurement of the aggressiveness potential of local marine aerosol, and determination of the comparative performance of the three mortars tested, from the standpoint of resistance to salt penetration. The type and amount of salts captured both in solution and in powder samples extracted from the mortars were determined by ion chromatography. The analysis of the various types of mortars tested indicated which types are more resistant to the aggressive potential of the region's marine aerosol and the distance from the shore where local buildings are liable to be most strongly affected.

  3. Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Doukas, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1993, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to episodes of eruptive activity or false alarms at nine volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. Additionally, as part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also responded to eruptions on the Kamchatka Peninsula, details of which are summarized in Miller and Kurianov (1993). In 1993, AVO maintained seismic instrumentation networks on four volcanoes of the Cook Inlet region--Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine--and two stations at Dutton Volcano near King Cove on the Alaska Peninsula. Other routine elements of AVO's volcano monitoring program in Alaska include periodic airborne measurement of volcanic SO2 and CO2 at Cook Inlet volcanoes (Doukas, 1995) and maintenance of a lightning detection system in Cook Inlet (Paskievitch and others, 1995).

  4. Stratigraphic Context of Old Crow Tephra, Holitna Lowland, Interior Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Lea, P.D.; Walter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A thick deposit of Old Crow tephra was discovered in a bluff exposure along the middle Holitna River near the Kulukbuk Hills (61??20???N latitude, 157??10???W longitude) in interior southwest Alaska. This locality is the southwesternmost-known deposit of Old Crow tephra in Alaska. Thickness and grain-size data from this site support a source volcano in the eastern Aleutian arc. Pleistocene stratigraphic sequences in the lowland are dominated by upward-fining eolian sand-sheet deposits and loess separated by organic silt. These deposits record at least two episodes of regional glaciation and an intervening nonglacial period (marine oxygen isotope stage 3, stage 5, or both). Old Crow tephra crops out near the top of the lower upward-fining eolian unit, indicating that the ash erupted near the end of an interval of periglacial eolian sedimentation. The sequence of eolian deposits that contain Old Crow tephra probably accumulated during the latter part of marine oxygen isotope stage 6, whereas the overlying eolian sequence formed during the last glaciation (stage 2). This stratigraphic position is consistent with other stratigraphic contexts for the tephra and with fission-track and thermoluminescence ages of ca. 140,000 ?? 10,000 yr B.P.

  5. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  6. Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Cold regions environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a regional study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the regional permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.

  7. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  8. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  9. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  10. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  11. Origin of the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Evidence from regional Pb and Sr isotope sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, R.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Young, L.E.; Slack, J.F.; Wandless, G.; Lyon, A.M.; Dillingham, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Pb and Sr isotope data were obtained on the shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Red Dog deposits (Qanaiyaq, Main, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq), other shale-hosted deposits near Red Dog, and Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and barite deposits in the western and central Brooks Range. The Red Dog deposits and other shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits near Red Dog are hosted in the Mississippian Kuna Formation, which is underlain by a sequence of marine-deltaic clastic rocks of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Endicott Group. Ag-Pb-Zn vein-breccias are found in the Endicott Group. Galena formed during the main mineralization stages in the Red Dog deposits and from the Anarraaq and Wulik deposits have overlapping Pb isotope compositions in the range 206Pb/204Pb = 18.364 to 18.428, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.553 to 15.621, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.083 to 38.323. Galena and sphalerite formed during the main ore-forming stages in the Red Dog deposits define a narrow field on standard uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotope diagrams. Lead in sulfides of the Red Dog district is less radiogenic (238U/204Pb: ?? = 9.51-9.77) than is indicated by the average crustal lead evolution model (?? = 9.74), a difference consistent with a long history of evolution at low ratios of ?? before the Carboniferous. The homogeneous regional isotopic reservoir of Pb may indicate large-scale transport and leaching of minerals with various ?? ratios and Th/Pb ratios. Younger and genetically unrelated fluids did not significantly disturb the isotopic compositions of galena and sphalerite after the main mineralization event in the Red Dog district. Some pyrite shows evidence of minor Pb remobilization. The overall lead isotope homogeneity in the shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits is consistent with three types of control: a homogeneous regional source, mixing of lead during leaching of a thick sedimentary section and fluid transport, or mixing at the site of deposition. Isotopic variability of the hydrothermal fluids, as represented by galena

  12. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  13. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  14. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  15. Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) social and economic studies program. Technical report Number 91. Effects of renewable resource harvest disruptions on socio-economic and socio-cultural systems: Wainwright, Alaska. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Luton, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Contents include: ethnographic baseline, Wainright, Alaska; social institutions; the cash economy; kinship; subsistence task groups; subsistence economy; sharing; land mammals; marine mammals - Part 1 and 2; birds; fish, invertebrates, plants, minerals; ethnographic summary and conclusions.

  16. Hydrographic control of the marine ecosystem in the South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Valerie; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Holm-Hansen, Osmund

    2010-04-01

    The South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region of the West Antarctic Peninsula is an important spawning and nursery ground of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and is an important source of krill to the Southern Ocean. Krill reproductive and recruitment success, hence supply of krill to predator populations locally and in downstream areas, are extremely variable on interannual and longer time scales. Interannual ecosystem variability in this region has long been recognized and thought related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but understanding of how has been limited by the hydrographic complexity of the region and lack of appropriate ocean-atmosphere interaction models. This study utilizes multidisciplinary data sets collected in the region from 1990 to 2004 by the U.S. Antarctic Living Marine Resources (AMLR) Program. We focus on hydrographic conditions associated with changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of salp- and copepod-dominated zooplankton assemblages during 1998 and 1999, years characterized respectively by a strong El Niño event and La Niña conditions. We provide detailed analyses of hydrographic, biological and ecological conditions during these dichotomous years in order to identify previously elusive oceanographic processes underlying ecosystem variability. We found that fluctuations between salp-dominated coastal zooplankton assemblages and copepod-dominated oceanic zooplankton assemblages result from the relative influence of Weddell Sea and oceanic waters and that these fluctuations are associated with latitudinal movement of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (sACCf). Latitudinal movements of the sACCf can be explained by meridional atmosphere teleconnections instigated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean by ENSO variability and are consistent with out-of-phase forcing in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. During El

  17. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  18. 77 FR 12505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620... the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  19. 77 FR 14698 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630... the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  20. 78 FR 11789 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630... the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 630 in the GOA. DATES: Effective...

  1. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  2. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Major Steller Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  3. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  4. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part 226 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT...

  5. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... 1168, 1176 (5th Cir. 1988). \\4\\ Order No. 1473 at p. 14 citing, Delegation Order No. 0204- 111, 49 FR... natural gas liquefaction and marine terminal facilities near Kenai, Alaska, (Kenai LNG Facility) \\1\\...

  6. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  7. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  8. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  9. Surveys of sea otters in the Gulf of Alaska in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeGange, A.R.; Douglas, D.C.; Monson, D.H.; Robbins, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) abundance and distribution in the Gulf of Alaska west of Prince William Sound were surveyed by helicopter in the spring of 1989 at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the following fall. Estimated population sizes did not significantly decline between spring and fall for areas with comparable survey data. No significant (p>0.05) shifts of sea otter distributions in heavily, lightly and unoiled areas were detected between spring and fall surveys.

  10. Integrated resource inventory for southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, T.; Carson-Henry, C.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Integrated Resource Inventory for Southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA) Project comprised an integrated set of activities related to the land use planning and resource management requirements of the participating agencies within the southcentral region of Alaska. One subproject involved generating a region-wide land cover inventory of use to all participating agencies. Toward this end, participants first obtained a broad overview of the entire region and identified reasonable expectations of a LANDSAT-based land cover inventory through evaluation of an earlier classification generated during the Alaska Water Level B Study. Classification of more recent LANDSAT data was then undertaken by INTRISCA participants. The latter classification produced a land cover data set that was more specifically related to individual agency needs, concurrently providing a comprehensive training experience for Alaska agency personnel. Other subprojects employed multi-level analysis techniques ranging from refinement of the region-wide classification and photointerpretation, to digital edge enhancement and integration of land cover data into a geographic information system (GIS).

  11. Investigating the Impact of Marine Ship Emissions on Regional Air Quality using OMI Satellite NO2 Observations and the CMAQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, A.; Canty, T. P.; He, H.; Vinciguerra, T.; Lamsal, L. N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Cohen, M.; Montgomery, L. N.; Dreessen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels (CMVs) emit significant amounts of NOx, an ozone precursor, which may contribute to negative health consequences for people living in areas near shipping lanes. In coastal US states, many metropolitan areas such as Baltimore and New York City are located near ports with CMVs. Many studies estimate that ships account for ~15-30% of the global anthropogenic NOx emissions. EPA developed emissions inventories are widely used by states to construct model scenarios for testing air quality attainment strategies. Currently, CMV emissions are generated by simply applying growth factors to aggregated emissions data from much earlier years. Satellite retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been successfully used to improve the veracity of marine emissions by incorporating observational data from the inventory year. In this study we use OMI NO2 observations and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model outputs to improve the EPA marine emission estimates for the Mid-Atlantic region. Back trajectories from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model are used to identify days with minimal continental influence on OMI tropospheric column NO2 over shipping lanes. We perform sensitivity analyses to quantify the impact of marine emissions on air quality and suggest strategies to better meet the EPA mandated ozone standard.

  12. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  13. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  14. Assessing net community production in a glaciated Alaska fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisdorph, S. C.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-09-01

    The impact of deglaciation in Glacier Bay (GLBA) has been observed to seasonally impact the biogeochemistry of this marine system. The influence from surrounding glaciers, particularly tidewater glaciers, has the potential to greatly impact the efficiency and structure of the marine food web within GLBA. To assess the magnitude, spatial and temporal variability of net community production (NCP) in a glaciated fjord, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), inorganic macronutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO) and particulate organic carbon (POC) between July 2011 and July 2012 in Glacier Bay, AK. Seasonally-averaged data were analyzed on a regional basis to account for distinct biogeochemical differences within the Bay due to spatial variation in rates of primary production and the influence of glacial-fed stratification, particularly in the northern regions. High NCP rates were observed across the Bay (~ 54 to ~ 81 mmol C m-2 d-1) between the summer and fall of 2011. However, between the fall and winter, as well as between the winter and spring of 2012, air-sea fluxes of CO2 and organic matter respiration made NCP rates negative across most of the Bay as inorganic carbon and macronutrient concentrations returned to pre-bloom levels. The highest carbon production occurred within the lower bay between the summer and fall of 2011 with ~ 1.3 × 1010 g C season-1. Bay-wide, there was carbon production of ~ 2.6 × 1010 g C season-1 between the summer and fall. Respiration and air-sea gas exchange were the dominant drivers of carbon biogeochemistry between the fall and winter of 2012. The substantial spatial and temporal variability in our NCP estimates largely reflect glacial influences within the Bay, as melt-water is depleted in macronutrients relative to marine waters entering from the Gulf of Alaska in the middle and lower parts of the Bay. Further glacial retreat will likely lead to additional modifications in the carbon biogeochemistry of GLBA with unknown

  15. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Paleoindians in beringia: evidence from arctic alaska.

    PubMed

    Kunz, M L; Reanier, R E

    1994-02-01

    Excavations at the Mesa site in arctic Alaska provide evidence for a Paleoindian occupation of Beringia, the region adjacent to the Bering Strait. Eleven carbon-14 dates on hearths associated with Paleoindian projectile points place humans at the site between 9,730 and 11,660 radiocarbon years before present (years B.P.). The presence of Paleoindians in Beringia at these times challenges the notion that Paleoindian cultures arose exclusively in mid-continental North America. The age span of Paleoindians at the Mesa site overlaps with dates from two other cultural complexes in interior Alaska. A hiatus in the record of human occupation occurs between 10,300 and 11,000 years B.P. Late Glacial climatic fluctuations may have made northern Alaska temporarily unfavorable for humans and spurred their southward dispersal. PMID:17747660

  17. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey has a long history of exploring marine geology in the Gulf of Alaska. As part of a cooperative program with other federal and state agencies, the USGS is investigating the relations between ocean-floor geology and benthic marine biohabitats. This bottom sediment map, compiled from published literature will help marine biologists develop an understanding of sea-floor geology in relation to various biological habitats. The pattern of sea-floor sedimentation and bottom morphology in the Gulf of Alaska reflects a complex interplay of regional tectonism, glacial advances and retreats, oceanic and tidal currents, waves, storms, eustatic change, and gravity-driven processes. This map, based on numerous cruises during the period of 1970-1996, shows distribution of bottom sediments in areas of study on the continental shelf. The samples were collected with piston, box, and gravity corers, and grab samplers. The interpretations of sediment distribution are the products of sediment size analyses combined with interpretations of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. The sea floor was separated into several areas as follows: Cook Inlet -- Hazards studies in this embayment emphasized sediment distribution, sediment dynamics, bedforms, shallow faults, and seafloor stability. Migrating mega-sandwaves, driven by strong tidal currents, influence seabed habitats and stability of the seafloor, especially near pipelines and drilling platforms. The coarseness of the bottom sediment reinforces the influence of the strong tidal currents on the seafloor habitats. Kodiak Shelf -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate the development of an accretionary wedge as the Pacific Plate underthrusts the Alaskan landmass. Seismic data across the accretionary wedge reveal anomalies indicative of fluid/gas vent sites in this segment of the continental margin. Geologic hazards research shows that movement along numerous shallow faults poses a risk to sea

  18. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  20. Geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, including parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Labay, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, L.B. Magoon, W.L. Adkinson, and R.M. Egbert published a major geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, which has served well as a compilation of existing information and a guide for future research and mapping. The map in this report updates Magoon and others (1976) and incorporates new and additional mapping and interpretation. This map is also a revision of areas of overlap with the geologic map completed for central Alaska (Wilson and others, 1998). Text from that compilation remains appropriate and is summarized here; many compromises have been made in strongly held beliefs to allow construction of this compilation. Yet our willingness to make interpretations and compromises does not allow resolution of all mapping conflicts. Nonetheless, we hope that geologists who have mapped in this region will recognize that, in incorporating their work, our regional correlations may have required some generalization or lumping of map units. Many sources were used to produce this geologic map and, in most cases, data from available maps were combined, without generalization, and new data were added where available. A preliminary version of this map was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1108. The main differences between the versions concern revised mapping of surfical deposits in the northern and eastern parts of the map area. Minor error corrections have been made also.

  1. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  2. Putting oxygen and temperature thresholds of marine animals in context of environmental change in coastal seas: a regional perspective for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of St. Lawrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Hannah; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed the literature in order to compile reported oxygen, temperature, salinity and depth preferences and thresholds of important marine species found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Scotian Shelf regions of the northwest North Atlantic. We determined species importance based on the existence of a commercial fishery, a threatened or at risk status, or by meeting the following criteria: bycatch, baitfish, invasive, vagrant, important for ecosystem energy transfer, and predators and prey of the above species. Using the dataset compiled for the 53 regional fishes and macroinvertebrates, we rank species (including for different lifestages) by their maximum thermal limit, as well as by the lowest oxygen concentration tolerated before negative impacts (e.g. physiological stress), 50% mortality or 100% mortality are experienced. Additionally, we compare these thresholds to observed marine deoxygenation trends at multiple sites, and observed surface warming trends. This results in an assessment of which regional species are most vulnerable to future warming and oxygen depletion, and a first-order estimate of the consequences of thermal and oxygen stress on a highly productive marine shelf. If regional multi-decadal oxygen and temperature trends continue through the 21st century, many species will lose favorable oxygen conditions, experience oxygen-stress, or disappear due to insufficient oxygen. Future warming can additionally displace vulnerable species, though we note that large natural variability in environmental conditions may amplify or dampen the effects of anthropogenic surface warming trends. This dataset may be combined with regional ocean model predictions to map future species distributions.

  3. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  4. Toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), Kodiak, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Calkins, D.G.; Coon, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Marine and estuarine habitats near urban or industrialized regions are vulnerable to contaminated runoff. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), which occur throughout much of the northern hemisphere, are useful mammalian biomonitors because they feed, reproduce, and rest near or on shore and are high-level trophic consumers. They have often been monitored for contaminants in Europe (Wagemann and Muir 1984). To date, no studies have been reported on contaminants in harbor seals from industrialized areas of Alaska. In the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska's largest urban and industrial city, harbor seals are sedentary and limited to coastal waters; some movements have been documented but there is no evidence of extensive migrations. Although some harbor seals in the Kodiak Archipelago move up to 100 km along the shore, strong fidelity to specific haulout sites is more common (Pitcher and Calkins 1979). These seals eat mainly non-migratory fishes and octopi. Harbor seal numbers have declined substantially from unknown causes in the southern part of the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) suggested that the decline is a trend for the entire Kodiak region and other Alaskan waters. Contaminants have been suggested as a possible reason for the precipitous decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the region (Braham et al. 1980), and were suspected in the decline of harbor seals. In this study, harbor seals were sampled from throughout the Kodiak Archipelago to determine concentrations of certain metals, metalloids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, and to determine if these concentrations varied by sex or accumulated with age. All seals were collected within 75 km of Cook Inlet, an estuary next to Anchorage. The targeted elements or compounds were known to be toxic to a wide spectrum of organisms (e.g., MARC 1980; Eisler 1986).

  5. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  6. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  7. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  8. Permian marine sedimentation in northern Chile: new paleontological evidence from the Juan de Morales Formation, and regional paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Martínez, E.; Mamet, B.; Isaacson, P. E.; Grader, G. W.

    2000-11-01

    Permian marine sedimentary rocks that crop out in northern Chile are closely related to the development of a Late Paleozoic magmatic arc. A study of Upper Paleozoic units east of Iquique (20°S) identified three members within the Juan de Morales Formation, each of which were deposited in a different sedimentary environment. A coarse-grained terrigenous basal member represents alluvial sedimentation from a local volcanic source. A mixed carbonate-terrigenous middle member represents coastal and proximal shallow marine sedimentation during a relative sea-level rise related with a global transgression. Preliminary foraminifer biostratigraphy of this middle member identified a late Early Permian (late Artinskian-Kungurian) highly impoverished nodosarid-geinitzinid assemblage lacking fusulines and algae, which is characteristic of temperate cold waters and/or disphotic zone. The upper fine-grained terrigenous member represents shallow marine siliciclastic sedimentation under storm influence. The Juan de Morales Formation consists of continental, coastal and shallow marine sediments deposited at the active western margin of Gondwana at mid to low latitudes. A revised late Early Permian age and similar paleogeography and sedimentary environments are also proposed for the Huentelauquén Formation and related units of northern and central Chile, Arizaro Formation of northwestern Argentina, and equivalent units of southernmost Peru.

  9. Possible Cretaceous Arctic terrestrial ecosystem dynamics based on a rich dinosaur record from Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorillo, A. R.; McCarthy, P. J.; Flaig, P. P.

    2010-12-01

    The widespread occurrence of large-bodied herbivores, specifically hadrosaurian and ceratopsian dinosaurs, in the Cretaceous of Alaska presents a proxy for understanding polar terrestrial ecosystem biological productivity in a warm Arctic world. These dinosaurs lived in Alaska at time when this region was at or near current latitudes. Thus these dinosaurs present a paradox. The warmer Cretaceous high-latitude climate, likely related to higher levels of CO2, may have increased plant productivity but the polar light regime fluctuations must have limited the available food during the winter months. The most detailed sedimentological data available regarding the paleoenvironments supporting these dinosaurs are from the Prince Creek Formation of northern Alaska and to a lesser extent the Cantwell Formation of the Alaska Range. The sediments of the Late Cretaceous Prince Creek Formation represent a continental succession deposited on a high-latitude, low-gradient, alluvial/coastal plain. The Prince Creek Formation records numerous paleosols that are consistent with seasonality and successional vegetative cover. Drab colors in fine-grained sediments, abundant carbonaceous plant material, and common siderite nodules and jarosite suggest widespread reducing conditions on poorly-drained floodplains influenced in more distal areas by marine waters. In addition, these rocks contain high levels of organic carbon and charcoal. Carbonaceous root-traces found ubiquitously within all distributary channels and most floodplain facies, along with common Fe-oxide mottles, indicate that the alluvial system likely experienced flashy, seasonal, or ephemeral flow and a fluctuating water table. The flashy nature of the alluvial system may have been driven by recurring episodes of vigorous seasonal snowmelt in the Brooks Range orogenic belt as a consequence of the high paleolatitude of northern Alaska in the Late Cretaceous. The presence of dinosaurian megaherbivores suggests that water was

  10. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, P. M.; Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Cubley, J. F.; Samolczyk, M. A.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Transportable Array is deploying about 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute, and Yukon College to spread awareness of earthquakes in Alaska and western Canada and the benefits of the Transportable Array for people living in these regions. We provide an update of ongoing education and outreach activities in Alaska and Canada as well as continued efforts to publicize the Transportable Array in the Lower 48. Nearly all parts of Alaska and portions of western Canada are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska, in particular, requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaskan and western Canadian villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Meetings and interviews with Alaska Native Elders and tribal councils discussing past earthquakes has led to a better understanding of how Alaskans view and understand earthquakes. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska and the Yukon. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor emphasizes the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offers not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan and Canadian understanding of the seismic hazard and

  11. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  12. Marine ecosystem synthesis: From physics to whales in the Pacific Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield Guy, Lisa; Moore, Sue E.; Stabeno, Phyllis

    2012-11-01

    Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) Workshop; Anchorage, Alaska, 14-16 March 2012 The Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) program brings together a multidisciplinary group of Arctic scientists and Alaskan coastal community residents to