Science.gov

Sample records for alaska region protected

  1. Alaska Women's Commission Regional Conferences 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Christine

    This booklet describes the work of the Alaska Women's Commission, a state agency dedicated to the achievement of equal legal, economic, social, and political status for women in Alaska. Since its inception, the Alaska Women's Commission has provided funding for regional women's conferences in rural parts of the state. The document describes four…

  2. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - April 1, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 25 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from October 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014.

  3. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - Feb. 5, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed 60 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from July 1, 2014 through September 30, 2014. Violations of environme

  4. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - May 27, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 40 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from January 1, 2015 through March 31, 2015. Violations of envir

  5. Compliance with environmental laws protects air, land, and water in communities across Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - September 17, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, completed over 40 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from April 1, 2015 through June 30, 2015.

  6. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  7. Regional Observations of Alaska Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska glaciers contribute more to sea level rise than any other glacierized mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex glacier flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many glaciers throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure glacier surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard Glaciers and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "melt-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent glacier mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.

  8. Compliance with Environmental Laws Helps Protect Air, Water and Lands in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Alaska Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - April 6, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Pacific Northwest Region completed 22 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from October 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015.

  9. Compliance with environmental laws helps protect air, water and land in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - December 15, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Region 10 completed over 50 environmental compliance and enforcement actions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from July 1, 2015 through September 30, 2015.

  10. 77 FR 4579 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's... the meeting date and location are changed, a notice will be published in local newspapers...

  11. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  12. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  13. 77 FR 4581 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Lake... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  14. 77 FR 4578 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  15. 77 FR 4580 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Cape... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  16. 76 FR 57763 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Gates of... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  17. 77 FR 4580 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... prior to the meeting date. SRC meeting locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  18. 77 FR 4578 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... locations and dates may need to be changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Wrangell... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska...

  19. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  20. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  1. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  2. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  3. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  4. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zhang, X.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    A case study and monthly statistical analysis using sounder data assimilation to improve the Alaska regional weather forecast model are presented. Weather forecast in Alaska faces challenges as well as opportunities. Alaska has a large land with multiple types of topography and coastal area. Weather forecast models must be finely tuned in order to accurately predict weather in Alaska. Being in the high-latitudes provides Alaska greater coverage of polar orbiting satellites for integration into forecasting models than the lower 48. Forecasting marine low stratus clouds is critical to the Alaska aviation and oil industry and is the current focus of the case study. NASA AIRS/CrIS sounder profiles data are used to do data assimilation for the Alaska regional weather forecast model to improve Arctic marine stratus clouds forecast. Choosing physical options for the WRF model is discussed. Preprocess of AIRS/CrIS sounder data for data assimilation is described. Local observation data, satellite data, and global data assimilation data are used to verify and/or evaluate the forecast results by the MET tools Model Evaluation Tools (MET).

  5. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  10. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  11. 76 FR 62090 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... National Park Service Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC)...

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  13. Vegetation and Environmental Gradients of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    gathering lines and tic Slope. Fourteen of these have been recorded major pipelines on the Arctic Coastal Plain pose within the Prudhoe Bay region and...Alaska pipeline, one is struck by the conti- tic (Wiggins 1951, Koranda 1954, Tedrow et al. nuity of this flat region, and the differences in veg- 1958...distribution of arc- in the mapped area combined. This pingo is quite tic species, the occurrence of many species in all broad with a gently sloping base

  14. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  15. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  16. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  17. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  18. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  19. 5 CFR 5501.103 - Gifts from federally recognized Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. 5501.103 Section 5501.103... tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations. (a) Tribal or Alaska Native gifts... Indian tribes or Alaska Native villages or regional or village corporations, provided that the...

  20. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in

  1. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  2. Cretaceous to Recent extension in the Bering Strait region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Miller, Elizabeth L.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Hannula, Kimberly A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Gans, Phillip B.

    1995-06-01

    A key issue presented by the geology of northern Alaska concerns the demise of the Brooks Range going west toward the Bering Strait region. The main Brookian tectonic and stratigraphic elements continue into the Russian Far East, but the thick crustal root and high elevations that define the modern physiographic Brooks Range die out approaching the Bering and Chukchi shelves, which form an unusually broad area of submerged continental crust. Structural, geochronologic, and apatite fission-track data indicate that at least three episodes of extension may have affected the crust beneath the Bering Strait region, in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Eocene-early Oligocene, and Pliocene(?)-Recent. This extension may explain the present thinner crust of the region, the formation of extensive continental shelves, and the dismemberment and southward translation of tectonic elements as they are traced from the Brooks Range toward Russia. Evidence for these events is recorded within a gently tilted 10- to 15-km thick crustal section exposed on the western Seward Peninsula. The earliest episode is documented at high structural levels by the postcollision exhumation history of blueschists. Structural data indicate exhumation was accomplished in part by thinning of the crust during north-south extension bracketed between 120 and 90 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages. The Kigluaik Mountains gneiss dome rose through the crust during the later stages of this extension at 91 Ma. Similar gneiss domes occur within a broad, discontinuous belt of Cretaceous magmatism linking interior Alaska with northeast Russia; mantle-derived melts within this belt likely heated the crust and facilitated extension. Apatite fission-track ages indicate cooling below ≈120-85°C occurred sometime between 100 and 70 Ma, and the area subsequently resided at shallow crustal depths (<3-4 km) until the present. This suggests that denudation of deep levels of the crust by erosion and/or tectonism was mostly

  3. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  4. 42 CFR 457.535 - Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... American Indians and Alaska Natives. 457.535 Section 457.535 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... § 457.535 Cost-sharing protection to ensure enrollment of American Indians and Alaska Natives. States... children who are American Indians or Alaska Natives, as defined in § 457.10....

  5. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 4 - Bristol Bay-Aleutian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Alaska's Bristol Bay-Aleutian Region presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 3 Bristol Bay-Aleutian census divisions, data are presented…

  6. 76 FR 12367 - Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Park Service Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council Within the Alaska Region Meeting ACTION: Notice of meeting for the Denali National Park and Preserve Aircraft Overflights Advisory Council within the Alaska Region. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) announces...

  7. 76 FR 1458 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... National Park Service Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) program. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... 99753, or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644- 3603..., Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve, P.O. Box 7, King Salmon, AK 99613, or Clarence Summers..., Copper Center, AK 99753, or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at...

  9. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  10. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  11. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Harden, E.L.; Richmond, B.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  12. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  13. Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Sears, D.W.

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-five exploratory wells were drilled in Alaska in 1980. Five oil or gas discovery wells were drilled on the North Slope. One hundred and seventeen development and service wells were drilled and completed, primarily in the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk River fields on the North Slope. Geologic-geophysical field activity consisted of 115.74 crew months, an increase of almost 50% compared to 1979. These increases affected most of the major basins of the state as industry stepped up preparations for future lease sales. Federal acreage under lease increased slightly, while state lease acreage showed a slight decline. The year's oil production showed a increase of 16%, while gas production was down slightly. The federal land freeze in Alaska showed signs of thawing, as the US Department of Interior asked industry to identify areas of interest onshore for possible future leasing. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska was opened to private exploration, and petroleum potential of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge will be studied. One outer continental shelf lease sale was held in the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and a series of state and federal lease sales were announced for the next 5 years. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. A seismotectonic study of the Southeastern Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, Diane I.; Rodriguez, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    We compare relocations of recent (1973-2005) and historic (1919-1972) earthquakes to geologic and geophysical (gravity, aeromagnetic, and uplift) information to determine the relationship of seismicity to crustal deformation in southeastern Alaska. Our results suggest that along strike changes in the structure of the Pacific plate may control the location of the ends of rupture zones for large earthquakes along the offshore Queen Charlotte fault system in the southern portion of the study area. There is a marked increase in background seismicity in the northern portion of the study area where the Fairweather fault begins to bend toward the northwest and crustal uplift due to glacial unloading exceeds 20 mm/year. Focal mechanisms indicate that thrust and reverse mechanisms predominate in the region of maximum uplift, as might be expected by the decrease in ice sheet thickness. The diffuse nature of seismicity between the Fairweather and Denali faults in the northern study area suggests a complex interaction between plate/microplate interactions and glacial unloading, making it difficult to determine the optimal fault orientation for failure in moderate magnitude (5.5 to 6.5) earthquakes within this region.

  16. PBO Operations in Alaska and Cascadia, Combining Regions and Collaborating with our Regional Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Boyce, E. S.; Dausz, K.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Pyatt, C.; Willoughby, H.; Woolace, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    During the last year, the Alaska and the Cascadia regions of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network were combined into a single management unit. While both remain distinct regions with their own challenges and engineering staff, every effort has been made to operate as a single team to improve efficiency and provide the highest possible data quality and uptime. Over the last several years a concerted effort has been made to work collaboratively with other institutions and stakeholders to defray ongoing costs by sharing staff and resources. UNAVCO currently operates four integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, eight with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, and three with the EarthScope TA. By the end of 2015, PBO and TA plan to install another 3 integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While most of these are designed around existing PBO stations, the 2014 installation at Middleton Island is a new station for both groups, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data in Alaska. There were two major joint maintenance efforts in 2015:, the largest was a 5 day mission among PBO, AVO, and TA, which shared boat, helicopter, and staff on and around Augustine Volcano; the second, was a 10 day helicopter mission shared between AVO and PBO on Unimak Island. PBO Pacific Northwest is working closely with University of Washington to co-locate at least 9 Earthquake Early Warning Systems, which include the addition of strong motion sensors and high speed RT telemetry at PBO sites. The project is managed by University of Washington but UNAVCO is providing land contact information and infrastructure support. Summer 2015 upgrades include a complete overhaul of aging radio technology at two major networks and several small radio networks in Cascadia. The upgrades will increase reliability and enhance the speed of existing telemetry infrastructure and will continue through summer 2018.

  17. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression and Health Outcomes in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…

  18. Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits

  19. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  20. $32 Million in EPA funds help Northwest and Alaska tribes protect communities' health, water, air and natural resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $32 million in funding for the Indian Environmental General Assistance Program (GAP) capacity building grants to tribes and tribal consortia in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.

  1. 76 FR 59110 - Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... the newspapers that Ranger Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use... constructive notice of the proposed actions, to provide clear evidence of timely notice, and to achieve... that Responsible Officials in the Alaska Region will use to give notice of proposed hazardous...

  2. 76 FR 59997 - Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Actions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal notice of all decisions subject to appeal... receive constructive notice of a decision or proposed action, to provide clear evidence of timely notice... newspapers that Responsible Officials in the Alaska Region will use to give notice of decisions subject...

  3. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  4. Seismicity trends and potential for large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.; Nishenko, S.P.; Varnes, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high likelihood of a gap-filling thrust earthquake in the Alaska subduction zone within this decade is indicated by two independent methods: analysis of historic earthquake recurrence data and time-to-failure analysis applied to recent decades of instrumental data. Recent (May 1993) earthquake activity in the Shumagin Islands gap is consistent with previous projections of increases in seismic release, indicating that this segment, along with the Alaska Peninsula segment, is approaching failure. Based on this pattern of accelerating seismic release, we project the occurrence of one or more M???7.3 earthquakes in the Shumagin-Alaska Peninsula region during 1994-1996. Different segments of the Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone behave differently in the decade or two preceding great earthquakes, some showing acceleration of seismic release (type "A" zones), while others show deceleration (type "D" zones). The largest Alaska-Aleutian earthquakes-in 1957, 1964, and 1965-originated in zones that exhibit type D behavior. Type A zones currently showing accelerating release are the Shumagin, Alaska Peninsula, Delarof, and Kommandorski segments. Time-to-failure analysis suggests that the large earthquakes could occur in these latter zones within the next few years. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  5. Birds of the Kilbuck and Ahklun mountain region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Weir, Douglas N.; Dick, Matthew H.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1988, we studied the abundance, distribution, occurrence, and habitats used by birds in the northwest portion of Bristol Bay and the adjacent Kilbuck and Ahklun mountains. In the 809 days we were present, we conducted 53 studies or surveys of birds in the region. We gathered information on 185 species, of which 65% (121) nested, 10% (19) probably nested, and 11% (21) were permanent residents in the region. Most breeding or probably breeding forms were of North American (58%; 81) or Beringian (24%; 33) affinity, while the remainder of the species were of Panboreal (17%; 24) and Old World (1%; 2) affinity. Similarly, most of the 44 migrants and visitants were of North American (41%; 18) affinity, while the remainder were of Beringian (32%; 14) and Panboreal (27%; 12) affinity. Of the 140 species that nested or probably nested, 53% (73) were abundant to fairly common, 29% (40) were uncommon to very rare, and 20% (27) were localized. Shrub thicket, dwarf shrub mat, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed deciduous-coniferous forest, and fluviatile water and shoreline habitats supported the greatest diversity of species breeding and suspected of breeding. The highest concentrations of birds occurred in the estuaries of Nanvak, Chagvan, and Goodnews bays during spring and fall migrations and on the coastal and island cliffs during the breeding season.The information presented here provides the basis for range extensions of several species. Our records further clarify the known or probable Alaska breeding ranges of 11 species (fork-tailed storm-petrel, Oceanodroma furcata; double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus; red-faced cormorant, Phatacrocorax utile, brant, Branta bernicla; king eider, Somateria spectabilis; white-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus; black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola; Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva; lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes; Say's phoebe, Sayomis saya; and Bohemian waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus). We

  6. 77 FR 30320 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... National Park Service National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meeting and teleconference for the National... the Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on NPS subsistence...

  7. 77 FR 58868 - Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Park Service Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meetings. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Wrangell-St. Elias...

  8. 76 FR 21404 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... National Park Service National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service... Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS) subsistence...

  9. 78 FR 10546 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alaska; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... pollution control requirements and emissions limits for Unit 1 and Unit 2 at the Healy Power Plant. \\3... Available Retrofit Technology regulations, and amendments to Alaska's Area Wide Pollution Control Program..., Section III. K. Area Wide Pollution Control Program for Regional Haze; and Volume II, Appendices to...

  10. 30 CFR 250.152 - How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I name facilities in the Alaska Region? 250.152 Section 250.152 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF General Naming and Identifying Facilities and Wells (does Not Include Modus) § 250.152 How do...

  11. 76 FR 8378 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... National Park Service National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service... meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS) subsistence hunting...

  12. 76 FR 3653 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... meeting date. SRC meeting location and dates may need to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service...

  13. Metamorphic facies map of Southeastern Alaska; distribution, facies, and ages of regionally metamorphosed rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brew, D.A.; Douglass, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the bedrock in Southeastern Alaska has been metamorphosed, much of it under medium-grade conditions during metamorphic episodes that were associated with widespread plutonism. The oldest metamorphisms affected probable arc rocks near southern Prince of Wales Island and occurred during early and middle Paleozoic orogenies. The predominant period of metamorphism and associated plutonism occurred during Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary time and resulted in the development of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that extends along the inboard half of Southeastern Alaska. Middle Tertiary regional thermal metamorphism affected a large part of Baranof Island.

  14. Functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin, Region 10 Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peatlands in south central Alaska are the dominant wetland class in the lowlands of the Cook Inlet Basin. Currently Alaska peatlands are extensive and largely pristine but these areas are facing increasing human development. This study focused on obtaining measures of ecologica...

  15. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  16. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region: Highlights from the 2012 Summer Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Bierma, R. M.; Boyce, E. S.; Willoughby, H.; Fend, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its fourth year of operation and maintenance of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 data communications relays that comprise the Alaska region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The successful operation of the autonomous GPS and tiltmeter network in Alaska continues to be a challenge, because of logistics, weather, and other difficulties related to working in Alaska. PBO engineers continue to work on network enhancements to make the stations more robust, while improving overall data quality and station uptime to better serve the EarthScope science community. In the summer of 2012, PBO engineers completed maintenance activities in Alaska, which resulted in a 95% operational status for the Alaska network within PBO. PBO engineers completed a total of 87 maintenance visits in the summer of FY2012, including 62 routine maintenance and 25 unscheduled maintenance visits to GPS and data communications stations. We present a number of highlights and accomplishments from the PBO 2012 summer field season in Alaska, for example the deployment of a newly designed methanol fuel cell at AV35, a critical station that serves as the main repeater for the real time network on Unimak Island. In addition, PBO engineers also completed the installation of three Inmarsat BGAN terminals for data telemetry following successful testing at AC60 Shemya. Lastly, PBO engineers completed scheduled battery replacements at most of the PBO stations on Unimak Island, in collaboration with the USGS/Alaska Volcano Observatory. In addition to routine maintenance and planned station improvements to sites in Alaska, numerous critical repairs were made at stations on Unimak Island and elsewhere to ensure that the PBO network continues to function well and continues to meet the requirements stipulated by the NSF. We also present some of the station failures unique to Alaska, which we encountered during the course of the 2012 field season, as well

  17. 76 FR 56221 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Park SRC will meet at the Nondalton Community Center, (907) 294-2288 in Nondalton, Alaska on Thursday... the Lake Clark National Park SRC Meeting Contact: Mary Mc Burney, Subsistence Manager, (907) 235-7891 or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644-3603. If you...

  18. MEDIA ADVISORY: EPA Region 10 Administrator McLerran speaks at Alaska Forum on the Environment today in Anchorage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 8, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran will give a keynote address opening the 2016 Alaska Forum on the Environment, in Anchorage, focusing on EPA's work in rural Alaska and ongoing federal commitments highli

  19. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041)....

  20. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 (Lease Sale 237) MMAA104000 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... addressed in this Call (``Program Area'') is located offshore Alaska in the Chukchi Sea Planning Area....

  1. First regional super ESPC a success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, K.

    2000-12-23

    The Coast Guard military base on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is the largest Coast Guard base in the world. By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at this base. Using the Super ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contracting) program, the Coast Guard was able to quickly contract with an experienced contractor with energy savings expertise. Working with ERI, one of FEMP's (Federal Energy Management Program) approved energy services contractors, the Coast Guard determined areas of potential energy savings and designed a retrofit to upgrade inefficient equipment and infrastructure. When energy-efficient modifications are complete, the base will be 30% more cost effective.

  2. Gravity survey and regional geology of the Prince William Sound epicentral region, Alaska: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Barnes, D.F.; Plafker, George; Robbins, S.L.

    1966-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Mesozoic and early Tertiary age form a roughly arcuate pattern in and around Prince William Sound, the epicentral region of the Alaska earthquake of 1964. These rocks include the Valdez Group, a predominantly slate and graywacke sequence of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, and the Orca Group, a younger sequence of early Tertiary age. The Orca consists of a lower unit of dense-average 2.87 g per cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter) pillow basalt and greenstone intercalated with sedimentary rocks and an upper unit of lithologically variable sandstone interbedded with siltstone or argillite. Densities of the clastic rocks in both the Valdez and Orca Groups average about 2.69 g per cm3. Granitic rocks of relatively low density (2.62 g per cm3) cut the Valdez and Orca Groups at several localities. Both the Valdez and the Orca Groups were complexly folded and extensively faulted during at least three major episodes of deformation: an early period of Cretaceous or early Tertiary orogeny, a second orogeny that probably culminated in late Eocene or early Oligocene time and was accompanied or closely followed by emplacement of granitic batholiths, and a third episode of deformation that began in late Cenozoic time and continued intermittently to the present. About 500 gravity stations were established in the Prince William Sound region in conjunction with postearthquake geologic investigations. Simple Bouguer anomaly contours trend approximately parallel to the arcuate geologic structure around the sound. Bouguer anomalies decrease northward from +40 mgal (milligals) at the southwestern end of Montague Island to -70 mgal at College and Harriman Fiords. Most of this change may be interpreted as a regional gradient caused by thickening of the continental crust. Superimposed on the gradient is a prominent gravity high of as much as 65 mgal that extends from Elrington Island on the southwest, across Knight and Glacier Islands to the Ellamar Peninsula

  3. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Rudis, Deborah D.; Roffe, Thomas J.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 μg/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  4. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region.

    PubMed Central

    Henny, C J; Rudis, D D; Roffe, T J; Robinson-Wilson, E

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsqaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stellei) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 micrograms/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants. PMID:7556023

  5. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  6. Assessment of Awareness of Connectedness as a Culturally-based Protective Factor for Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Nathaniel V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Burket, Rebekah; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2011-01-01

    Research with Native Americans has identified connectedness as a culturally-based protective factor against substance abuse and suicide. Connectedness refers to the interrelated welfare of the individual, one’s family, one’s community, and the natural environment. We developed an 18-item quantitative assessment of awareness of connectedness and tested it with 284 Alaska Native youth. Evaluation with confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory identified a 12-item subset that functions satisfactorily in a second-order, four-factor model. The proposed Awareness of Connectedness Scale displays good convergent and discriminant validity and correlates positively with hypothesized protective factors such as reasons for living and communal mastery. The measure has utility in the study of culture-specific protective factors and as an outcomes measure for behavioral health programs with Native American youth. PMID:21988583

  7. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-01-01

    Background The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03) had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. Methods Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58) or never had a drinking problem (n = 43). This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs) and non-problem drinkers (NPs). Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. Results Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a) individual, family, and community characteristics; (b) trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c) experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d) reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more socially

  8. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  9. Establishing a baseline for regional scale monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Ward, David H.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Dau, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world’s most widespread and productive ecosystems, provide a wide range of services with real economic value. Worldwide declines in the distribution and abundance of seagrasses and increased threats to coastal ecosystems from climate change have prompted a need to acquire baseline data for monitoring and protecting these important habitats. We assessed the distribution and abundance of eelgrass (Zostera marina) along nearly 1200 km of shoreline on the lower Alaska Peninsula, a region of expansive eelgrass meadows whose status and trends are poorly understood. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-scale approach by using Landsat satellite imagery to map the total areal extent of eelgrass while integrating field survey data to improve map accuracy and describe the physical and biological condition of the meadows. Innovative use of proven methods and processing tools was used to address challenges inherent to remote sensing in high latitude, coastal environments. Eelgrass was estimated to cover ~31,000 ha, 91% of submerged aquatic vegetation on the lower Alaska Peninsula, nearly doubling the known spatial extent of eelgrass in the region. Mapping accuracy was 80%–90% for eelgrass distribution at locations containing adequate field survey data for error analysis.

  10. Geology of the central Copper River region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    It is an interesting evidence of the prompt responsiveness of our governmental organization to popular needs that the year 1898, which saw the first rush of argonauts to Alaska as a result of the discovery of the Klondike in 1986, saw also several well-equipped Federal parties at work in the Territory, mapping its great waterways and mountain ranges, investigating the feasible means of transportation within it, laying out routes for future lines of communication, and studying the mineral resources and the plant and animal life. It is true that before that year, in which the general attention of the world was fixed upon our heretofore lightly regarded northern province, fur traders, adventurous travelers, and hardy prospectors had made little-heralded journeys through the interior, and that one or another of the governmental departments had had representatives on special errands within its borders, but the amount of private and public energy expended there in 1898 probably exceeded that of any ten previous years.

  11. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  12. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  13. Late quaternary regional geoarchaeology of Southeast Alaska Karst: A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, E.J.; Heaton, T.H.; Fifield, T.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Putnam, D.E.; Grady, F.

    1997-01-01

    Karst systems, sea caves, and rock shelters within the coastal temperate rain forest of Alaska's Alexander Archipelago preserve important records of regional archaeology, sea level history, glacial and climatic history, and vertebrate paleontology. Two 14C AMS dates on human bone discovered in a remote cave (49-PET-408) on Prince of Wales Island document the oldest reliably dated human in Alaska to ca. 9800 B.P. A series of 14C AMS dates from cave deposits span the past 40,000 years and provide the first evidence of Pleistocene faunas from the northwest coast of North America. Other discoveries include sea caves and marine beach deposits elevated above modern sea level, extensive solution caves, and mammalian remains of species previously undocumented within the region. Records of human activity, including cave art, artifacts, and habitation sites may provide new insights into the early human colonization of the Americas. ??1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Identifying Protective Factors to Promote Health in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.

  15. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... environmental baseline; Steller sea lions population trends, foraging behavior, and biology; and effects of the... foraging behavior of Steller sea lions in the Aleutian Islands subarea. The details of these standards are... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  17. Tectonics of the March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake: Chapter I in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George

    1969-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. Regional uplift and subsidence occurred mainly in two nearly parallel elongate zones, together about 600 miles long and as much as 250 miles wide, that lie along the continental margin. From the earthquake epicenter in northern Prince William Sound, the deformation extends eastward 190 miles almost to long 142° and southwestward slightly more than 400 miles to about long 155°. It extends across the two zones from the chain of active volcanoes in the Aleutian Range and Wrangell Mountains probably to the Aleutian Trench axis. Uplift that averages 6 feet over broad areas occurred mainly along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska, on the adjacent Continental Shelf, and probably on the continental slope. This uplift attained a measured maximum on land of 38 feet in a northwest-trending narrow belt less than 10 miles wide that is exposed on Montague Island in southwestern Prince William Sound. Two earthquake faults exposed on Montague Island are subsidiary northwest-dipping reverse faults along which the northwest blocks were relatively displaced a maximum of 26 feet, and both blocks were upthrown relative to sea level. From Montague Island, the faults and related belt of maximum uplift may extend southwestward on the Continental Shelf to the vicinity of the Kodiak group of islands. To the north and northwest of the zone of uplift, subsidence forms a broad asymmetrical downwarp centered over the Kodiak-Kenai-Chugach Mountains that averages 2½ feet and attains a measured maximum of 7½ feet along the southwest coast of the Kenai Peninsula. Maximum indicated uplift in the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges to the north of the zone of subsidence was l½ feet. Retriangulation over roughly 25,000 square miles of the deformed region in and around Prince William Sound

  18. Heat flow and temperature-depth curves throughout Alaska: finding regions for future geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batir, Joseph F.; Blackwell, David D.; Richards, Maria C.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of the thermal regime of Alaska and its relationship to geology, regional tectonics, and to suggest potential sites for future geothermal energy production. New heat flow data were collected and are combined with existing published and unpublished data, although large sections of Alaska still lack data. Fault traces were implemented into the heat flow contouring as an additional gridding constraint, to incorporate both heat flow measurements and geology. New heat flow data supported the use of geologic trends in the heat flow mapping procedure, and a heat flow map of Alaska was produced with this added constraint. The multi-input contouring strategy allows production of a map with a regional interpretation of heat flow, in addition to site-specific heat flow and thermal model interpretations in areas with sufficient data density. Utilizing the new heat flow map, temperature-at-depth curves were created for example areas. Temperature-at-depth curves are calculated to 10 km depth for the areas of Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay, and the Copper River Basin. The temperatures-at-depth predicted near the population centers of Anchorage and Juneau are relatively low, limiting the geothermal resource potential. The Fairbanks area temperature estimates are near conventional power production temperatures (150 °C) between 3.5 and 4 km. All data areas, except at Juneau, have temperatures sufficient for low temperature geothermal applications (40 °C) by 2 km. A high heat flow region exists within the Aleutian Volcanic Arc, although new data show heat flow variations from 59 to 120 mW m-2, so individual geothermal resources within the arc will be irregularly located.

  19. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Kuskokwim Bay region, southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    The rocks of the map area range from Proterozoic age metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex (Kilbuck terrane) to Quaternary age mafic volcanic rocks of Nunivak Island. The map area encompasses much of the type area of the Togiak-Tikchik Complex. The geologic maps used to construct this compilation were, for the most part, reconnaissance studies done in the time period from the 1950s to 1990s. Pioneering work in the map area by J.M. Hoare and W.L. Coonrad forms the basis for much of this map, either directly or as the stepping off point for later studies compiled here. Physiographically, the map area ranges from glaciated mountains, as much as 1,500 m high, in the Ahklun Mountains to the coastal lowlands of northern Bristol Bay and the Kuskokwim River delta. The mountains and the finger lakes (drowned fiords) on the east have been strongly affected by Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation. Within the map area are a number of major faults. The Togiak-Tikchik Fault and its extension to the northeast, the Holitna Fault, are considered extensions of the Denali fault system of central Alaska. Other sub-parallel faults include the Golden Gate, Sawpit, Goodnews, and East Kulukak Faults. Northwest-trending strike-slip faults crosscut and offset northeast-trending fault systems. Rocks of the area are assigned to a number of distinctive lithologic packages. Most distinctive among these packages are the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex or Kilbuck terrane, composed of a high-grade metamorphic orthogneiss core surrounded by greenschist and amphibolite facies schist, gneiss, and rare marble and quartzite. These rocks have yielded radiometric ages strongly suggestive of a 2.05 Ga emplacement age. Poorly known Paleozoic rocks, including Ordovician to Devonian and Permian limestone, are found east of the Kanektok metamorphic complex. A Triassic(?) ophiolite complex is on the southeast side of Kuskokwim Bay; otherwise only minor Triassic

  20. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in Southwestern Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Box, Stephen E.

    1996-01-01

    The oldest dated metamorphic sequence in Alaska, the fault-bounded Kilbuck Terrane, consists of continental rocks that were metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions during early Proterozoic (1.77 Ga) time. Proterozoic or early Paleozoic metamorphic ages are also possible for greenschist- and amphibolite-facies continental rocks in interior Alaska (Ruby and Nixon Fork terranes). Medium-grade metamorphism on the Alaska Peninsula accompanied intrusion of a Jurassic arc. North of Bristol Bay, low-grade, locally high-pressure Mesozoic metamorphism is attributed to the progressive underthrusting of a subduction complex beneath an oceanic arc followed by underthrusting of the Kilbuck Terrane beneath the subduction complex.

  1. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  2. Decision Support Services provided by the NWS Alaska Regional Operations Center in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Osiensky, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The NWS Alaska Region's Regional Operations Center (AR ROC) provides a variety of decision support services to partners and customers across the state. The AR ROC is virtual most times but can flex to stand up support for partners as needed. Support can vary from briefings over the phone or in person to dedicated virtual support to providing on-site meteorologist at an Emergency Operations Center or Incident Command Post to provide tailored support services. During 2015 there have been a number of situations where the AR ROC provided unique support services. This presentation will outline a few examples of how these unique support services benefitted partner agency decisions.

  3. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  4. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  5. Characteristics of Small-scale Gravity Wave Propagation in the Mesopause Region over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Murayama, Y.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated characteristics of the atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) propagation using sodium airglow images obtained by an all-sky imager installed at Poker Flat Research Range (65.1N, 147.4W, MLAT 65.6) in Alaska. In this study, we developed data analysis programs which automatically derive the unambiguous 2-D power spectrum from the sodium airglow images, using a method by Coble et al. (1998). The power spectrums of the AGWs which have horizontal wavelengths between 2 - 400 km and periods up to 8 hours were obtained by these programs. Statistical study of the AGW data and mesospheric wind data by an MF radar during two winter seasons from October 2000 to April 2002 indicates the following characteristics. - During these periods, the AGW dominantly propagated westward in the zonal direction. - The meridional propagation direction frequently changed. This change seems to be explained by filtering effect by the mesospheric wind. - Total power of the AGW increased in December and January. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between these characteristics of the AGW propagation and unique phenomena in high-latitude region such as auroral precipitation. Acknowledgements This work is conducted as a part of "Alaska Project", the cooperative research project between NICT and Geophysical Institute of University of Alaska. Reference Coble, M. R., G. C. Papen, and C. S. Gardner, Computing two-dimensional unambiguous horizontal wavenumber spectra from OH airglow images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sens., 36, 368--382, 1998.

  6. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  8. 75 FR 33575 - List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Decisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... the newspapers that Forests and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal... decision, to provide clear evidence of timely notice, and to achieve consistency in administering the... Region will use to give notice of decisions subject to appeal. The timeframe for appeal under...

  9. 78 FR 4378 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Ranger Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal... proposed action, to provide clear evidence of timely notice, and to achieve consistency in administering... Region will use to give notice of decisions subject to notice, comment, and appeal under 36 CFR Part...

  10. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  11. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  12. 78 FR 4377 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Region will use to publish legal notices of the opportunity to object to proposed hazardous fuel... allowing them to receive constructive notice of the proposed actions, to provide clear evidence of timely... notice provides the list of newspapers that Responsible Officials in the Alaska Region will use to...

  13. 75 FR 32737 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Districts, Forests, and the Regional Office of the Alaska Region will use to publish legal notice of all... provide clear evidence of timely notice, and to achieve consistency in administering the appeals process... use to give notice of decisions subject to notice, comment, and appeal under 36 CFR part 215....

  14. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Brosge, W.P.; Till, A.B.; Doyle, E.O.; Mayfield, C.F.; Reiser, H.N.; Miller, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane onto the continental margin. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate have not been identified, and the mechanism by which the high-pressure rocks in the two areas were separated is not known. In the Ruby geanticline, glaucophane, attesting to high-pressure metamorphism, is sporadically developed both within the continental rocks of the lower plate and, less commonly, near the base of the overlying oceanic thrust sheets. Although the majority of the metamorphic episodes that affected northern Alaska occurred during the Mesozoic, older episodes have been documented or are suspected in a few areas.

  15. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  16. An overview of paleogene molluscan biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Gulf of Alaska region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; McCoy, S.

    1984-01-01

    Paleogene marine strata in the Gulf of Alaska region occur in three geographic areas and may be characterized by their molluscan faunal composition and paleoecology: a western area consisting of the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and adjacent islands; a central area encompassing Prince William Sound; and an eastern area extending from the mouth of the Copper River to Icy Point in the Lituya district. Strata in the western area include the Ghost Rocks, Narrow Cape (in part), Sitkalidak, Stepovak, Belkofski, and Tolstoi Formations; in the central area Paleogene strata are assigned entirely to the Orca Group; Paleogene strata in the eastern area include the Kulthieth and Poul Creek Formations and several coeval units. Environments ranging from marginal marine to bathyal and from subtropical to cool-temperate are inferred for the various molluscan faunas. Sediments range from interbedded coal and marine sands to deep-water turbidites. The known Paleogene molluscan faunas of these three southern Alaskan areas permit recognition of biostratigraphic schemes within each area, preliminary correlations between faunas of the three areas, and more general correlations with faunas of the Pacific Northwest, the Far Eastern U.S.S.R., and northern Japan. ?? 1984.

  17. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  18. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  19. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning... of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI). SUMMARY: The... Federal OCS offshore area has been limited in the past decade, recently there has been renewed interest...

  20. 75 FR 65377 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    .... Adjournment SRC meeting location and dates may need to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement weather... National Park Service Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 76 FR 64971 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Date and Location: The Kobuk Valley National Park SRC will meet at the National Park Service Northwest... National Park Service Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Baseflow Indicators for Groundwater Protection Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, K. F.; Kraft, G.; Mechenich, D.

    2007-12-01

    With shifting climatic patterns that affect precipitation volume and frequency, compounded with increasing demands for water, better understanding of the groundwater links to surface water recharge are increasingly in demand. The objective of our research is to provide metrics to determine regions requiring groundwater protection measures based on baseflow predictions. In 2005, a moderate drought occurred within the Fox-Wolf Basin in Northeast Wisconsin. We took 176 discharge spot measurements in the headwater regions of the basin during the summer of 2005 and performed 10-12 repeat measurements at 46 sites during the summer of 2005 and 2006, for a total of 306, measurements. Our confirmed hypothesis is that stream length (distance from headwater to spot measurement) correlates better with baseflow discharge than watershed area. Additionally, we found that landuse had a subtle effect on metrics. Finally, our measurements were compared with USGS spot discharge measurements taken during a severe drought in 1970s. The two data sets show a high degree of correlation but indicate that baseflow water levels are significantly and systematically lower.

  3. Loess ecosystems of northern Alaska: Regional gradient and toposequence at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Everett, K.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Loess-dominated ecosystems cover {approx} 14% (11,000 km{sup 2}) of the Arctic Coastal Plain and much of the northern portion of the Arctic Foothills. Knowledge of this poorly known ecosystem is important for sound land-use planning of the expanding developments in the region and for understanding the paleoecological dynamics of eolian systems that once dominated much of northern Alaska. A conceptual alkaline-tundra toposequence includes eight common vegetation types and associated soils and vegetation downwind of the Sagavanirktok River. Properties of loess tundra important for land-use planning include: (1) its high ice content, which contributes to its susceptibility to thermokarst; (2) high salinities, which hamper revegetation efforts; and (3) presence of certain plant species such as Dryas intergrifolia, which are particularly sensitive to disturbance. The loess gradient provides a natural analogue for road dust, and extensive disturbance associated with oil-field development.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  5. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  6. Geospatial analysis of lake and landscape interactions within the Toolik Lake region, North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Prasad A.

    The Arctic region of Alaska is experiencing severe impacts of climate change. The Arctic lakes ecosystems are bound to undergo alterations in its trophic structure and other chemical properties. However, landscape factors controlling the lake influxes were not studied till date. This research has examined the currently existing lake landscape interactions using Remote Sensing and GIS technology. The statistical modeling was carried out using Regression and CART methods. Remote sensing data was applied to derive the required landscape indices. Remote sensing in the Arctic Alaska faces many challenges including persistent cloud cover, low sun angle and limited snow free period. Tundra vegetation types are interspersed and intricate to classify unlike managed forest stands. Therefore, historical studies have remained underachieved with respect thematic accuracies. However, looking at vegetation communities at watershed level and the implementation of expert classification system achieved the accuracies up to 90%. The research has highlighted the probable role of interactions between vegetation root zones, nutrient availability within active zone, as well as importance of permafrost thawing. Multiple regression analyses and Classification Trees were developed to understand relationships between landscape factors with various chemical parameters as well as chlorophyll readings. Spatial properties of Shrubs and Riparian complexes such as complexity of individual patches at watershed level and within proximity of water channels were influential on Chlorophyll production of lakes. Till-age had significant impact on Total Nitrogen contents. Moreover, relatively young tills exhibited significantly positive correlation with concentration of various ions and conductivity of lakes. Similarly, density of patches of Heath complexes was found to be important with respect to Total Phosphorus contents in lakes. All the regression models developed in this study were significant at 95

  7. Regional measurements of methane fluxes and methane isotopologues in the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Dumas, E.; Dobosy, R.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid changes in the Arctic climate, exemplified by the decrease in end of summer sea ice, require regional understanding of changes in the Arctic system. Due to the inaccessibility of much of the Arctic region in situ aircraft measurements are well suited to providing a high spatial resolution map of a changing Arctic. We present here measurements of methane emissions from thermokarst lakes and melting permafrost in the North Slope region of Alaska. These measurements were acquired during the summer 2013 mission of the Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL) instrument suite using the Aurora Flight Sciences' Centaur aircraft. The FOCAL payload combines the Anderson Group's (Harvard University) Carbon spectrometers for measuring the concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and water vapor and the carbon isotopologues of methane and carbon dioxide with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe for measuring the turbulent winds from a moving aircraft. Together these allow for the measurement of trace gas fluxes. The measurements were obtained by flying low (~10 m altitude) over the North Slope.

  8. Geography of Alaska Lake Districts: Identification, Description, and Analysis of Lake-Rich Regions of a Diverse and Dynamic State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes are abundant landforms and important ecosystems in Alaska, but are unevenly distributed on the landscape with expansive lake-poor regions and several lake-rich regions. Such lake-rich areas are termed lake districts and have landscape characteristics that can be considered distinctive in similar respects to mountain ranges. In this report, we explore the nature of lake-rich areas by quantitatively identifying Alaska's lake districts, describing and comparing their physical characteristics, and analyzing how Alaska lake districts are naturally organized and correspond to climatic and geophysical characteristics, as well as studied and managed by people. We use a digital dataset (National Hydrography Dataset) of lakes greater than 1 hectare, which includes 409,040 individual lakes and represents 3.3 percent of the land-surface area of Alaska. The selection criteria we used to identify lake districts were (1) a lake area (termed limnetic ratio, in percent) greater than the mean for the State, and (2) a lake density (number of lakes per unit area) greater than the mean for the State using a pixel size scaled to the area of interest and number of lakes in the census. Pixels meeting these criteria were grouped and delineated and all groups greater than 1,000 square kilometers were identified as Alaska's lake districts. These lake districts were described according to lake size-frequency metrics, elevation distributions, geology, climate, and ecoregions to better understand their similarities and differences. We also looked at where lake research and relevant ecological monitoring has occurred in Alaska relative to lake districts and how lake district lands and waters are currently managed. We identified and delineated 20 lake districts in Alaska representing 16 percent of the State, but including 65 percent of lakes and 75 percent of lake area. The largest lake districts identified are the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Arctic Coastal Plain, and Iliamna lake districts with

  9. Postglacial Vegetation and Climate Change in the Northern Bristol Bay Region, Southwestern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Feng Sheng; Brubaker, Linda B.; Anderson, Patricia M.

    1995-05-01

    Pollen analysis of sediment cores from Grandfather and Ongivinuk Lakes reveals a record of postglacial vegetation and climate change in the northern Bristol Bay region. The chronology is based on six conventional 14C dates of bulk organic matter from the Grandfather core. A mesic herb tundra dominated the landscape 13,000-9800 yr B.P. Betula shrubs probably first appeared in the region 11,300 yr B.P. but were restricted to favorable microhabitats until 9800 yr B.P. The later establishment of Betula shrubs and relatively low Betula pollen abundance in these records compared to other areas of eastern Beringia suggest that postglacial warming in southwestern Alaska was dampened by regional climatic controls, possibly low sea-surface temperatures of the North Pacific Ocean. Between 10,800 and 9800 yr B.P., diminished Betula shrub cover, along with decreased aquatic productivity as recorded by Pediastrum cell nets and biogenic silica, suggest a brief reversion to colder and drier climatic conditions possibly associated with the Younger Dryas event. Around 9800 yr B.P., Betula shrub tundra and meadow communities expanded, probably in response to increased temperature and precipitation. Alnus arrived and formed extensive thickets within the region ca. 7400 yr B.P. The establishment of the modern boreal forest-tundra ecotone is marked by the arrival of Picea glauca at Grandfather Lake ca. 4000 yr B.P. and the subsequent increase to present population densities ca. 2000 yr B.P. The unique features of these pollen records emphasize the spatial complexity of late Quaternary vegetation and climate history in eastern Beringia.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  11. Regional seismic lines reprocessed using post-stack processing techniques; National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.; Agena, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Zihlman, F.N.; Grow, J.A.; Taylor, D.J.; Killgore, Michele; Oliver, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains stacked, migrated, 2-Dimensional seismic reflection data and associated support information for 22 regional seismic lines (3,470 line-miles) recorded in the National Petroleum Reserve ? Alaska (NPRA) from 1974 through 1981. Together, these lines constitute about one-quarter of the seismic data collected as part of the Federal Government?s program to evaluate the petroleum potential of the Reserve. The regional lines, which form a grid covering the entire NPRA, were created by combining various individual lines recorded in different years using different recording parameters. These data were reprocessed by the USGS using modern, post-stack processing techniques, to create a data set suitable for interpretation on interactive seismic interpretation computer workstations. Reprocessing was done in support of ongoing petroleum resource studies by the USGS Energy Program. The CD-ROM contains the following files: 1) 22 files containing the digital seismic data in standard, SEG-Y format; 2) 1 file containing navigation data for the 22 lines in standard SEG-P1 format; 3) 22 small scale graphic images of each seismic line in Adobe Acrobat? PDF format; 4) a graphic image of the location map, generated from the navigation file, with hyperlinks to the graphic images of the seismic lines; 5) an ASCII text file with cross-reference information for relating the sequential trace numbers on each regional line to the line number and shotpoint number of the original component lines; and 6) an explanation of the processing used to create the final seismic sections (this document). The SEG-Y format seismic files and SEG-P1 format navigation file contain all the information necessary for loading the data onto a seismic interpretation workstation.

  12. Monitoring change in the Bering Glacier region, Alaska: Using Landsat TM and ERS-1 imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.F.; Coffeen, M.; Macleod, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. The objective of this project was to extract information regarding the position of the terminus of the glacier from historic aerial photography, early 20{sup th} century ground photography, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data, and European Space Agency, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (ERS-1 SAR) data and integrate it into a single digital database that would lend itself to change detection analysis. ERS-1 SAR data was acquired from six dates between 1992-95 and was terrain corrected and co-registered A single Landsat TM image from June 1991 was used as the base image for classifying land cover types. Historic locations of the glacier terminus were generated using traditional photo interpretation techniques from aerial and ground photography. The result of this platform combination, along with the historical data, is providing land managers with the unique opportunity to generate complete assessments of glacial movement this century and determine land cover changes which may impact wildlife and recreational opportunities.

  13. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  14. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  15. 76 FR 44605 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting and Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    .... Subsistence Uses of Bones, Horn, Antlers and Plants Environmental Assessment Update. 12. New Business. 13... Board Update. 10. Alaska Board of Game Update. 11. Old Business: a. Subsistence Uses of Bones,...

  16. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brosge, William Peters; Till, Alison B.; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Mayfield, Charles F.; Reiser, Hillard N.; Miller, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. The most widespread metamorphic episode that affected northern Alaska occurred under low-grade, initially high-pressure (blueschist-facies) conditions during Mesozoic time. This episode is thought to have been related to the obduction of one or more oceanic terranes onto the continental margin of North America. Rocks whose metamorphism is considered to have been part of this major episode have an aerial distribution of approximately 10,000 km2 in the southern Brooks Range, 5,000 km2 across much of the Seward Peninsula, and 800 km2 in the Ruby geanticline within the southeastern borderlands of the Yukon-Koyukuk basin. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane (represented by klippen of ultramafic rocks and prehnite-pumpellyite-facies metabasite, metatuff, metachert, and metasedimentary rocks) onto the continental margin. The present structural and metamorphic relation between the continental blueschistand greenschist-facies rocks and the structurally overlying lower temperature and pressure oceanic prehnite-pumpellyite-facies rocks to the south indicates that postmetamorphic or late metamorphic down-to-the-south, low-angle extensional faulting has dismembered the upper plate and removed much of the section that originally buried the blueschists. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate

  17. Potential for Expanding the Near Real Time ForWarn Regional Forest Monitoring System to Include Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    The on-line near real time (NRT) ForWarn system is currently deployed to monitor regional forest disturbances within the conterminous United States (CONUS), using daily MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI data to derive monitoring products. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated such a system. Work on ForWarn began in 2006 with development and validation of retrospective MODIS NDVI-based forest monitoring products. Subsequently, NRT forest disturbance monitoring products were demonstrated, leading to the actual system deployment in 2010. ForWarn provides new CONUS forest disturbance monitoring products every 8 days, using USGS eMODIS data for current NDVI. ForWarn currently does not cover Alaska, which includes extensive forest lands at risk to multiple biotic and abiotic threats. This poster discusses a case study using Alaska eMODIS Terra data to derive ForWarn like forest change products during the 2010 growing season. The eMODIS system provides current MODIS Terra NDVI products for Alaska. Resulting forest change products were assessed with ground, aerial, and Landsat reference data. When cloud and snow free, these preliminary products appeared to capture regional forest disturbances from insect defoliation and fires; however, more work is needed to mitigate cloud and snow contamination, including integration of eMODIS Aqua data.

  18. Historical Trends and Regional Differences in All-Cause and Amenable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Since 1950

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated. PMID:24754651

  19. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  20. Diets and food-web relationships of seabirds in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Overall diets of 39 species of marine birds (four procellariiforms, three cormorants, six sea ducks, one phalarope, two jaegers, 17 gulls, two terns, and 13 alcids) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions are summarized with food-web diagrams, tables, and text. Diets of the Northern Fulmar, Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters, Pelagic Cormorant, Black-legged Kittiwake, Common and Thick-billed Murres, Marbled and Kittlitz's Murrelets, and Horned and Tufted Puffins are compared among seasons and geographic regions.

  1. Impact of source region on the δ18O signal in snow: A case study from Mount Wrangell Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kent; Field, Robert; Benson, Carl

    2016-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water in ice cores is an important source of information on past climate variability. At its simplest level, the underlying assumption is that there is an empirical relationship between the normalized difference in the concentration for these stable isotopes and a specified local temperature at the ice core site. There are however non-local processes, such as a change in source region or a change in the atmospheric pathway, that can impact the stable isotope signal thereby complicating its use as a proxy for temperature. Here we investigate the importance of these non-local processes through the analysis of the synoptic-scale circulation during a snowfall event at the summit of Mount Wrangell, in south-central Alaska just to the east of the Gulf of Alaska. During this event there was, over a one-day period in which the local temperature was approximately constant, a change in δ18O that exceeded half that normally seen to occur between summer and winter in the region. As we shall show, this arose from a change in the source region, from the sub-tropical eastern Pacific to northeastern Asia for the snow that fell on Mount Wrangell during the event. The recognition that non-local processes play a role in the stable isotope record from the Gulf of Alaska region suggests that these records, in addition to a local temperature signal, also contain signals of large-scale modes of climate variability that impact the North Pacific region such as the Pacific North America teleconnection and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation.

  2. Effects of the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, on shore processes and beach morphology: Chapter J in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Kirk W.

    1968-01-01

    Some 10,000 miles of shoreline in south-central Alaska was affected by the subsidence or uplift associated with the great Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The changes in shoreline processes and beach morphology that were suddenly initiated by the earthquake were similar to those ordinarily caused by gradual changes in sea level operating over hundreds of years, while other more readily visible changes were similar to some of the effects of great but short-lived storms. Phenomena became available for observation within a few hours which would otherwise not have been available for many years. In the subsided areas—including the shorelines of the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and Cook Inlet—beaches tended to flatten in gradient and to recede shoreward. Minor beach features were altered or destroyed on submergence but began to reappear and to stabilize in their normal shapes within a few months after the earthquake. Frontal beach ridges migrated shoreward and grew higher and wider than they were before. Along narrow beaches backed by bluffs, the relatively higher sea level led to vigorous erosion of the bluff toes. Stream mouths were drowned and some were altered by seismic sea waves, but they adjusted within a few months to the new conditions. In the uplifted areas, generally around Prince William Sound, virtually all beaches were stranded out of reach of the sea. New beaches are gradually developing to fit new sea levels, but the processes are slow, in part because the material on the lower parts of the old beaches is predominantly fine grained. Streams were lengthened in the emergent areas, and down cutting and bank erosion have increased. Except at Homer and a few small villages, where groins, bulkheads, and cobble-filled baskets were installed, there has been little attempt to protect the postearthquake shorelines. The few structures that were built have been only partially successful because there was too little time to study the habits of the new shore

  3. Paleoclimatic significance of Middle Pleistocene glacial deposits in the Kotzebue Sound region, northwest coastal Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, S.R.; Brigham-Grette, J. )

    1992-01-01

    During Middle Pleistocene time, glaciers extended from the western Brooks Range in NW Alaska to the coast at Kotzebue Sound, forming Baldwin Peninsula, a 120 km-long terminal moraine. Marine, glacigenic, and fluvial facies exposed along coastal bluffs surrounding Kotzebue Sound and Hotham Inlet indicate that at least the initial stages of the glacial advance occurred while sea level was high enough to cover the shallow Bering Shelf. Although it is presently uncertain if the ice actually reached tidewater before extensive middle-latitude ice-sheet formation, the marine and glacigenic facies clearly indicate that this advance must have occurred significantly out-of-phase with lower latitude glaciation. The authors believe an ice-free Bering Sea provided the moisture for glacier growth during the waning phases of a global interglacial climate. Although the magnitude of the Baldwin Peninsula advance was large compared to late Pleistocene advances, the timing with respect to sea level is consistent with observations by Miller and de Vernal that late Pleistocene polar glaciations also occurred near the end of interglacial periods, when global sea level was high, high-latitude oceans were relatively warm, and summer insolation was decreasing. An important implication of this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis is that the critical transition point between climate states may be earlier in the interglacial-glacial cycle than previously thought. Because it appears that climate change is initiated in polar regions while the rest of Earth is experiencing an interglacial climate, many of their climate models must be revised. The glacial record at Baldwin Peninsula provides an opportunity to test, revise, and perhaps extend this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis to the middle Pleistocene interval.

  4. Tree ring and glacial records of Holocene climate change, northern Gulf of Alaska region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, David J.

    1998-11-01

    Tree-ring cross-dates of glacially overrun trees at eight sites around western Prince William Sound show ice margins advanced in the early (late 12th through 13th centuries AD) and middle (17th to early 18th centuries) Little Ice Age. Tree-ring dates of 22 moraines at 13 glaciers in the same region indicate an early period of moraine stabilization in the early 18th century. This overlaps with the second period of glaciers overrunning trees and marks culmination of this middle Little Ice Age advance. Moraine stabilization on nine of the study forefields in the latter 19th century delineates a third interval of Little Ice Age glacial expansion. These intervals of land-terminating glacier advance are synchronous with other tree-ring dated glacial histories from around the northern Gulf of Alaska, suggesting common climatic forcing across this region. Ring-widths in a 1119-year long tree-ring-width chronology developed from subfossil and living trees on glacial forefields around western Prince William Sound are primarily controlled by May through July temperatures of the growth year. Multi-decadal length warm periods in western Prince William Sound during the past 750 years were centered on 1300, 1440, 1730 and 1950 AD. Major cool periods were centered on 1400, 1660 and 1870 AD. Surficial mapping and 52 radiocarbon ages enable reconstruction of the Holocene glacial history of Yakutat Bay and Russell Fiord. Following an early to middle Holocene non-glacial interval, Hubbard Glacier began an advance at ~5600 cal. BP that culminated between ~4300 and 3474 cal. BP. Retreat by ~3200 cal. BP preceded readvance to Holocene maxima in Yakutat Bay and Russell Fiord at ~725 cal. BP (1225 cal. AD). The Hubbard ice margin in Yakutat Bay retreated by 1245 cal. AD, and was behind its modern position by 1791 AD. Ice from the Brabazon Range kept the Russell Fiord glacier lobe at its maximum until retreat during the late 18th and 19th centuries AD. The extent and timing of specific

  5. Educational Needs of Alaska. A Summary by Region and Ethnic Group, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World-Wide Education and Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT.

    During 1972 Worldwide Education and Research Institute conducted a statewide needs assessment in Alaska. Initially more than 2,000 Alaskans responded to an extensive questionnaire or interview about the State's schools. After gathering the data, 9 groups of representative Alaskans were convened for documenting and validating critical educational…

  6. Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

    1985-12-01

    The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

  7. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  8. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964 in the Copper River Basin area, Alaska: Chapter E in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrians, Oscar J.

    1966-01-01

    The Copper River Basin area is in south-central Alaska and covers 17,800 square miles. It includes most of the Copper River Basin and parts of the surrounding Alaska Range and the Talkeetna, Chugach, and Wrangell Mountains. On March 27, 1964, shortly after 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time, a great earthquake having a Richter magnitude of about 8.5 struck south-central Alaska. Computations by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey place the epicenter of the main shock at lat 61.1° N. and long 147.7° W., and the hypocenter, or actual point of origin, from 20 to 50 kilometers below the surface. The epicenter is near the western shore of Unakwik Inlet in northern Prince William Sound; it is 30 miles from the closest point within the area of study and 180 miles from the farthest point. Releveling data obtained in 1964 after the earthquake indicates that broad areas of south-central Alaska were warped by uplift and subsidence. The configuration of these areas generally parallels the trend of the major tectonic elements of the region. Presumably a large part of this change took place during and immediately after the 1964 earthquake. The water level in several wells in the area lowered appreciably, and the water in many became turbid; generally, however, within a few days after the earthquake the water level returned to normal and the suspended sediment settled out. Newspaper reports that the Copper River was completely dammed and Tazlina Lake drained proved erroneous. The ice on most lakes was cracked, especially around the margins of the lakes where floating ice broke free from the ice frozen to the shore. Ice on Tazlina, Klutina, and Tonsina Lakes was intensely fractured by waves generated by sublacustrine landslides off the fronts of deltas. These waves stranded large blocks of ice above water level along the shores. River ice was generally cracked in the southern half of the area and was locally cracked in the northern half. In the area of study, the majority of the

  9. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  10. Mercury and selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, and regions of the heart and kidney in bearded seals from Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Castellini, J Margaret; Quakenbush, Lori T; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-10-01

    Mean concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) (mass and molar-based) were determined for 5 regions of the heart and 2 regions of the kidney of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) harvested in Alaska, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Mean [THg] and [TSe] of bearded seal liver and skeletal muscle tissues were used for intertissular comparison. The Se:Hg molar ratios were used to investigate elemental associations and potential antioxidant protection against Hg toxicosis. Age was an important factor in [THg] and Se:Hg molar ratios in heart and kidney. Small but statistically significant differences in mean [THg] occurred among some of the 5 heart regions (p < 0.05). Mean [THg] was highest in liver, 3.057 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.017 µg/g. Mean [THg] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). Mean [TSe] was highest in liver, 3.848 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.632 µg/g. Mean [TSe] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). The Se:Hg molar ratios were significantly greater than 1.0 in all tissues (p < 0.001) and represented baselines for normal [TSe] under relatively low [THg]. Mean Se:Hg molar ratios ranked: heart left ventricle > kidney medulla > kidney cortex (p < 0.001).

  11. Volcanoes of the Wrangell Mountains and Cook Inlet region, Alaska: selected photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska is home to more than 40 active volcanoes, many of which have erupted violently and repeatedly in the last 200 years. This CD-ROM contains 97 digitized color 35-mm images which represent a small fraction of thousands of photographs taken by Alaska Volcano Observatory scientists, other researchers, and private citizens. The photographs were selected to portray Alaska's volcanoes, to document recent eruptive activity, and to illustrate the range of volcanic phenomena observed in Alaska. These images are for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry. The digital images are stored in the 'images' folder and can be read across Macintosh, Windows, DOS, OS/2, SGI, and UNIX platforms with applications that can read JPG (JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group format) or PCD (Kodak's PhotoCD (YCC) format) files. Throughout this publication, the image numbers match among the file names, figure captions, thumbnail labels, and other references. Also included on this CD-ROM are Windows and Macintosh viewers and engines for keyword searches (Adobe Acrobat Reader with Search). At the time of this publication, Kodak's policy on the distribution of color-management files is still unresolved, and so none is included on this CD-ROM. However, using the Universal Ektachrome or Universal Kodachrome transforms found in your software will provide excellent color. In addition to PhotoCD (PCD) files, this CD-ROM contains large (14.2'x19.5') and small (4'x6') screen-resolution (72 dots per inch; dpi) images in JPEG format. These undergo downsizing and compression relative to the PhotoCD images.

  12. Using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to estimate Holocene regional and local vegetation composition in the Boreal Forests of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopla, Emma-Jayne; Edwards, Mary; Langdon, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation is already responding to increasing global temperatures, with shrubs expanding northwards in the Arctic in a process called "greening". Lakes are important features within these changing landscapes, and lake ecosystems are affected by the vegetation in their catchments. Use of dated sediment archives can reveal how lake ecosystems responded to past changes over timescales relevant to vegetation dynamics (decades to centuries). Holocene vegetation changes have been reconstructed for small lake catchments in Alaska to help understand the long-term interactions between vegetation and within lake processes. A quantitative estimate of vegetation cover around these small lakes clarifies the catchment drivers of lake ecosystem processes. Pollen productivity is one of the major parameters used to make quantitative estimates of land cover from palaeodata. Based on extensive fieldwork, we obtained first Pollen Productivity Estimates (PPEs) for the main arboreal taxa in interior Alaska. We used the model REVEALS to estimate the regional vegetation abundance from existing pollen data from large lakes in the region based on Alaskan and European pollen productivity estimates (PPEs). Quantitative estimates of vegetation cover differ from those based on pollen percentages alone. The model LOVE will then be applied to smaller lake basins that are the subject of detailed palaeoliminological investigations in order to estimate the local composition at these sites.

  13. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Q; Melillo, J M; McGuire, A D; Kicklighter, D W; Prinn, R G; Steudler, P A; Felzer, B S; Hu, S

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are approximately 3 Tg CH4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr).

  14. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Felzer, B.S.; Hu, S.

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are ???3 Tg CH 4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH 4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr). ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Isotope and trace element data bearing of the sources and evolution of magmas in the Katmai region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstone, J.L.; Langmuir, C.H.; Hildreth, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Katmai volcanic province, Alaska Peninsula, includes the catastrophic 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) eruption, and five andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes. The VTTS is markedly uniform in /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd (0.51301) and delta/sup 18/O (6.0 per thousands) but has a small but significant variation in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr (0.70354 in andesite and dacite, 0.70368 in rhyolite). The rhyolite's low Sr content (63 ppm) makes it particularly susceptible to crustal contamination; assimilation of only 1% of Jurassic country rock (0.70480, 400 ppm Sr) is sufficient. Dacite from the 1959 eruption of nearby Mt. Trident and a basalt boulder from the rim of Mt. Katmai are isotopically similar to the VTTS andesite and dacite. Dacite from Mt. Mageik has higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, whereas the least-silicic in situ lava in the region, an andesite from Mt. Griggs, has the lowest /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr (0.70335). The Katmai Province falls within the narrow range of /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd for Quaternary lavas from the Aleutians and SW Alaska Peninsula (0.51298-0.51310) but at the high end of the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr range. Along with the greater abundance of evolved lavas, this probably reflects progressively thicker crust northward along the Alaska Peninsula, although simple assimilation of upper crust cannot explain all of the isotopic data. Isotopic systematics, and Aleutian-type trace-element patterns (La/Yb > chondrites, high Ba/La), indicate that the parental magmas at Katmai are likewise derived from a time-integrated depleted mantle, recently modified by a component from the subducted slab.

  16. FY10 RARE Final Report to Region 10: The functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin - report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peatlands in south central Alaska form the predominant wetland class in the lowlands that encompass Cook Inlet. These peatlands are also in areas of increasing human development in Alaska. Currently Alaska peatlands are extensive and largely pristine. This study focused onobtaini...

  17. EPA Superfund Records of Decision (RODs) for Region 10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of an EPA Record of Decision is to evaluate a Superfund Site with the goal of protecting human health and the environment while ensuring consistency of evaluations in contamination and clean-up of all Superfund sites. The ROD is a public document signed by the appropriate Regional Administrator which details cleanup, cost estimates, and EPA`s responsiveness to the public comment summary. The ROD may be litigated, thus it is important to have all current updates to the signed EPA decision. The ROD may be amended with an Amendment or supplemented by an Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD). A Superfund Site may have multiple RODs, as each Superfund Site may be further redefined as Operable Units and Events. This allows EPA`s decisions to evolve as new technology presents itself. Average clean-up time for a Superfund Site can range from 12 to 100 years.

  18. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  19. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  20. EPA Regional Administrator and American Indian Environmental Office Director Present Recognition of Innovation to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's LEO Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 10, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran and EPA American Indian Environmental Office National Director JoAnn Chase will present a Recognition of Innovation award to the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium'

  1. Development of the Alaska Heritage Stewardship Program for protection of cultural resources at increased risk due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Restoration study number 104a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, D.G.; Reger, D.

    1994-08-01

    The authors developed a stewardship program, based on functioning models in Arizona and Texas, to train interested local groups and individuals to protect cultural resources. The program was adapted to Alaska`s remoteness, sparse populations, and climate by giving Stewards greater flexibility to deal with local conditions. The State Office of History and Archaeology and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are attempting to implement Stewardship in areas expressing interest.

  2. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  3. The giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding region, southwest Alaska: introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James R.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble deposit is located about 320 km southwest of and 27 km northwest of the village of Iliamna in Alaska (Fig. 1A). It is one of the largest porphyry deposits in terms of contained Cu (Fig. 2A) and it has the largest Au endowment of any porphyry deposit in the world (Fig. 2B). The deposit comprises the Pebble West and Pebble East zones that represent two coeval hydrothermal centers within a single system (Lang et al., 2013). Together the measured and indicated resources total 5,942 million metric tons (Mt) at 0.42% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au, and 250 ppm Mo with an inferred resource of 4,835 Mt at 0.24% Cu, 0.26 g/t Au, and 215 ppm Mo. In addition, the deposit contains significant concentrations of Ag, Pd, and Re (Northern Dynasty Minerals, 2011).

  4. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  5. Sampson v. state of Alaska: in the Supreme Court of the state of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, B A

    2001-01-01

    HELD: The Alaska Constitution's guarantees of privacy and liberty do not afford terminally ill persons the right to a physician's assistance in committing suicide and Alaska's statute prohibiting suicide assistance does not violate their right of equal protection.

  6. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  7. Impact of Source Region on the delta18 O signal in snow: A case study from Mount Wrangell Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G.W.K.; Field, Robert D.; Benson, Carl S.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water in ice cores is an important source of information on past climate variability. At its simplest level, the underlying assumption is that there is an empirical relationship between the normalized difference in the concentration for these stable isotopes and a specified local temperature at the ice core site. There are, however, nonlocal processes, such as a change in source region or a change in the atmospheric pathway, which can impact the stable isotope signal, thereby complicating its use as a proxy for temperature. In this paper, the importance of these nonlocal processes are investigated through the analysis of the synoptic-scale circulation during a snowfall event at the summit of Mount Wrangell (62 deg N, 144 deg W; 4300 m MSL) in south-central Alaska. During this event there was, over a 1-day period in which the local temperature was approximately constant, a change in delta18 O that exceeded half that normally seen to occur in the region between summer and winter. As shall be shown, this arose from a change in the source region, from the subtropical eastern Pacific to northeastern Asia, for the snow that fell on Mount Wrangell during the event.

  8. Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska: Chapter B in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuthill, Samuel J.; Laird, Wilson M.

    1966-01-01

    The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, caused widespread geomorphic changes in the Martin-Bering Rivers area-900 square miles of uninhabited mountains, alluvial flatlands, and marshes north of the Gulf of Alaska, and east of the Copper River. This area is at lat 60°30’ N. and long 144°22’ W., 32 miles east of Cordova, and approximately 130 miles east-southeast of the epicenter of the earthquake. The geomorphic effects observed were: (1) earthquake-induced ground fractures, (2) mudvent deposits, (3) “earthquake-fountain” craters, (4) subsidence, (5) mudcones, (6) avalanches, (7) subaqueous landslides, (8) turbidity changes in ice-basined lakes on the Martin River glacier, (9) filling of ice-walled sinkholes, (10) gravel-coated snow cones, (11) lake ice fractures, and (12) uplift accompanied the earthquake. In addition to geomorphic effects, the earthquake affected the animal populations of the area. These include migratory fish, terrestrial mollusks, fur-bearing animals, and man. The Alaska earthquake clearly delineated areas of alluvial fill, snow and rock avalanche corridors, and deltas of the deeper lakes as unsuitable for future construction.

  9. UAFSmoke Modeling in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Grell, G.; Freitas, S.; Newby, G.

    2008-12-01

    Alaska wildfires have strong impact on air pollution on regional Arctic, Sub-Arctic and even hemispheric scales. In response to a high number of wildfires in Alaska, emphasis has been placed on developing a forecast system for wildfire smoke dispersion in Alaska. We have developed a University of Alaska Fairbanks WRF/Chem smoke (UAFSmoke) dispersion system, which has been adapted and initialized with source data suitable for Alaska. UAFSmoke system modules include detection of wildfire location and area using Alaska Fire Service information and satellite remote sensing data from the MODIS instrument. The fire emissions are derived from above ground biomass fuel load data in one-kilometer resolution. WRF/Chem Version 3 with online chemistry and online plume dynamics represents the core of the UAFSmoke system. Besides wildfire emissions and NOAA's Global Forecast System meteorology, WRF/Chem initial and boundary conditions are updated with anthropogenic and sea salt emission data from the Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model. System runs are performed at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center's Sun Opteron cluster "Midnight". During the 2008 fire season once daily UAFSmoke runs were presented at a dedicated webpage at http://smoke.arsc.edu. We present examples from these routine runs and from the extreme 2004 Alaska wildfire season.

  10. Association between cedar decline and hillslope stability in mountainous regions of southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Wilcock, P.

    2002-07-01

    Old-growth forests experiencing widespread decline of yellow-cedar ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) in southeast Alaska have a 3.8-fold increase in the frequency of landslides. We report here on an investigation of the cause of this increased slope instability. Time since death of cedar was assessed using surveys around landslide sites. Root decay on dead trees was used to estimate the decline in the apparent soil strength provided by roots. Changes in soil hydrology were measured with 120 piezometers located in areas of healthy cedar, healthy spruce/hemlock, and sites with cedar decline. Relative influences on slope stability by changes in soil moisture and root strength were evaluated with a simple stability model. At most sites, soil depth is <0.7 m, and the loss of root strength has an important and possibly dominant influence on slope instability. In soils deeper than 1 m, changes in pore pressure have a proportionately larger influence on slope stability. Landslides appear most likely when cedar decline reaches snag class IV (approximately 50 years after tree death), when most of the cedar root strength is lost and root strength from secondary growth has yet to develop.

  11. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  12. Protecting Health from Climate Change in the WHO European Region

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Tanja; Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Williams, Eloise; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    “How far are we in the WHO European Region in implementing action to counter the health impacts of climate change?” This was the question posed to representatives of Member States in the WHO European Region of in the WHO working group on health in climate change (HIC). Twenty-two Member States provided answers to a comprehensive 2012 questionnaire that focused on eight thematic areas (governance; vulnerability, impact and adaptation (health) assessments (VIA); adaptation strategies and action plans; climate change mitigation; strengthening health systems; raising awareness and building capacity; greening health services; and sharing best practices). Strong development has been in climate change vulnerability and impact assessments, as well as strengthening health systems and awareness raising. Areas where implementation would benefit from further action are the development of national health adaptation plans, greening health systems, sharing best practices and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in other sectors. At the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Itatly in 2010, the European Commitment to Act on climate change and health and the European Regional Framework for Action to protect health from climate change were endorsed by the fifty-three European Member States. The results of this questionnaire present the most comprehensive assessment so far of progress made by European Member States to protect public health from climate change since the Parma Conference agreements. PMID:24937528

  13. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  14. Precise Landslide Displacement Time Series from Continuous GPS Observations in Tectonically Active and Cold Regions: A Case Study in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddus, Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, Global Positioning System (GPS) has been frequently used as a scientific tool to detect potential earth mass movements and to track creeping landslides. In this study, we investigated four-years of continuous GPS data (September 2006-July 2010) recorded at a landslide site in Alaska. This GPS station (AC55) was installed on an un-identified creeping site by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) project, which was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The landslide moves with a steady horizontal velocity of 5.5 cm/year toward NEE, and had a subsidence rate of 2.6 cm/year. There was a considerable correlation between annual snow loading and melting cycles and seasonal variations of the landslide displacements. The seasonal movements vary year to year with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.5 cm and 1.0 cm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. This study addresses three challenging issues in applying GPS for landslide monitoring in tectonically active and cold regions. The three challenges include (1) detecting GPS-derived positions that could be contaminated by the snow and ice accumulated on GPS antennas during cold seasons, (2) establishing a precise local reference frame and assessing its accuracy, and (3) excluding local seasonal ground motions from GPS-derived landslide displacements. The methods introduced in this study will be useful for GPS landslide monitoring in other tectonically active and/or cold regions.

  15. 40 CFR 81.402 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alaska. 81.402 Section 81.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.402 Alaska. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  16. Chronostratigraphical Subdivision of the Late Glacial and the Holocene for the Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michczynska, D. J.; Hajdas, I.

    2009-04-01

    Our work is a kind of so called data mining. The first step of our work was collection of the radiocarbon data for samples coming from Alaska. We construct data base using Radiocarbon Measurements Lists published by different radiocarbon laboratories (mainly in the journal 'Radiocaron'). The next step was careful analysis of collected dates. We excluded from our analysis all dates suspected of contamination by younger or older organic matter. Such fact could be stated, for instance, on the base of inconsistency of radiocarbon age and stratigraphy or palynology. Finally, we calibrated whole large set of chosen radiocarbon dates and construct probability density function (PDF). Analysis of the shape of PDF was the subject of the previous research (eg. Michczynska and Pazdur, 2004; Macklin et al., 2006; Starkel et al., 2006, Michczynska et al., 2007). In our analysis we take into account the distinct tendency to collect samples from specific horizons. It is a general rule to take samples for radiocarbon dating from places of visible sedimentation changes or changes in palynological diagram. Therefore the culminations of the PDF represent periods of environmental changes and could be helpful in identifying the chronostratigraphical boundaries on the calendar time scale. References: Michczyńska D.J., Pazdur A., 2004. A shape analysis of cumulative probability density function of radiocarbon dates set in the study of climate change in Late Glacial and Holocene. Radiocarbon 46(2): 733-744. Michczyńska D.J., Michczyński A., Pazdur A. 2007. Frequency distribution of radiocarbon dates as a tool for reconstructing environmental changes. Radiocarbon 49(2): 799-806. Macklin M.G., Benito G., Gregory K.J., Johnstone E., Lewin J., Michczyńska D.J., Soja R., Starkel L., Thorndycraft V.R., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial record of Europe. CATENA 66: 145-154. Starkel L., Soja R., Michczyńska D.J., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in

  17. Digital Data for the Reconnaissance Geologic Map for the Kuskokwim Bay Region of Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Digital Files Preparation: Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Shew, Nora; Labay, Keith A.; Geologic Map Compilers: Wilson, Frederic H.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  18. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Pamela K.; Waghiyi, Viola; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Byrne, Samuel Carter; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Eckstein, Lorraine; Scrudato, Ronald; Chiarenzelli, Jeff; Carpenter, David O.; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure

  19. A Data-Assimilative Modeling System for the Gulf of Alaska based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrara, J.; Chao, Y.; Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Jin, X.; Li, P.

    2010-12-01

    A ROMS-based data-assimilative modeling system for the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) has been developed. A three-level, nested ROMS configuration is used: the largest level (L0) covers an extended region of the GoA at a horizontal resolution of 9km; the next level (L1) is nested in L0 and covers the northern GoA at a horizontal resolution of 3km; the last level (L2) is nested in L1 and focuses on the region around the Prince William Sound at a horizontal resolution of 1km. The system is forced at the ocean surface by output from regional and global atmospheric models and by freshwater runoff from land obtained via real-time execution of a digital elevation model forced by air temperature and precipitation data from the regional and global atmospheric models.. In-situ and satellite measurements are assimilated using a multi-scale 3-dimensional variational (MS-3DVAR) data assimilation scheme. In addition, parallel real-time runs of the system coupled with the COSINE ecosystem model have been performed. The performance of the system has recently been evaluated using data gathered during the Sound Predictions field experiment held in the Prince William Sound (PWS) region during summer 2009. During the experiment, the system was run daily in near real-time. Nowcasts were produced every 6 hours and a 48-hr forecast was run once per day.The overall flow pattern within the PWS as revealed by HF radar surface current observations and surface drifters was realistically reproduced by the ROMS model. In addition, a comparison of the model temperature and salinity profiles with those gathered by ship CTD, glider and Remus AUV show overall excellent agreement. For the temperature, the overall bias was found to be small (-0.12C) and the RMS difference was also reasonably small (0.83C) with good agreement across all temperatures (depths) sampled. For the salinity, there was good agreement at the higher salinities (larger depths), but there was a salty bias at lower salinities (shallower

  20. Pliocene terrace gravels of the ancestral Yukon River near Circle, Alaska: Palynology, paleobotany, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Matthews, J.V.; Yeend, W.

    1994-01-01

    Gravels deposited by the ancestral Yukon River are preserved in terrace remnants on the margins of the Yukon River valley near the village of Circle in east-central Alaska. Plant fossils recovered from sandy silt lenses within these gravels include cones and needles of Picea and Larix and a variety of seeds. Seed types include several taxa which no longer grow in Alaska, such as Epipremnum, Prunus and Weigela. Pollen types recovered from these deposits represent tree and shrub taxa that grow in interior Alaska today, such as Picea, Larix, Betula and Alnus, as well as several taxa that no longer grow in interior Alaska today, such as Pinus, Tsuga, Abies and Corylus. Pollen of herb taxa identified include Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Compositae, Polemonium and Epilobium. The fossil flora from the gravels near Circle are similar and probably age-equivalent to the flora recovered from the Nenana Gravel in the Alaska Range 250 km to the south. Palynological and tectonic evidence summarized in this paper now suggests that the Nenana Gravel was deposited during the early and middle Pliocene. The presence of plant fossils of Tsuga, Abies, Pinus, Weigela and Prunus suggests that the mean annual temperature (MAT) of eastern interior Alaska during the early and middle Pliocene was perhaps 7-9??C warmer and less continental than today's MAT of -6.4??C. ?? 1994.

  1. Regional Geochemical Results from the Reanalysis of NURE Stream Sediment Samples - Eagle 3? Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Brown, Z.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents reconnaissance geochemical data for a cooperative study in the Fortymile Mining District, east-central Alaska, initiated in 1997. This study has been funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program. Cooperative funds were provided from various State of Alaska sources through the Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Results presented here represent the initial reconnaissance phase for this multidisciplinary cooperative study. In this phase, 239 sediment samples from the Eagle 3? Quadrangle of east-central Alaska, which had been collected and analyzed for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE) of the 1970's (Hoffman and Buttleman, 1996; Smith, 1997), are reanalyzed by newer analytical methods that are more sensitive, accurate, and precise (Arbogast, 1996; Taggart, 2002). The main objectives for the reanalysis of these samples were to establish lower limits of determination for some elements and to confirm the NURE data as a reliable predictive reconnaissance tool for future studies in Alaska's Eagle 3? Quadrangle. This study has wide implications for using the archived NURE samples and data throughout Alaska for future studies.

  2. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  3. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... extension of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  4. Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierstein, Judy

    2007-03-01

    At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai cluster of volcanoes and another nine from other volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between Kaguyak volcano and Mount Martin and from Shelikof Strait to Bristol Bay (˜8,500 km2). Five tephra layers are distinctive and widespread enough to be used as marker horizons in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes area, and 140 radiocarbon dates on enclosing soils have established a time framework for entire soil tephra sections to 10 ka; the white rhyolitic ash from the 1912 plinian eruption of Novarupta caps almost all sections. Stratigraphy, distribution and tephra characteristics have been combined with microprobe analyses of glass and Fe Ti oxide minerals to correlate ash layers with their source vents. Microprobe analyses (typically 20 50 analyses per glass or oxide sample) commonly show oxide compositions to be more definitive than glass in distinguishing one tephra from another; oxides from the Kaguyak caldera-forming event are so compositionally coherent that they have been used as internal standards throughout this study. Other than the Novarupta and Trident eruptions of the last century, the youngest locally derived tephra is associated with emplacement of the Snowy Mountain summit dome (<250 14C years B.P.). East Mageik has erupted most frequently during Holocene time with seven explosive events (9,400 to 2,400 14C years B.P.) preserved as tephra layers. Mount Martin erupted entirely during the Holocene, with lava coulees (>6 ka), two tephras (˜3,700 and ˜2,700 14C years B.P.), and a summit scoria cone with a crater still steaming today. Mount Katmai has three times produced very large explosive plinian to sub-plinian events (in 1912; 12 16 ka; and 23 ka) and many smaller pyroclastic deposits show that explosive

  5. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  6. Boreal temperature variability inferred from maximum latewood density and tree-ring width data, Wrangell Mountain region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, Nicole K.; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2003-11-01

    Variations in both width and density of annual rings from a network of tree chronologies were used to develop high-resolution proxies to extend the climate record in the Wrangell Mountain region of Alaska. We developed a warm-season (July-September) temperature reconstruction that spans A.D. 1593-1992 based on the first eigenvector from principal component analysis of six maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies. The climate/tree-growth model accounts for 51% of the temperature variance from 1958 to 1992 and shows cold in the late 1600s-early 1700s followed by a warmer period, cooling in the late 1700s-early 1800s, and warming in the 20th century. The 20th century is the warmest of the past four centuries. Several severely cold warm-seasons coincide with major volcanic eruptions. The first eigenvector from a ring-width (RW) network, based on nine chronologies from the Wrangell Mountain region (A.D. 1550-1970), is correlated positively with both reconstructed and recorded Northern Hemisphere temperatures. RW shows a temporal history similar to that of MXD by increased growth (warmer) and decreased growth (cooler) intervals and trends. After around 1970 the RW series show a decrease in growth, while station data show continued warming, which may be related to increasing moisture stress or other factors. Both the temperature history based on MXD and the growth trends from the RW series are consistent with well-dated glacier fluctuations in the Wrangell Mountains and some of the temperature variations also correspond to variations in solar activity.

  7. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... communities and monitors the ``economic stability for harvesters, processors, and coastal communities.'' The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides specific guidance on the CR Program's mandatory economic data...

  8. 78 FR 40103 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... markings. The marking of gear aids law enforcement and enables other fishermen to report on misplaced gear. II. Method of Collection No information is submitted; this is a gear-marking requirement. ] III....

  9. 75 FR 31761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... also specify the size and color of markings. The marking of gear aids law enforcement and enables other fishermen to report on misplaced gear. II. Method of Collection No information is submitted; this is a...

  10. Explosive eruptive record in the Katmai region, Alaska Peninsula: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, Judy

    2007-01-01

    At least 15 explosive eruptions from the Katmai cluster of volcanoes and another nine from other volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula are preserved as tephra layers in syn- and post-glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) loess and soil sections in Katmai National Park, AK. About 400 tephra samples from 150 measured sections have been collected between Kaguyak volcano and Mount Martin and from Shelikof Strait to Bristol Bay (∼8,500 km2 ). Five tephra layers are distinctive and widespread enough to be used as marker horizons in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes area, and 140 radiocarbon dates on enclosing soils have established a time framework for entire soil–tephra sections to 10 ka; the white rhyolitic ash from the 1912 plinian eruption of Novarupta caps almost all sections. Stratigraphy, distribution and tephra characteristics have been combined with microprobe analyses of glass and Fe– Ti oxide minerals to correlate ash layers with their source vents. Microprobe analyses (typically 20–50 analyses per glass or oxide sample) commonly show oxide compositions to be more definitive than glass in distinguishing one tephra from another; oxides from the Kaguyak caldera-forming event are so compositionally coherent that they have been used as internal standards throughout this study. Other than the Novarupta and Trident eruptions of the last century, the youngest locally derived tephra is associated with emplacement of the Snowy Mountain summit dome (<250 14C years B.P.). East Mageik has erupted most frequently during Holocene time with seven explosive events (9,400 to 2,400 14C years B.P.) preserved as tephra layers. Mount Martin erupted entirely during the Holocene, with lava coulees (>6 ka), two tephras (∼3,700 and ∼2,700 14C years B.P.), and a summit scoria cone with a crater still steaming today. Mount Katmai has three times produced very large explosive plinian to sub-plinian events (in 1912; 12– 16 ka; and 23 ka) and many smaller pyroclastic deposits show that

  11. X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycans, Randal W.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

  12. Stress transfer to the Denali and other regional faults from the M 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    Stress transfer from the great 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake is modeled on the Denali fault, including the Denali-Totschunda fault segments that ruptured in 2002, and on other regional fault systems where M 7.5 and larger earthquakes have occurred since 1900. The results indicate that analysis of Coulomb stress transfer from the dominant earthquake in a region is a potentially powerful tool in assessing time-varying earthquake hazard. Modeled Coulomb stress increases on the northern Denali and Totschunda faults from the great 1964 earthquake coincide with zones that ruptured in the 2002 Denali fault earthquake, although stress on the Susitna Glacier thrust plane, where the 2002 event initiated, was decreased. A southeasterlytrending Coulomb stress transect along the right-lateral Totschunda-Fairweather-Queen Charlotte trend shows stress transfer from the 1964 event advancing slip on the Totschunda, Fairweather, and Queen Charlotte segments, including the southern Fairweather segment that ruptured in 1972. Stress transfer retarding right-lateral strike slip was observed from the southern part of the Totschunda fault to the northern end of the Fairweather fault (1958 rupture). This region encompasses a gap with shallow thrust faulting but with little evidence of strike-slip faulting connecting the segments to the northwest and southeast. Stress transfer toward failure was computed on the north-south trending right-lateral strike-slip faults in the Gulf of Alaska that ruptured in 1987 and 1988, with inhibitory stress changes at the northern end of the northernmost (1987) rupture. The northern Denali and Totschunda faults, including the zones that ruptured in the 2002 earthquakes, follow very closely (within 3%), for about 90??, an arc of a circle of radius 375 km. The center of this circle is within a few kilometers of the intersection at depth of the Patton Bay fault with the Alaskan megathrust. This inferred asperity edge may be the pole of counterclockwise

  13. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  14. Initial assessment of the hydrothermal resources of the Summer Bay region on Unalaska Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    As the result of geologic investigations and shallow exploratory drilling, a potentially developable warm-water artesian aquifer was found in shallow unconsolidated deposits near the Summer Bay warm spring, which is located near the Unalaska community on Unalaska Island. The actual water source for the warm spring and the warm-water aquifer is not well understood, but the source is probably directly related to deep N. 50/sup 0/W fractures. Magma is suspected to exist in such fractures at great depths in this region.

  15. Controls on northern wetland methane emissions: insights from regional synthesis studies and the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Czimczik, C. I.; Waldrop, M. P.; Olefeldt, D.; Fan, Z.; Kane, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane. Static chambers have been used to quantify variation in wetland CH4 flux for many decades. Regional to global scale synthesis studies of static chamber measurements show that relationships between temperature, water availability and CH4 emissions depend on wetland type (bog, fen, swamp), region (tropical, temperate, arctic) and disturbance. For example, while water table position and temperature serve as the dominant controls on bog and swamp CH4 flux, vegetation is an important control on emissions from fens. These studies highlight the fact that wetland types have distinct controls on CH4 emissions; however, it is unlikely that modeling of wetland CH4 flux will improve without a better mechanistic understanding of the processes underlying CH4 production, transport, and oxidation. At the Alaska Peatland Experiment, we are quantifying CH4 emission using static chambers, automated chambers, and towers. Our sites vary in permafrost regime, including groundwater fens without permafrost, forested peat plateaus with intact permafrost, and collapse scar bogs formed through permafrost thaw. Experimental studies that examine plant and microbial responses to altered water table position and soil temperature are complemented by a gradient approach, where we use a space-for-time substitutions to examine the consequences of thaw on time-scales of decades to centuries. Our results thus far have documented the importance of soil rewetting in governing large CH4 fluxes from northern wetland soils. Accounting for CH4, our collapse scar bog significantly contributed to the global warming potential of the landscape. A major objective of our work is to explore the role of permafrost C release in greenhouse gas fluxes from wetland soils, which we are assessing using radiocarbon as a natural tracer. We have shown, for example, that ebullition of CH4 is dominated by recently fixed C, but a significant fraction of CH4 in

  16. Regional Geochemical Results from Analyses of Stream-Water, Stream-Sediment, Soil, Soil-Water, Bedrock, and Vegetation Samples, Tangle Lakes District, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Lee, G.K.; Vohden, James; O'Neill, J. M.; Kerin, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report chemical analyses of stream-water, stream-sediment, soil, soil-water, bedrock, and vegetation samples collected from the headwaters of the Delta River (Tangle Lakes District, Mount Hayes 1:250,000-scale quadrangle) in east-central Alaska for the period June 20-25, 2006. Additionally, we present mineralogic analyses of stream sediment, concentrated by panning. The study area includes the southwestward extent of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Delta River Mining District (Bittenbender and others, 2007), including parts of the Delta River Archeological District, and encompasses an area of about 500 km2(approximately bordered by the Denali Highway to the south, near Round Tangle Lake, northward to the foothills of the Alaska Range (fig. 1). The primary focus of this study was the chemical characterization of native materials, especially surface-water and sediment samples, of first-order streams from the headwaters of the Delta River. The impetus for this work was the need, expressed by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR), for an inventory of geochemical and hydrogeochemical baseline information about the Delta River Mining District. This information is needed because of a major upturn in exploration, drilling, and general mineral-resources assessments in the region since the late 1990s. Currently, the study area, called the 'MAN Project' area is being explored by Pure Nickel, Inc. (http://www.purenickel.com/s/MAN_Alaska.asp), and includes both Cu-Au-Ag and Ni-Cu-PGE (Pt-Pd-Au-Ag) mining claims. Geochemical data on surface-water, stream-sediment, soil, soil-water, grayleaf willow (Salix glauca L.), and limited bedrock samples are provided along with the analytical methodologies used and panned-concentrate mineralogy. We are releasing the data at this time with only minimal interpretation.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children <18 months of age. We calculated the cost-effectiveness ratio of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce the number of carious teeth and full mouth dental reconstructions (FMDRs) over 10 years. Results A total of 322 children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  18. Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in a subarctic region of western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of arctic fox dens located in coastal tundra communities of the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta were determined in studies from 1985 to 1990. Dens were denser and less complex than those described in studies conducted above the Arctic Circle. Eighty-three dens of varying complexity were found in the 52-km2 study area. Nineteen dens were used by arctic foxes for whelping or rearing pups. Three females relocated litters to multiple dens; a maximum of four dens were used concurrently by pups from one litter. Although red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were common in the region, their use of dens in the study area was minimal. Differences in vegetation at den sites and nearby unoccupied sites were minimal. Furthermore, den sites could not be distinguished from non-den sites during aerial surveys.

  19. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccination against ... the flu. Protect Indian Country by Getting Your Flu Vaccine A flu vaccine not only protects you ...

  20. Regional variations in the fluvial Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wholly allochthonous Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate is one of the most extensive fluvial deposits in North America. It crops out for 950 km along the crest of the Brooks Range in a series of thrust plates and is as thick as 2615 m. The Kanayut forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta. The lower part of the Kanayut (the Ear Peak Member) overlies marginal-marine and prodelta turbidite deposits and consists of fining-upward meandering-stream-channel cycles of conglomerate and sandstone within black to maroon floodplain shale deposits. The middle part of the Kanayut (the Shainin Lake Member) lacks shale and consists of fining-upward couplets of channelized conglomerate and parallel- to cross-stratified sandstone interpreted as braidplain deposits. These deposits contain the largest clasts (23 cm) and were deposited during maximum progradation of the fluvial sequence. The upper part of the Kanayut (the Stuver Member), which consists of fining-upward meandering stream cycles similar to those of the lower part, grades upward into overlying Lower Mississippian tidal and marginal-marine deposits. Paleocurrent data and distribution of largest clasts indicate that the Kanayut was deposited by southwest-flowing streams fed by at least two major trunk streams that drained a mountainous region to the north and east. Comparison of stratigraphic and sedimentologic data collected at three selected locations representative of proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the Kanayut basin reveal regional variations in its fluvial character. These include a decrease in total thickness of fluvial strata, an increase in total thickness of associated marine sandstone, the pinch-out of the coarse-grained middle part of the Kanayut and decreases in the conglomerate/sandstone and sandstone/shale ratios from proximal to distal areas of the basin. The coarse-grained parts of the fluvial cycles decrease in thickness and lateral extent from

  1. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

  2. 77 FR 14828 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will meet in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska... the Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on NPS subsistence...

  3. 78 FR 17428 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Service Northwest Arctic Heritage Center, (907) 442-3890, in Kotzebue, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. If the meeting date and location... National Park Service Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska...

  4. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 2 - Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Northwest Alaska presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 3 Northwest Alaska census division, data are presented for the 32 communities of…

  5. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  6. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Regional Patterns of Ice-Wedge Degradation Across Northern Alaska: What Does Asynchronous Timing of Onset Tell Us Regarding Triggering Mechanisms, Thresholds, and Impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V., Jr.; Macander, M. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Walker, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ice-wedge polygons are conspicuous and widespread in arctic landscapes, creating complex microtopography and strong, meter-scale contrasts in hydrology, soil, vegetation, and ground ice conditions. Thaw of the upper portion of ice-wedges results in ground subsidence (thermokarst), plant mortality and the formation of small, flooded pits along the polygon margins. Secondary impacts, such as changes in flowpaths, spatially-variable flooding and drainage of polygon centers, and thermal erosion of permafrost, extend well beyond the thermokarst pits themselves. We delineated small waterbodies in historical airphotos and modern high-resolution satellite imagery and made ground observations across a network of 45 km2 study areas spanning the western and central regions of Alaska's North Slope. The imagery archive covers three epochs: 1948-1955, 1979-1985, and 2009-2012. Our analysis focused on residual upland surfaces dominated by Holocene-aged ice wedges, where surface water is mainly restricted to degraded ice-wedges. Total extent of flooded pits increased at most landscapes since circa 1980 (range -27 - +135%; median +10.6%). An intriguing regional pattern was evident: degradation of Holocene ice-wedges was already well underway by 1950 across much of the western North Slope, but degradation initiated much more recently on eolian sand and silt (yedoma) deposits prevalent to the east. Our results indicate that recent degradation of Holocene ice wedges across northern Alaska cannot be explained by late-20th century warmth alone. Possible mechanisms for earlier onset of degradation on the western North Slope include differences in recent climate history, snow regime, and thermal and physical properties of surficial materials. These findings provide context for interpreting and predicting ice-wedge thermokarst processes, thresholds, and impacts in Alaska and elsewhere in the circumpolar arctic.

  8. Regional patterns of Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism in western Alaska revealed by new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages: Chapter D in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Miller, Marti L.; Friedman, Richard M.; Layer, Paul W.; Bleick, Heather A.; Jones, III, James V.; Box, Steven E.; Karl, Susan M.; Shew, Nora B.; White, Timothy S.; Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Ullrich, Thomas D.

    2017-03-02

    In support of regional geologic framework studies, we obtained 50 new argon-40/argon-39 (40Ar/39Ar) ages and 33 new uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages from igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska. Most of the samples are from the Sleetmute and Taylor Mountains quadrangles; smaller collections or individual samples are from the Bethel, Candle, Dillingham, Goodnews Bay, Holy Cross, Iditarod, Kantishna River, Lake Clark, Lime Hills, McGrath, Medfra, Talkeetna, and Tanana quadrangles.A U-Pb zircon age of 317.7±0.6 million years (Ma) reveals the presence of Pennsylvanian intermediate igneous (probably volcanic) rocks in the Tikchik terrane, Bethel quadrangle. A U-Pb zircon age of 229.5±0.2 Ma from gabbro intruding the Rampart Group of the Angayucham-Tozitna terrane, Tanana quadrangle, confirms and tightens a previously cited Triassic age for this intrusive suite. A fresh mafic dike in Goodnews Bay quadrangle yielded a 40Ar/39Ar whole rock age of 155.0±1.9 Ma; this establishes a Jurassic or older age for the previously unconstrained (Paleozoic? to Mesozoic?) sandstone unit that it intrudes. A thick felsic tuff in the Gemuk Group in Taylor Mountains quadrangle yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 153.0±2.0 Ma, extending the age of magmatism in this part of the Togiak terrane back into the Late Jurassic. We report three new U-Pb zircon ages between 120 and 110 Ma—112.0±0.9 Ma from syenite in the Candle quadrangle, 114.9±0.3 Ma from orthogneiss assigned to the Ruby terrane in Iditarod quadrangle, and 116.6±0.1 Ma from a gabbro of the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex in Iditarod quadrangle. The latter result requires a substantial age revision, from Triassic to Cretaceous, for at least some rocks that have been mapped as the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex. A tuff in the Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group yielded a U-Pb zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe, SHRIMP) age of 88.3±1.0 Ma; we speculate that the eruptive source was an arc along the trend of the Pebble

  9. Sampling and Studying Permafrost in Alaska and on Mars: Mars Arctic Regions Science Field Experience for Secondary Teachers (MARSFEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Buxner, S. R.; Douglas, T. A.; Lombardi, D. A.; Shaner, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Both neutron and gamma ray data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft provide compelling evidence for the presence of water ice buried within the upper few tens of centimeters of Mars at high latitudes.^{1-3} In May 2008, the Phoenix Mars Lander mission will arrive at the northern high latitudes of Mars to ground-truth the presence of this water ice. The mission will use a robotic arm to deliver samples of permafrost to several instruments on the deck of the spacecraft for detailed chemical and microscopic analyses. Two primary science objectives at the landing site are to study the history of water in all its phases and to characterize soil habitability.4 As part of the Education and Public Outreach efforts for both the Phoenix and Odyssey missions, 20 secondary science teachers from across the U.S. and Canada were selected to spend a week in Summer 2006 immersed in arctic region science around Fairbanks, Alaska. The focal point of the experience involved investigations conducted at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Tunnel.5 Teacher participants combined remote sensing and in situ observations of permafrost regions, conducted sample collection and analyses to investigate research questions generated by participants at the Permafrost Tunnel, explored comparisons between the terrestrial and Martian arctic, and completed inquiry- based classroom curriculum activities related to Mars and arctic science. A video documentary of the field experience is being produced by the NASA Mars Public Engagement program for education and public outreach purposes. The ten teacher teams involved in the workshop will now serve as educational ambassadors for the Phoenix Mars Lander mission over the next two years through to the completion of surface operations for the mission. They will be supported through monthly teleconferences updating them on mission status and continued research

  10. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in east- and south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Csejtey, Bela; Foster, Helen L.; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Plafker, George

    1993-01-01

    Most of the exposed bedrock in east- and south-central Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed and deformed during Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time. All the regionally metamorphosed rocks are assigned to metamorphic-facies units on the basis of their temperature and pressure conditions and metamorphic age. North of the McKinley and Denali faults, the crystalline rocks of the Yukon- Tanana upland and central Alaska Range compose a sequence of dynamothermally metamorphosed Paleozoic and older(?) metasedimentary rocks and metamorphosed products of a Devonian and Mississippian continental-margin magmatic arc. This sequence was extensively intruded by postmetamorphic mid-Cretaceous and younger granitoids. Many metamorphic-unit boundaries in the Yukon-Tanana upland are low-angle faults that juxtapose units of differing metamorphic grade, which indicates that metamorphism predated final emplacement of the fault-bounded units. In some places, the relation of metamorphic grade across a fault is best explained by contractional faulting; in other places, it is suggestive of extensional faulting.Near the United States-Canadian border in the central Yukon- Tanana upland, metamorphism, plutonism, and thrusting occurred during a latest Triassic and Early Jurassic event that presumably resulted from the accretion of a terrane that had affinities to the Stikinia terrane onto the continental margin of North America. Elsewhere in the Yukon-Tanana upland, metamorphic rocks give predominantly late Early Cretaceous isotopic ages. These ages are interpreted to date either the timing of a subsequent Early Cretaceous episode of crustal thickening and metamorphism or, assuming that these other areas were also originally heated during the latest Triassic to Early Jurassic and remained buried, the timing of their uplift and cooling. This uplift and cooling may have resulted from extension.South of the McKinley and Denali faults and north of the Border Ranges fault system, medium

  11. Post-Breeding Season Migrations of a Top Predator, the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii), from a Marine Protected Area in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Womble, Jamie N.; Gende, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as a conservation tool for highly mobile marine vertebrates and the focus is typically on protecting breeding areas where individuals are aggregated seasonally. Yet movements during the non-breeding season can overlap with threats that may be equally as important to population dynamics. Thus understanding habitat use and movements of species during the non-breeding periods is critical for conservation. Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, is one of the largest marine mammal protected areas in the world and has the only enforceable protection measures for reducing disturbance to harbor seals in the United States. Yet harbor seals have declined by up to 11.5%/year from 1992 to 2009. We used satellite-linked transmitters that were attached to 37 female harbor seals to quantify the post-breeding season migrations of seals and the amount of time that seals spent inside vs. outside of the MPA of Glacier Bay. Harbor seals traveled extensively beyond the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay during the post-breeding season, encompassing an area (25,325 km2) significantly larger than that used by seals during the breeding season (8,125 km2). These movements included the longest migration yet recorded for a harbor seal (3,411 km) and extended use (up to 23 days) of pelagic areas by some seals. Although the collective utilization distribution of harbor seals during the post-breeding season was quite expansive, there was a substantial degree of individual variability in the percentage of days that seals spent in the MPA. Nevertheless, harbor seals demonstrated a high degree of inter-annual site fidelity (93%) to Glacier Bay the following breeding season. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the threats that seals may interact with outside of the boundaries of the MPA of Glacier Bay for understanding population dynamics of seals in Glacier Bay. PMID:23457468

  12. Erosion and deposition on a beach raised by the 1964 earthquake, Montague Island, Alaska: Chapter H in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkby, M.J.; Kirkby, Anne V.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, tectonic deformation uplifted the southern end of Montague Island as much as 33 feet or more. The uplifted shoreline is rapidly being modified by subaerial and marine processes. The new raised beach is formed in bedrock, sand, gravel, and deltaic bay-head deposits, and the effect of each erosional process was measured in each material. Fieldwork was concentrated in two areas—MacLeod Harbor on the northwest side and Patton Bay on the southeast side of Montague Island. In the unconsolidated deltaic deposits of MacLeod Harbor, 97 percent of the erosion up to June 1965, 15 months after the earthquake, was fluvial, 2.2 percent was by rainwash, and only 0.8 percent was marine; 52 percent of the total available raised beach material had already been removed. The volume removed by stream erosion was proportional to low-flow discharge raised to the power of 0.75 to 0.95, and this volume increased as the bed material became finer. Stream response to the relative fall in base level was very rapid, most of the downcutting in unconsolidated materials occurring within 48 hours of the uplift for streams with low flows greater than 10 cubic feet per second. Since then, erosion by these streams has been predominantly lateral. Streams with lower discharges, in unconsolidated materials, still had knickpoints after 15 months. No response to uplift could be detected in stream courses above the former preearthquake sea level. Where the raised beach is in bedrock, it is being destroyed principally by marine action but at such a low rate that no appreciable erosion of bedrock was found 15 months after the earthquake. A dated rock platform raised earlier has eroded at a mean rate of 0.49 foot per year. In this area the factor limiting the rate of erosion was rock resistance rather than the transporting capacity of the waves. The break in slope between the top of the raised beach and the former seacliff is being obliterated by debris which is

  13. Constraints from seismic reflection signature on the seismogenic region in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone from the 1938 Alaska rupture zone to the Shumagin gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Becel, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Kuehn, H.; Webb, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Downdip, the megathrust changes from stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. Competing models suggest that the transition is controlled by temperature or the intersection of the megathrust with the serpentinized forearc mantle wedge. In some subduction zones, changes in behavior appear to be accompanied by changes in seismic reflection signature. In 2011, ALEUT program acquired 3700 km of deep penetration multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and 800 km of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data along a part of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone that exhibits lateral and downdip variability in present-day locking and earthquake history. One goal of this program is to use reflection signature of the megathrust to map out downdip and along-strike changes in plate boundary properties and correlate them with constraints on coupling and earthquake rupture history. Our study area encompassed the freely sliding Shumagin Gap, the locked Semidi segment and the locked western Kodiak asperity. The Semidi and the Western Kodiak segments have last ruptured in 1938 M8.2 Earthquake and 1964 M9.2 Earthquake, respectively, while no large earthquake ruptured the entire Shumagin Gap. Here we present seismic reflection profiles from two MCS lines that image the plate boundary at the transition between the Semidi segment and Shumagin Gap. ALEUT Line 4 is a ~300-km-long dip profile across the western edge of the 1938 M8.2 rupture zone. Reflections from the plate interface can be traced on this profile from the trench, at ~8 s twtt (~5.5-6.0 km depth), to 140 km landward of the trench, at 10-12 s twtt (~30-40 km depth). However, large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by a single, simple reflection within the 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake rupture zone. This area is characterized by relatively sparse small-to-moderate megathrust seismicity. Farther landward

  14. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  15. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  16. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  17. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields, if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments...

  18. Soldier Protection Benchmark Evaluation (SPBE) Physiological Data Collection and Analysis, Fort Greely, Alaska, 17 September-5 October 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-19

    have to shoot at elevated targets to emphasize this effect . Configuration effects were readily apparent in the raw test participant skin ...different protective gear configurations. Data from the sensors supplied by MIT LL were analyzed to assess the effects of the various configurations on the...march, skin temperature was significantly higher for the more protective and encapsulating configurations. Normalizing for speed on the 5-kilometer

  19. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the lenses ) Yes No b. If yes, how much time went by before the fogging disappeared? 6...the weather like and what were you doing? Question 24: a. Did you ever have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b...basis, some degree of flexibility in uniform requirements is necessary. The cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards

  20. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  1. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  2. The Kingak shale of northern Alaska-regional variations in organic geochemical properties and petroleum source rock quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Kingak Shale, a thick widespread rock unit in northern Alaska that ranges in age from Early Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, has adequate to good oil source rock potential. This lenticular-shaped rock unit is as much as 1200 m thick near the Jurassic shelf edge, where its present-day burial depth is about 5000 m. Kingak sediment, transported in a southerly direction, was deposited on the then marine continental shelf. The rock unit is predominantly dark gray Shale with some interbeds of thick sandstone and siltstone. The thermal maturity of organic matter in the Kingak Shale ranges from immature (2.0%R0) in the Colville basin toward the south. Its organic carbon and hydrogen contents are highest in the eastern part of northern Alaska south of and around the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields. Carbon isotope data of oils and rock extracts indicate that the Kingak Shale is a source of some North Slope oil, but is probably not the major source. ?? 1984.

  3. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  4. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Question 23: a. When you put your mask on and cleared it, did the mask lenses become foggy? (Note: fog means moisture on the inside or outside of the...have any frost form on the lenses ? (note: frost means moisture /ice.) Yes No b. If yes, what was the problem and under what circumstances did you...cold-wet uniform is designed to afford maximum protection against the hazards of changing temperatures, rain, wet snow, mud, and slush of a cold-wet

  5. Surface faults on Montague Island associated with the 1964 Alaska earthquake: Chapter G in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafter, George

    1967-01-01

    -half foot near the southern end of the scarp. Warping and extension cracking occurred in bedrock near the midpoint on the upthrown block within about 1,000 feet of the fault scarp. The reverse faults on Montague Island and their postulated submarine extensions lie within a tectonically important narrow zone of crustal attenuation and maximum uplift associated with the earthquake. However, there are no significant lithologic differences in the rock sequences across these faults to suggest that they form major tectonic boundaries. Their spatial distribution relative to the regional uplift associated with the earthquake, the earthquake focal region, and the epicenter of the main shock suggest that they are probably subsidiary features rather than the causative faults along which the earthquake originated. Approximately 70 percent of the new breakage along the Patton Bay and the Hanning Bay faults on Montague Island was along obvious preexisting active fault traces. The estimated ages of undisturbed trees on and near the fault trace indicate that no major disc placement had occurred on these faults for at least 150 to 300 years before the 1964 earthquake.

  6. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for geologic reconnaissance in Arctic regions: An example from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, C.L.; Guritz, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can provide an additional remote-sensing tool for regional geologic studies in arctic regions. Although SAR data do not yield direct information on rock type and do not replace traditional optical data, SAR data can provide useful geologic information in arctic regions where the stratigraphic column includes a wide range of lithologies, and bedrock exposures have been reduced to rubble by frost action. For example, in ERS-1 SAR data from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) of the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, carbonate and clastic rocks can give remarkably different radar responses on minimally reprocessed SAR data. The different radar response of different lithologies can specifically the size and angularity of scree in talus slopes. Additional postacquisition processing can both remove many of the negative terrain effects common in SAR data and enhance contrasts in bedrock lithology. Because of this ability to discriminate between gross lithologic packages, the ERS-1 SAR data can be used to provide a regional view of ANWR and a detailed look at specific areas. A mosaic of ERS-1 SAR data from all of ANWR provides a synoptic view of the regional structural framework, such as the anticlinoria of northern ANWR and the different allochthonous units of central and southern ANWR. Higher resolution ERS-1 SAR data of the Porcupine Lake area can be used to examine specific structural and stratigraphic problems associated with several major structural boundaries.

  7. Coarse-Resolution Daily Inundation Dynamics over the Alaska-Yukon Region: Comparison with High-Resolution Inundation Products and Influences from Atmospheric Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Podest, E.; Whitcomb, J.; Mogahddam, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-12-01

    Natural wetland complexes are a major source of atmospheric methane which is an important greenhouse gas. Wetland surface water variations and associated methane production are tightly linked and highly dependent on both climate and available plant material. Hence, characterizing the extent and distribution of wetlands is crucial in understanding the effect of climate change on wetlands dynamics, carbon and hydrological cycles, weather and biodiversity. This study presents a remote sensing technique for determining daily surface water fractions based on multiple satellite remote sensing data sets. The focus is on the Alaska-Yukon region and daily inundation dynamics for the period from 2002 until 2008. Our inundation detection approach employs passive microwave data from AMSR-E on NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the EOS Terra satellite. Radar backscatter from SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT (QSCAT) is used to maximize the sensitivity to the presence of vegetation biomass in inundated areas. A comparison with high-resolution maps of open water and wetlands vegetation, derived from JERS SAR, and open water area, derived from LANDSAT, suggests that this mapping approach shows great potential for accurate mapping of inundation dynamics across this region. Variations in open water area as seen by LANDSAT and SAR imagery are detected, as well as the sensitivity to variations in inundated vegetation. We note reasonable agreement between surface inundation fraction, river discharge, and simulated river runoff simulated by a hydrological model, with pronounced interannual variations that could be explained by year-to-year changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation over Alaska. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  8. A Tree-Ring Temperature Reconstruction from the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska (1593-1992): Evidence for Pronounced Regional Cooling During the Maunder Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DArrigo, R.; Davi, N.; Jacoby, G.; Wiles, G.

    2002-05-01

    The Maunder Minimum interval (from the mid-1600s-early 1700s) is believed to have been one of the coldest periods of the past thousand years in the Northern Hemisphere. A maximum latewood density temperature reconstruction for the Wrangell Mountains, southern Alaska (1593-1992) provides information on regional temperature change during the Maunder Minimum and other periods of severe cold over the past four centuries. The Wrangell density record, which reflects warm season (July-September) temperatures, shows an overall cooling over the Maunder Minimum period with annual values reaching as low as -1.8oC below the long-term mean. Ring widths, which can integrate annual as well as summer conditions, also show pronounced cooling at the Wrangell site during this time, as do Arctic and hemispheric-scale temperature reconstructions based on tree rings and other proxy data. Maximum ages of glacial advance based on kill dates from overrun logs (which reflect cooler temperatures) coincide temporally with the cooling seen in the density and ring width records. In contrast, a recent modeling study indicates that during this period there was cold season (November-April) warming over much of Alaska, but cooling over other northern continental regions, as a result of decreased solar irradiance initiating low Arctic Oscillation index conditions. The influence of other forcings on Alaskan climate, the absence of ocean dynamical feedbacks in the model, and the different seasonality represented by the model and the trees may be some of the possible explanations for the different model and proxy results.

  9. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    The transects, along with other seismic-reflection examples, illustrate four play concepts being used in the deformed area for the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey oil and gas assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). The Brookian topset structural play includes broad west-northwest-trending anticlines in the Cretaceous Nanushuk Group, developed above structurally thickened Torok mudstones in the incipiently-deformed, most northerly part of the thrust system. The Torok structural play includes prominent anticlines affecting deep-basin sandstones, many of which are detached from folds exposed at the surface. The Ellesmerian structural play includes closures developed in the clastic part of the Ellesmerian sequence, mainly above a detachment in the Shublik Formation. The thrust belt play includes antiformal stacks of allochthonous Endicott Group clastic rocks and Lisburne Group carbonates; these stacks were assembled at about 120 Ma, and were transported to their present positions in the foothills at about 60 Ma.

  10. Large scale, regional, CH4 and net CO2 fluxes using nested chamber, tower, aircraft flux, remote sensing, and modeling approaches in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Moreaux, Virginie; Kalhori, Aram; Losacco, Salvatore; Murphy, Patrick; Wilkman, Eric; Zona, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. We evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on GHG fluxes over varying spatial scales and compare to standard estimates of NEE and other greenhouse gas fluxes. Data from the north slope of Alaska from up to a 16 year flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, and hundreds of hours of aircraft fluxes, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of tower, flux aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4and CO2 fluxes or large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  11. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors in Western Alaska Native People: The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Day, Gretchen M.; Silverman, Angela; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Austin, Melissa A.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Ebbesson, Sven O.E.; Boyer, Bert B.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease and a key risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health Study consolidates baseline data from four major cohorts residing in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions of western Alaska. This consolidated cohort affords an opportunity for a systematic analysis of high blood pressure and its correlates in a unique population that has high stroke rates over a wide age range. While the prevalence of hypertension among western Alaska Native people (30%, age-standardized) is slightly less than that of the U.S. general population (33%), cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality in this rural population. We found that improvement is needed in hypertension awareness as about two-thirds (64%) reported awareness and only 39% with hypertension were controlled on medication. Future analyses assessing risk and protective factors for incident hypertension in this population are indicated. PMID:25644577

  12. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  13. Efficiency of a protected-area network in a Mediterranean region: a multispecies assessment with raptors.

    PubMed

    Abellán, María D; Martínez, José E; Palazón, José A; Esteve, Miguel A; Calvo, José F

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km²), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  14. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina Glacier and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina Glacier is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the glacier with the ocean, the glacier would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont glaciers in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan glaciers are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating.

    This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and

  15. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  17. Genetic relationships of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska: inference from microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and field observations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M; Shideler, R; Hechtel, J; Strobeck, C; Paetkau, D

    1999-01-01

    Grizzly bears are abundant in the region of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in northern Alaska. We used field observations and molecular genetic data to identify parent-offspring and sibling relationships among bears in this region. We determined genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci and the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for 36 bears. We identified 17 possible mother-offspring pairs and 8 possible father-offspring pairs. This includes verification of the relationships of 14 mother-offspring pairs identified from field observations. Three additional mother-offspring pairs and all eight father-offspring pairs were determined from genetic and age data. Relatedness coefficients based on numbers of shared alleles between individuals were as expected: approximately 0.50 for parent-offspring and sibling pairs and approximately 0.75 for a father-offspring pair resulting from a father-daughter mating. The level of genetic variation (mean number of alleles per locus = 6.6, mean heterozygosity = 70%) and allele frequencies in grizzly bears in the Prudhoe Bay region are similar to those in other parts of the species' range.

  18. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  19. An Alaska Soil Carbon Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.

  20. Regional baseline geochemistry and environmental effects of gold placer mining operations on the Fortymile River, eastern Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.

    2000-01-01

    A systematic water-quality study of the Fortymile River and many of its major tributaries in eastern Alaska was conducted in June of 1997 and 1998. Surface-water samples were collected for chemical analyses to establish regional baseline geochemistry values and to evaluate the possible environmental effects of suction-dredge placer gold mining and bulldozer-operated placer gold mining (commonly referred to as “cat mining”). In general, the water quality of the Fortymile River is very good, with low total dissolved solids and only two cases in which the concentration of any element exceeded primary or secondary drinking-water quality standards. In both cases, iron exceeded secondary drinking-water limits. At the time this work was conducted, only a handful of suction dredges were operating on the lower Fortymile River, and cat mining was being conducted along Uhler Creek and Canyon Creek, two major tributaries to the river. Based on the water-quality and turbidity data, the suction dredges have no apparent impact on the Fortymile River system, although possible effects on biota have not been evaluated in this study. In contrast, the cat-mining operations in Canyon Creek appear to have a dramatic impact on water quality and stream-bed morphology, based on the field water-quality and turbidity measurements, on comparisons to adjacent unmined drainages, and on field observations of stream-bed morphology. The cat mining in Uhler Creek appears to have had less impact, perhaps because the main stream channel was not as heavily disrupted by the bulldozers, and the stability of the channel was mostly preserved.

  1. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  2. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  3. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  4. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer groundwater flow model. The three submodels are linked and run recursively to simulate producer response to alternative water quality policies over a multiple-year time horizon. Model solutions provide projections of production practices employed on various resource situations across the region. Economic evaluation of alternative policies may be based upon regional agricultural income, crop production levels, input use, and changes in aquifer water levels over time. Measures of agricultural nonpoint source pollution provided by the model include nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide loadings in deep percolation and runoff water, as well as sediment losses.

  5. Planetary Protection and Mars Special Regions--A Suggestion for Updating the Definition.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, Petra; Anesio, Alexandre M; Baker, Victor R; Baross, John A; Cady, Sherry L; Detsis, Emmanouil; Foreman, Christine M; Hauber, Ernst; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Pearce, David A; Renno, Nilton O; Ruvkun, Gary; Sattler, Birgit; Saunders, Mark P; Smith, David H; Wagner, Dirk; Westall, Frances

    2016-02-01

    We highlight the role of COSPAR and the scientific community in defining and updating the framework of planetary protection. Specifically, we focus on Mars "Special Regions," areas where strict planetary protection measures have to be applied before a spacecraft can explore them, given the existence of environmental conditions that may be conducive to terrestrial microbial growth. We outline the history of the concept of Special Regions and inform on recent developments regarding the COSPAR policy, namely, the MEPAG SR-SAG2 review and the Academies and ESF joint committee report on Mars Special Regions. We present some new issues that necessitate the update of the current policy and provide suggestions for new definitions of Special Regions. We conclude with the current major scientific questions that remain unanswered regarding Mars Special Regions.

  6. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Loë, R. C.; Murray, D.; Michaels, S.; Plummer, R.

    2016-07-01

    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions—a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  7. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...

  8. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...

  9. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...

  10. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  11. Methane Flux Measurements from a Low Flying Aircraft: What they tell us about Regional Heterogeneity in Carbon Flux over the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Kochendorfer, J.; Wilkerson, J.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic contains a large reservoir of organic matter stored in permafrost and clathrates. Varying geology and hydrology across the Arctic, even on small scales, can cause large variability in surface carbon fluxes and partitioning between methane and carbon dioxide. In situ measurements are further complicated by the presence of gas and oil extraction, natural gas seeps, and biomass burning. Ground based measurements can yield high temporal resolution and detailed information about a specific location, but due to the inaccessibility of most of the Arctic to date in situ measurements have been made at very few sites. In August 2013, a small aircraft, flying low over the surface (5-30 m), and carrying an air turbulence probe and spectroscopic instruments to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and their isotopologues, flew over the North Slope of Alaska. During the ten flights multiple comparisons were made with a ground based Eddy Covariance tower as well as three region surveys of fluxes over three areas each approximately 2500 km2. We present analysis using the Flux Fragment Method and surface landscape classification maps to relate the fluxes to different surface land types.

  12. Cultural remains in local and regional context on the central Alaska Peninsula: housepits, language, and cultural affinities at Marraatuq after 1000 B.P.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Professor Dumond's research on the Alaska Peninsula provided information that prior to 1,000 years ago people of both sides of the Alaska Peninsula shared material culture and exhibited subsistence interests that persisted into historic times, During the Late Precontact Era (ca. 1100 A.D. to mid-1700s) these Alutiiq societies shared cultural traits including language, house styles, and material culture with their relatives and neighbors on Kodiak Island. Until recently, few data were available regarding potential variability in house construction techniques, or styles and functions of Alutiiq semi-subterranean houses of this era found on the Alaska Peninsula, This paper provides examples of a few known prehistoric and historic Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Alutiiq houses and presents previously unreported data from archaeological tests at Marraatuq on the Central Alaska Peninsula, Taken together with Dumond's 1998-1999 field work at Leader Creek and archaeological research on Kodiak Island, the work provides further evidence that interregional interaction was strong during the Late Precontact Era. However, large population centers and ranked political hierarchies probably were not hallmarks of central Alaska Peninsula communities during the Late Precontact Era and historic times as they were on the Kodiak and Aleutian islands.

  13. Paleoecology of late-glacial peats from the bering land bridge, Chukchi Sea shelf region, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Short, S.K.; Phillips, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Insect fossils and pollen from late Pleistocene nonmarine peat layers were recovered from cores from the shelf region of the Chukchi Sea at depths of about 50 m below sea level. The peats date to 11,300-11,000 yr B.P. and provide a limiting age for the regional Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgression. The insect fossils are indicative of arctic coastal habitats like those of the Mackenzie Delta region (mean July temperatures = 10.6-14??C) suggesting that 11,000 yr ago the exposed Chukchi Sea shelf had a climate substantially warmer than modern coastal regions of the Alaskan north slope. The pollen spectra are consistent with the age assignment to the Birch Interval (14,000-9000 yr B.P.). The data suggest a meadow-like graminoid tundra with birch shrubs and some willow shrubs growing in sheltered areas. ?? 1992.

  14. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  15. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    PubMed

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems.

  16. Medium Earth Orbits: Is There a Need for a Third Protected Region?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the United Nations have adopted the concept of near-Earth regions which should be afforded protection from the accumulation of orbital debris. These regions are low Earth orbit (LEO), which extends up to 2000 km altitude, and geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which includes the volume of space encompassed by 35,786 km +/- 200 km in altitude and +/- 15 degrees in inclination. The region between LEO and GEO is commonly referred to as Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). Although historically a small minority of spacecraft have operated in MEO, the number of such satellites residing in or routinely transiting the zone is increasing. The question thus arises: should MEO be considered an orbital debris protected region? This paper first reviews the characteristics of space systems now utilizing MEO, as well as those anticipated to join them in the near future. MEO is then contrasted with LEO and GEO, both physically and pragmatically. Recommended orbital debris mitigation guidelines for MEO space vehicles are highlighted, and the challenges of spacecraft and launch vehicle stage disposal are recognized. Note is also made of the principal tenets of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty and of recent trends toward de facto partitioning of MEO. Finally, the efficacy and practicality of establishing MEO as a new protected region with regard to orbital debris is addressed.

  17. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The ~2000 km long Denali Fault System (DFS) of Alaska is an example of an extra-regional strike-slip fault system that terminates in a zone of widely-distributed deformation. The ~1200 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of Patagonia (southern Chile) is another. Both systems are active, having undergone large-magnitude seismic rupture is 2002 (DFS) and 2007 (LOFZ). Both systems appear to be long-lived: the DFS juxtaposes terranes that docked in at least early Tertiary time, whilst the central LOFZ appears to also record early Tertiary or Mesozoic deformation. Both fault systems comprise a relatively well-defined central zone where individual fault traces can be identified from topographic features or zones of deformed rock. In both cases the proximal and distal traces are much more diffuse tributary and distributary systems of individual, branching fault traces. However, since their inception the DFS and LOFZ have followed very different evolutionary paths. Copious Alaskan paleomagnetic data are consistent with vertical axis small block rotation, long-distance latitudinal translation, and a recently-postulated tectonic extrusion towards a distributary of subordinate faults that branch outward towards the Aleution subduction zone (the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream; see Redfield et al., 2007). Paleomagnetic data from the LOFZ region are consistent with small block rotation but preclude statistically-significant latitudinal transport. Limited field data from the southernmost LOFZ suggest that high-angle normal and reverse faults dominate over oblique to strike-slip structures. Rather than the high-angle oblique 'slivering regime' of the southeasternmost DFS, the initiation of the LOFZ appears to occur across a 50 to 100 km wide zone of brittly-deformed granitic and gneissic rock characterized by bulk compression and vertical pathways of exhumation. In both cases, relative plate motions are consistent with the hypothetical style, and degree, of offset, leading

  18. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  19. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  20. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  1. Intra-annual variations in atmospheric dust and tritium in the North Pacific region detected from an ice core from Mount Wrangell, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Kanamori, Syosaku; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Koji; Benson, Carl S.; Hondoh, Takeo

    2007-05-01

    The North Pacific is subject to various seasonal climate phenomena and material circulations. Therefore intra-annual ice core data are necessary for an assessment of the climate variations. To assess past variations, a 50-m ice core was drilled at the summit of Mount Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. The dust number, tritium concentrations, and stable hydrogen isotope were analyzed. The period covered was from 1992 to 2002. We found that the concentrations of both fine dust (0.52-1.00 μm), an indicator of long-range transport, and coarse dust (1.00-8.00 μm) increased together every spring. Moreover, their concentrations increased drastically after 2000, corresponding to the recent increase in Asian dust outbreaks in spring. Additionally, an increase in the spring of 2001 corresponded to the largest dust storm recorded in east Asia since 1979. Therefore our findings imply that Asian dust strongly polluted Mount Wrangell every spring. The stratospheric tracer, tritium, had late spring maxima almost every year, and we found this useful for ice core dating to identify late spring in the North Pacific region. We also found that a high positive annual correlation existed between the calculated tritium and fine dust fluxes from late spring to summer. We propose that an annual relationship between the stratosphere-troposphere exchange and Asian dust storm are most closely connected in late spring because their activities are weak in summer. The Mount Wrangell ice core is important and useful for assessing the dust and tritium circulation in the distant past around the North Pacific with probable intra-annual timescale information.

  2. Three-dimensional distribution of igneous rocks near the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska: constraints from regional-scale aeromagnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yaoguo; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Lang, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data helped us to understand the 3D distribution of plutonic rocks near the Pebble porphyry copper deposit in southwestern Alaska, USA. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that rocks in the Pebble district are more magnetic than rocks of comparable compositions in the Pike Creek–Stuyahok Hills volcano-plutonic complex. The reduced-to-pole transformation of the aeromagnetic data demonstrated that the older rocks in the Pebble district produce strong magnetic anomaly highs. The tilt derivative transformation highlighted northeast-trending lineaments attributed to Tertiary volcanic rocks. Multiscale edge detection delineated near-surface magnetic sources that are mostly outward dipping and coalesce at depth in the Pebble district. The total horizontal gradient of the 10-km upward-continued magnetic data showed an oval, deep magnetic contact along which porphyry deposits occur. Forward and inverse magnetic modeling showed that the magnetic rocks in the Pebble district extend to depths greater than 9 km. Magnetic inversion was constrained by a near-surface, 3D geologic model that is attributed with measured magnetic susceptibilities from various rock types in the region. The inversion results indicated that several near-surface magnetic sources with moderate susceptibilities converge with depth into magnetic bodies with higher susceptibilities. This deep magnetic source appeared to rise toward the surface in several areas. An isosurface value of 0.02 SI was used to depict the magnetic contact between outcropping granodiorite and nonmagnetic sedimentary host rocks. The contact was shown to be outward dipping. At depths around 5 km, nearly the entire model exceeded the isosurface value indicating the limits of nonmagnetic host material. The inversion results showed the presence of a relatively deep, northeast-trending magnetic low that parallels lineaments mapped by the tilt derivative. This deep low represents a strand of the Lake Clark fault.

  3. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013). During the workshops NMFS will present information regarding harbor seal habitat usage and...

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Among Alaska Native Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alaska Native peoples were thought to be protected from cardiovascular disease (CVD), data now show that this is not the case, despite traditional lifestyles and high omega-3 fatty acid intake. In this article, the current understanding of CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples, particularly among the Yupik and Inupiat populations, will be discussed, using data from three major studies funded by the National Institutes of Health: Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease among Alaska Natives (GOCADAN), Center for Native Health Research (CANHR), and Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH). Data from these epidemiologic studies have focused concern on CVD and its risk factors among Alaska Native peoples. This review will summarize the findings of these three principal studies and will suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:24367710

  5. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    . , Romanovsky, V. , Cable, W. and Kholodov, A. (2015) Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 through 2014. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (1), 12-41. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61002.

  6. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  7. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  8. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  9. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, Intellectual Property Protection, and Access to Medicines.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Belinda; Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Leaked drafts of IP provisions proposed by Japan and South Korea raise similar concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. This article identifies TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement)-Plus provisions in leaked negotiating texts and examines their implications for LMICs that are not also parties to the TPP: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, China, and India. We find that higher levels of IP protection delay the market entry of generic medicines, giving rise to increased costs to governments and reduced access to essential medicines. The article concludes that the public health community should recognize risks inherent in trade agreements that promote expansions of IP rights and engage with governments to ensure that public health is adequately and explicitly protected in trade and investment negotiations.

  10. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  11. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the…

  12. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  13. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  14. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  15. Meteorological operational services for civil protection in Veneto region (North-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Zardini, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Meteorological Centre of Teolo (CMT), part of the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of the North-eastern Italian region Veneto (ARPAV), is the operational regional meteorological service. Since April 2009 the Centre is linked to and supplies meteorological monitoring and forecasting to the recently constituted Functional Centre of the regional civil protection (CFD Veneto), which operates in the framework of National Civil Protection. The CFD Veneto supplies a multi-disciplinary, technical-scientific support to civil protection activities, to early warnings of natural hazards, in particular related to hydrogeological, hydraulic, and avalanches risks. The north-eastern part of Italy is known to be one of the rainiest regions in Europe. The region Veneto, due to its topographic configuration which includes Alpine reliefs, plans and a coast exposed to the Adriatic Sea, is conducive to heavy and long-lasting precipitation events. Also, strong thunderstorm activity with high precipitation rates, hail, wind gusts, and even tornadoes are relatively frequent occurrences. In this contribution two recent examples of different types of extreme events are briefly analysed by means of the ARPAV multi-sensor observing system which includes weather radar and a dense surface network. We show some of the impacts of such weather events on the territory, the services provided by CFD Veneto, in terms of meteorological forecasting and nowcasting products, and hydrogeologic/hydraulic hazard bullettins. The analysis highlights the difficulty of an efficient wheather forecast for civil defence purposes in a complex situation as ours, where many types of different events are possible. Especially cases of rapid convective events with their intense and very localized phenomena are a significant challenge. It is well-known that such events can bring remarkable material damages and serious danger for the people. For this reason an effective warning system which

  16. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  17. Investigation flora and life form of plants in protected region Sarigol (North Khorasan Province, Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, S M

    2011-01-01

    Apart Flora, life form and chorotype of plants in protected region Sarigol was investigated in this study. It's located at the 57 degrees 47' to 57 degrees 76' Eastern latitude and 37 degrees 55' to 37 degrees 80' Northern longitude. A part plant of this area was collected in this region by classical method of regional floristic studies. The results of field investigation were identification of 78 plant species belong to 66 genera and 25 families. Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae were the most dominant families analysis of life form has shown proportion hemicryptophytes 39.74, followed by therophytes 21.79%, chamaephytes 19.23%, cryptophytes 11.53% and phanerophytes 7.69%. phytogeographical data has indicated that the most plants belong to the Irano-Turanian floral elements 75.64%.

  18. NNEPS (National Network for Environmental Policy Studies) final report: EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Region 1 wellhead-protection efforts. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, P.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report discusses three wellhead-protection projects undertaken in Region One: the Cape Cod Aquifer Management Plan (CCAMP); Region One's Priority Ground Water Resource-Based Mapping Project: the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Pilot Area; and the Chesprocott Groundwater Protection Project. All three projects are aimed at preventing contamination of community wells. CCAMP serves as a prototype for Region One's wellhead protection efforts and may be broken down into four main phases: delineating the critical groundwater recharge area of each community well (the Wellhead Protection Area), identifying and assessing the risk of existing and future sources of contaminants within the Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA), examining the adequacy of existing management strategies to prevent groundwater contamination, and implementing local management controls based on the results of the first steps. All three of the projects develop and refine management ideas and methodologies on the prevention of groundwater contamination. Many of these techniques may be used by local and regional agencies concerned with protecting their groundwater resources.

  19. Introduction to an Updated Analysis of Planetary Protection: "Special Regions" on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Rummel, J. D.; Viola, D.

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of human activity in space science and exploration, there has been an appreciation of the negative consequences of transferring life from one planet to another. Given the unknown consequences of contact between two life forms and the fundamental value of studying a new form life, thoughtfulness and caution are warranted. The "special regions" concept is a component of the International Council for Science's Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Planetary Protection Policy, as it applies to Mars. These are regions "within which terrestrial organisms are likely to replicate" as well as "any region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant martian life." Robotic missions planning to have direct contact with such special regions are given planetary protection categorization (IVc), with stringent cleanliness constraints on the portions of the mission contacting such regions. The current, quantitative definition of "special regions based on temperature and water activity limits was adopted by COSPAR in 2008 after a two-year process that included meetings of the Mars Exploration Planning and Analysis Group's (MEPAG) Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG) and COSPAR's Panel on Planetary Protection. In this study, the MEPAG SR-SAG2 will review and update the technical information that underlie NASA's and COSPAR's definition of special regions on Mars, enabling interpretations of when and where they could occur in light of new discoveries since 2007. This will include updates of current understanding in (1) the known physical limits to life on Earth, including low temperature and low water activity, the biological capture/use of vapor-phase water, and survival over long time scales with short periods of growth; (2) observational data sets and new models from Mars that could be relevant to our understanding of the natural variations on Mars of water activity and temperature, including recurring slope lineae (RSL

  20. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (<5% difference from ASD shortwave broadband data), but low biases in MODIS albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This

  1. Alaska climate divisions based on objective methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloff, H.; Bieniek, P. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Thoman, R.; Walsh, J. E.; Daly, C.; Shulski, M.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska is vast geographically, is located at high latitudes, is surrounded on three sides by oceans and has complex topography, encompassing several climate regions. While climate zones exist, there has not been an objective analysis to identify regions of homogeneous climate. In this study we use cluster analysis on a robust set of weather observation stations in Alaska to develop climate divisions for the state. Similar procedures have been employed in the contiguous United States and other parts of the world. Our analysis, based on temperature and precipitation, yielded a set of 10 preliminary climate divisions. These divisions include an eastern and western Arctic (bounded by the Brooks Range to the south), a west coast region along the Bering Sea, and eastern and western Interior regions (bounded to the south by the Alaska Range). South of the Alaska Range there were the following divisions: an area around Cook Inlet (also including Valdez), coastal and inland areas along Bristol Bay including Kodiak and Lake Iliamna, the Aleutians, and Southeast Alaska. To validate the climate divisions based on relatively sparse station data, additional sensitivity analysis was performed. Additional clustering analysis utilizing the gridded North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was also conducted. In addition, the divisions were evaluated using correlation analysis. These sensitivity tests support the climate divisions based on cluster analysis.

  2. Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

  3. Poverty and Public Assistance among Alaska Natives: Implications for 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Matthew; Foster, Karen Pyle

    The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) distributed 44 million acres of land and nearly $1 billion to Alaska Natives. The land and equity is currently being held by 12 regional corporations and 150 village corporations formed by the act. Native shareholders, however, will be free to sell their stock in these corporations for the first time…

  4. C-N-P interactions control climate driven changes in regional patterns of C storage on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rocha, Adrian; Rastetter, Edward; Shaver, Gaius; Mishra, U.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    As climate warms, changes in the carbon (C) balance of arctic tundra will play an important role in the global C balance. The C balance of tundra is tightly coupled to the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles because soil organic matter is the principal source of plant-available nutrients and determines the spatial variation of vegetation biomass across the North Slope of Alaska. Warming will accelerate these nutrient cycles, which should stimulate plant growth.

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Port Moller region, western Alaska Peninsula, Aleutian arc: A section in USGS research on mineral resources - 1989: Program and abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; White, Willis H.; Detterman, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Port Moller, Stepovak Bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles was begun under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) in 1983 . Two important mineral deposits are located in the Port Moller quadrangle; the Pyramid prospect is the largest copper porphyry system in the Aleutian Arc, and the Apollo Mine is the only gold mine to reach production status in the Aleutian Arc.

  6. Protection of Health Imagery by Region Based Lossless Reversible Watermarking Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Priya, R. Lakshmi; Sadasivam, V.

    2015-01-01

    Providing authentication and integrity in medical images is a problem and this work proposes a new blind fragile region based lossless reversible watermarking technique to improve trustworthiness of medical images. The proposed technique embeds the watermark using a reversible least significant bit embedding scheme. The scheme combines hashing, compression, and digital signature techniques to create a content dependent watermark making use of compressed region of interest (ROI) for recovery of ROI as reported in literature. The experiments were carried out to prove the performance of the scheme and its assessment reveals that ROI is extracted in an intact manner and PSNR values obtained lead to realization that the presented scheme offers greater protection for health imageries. PMID:26649328

  7. Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in the Southwestern United States and in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Lanier, Anne P.; Slattery, Martha L.; Schraer, Cynthia D.; Raymer, Terry W.; Dillard, Denise; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome occurs commonly in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native people. Methods We measured the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, among four groups of American Indian and Alaska Native people aged 20 years and older. One group was from the southwestern United States (Navajo Nation), and three groups resided within Alaska. Prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. adult 2000 population and compared to rates for U.S. whites (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1988–1994). Results Among participants from the southwestern United States, metabolic syndrome was found among 43.2% of men and 47.3% of women. Among Alaska Native people, metabolic syndrome was found among 26.5% of men and 31.2% of women. In Alaska, the prevalence rate varied by region, ranging among men from 18.9% (western Alaska) to 35.1% (southeast), and among women from 22.0% (western Alaska) to 38.4 % (southeast). Compared to U.S. whites, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women from all regions except western Alaska were more likely to have metabolic syndrome; men in western Alaska were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than U.S. whites, and the prevalence among women in western Alaska was similar to that of U.S. whites. Conclusion The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome varies widely among different American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Differences paralleled differences in the prevalence rates of diabetes. PMID:19067530

  8. The Effect of Alaska's Home Visitation Program for High-Risk Families on Trends in Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: At 6 sites serving 21 communities, Alaska implemented Healthy Families Alaska, a home visitation program using paraprofessionals designed to decrease child abuse and neglect. The primary study objective was to compare changes over time in Child Protective Services outcomes by Healthy Families Alaska enrollment status. Methods:…

  9. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  10. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program...://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . The... the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov . Written comments regarding...

  11. Lesion of the tuberomammillary nucleus E2-region attenuates postictal seizure protection in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhuge, Zheng-Bing; Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Jian-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Postictal seizure protection (PSP) is an endogenous anticonvulsant phenomenon that follows an epileptic seizure and inhibits the induction of further seizures. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamus, consists of five subregions and is the sole source of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether the TM is involved in PSP in rats, we tested the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the TM E2-region on seizures induced by intermittent maximal electroshock (MES). The TM E2-region lesions significantly attenuated PSP during the intermittent MES procedure. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (100 microg), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, mimicked the attenuation of PSP induced by the lesion of TM E2-region. In addition, neurochemical experiments revealed that the TM E2-region lesions markedly decreased basal histamine levels in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and hypothalamus, but had no significant effect on basal glutamate and GABA levels. Moreover, intermittent MES induced a persistent decrease of brain histamine levels in both sham-operated and lesioned rats. These results indicate that through its intrinsic histaminergic system, the TM may exert powerful inhibitory function during the intermittent MES procedure and actively participate in the mechanisms of PSP.

  12. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  13. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  14. 40 CFR 60.4216 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4216 What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska? (a) Prior to December 1, 2010, owners and... engines used in Alaska? 60.4216 Section 60.4216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4216 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4216 What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska? (a) Prior to December 1, 2010, owners and... engines used in Alaska? 60.4216 Section 60.4216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4216 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4216 What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska? (a) Prior to December 1, 2010, owners and... engines used in Alaska? 60.4216 Section 60.4216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. Revascularization for acute regional infarct: superior protection with warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Horsley, W S; Whitlark, J D; Hall, J D; Gott, J P; Pan-Chih; Huang, A H; Park, Y; Jones, D P; Guyton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Continuous retrograde warm blood cardioplegia was compared with two widely used hypothermic myocardial protection techniques in a canine model of acute regional myocardial ischemia with subsequent revascularization. Animals (n = 30) underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion then cardioplegic arrest (60 minutes), followed by separation from cardiopulmonary bypass and data collection. The cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia group (CC; n = 8) and the cold blood cardioplegia group (CC; n = 10) had cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 degrees C, antegrade arrest, and intermittent retrograde delivery. The warm blood cardioplegia group (WB; n = 12) had normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, antegrade arrest, and continuous retrograde delivery. Overall ventricular function (preload recruitable stroke work relationship; ergs x 10(3)/mL) was significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 80 +/- 11; CB, 67 +/- 13; CC, 57 +/- 12). Systolic function (maximum elastance relationship; mm Hg/mL) was also significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 11.6 +/- 3.6; CB, 8.6 +/- 2.7; CC, 6.2 +/- 1.3). Diastolic function (stress-strain relationship; dynes x 10(3)/cm2) revealed significantly (p < 0.001) decreased compliance for CC (WB, 20 +/- 6; CB, 19 +/- 7; CC, 27 +/- 11). Left anterior descending coronary artery regional adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate ratios were significantly (p = 0.02) worse for CC (WB, 10.2 +/- 2.3; CB, 9.4 +/- 2.6; CC, 5.6 +/- 1.5). Myocardial edema significantly (p = 0.03) increased over time only in the CC animals (WB, 0.4% +/- 2.3%; CB, -0.3% +/- 3.6%; CC, 5.5% +/- 2.3%). In this model of acute regional myocardial ischemia and revascularization, continuous retrograde warm aerobic blood cardioplegia provided superior myocardial protection compared with cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia with intermediate results for cold blood cardioplegia.

  18. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches.

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. Unified Ecoregions of Alaska: 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowacki, Gregory J.; Spencer, Page; Fleming, Michael; Brock, Terry; Jorgenson, Torre

    2003-01-01

    Major ecosystems have been mapped and described for the State of Alaska and nearby areas. Ecoregion units are based on newly available datasets and field experience of ecologists, biologists, geologists and regional experts. Recently derived datasets for Alaska included climate parameters, vegetation, surficial geology and topography. Additional datasets incorporated in the mapping process were lithology, soils, permafrost, hydrography, fire regime and glaciation. Thirty two units are mapped using a combination of the approaches of Bailey (hierarchial), and Omernick (integrated). The ecoregions are grouped into two higher levels using a 'tri-archy' based on climate parameters, vegetation response and disturbance processes. The ecoregions are described with text, photos and tables on the published map.

  1. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus single-chain variable region fragments provide protection against mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading causative agent of bovine mastitis, which can result in significant economic losses to the dairy industry. However, available vaccines against bovine mastitis do not confer adequate protection, although passive immunization with antibodies may be useful to prevent disease. Hence, we constructed a bovine single-chain variable region fragment (scFv) phage display library using cDNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cows with S. aureus-induced mastitis. After four rounds of selection, eight scFvs that bound S. aureus antigens with high affinity were obtained. The framework regions of the variable domains (VH and VL) of the eight scFvs were highly conserved, and the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) displayed significant diversity, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. All eight scFvs inhibited S. aureus growth in culture medium. Lactating mice were challenged by injecting S. aureus into the fourth mammary gland. Histopathological analysis showed that treatment with these scFvs prior to bacterial challenge maintained the structure of the mammary acini, decreased infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, increased levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, and reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in mammary tissues, as compared with mice treatment with physiological saline (P < 0.05). These novel bovine scFvs may be suitable candidates for therapeutic agents for the prevention of S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.

  2. Effects of photoaging information and UV photo on sun protection intentions and behaviours: a cross-regional comparison.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Heike I M; Kulik, James A; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    There is limited empirical evidence regarding differences in sun protection practices in different regions of the USA. This study examined whether there are regional differences in the efficacy of exposure to UV photographs and photoaging information (e.g. wrinkles and age spots) for increasing sun protection behaviours. Students attending a public university in either the Midwestern (Iowa) or Southwestern (Southern California) US reported baseline sun exposure and protection practices and were then randomly assigned to either receive information about photoaging, have a UV photo taken, both receive photoaging information and have a UV photo taken, or to receive neither intervention. Sun protection intentions were assessed immediately after the interventions, and both self-reported sun protection behaviours and an objective assessment (via spectrophotometry) of skin colour change were measured at the end of summer and one year following the interventions. The results showed a pervasive pattern of more risky UV exposure and less sun protection use at the Iowa site than at the Southern California site both prior to and following the interventions. Both interventions increased future sun protection intentions regardless of region. However, the intervention effects on skin colour and UV exposure differed across region, with generally more reliable effects at the Iowa site.

  3. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  4. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    PubMed

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  5. Slide-induced waves, seiching and ground fracturing caused by the earthquake of March 27, 1964 at Kenai Lake, Alaska: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloch, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake dislodged slides from nine deltas in Kenai Lake, south-central Alaska. Sliding removed protruding parts of deltas-often the youngest parts-and steepened delta fronts, increasing the chances of further sliding. Fathograms show that debris from large slides spread widely over the lake floor, some reaching the toe of the opposite shore; at one place debris traveled 5,000 feet over the horizontal lake floor. Slides generated two kinds of local waves: a backfill and far-shore wave. Backfill waves were formed by water that rushed toward the delta to fill the void left by the sinking slide mass, overtopped the slide scrap, and came ashore over the delta. Some backfill waves had runup heights of 30 feet and ran inland more than 300 feet, uprooting and breaking off large trees. Far-shore waves hit the shore opposite the slides. They were formed by slide debris that crossed the lake floor and forced water ahead of it, which then ran up the opposite slope, burst above the lake surface, and struck the shore. One far-shore wave had a runup height of 72 feet. Kenai Lake was tilted and seiched; a power spectrum analysis of a limnogram shows a wave having the period of the calculated uninodal seiche (36 minutes) and several shorter period waves. In constricted and shallow reaches, waves caused by seiching had 20- and 30-foot runup heights. Deep lateral spreading of sediments toward delta margins displaced deeply driven railroad-bridge piles, and set up stress fields in the surface sediments which resulted in the formation of many shear and some tension fractures on the surface of two deltas.

  6. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  7. Soils, vegetation, and woody debris data from the 2001 Survey Line fire and a comparable unburned site, Tanana Flats region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Holingsworth, Teresa N.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the collection and processing methodologies for samples obtained at two sites within Interior Alaska: (1) a location within the 2001 Survey Line burn, and (2) an unburned location, selected as a control. In 2002 and 2004 U.S. Geological Survey investigators measured soil properties including, but not limited to, bulk density, volumetric water content, carbon content, and nitrogen content from samples obtained from these sites. Stand properties, such as tree density, the amount of woody debris, and understory vegetation, were also measured and are presented in this report.

  8. Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Doukas, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1993, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to episodes of eruptive activity or false alarms at nine volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. Additionally, as part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also responded to eruptions on the Kamchatka Peninsula, details of which are summarized in Miller and Kurianov (1993). In 1993, AVO maintained seismic instrumentation networks on four volcanoes of the Cook Inlet region--Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine--and two stations at Dutton Volcano near King Cove on the Alaska Peninsula. Other routine elements of AVO's volcano monitoring program in Alaska include periodic airborne measurement of volcanic SO2 and CO2 at Cook Inlet volcanoes (Doukas, 1995) and maintenance of a lightning detection system in Cook Inlet (Paskievitch and others, 1995).

  9. Use of wetlands under USEPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Region 5 Clean Lakes Program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The EPA's Region V Clean Lakes Program uses several wetlands for controlling degradation of publicly owned, freshwater lakes. The study seeks to determine if the objectives of the Clean Lakes Program are being met by this use of wetlands, and if appropriate institutional arrangements and management techniques are being implemented to manage the wetlands. Conclusions regarding Revion V's use and management of wetlands include: wetland projects are not being monitored adequately for effectiveness and potential negative impacts on ecosystems; other mechanisms which may help to protect wetlands are being employed; management of most wetland projects is decentralized appropriately; most of the wetland projects provide for adequate short-term mass balance studies, prior sedimentation, plant species diversity, water level, retention time, uniform flow of water, and upland pollutant management; and existing evidence suggests that the Clean Lakes wetland projects are instrumental in meeting Program goals and objectives. Based on these conclusions several recommendations for improving wetlands management are reviewed.

  10. Call types of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca) in western Alaska: Using vocal dialects to assess population structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Deborah Lynn

    Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.

  11. 40 CFR 60.4216 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4216... internal combustion engines subject to this paragraph. ... engines used in Alaska? 60.4216 Section 60.4216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  13. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  14. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  15. Cultural Implications of Out-of-Phase Weather across northern Alaska after 500 CE: Regional Variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, O. K.; Alix, C. M.; Bigelow, N. H.; Hoffecker, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    From a global perspective, a diverse mélange of paleoclimate data reveal that Northwest Alaska is partially out of phase with northwest Europe, witnessing cooler periods during the Medieval Climate Anomaly ca. CE 1000 and warmer conditions in the 16th and 17th centuries. The search for climatic forcers in northern Alaska relies on integration of data drawn from tree-rings, lacustrine varves and moraines, diatoms, beach ridges and dunes. At Cape Espenberg, northern Seward Peninsula, a 1500-year reconstruction of settlement, landscape evolution and climatic variability employs >100 14C ages from accreting dunes with shell-laden storm beds, intercalated driftwood and superimposed soils, archaeological sites and marsh peats within swale ponds. Large storms occurred along the Chukchi Sea from Cape Espenberg and Deering (Kotzebue Sound) to Point Barrow prior to 1000 CE, and at decadal intervals during the Little Ice Age (LIA) from 1300 to 1700. Architecural driftwood logs from several excavated houses capped by sand dunes yield several 14C dated floating chronologies covering intervals from 700 to 1700, suggest the identification of cooler intervals 800 to 1000 and intermittently after 1300. Peat aggradation followed isolation from the sea from 500 onward, and was interrupted by two pulses of fresh water, one ca. 1300 and a second ca. 1800, with diatoms suggesting relative aridity during the LIA. The occupation history of Cape Espenberg generally follows dune growth, and may be inversely related to cooler temperatures.

  16. Routine Ocean Monitoring With Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Obtained From the Alaska Satellite Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichel, W. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Li, X.; Friedman, K.; Monaldo, F.; Thompson, D.; Wackerman, C.; Scott, C.; Jackson, C.; Beal, R.; McGuire, J.; Nicoll, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) has been processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for research and for near-real-time applications demonstrations since shortly after the launch of the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite in 1991. The long coastline of Alaska, the vast extent of ocean adjacent to Alaska, a scarcity of in-situ observations, and the persistence of cloud cover all contribute to the need for all-weather ocean observations in the Alaska region. Extensive experience with SAR product processing algorithms and SAR data analysis techniques, and a growing sophistication on the part of SAR data and product users have amply demonstrated the value of SAR instruments in providing this all-weather ocean observation capability. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been conducting a near-real-time applications demonstration of SAR ocean and hydrologic products in Alaska since September 1999. This Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO) has shown the value of SAR-derived, high-resolution (sub kilometer) ocean surface winds to coastal weather forecasting and the understanding of coastal wind phenomena such as gap winds, barrier jets, vortex streets, and lee waves. Vessel positions and ice information derived from SAR imagery have been used for management of fisheries, protection of the fishing fleet, enforcement of fisheries regulations, and protection of endangered marine mammals. Other ocean measurements, with potentially valuable applications, include measurement of wave state (significant wave height, dominant wave direction and wavelength, and wave spectra), mapping of oil spills, and detection of shallow-water bathymetric features. In addition to the AKDEMO, ASF-processed SAR imagery is being used: (1) in the Gulf of Mexico for hurricane wind studies, and post-hurricane oil-spill and oil-platform analyses (the latter employing ship-detection algorithms for detection of changes in oil-platform locations); (2) in the North Pacific

  17. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  18. The Role of Protected Areas in the Avoidance of Anthropogenic Conversion in a High Pressure Region: A Matching Method Analysis in the Core Region of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Rodrigo José Oliveira; Brites, Ricardo Seixas; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts to avoid anthropogenic conversion of natural habitat rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Studies that evaluate the effectiveness of these areas with a focus on preserving the natural habitat define effectiveness as a measure of the influence of protected areas on total avoided conversion. Changes in the estimated effectiveness are related to local and regional differences, evaluation methods, restriction categories that include the protected areas, and other characteristics. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas to prevent the advance of the conversion of natural areas in the core region of the Brazil's Cerrado Biome, taking into account the influence of the restriction degree, governmental sphere, time since the establishment of the protected area units, and the size of the area on the performance of protected areas. The evaluation was conducted using matching methods and took into account the following two fundamental issues: control of statistical biases caused by the influence of covariates on the likelihood of anthropogenic conversion and the non-randomness of the allocation of protected areas throughout the territory (spatial correlation effect) and the control of statistical bias caused by the influence of auto-correlation and leakage effect. Using a sample design that is not based on ways to control these biases may result in outcomes that underestimate or overestimate the effectiveness of those units. The matching method accounted for a bias reduction in 94-99% of the estimation of the average effect of protected areas on anthropogenic conversion and allowed us to obtain results with a reduced influence of the auto-correlation and leakage effects. Most protected areas had a positive influence on the maintenance of natural habitats, although wide variation in this effectiveness was dependent on the type, restriction, governmental sphere, size and age group of the unit.

  19. The Role of Protected Areas in the Avoidance of Anthropogenic Conversion in a High Pressure Region: A Matching Method Analysis in the Core Region of the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Rodrigo José Oliveira; Brites, Ricardo Seixas; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts to avoid anthropogenic conversion of natural habitat rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Studies that evaluate the effectiveness of these areas with a focus on preserving the natural habitat define effectiveness as a measure of the influence of protected areas on total avoided conversion. Changes in the estimated effectiveness are related to local and regional differences, evaluation methods, restriction categories that include the protected areas, and other characteristics. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas to prevent the advance of the conversion of natural areas in the core region of the Brazil’s Cerrado Biome, taking into account the influence of the restriction degree, governmental sphere, time since the establishment of the protected area units, and the size of the area on the performance of protected areas. The evaluation was conducted using matching methods and took into account the following two fundamental issues: control of statistical biases caused by the influence of covariates on the likelihood of anthropogenic conversion and the non-randomness of the allocation of protected areas throughout the territory (spatial correlation effect) and the control of statistical bias caused by the influence of auto-correlation and leakage effect. Using a sample design that is not based on ways to control these biases may result in outcomes that underestimate or overestimate the effectiveness of those units. The matching method accounted for a bias reduction in 94–99% of the estimation of the average effect of protected areas on anthropogenic conversion and allowed us to obtain results with a reduced influence of the auto-correlation and leakage effects. Most protected areas had a positive influence on the maintenance of natural habitats, although wide variation in this effectiveness was dependent on the type, restriction, governmental sphere, size and age group of the unit

  20. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  1. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation guided cerebral protection in a parturient with Takayasu's arteritis undergoing cesarean section: a case report.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Tianlong; Fu, Wenya; Wang, Fengying; Zhao, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this case report is to present the successful use of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring guided cerebral protection for cesarean delivery in a parturient with Takayasu's arteritis at 38weeks' gestation. The parturient presented with impaired cerebral and renal perfusion. Titrated epidural anesthesia was performed. During the procedure, we used rScO2 guided cerebral protection strategies, which helped to optimize cerebral oxygen delivery and prevent cerebral complications.

  2. 75 FR 65599 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... conservation partners commit to working together. With these dual goals in mind, the Service, working with... required by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act is not required. Participation on regional management bodies... to Co-management Council and regional management body meetings. In addition, the State of Alaska...

  3. Integrated resource inventory for southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, T.; Carson-Henry, C.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Integrated Resource Inventory for Southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA) Project comprised an integrated set of activities related to the land use planning and resource management requirements of the participating agencies within the southcentral region of Alaska. One subproject involved generating a region-wide land cover inventory of use to all participating agencies. Toward this end, participants first obtained a broad overview of the entire region and identified reasonable expectations of a LANDSAT-based land cover inventory through evaluation of an earlier classification generated during the Alaska Water Level B Study. Classification of more recent LANDSAT data was then undertaken by INTRISCA participants. The latter classification produced a land cover data set that was more specifically related to individual agency needs, concurrently providing a comprehensive training experience for Alaska agency personnel. Other subprojects employed multi-level analysis techniques ranging from refinement of the region-wide classification and photointerpretation, to digital edge enhancement and integration of land cover data into a geographic information system (GIS).

  4. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  5. Public-health assessment for Arctic Surplus, Fairbanks, Fairbanks North Star County, Alaska, Region 10. CERCLIS No. AKD980988158. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-22

    Located in the southeast quadrant of Fairbanks, Alaska, the Arctic Surplus National Priorities List (NPL) site consists of salvaged material and scrap which have accumulated for more than 40 years. Operations at the site (1946 to 1976) have resulted in localized soil contamination with chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan homologues (compounds of similar structure), and lead. Some surface soil lead contamination has been detected just beyond the site fence line. In addition, friable asbestos is found on-site. Remediation of the site has removed most of the localized on-site soil contamination and asbestos. The Arctic Surplus site is considered a public health hazard because of the potential for exposure to lead through ingestion of water from residential wells, and because of the past exposures of workers to asbestos, lead, and PCB's on-site. ATSDR determined that a community health investigation is needed to help address community concerns about cancer and other health outcomes.

  6. History of petroleum development in Arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gryc, G. )

    1991-03-01

    Long before recorded history, tar from oil seepages and oil shale that burned like wood were used for fuel by the Inuit (native people of Arctic Alaska). The first published descriptions of these oil seepages that identified Arctic Alaska as a petroliferous province appeared in 1909. In 1921, several applications for prospecting permits were filed by private groups under the old mining laws, but the permits were never issued. In 1923, President Harding set aside about half of the North Slope of Alaska, including most of the seepage areas, as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4. This was followed by three periods of federally sponsored exploration programs in the reserve and the adjoining areas during the periods 1923 to 1926, 1944 to 1952, and 1974 to 1982. Noncommercial oil and gas deposits were discovered in the reserve, the gas deposits at Barrow were developed for local use, and the feasibility of petroleum exploration and development in the Arctic was established. Industry exploration began in 1958 when the lands adjacent to the reserve were opened for lease. Prudhoe Bay, North America's largest oil field, was discovered in 1968. The history of petroleum development in Arctic Alaska provides an interesting study of the building of a geologic, geographic, and logistic base, of the lead time required for resource exploitation, of the interaction of government and industry, and of the expansion of the US resource base during a time of expanding ecologic awareness. Petroleum exploration in the Canadian Arctic region was stimulated by the activity across the border in Alaska.

  7. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  9. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated.

  10. A Block Compressive Sensing Based Scalable Encryption Framework for Protecting Significant Image Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yushu; Zhou, Jiantao; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Leo Yu; Xiao, Di; Chen, Bin; Liao, Xiaofeng

    The existing Block Compressive Sensing (BCS) based image ciphers adopted the same sampling rate for all the blocks, which may lead to the desirable result that after subsampling, significant blocks lose some more-useful information while insignificant blocks still retain some less-useful information. Motivated by this observation, we propose a scalable encryption framework (SEF) based on BCS together with a Sobel Edge Detector and Cascade Chaotic Maps. Our work is firstly dedicated to the design of two new fusion techniques, chaos-based structurally random matrices and chaos-based random convolution and subsampling. The basic idea is to divide an image into some blocks with an equal size and then diagnose their respective significance with the help of the Sobel Edge Detector. For significant block encryption, chaos-based structurally random matrix is applied to significant blocks whereas chaos-based random convolution and subsampling are responsible for the remaining insignificant ones. In comparison with the BCS based image ciphers, the SEF takes lightweight subsampling and severe sensitivity encryption for the significant blocks and severe subsampling and lightweight robustness encryption for the insignificant ones in parallel, thus better protecting significant image regions.

  11. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  12. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  13. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  14. Alaska Resource Data File, Juneau quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, John C.; Miller, Lance D.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  15. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  16. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  17. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorr, P. M.; Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Cubley, J. F.; Samolczyk, M. A.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Transportable Array is deploying about 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute, and Yukon College to spread awareness of earthquakes in Alaska and western Canada and the benefits of the Transportable Array for people living in these regions. We provide an update of ongoing education and outreach activities in Alaska and Canada as well as continued efforts to publicize the Transportable Array in the Lower 48. Nearly all parts of Alaska and portions of western Canada are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska, in particular, requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaskan and western Canadian villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Meetings and interviews with Alaska Native Elders and tribal councils discussing past earthquakes has led to a better understanding of how Alaskans view and understand earthquakes. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska and the Yukon. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor emphasizes the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offers not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan and Canadian understanding of the seismic hazard and

  18. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Hawkweed Control in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several hawkweed species from Europe have escaped ornamental planting and have colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. These plants form near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was conducted ...

  20. Geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, including parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale quadrangles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Labay, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1976, L.B. Magoon, W.L. Adkinson, and R.M. Egbert published a major geologic map of the Cook Inlet region, which has served well as a compilation of existing information and a guide for future research and mapping. The map in this report updates Magoon and others (1976) and incorporates new and additional mapping and interpretation. This map is also a revision of areas of overlap with the geologic map completed for central Alaska (Wilson and others, 1998). Text from that compilation remains appropriate and is summarized here; many compromises have been made in strongly held beliefs to allow construction of this compilation. Yet our willingness to make interpretations and compromises does not allow resolution of all mapping conflicts. Nonetheless, we hope that geologists who have mapped in this region will recognize that, in incorporating their work, our regional correlations may have required some generalization or lumping of map units. Many sources were used to produce this geologic map and, in most cases, data from available maps were combined, without generalization, and new data were added where available. A preliminary version of this map was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009–1108. The main differences between the versions concern revised mapping of surfical deposits in the northern and eastern parts of the map area. Minor error corrections have been made also.

  1. Major disruption of D'' beneath Alaska: D'' Beneath Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Daoyuan; Helmberger, Don; Miller, Meghan S.; Jackson, Jennifer M.

    2016-05-01

    D'' represents one of the most dramatic thermal and compositional layers within our planet. In particular, global tomographic models display relatively fast patches at the base of the mantle along the circum-Pacific which are generally attributed to slab debris. Such distinct patches interact with the bridgmanite (Br) to post-bridgmanite (PBr) phase boundary to generate particularly strong heterogeneity at their edges. Most seismic observations for the D'' come from the lower mantle S wave triplication (Scd). Here we exploit the USArray waveform data to examine one of these sharp transitions in structure beneath Alaska. From west to east beneath Alaska, we observed three different characteristics in D'': (1) the western region with a strong Scd, requiring a sharp δVs = 2.5% increase; (2) the middle region with no clear Scd phases, indicating a lack of D'' (or thin Br-PBr layer); and (3) the eastern region with strong Scd phase, requiring a gradient increase in δVs. To explain such strong lateral variation in the velocity structure, chemical variations must be involved. We suggest that the western region represents relatively normal mantle. In contrast, the eastern region is influenced by a relic slab that has subducted down to the lowermost mantle. In the middle region, we infer an upwelling structure that disrupts the Br-PBr phase boundary. Such an interpretation is based upon a distinct pattern of travel time delays, waveform distortions, and amplitude patterns that reveal a circular-shaped anomaly about 5° across which can be modeled synthetically as a plume-like structure rising about 400 km high with a shear velocity reduction of ~5%, similar to geodynamic modeling predictions of upwellings.

  2. Thermal evolution of sedimentary basins in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, Mark J.; Howell, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The complex tectonic collage of Alaska is reflected in the conjunction of rocks of widely varying thermal maturity. Indicators of the level of thermal maturity of rocks exposed at the surface, such as vitrinite reflectance and conodont color alteration index, can help constrain the tectonic evolution of such complex regions and, when combined with petrographic, modern heat flow, thermogeochronologic, and isotopic data, allow for the detailed evaluation of a region?s burial and uplift history. We have collected and assembled nearly 10,000 vitrinite-reflectance and conodont-color-alteration index values from the literature, previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations, and our own studies in Alaska. This database allows for the first synthesis of thermal maturity on a broadly regional scale. Post-accretionary sedimentary basins in Alaska show wide variability in terms of thermal maturity. The Tertiary interior basins, as well as some of the forearc and backarc basins associated with the Aleutian Arc, are presently at their greatest depth of burial, with immature rocks exposed at the surface. Other basins, such as some backarc basins on the Alaska Peninsula, show higher thermal maturities, indicating modest uplift, perhaps in conjunction with higher geothermal gradients related to the arc itself. Cretaceous ?flysch? basins, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk basin, are at much higher thermal maturity, reflecting great amounts of uplift perhaps associated with compressional regimes generated through terrane accretion. Many sedimentary basins in Alaska, such as the Yukon-Koyukuk and Colville basins, show higher thermal maturity at basin margins, perhaps reflecting greater uplift of the margins in response to isostatic unloading, owing to erosion of the hinterland adjacent to the basin or to compressional stresses adjacent to basin margins.

  3. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  4. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. F.; Burgess, E.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Johnson, A. J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-07-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of -75 ± 11 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  5. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. “Where I Have to Learn the Ways How to Live:” Youth Resilience in a Yup’ik Village in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Rasmus, Stacy M.; Allen, James; Ford, Tara

    2014-01-01

    What is it like to grow-up Yup’ik and come-of-age today in a traditional hunting-gathering community setting located in a remote region of Alaska? Current research describes a contemporary experience often laden with trauma and crisis. Youth in Yup’ik communities today face threats to their very survival as they encounter, early on, things that their ancestors never faced – including alcohol-related deaths, violence in many forms, and high rates of suicide among their young peers. Yet all is not despair for the youth growing up in these remote indigenous communities. Many youth grow-up to become skilled hunters, strong leaders, and able parents. This paper reports findings from the Alaskan Yup’ik site of the Circumpolar Indigenous Pathways to Adulthood (CIPA) study. The goal of this study is to identify strengths and resilience in youth living in a Yup’ik community in southwest Alaska. Interviews were conducted with 25 youth age 11–18, currently residing in a southwest Alaska community. Qualitative analysis revealed important connections between local stressors, community-level protective resources, and youth-driven, solution-focused strategies for overcoming hardship and learning the ‘ways how to live.’ Findings from this study contribute critical information on indigenous youth protection and resilience, including community and cultural resilience processes beyond the individual level, and enhance our understanding of the types of resources that can lead to improved outcomes for Alaska Native youth. PMID:24823691

  7. The presence of rapidly degrading permafrost plateaus in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Baughman, Carson; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Parsekian, Andrew D.; Babcock, Esther; Stephani, Eva; Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Berg, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost presence is determined by a complex interaction of climatic, topographic, and ecological conditions operating over long time scales. In particular, vegetation and organic layer characteristics may act to protect permafrost in regions with a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) above 0°C. In this study, we document the presence of residual permafrost plateaus on the western Kenai Peninsula lowlands of southcentral Alaska, a region with a MAAT of 1.5 ± 1°C (1981 to 2010). Continuous ground temperature measurements between 16 September 2012 and 15 September 2015, using calibrated thermistor strings, documented the presence of warm permafrost (−0.04 to −0.08°C). Field measurements (probing) on several plateau features during the fall of 2015 showed that the depth to the permafrost table averaged 1.48 m but was as shallow as 0.53 m. Late winter surveys (drilling, coring, and GPR) in 2016 showed that the average seasonally frozen ground thickness was 0.45 m, overlying a talik above the permafrost table. Measured permafrost thickness ranged from 0.33 to >6.90 m. Manual interpretation of historic aerial photography acquired in 1950 indicates that residual permafrost plateaus covered 920 ha as mapped across portions of four wetland complexes encompassing 4810 ha. However, between 1950 and ca. 2010, permafrost plateau extent decreased by 60%, with lateral feature degradation accounting for 85% of the reduction in area. Permafrost loss on the Kenai Peninsula is likely associated with a warming climate, wildfires that remove the protective forest and organic layer cover, groundwater flow at depth, and lateral heat transfer from wetland surface waters in the summer. Better understanding the resilience and vulnerability of ecosystem-protected permafrost is critical for mapping and predicting future permafrost extent and degradation across all permafrost regions that are currently warming. Further work should focus on reconstructing permafrost history in

  8. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off Alaska. The FMP establishes two management areas: the East Area is the EEZ... economic and social benefits to the Nation over time, (5) protect wild stocks and fully utilize...

  9. 77 FR 44501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ..., Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian..., Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. Fax comments to 907-586-7557. Hand delivery to the Federal Building: Address written comments to...

  10. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Merrill, Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen... Merrill, Assistant Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. Fax comments to 907-586-7557. Hand delivery to the Federal Building: Address written comments...

  11. Potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Nagy, John A

    2007-04-01

    Under article 8-J of the Convention on Biological Diversity, governments must engage indigenous and local communities in the designation and management of protected areas. A better understanding of the relationship between community heritage sites and sites identified to protect conventional conservation features could inform conservation-planning exercises on indigenous lands. We examined the potential overlap between Gwich'in First Nations' (Northwest Territories, Canada) heritage sites and areas independently identified for the protection of conventional conservation targets. We designed nine hypothetical protected-area networks with different targets for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, high-quality wetland areas, representative vegetation types, water bodies, environmentally significant area, territorial parks, and network aggregation. We compared the spatial overlap of heritage sites to these nine protected-area networks. The degree of spatial overlap (Jaccard similarity) between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with moderate or high aggregation was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap, whereas the overlap between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with no aggregation was not significant or significantly lower (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap. Our results suggest that protected-area networks designed to capture conventional conservation features may protect key heritage sites but only if the underlying characteristics of these sites are considered. The Gwich'in heritage sites are highly aggregated and only protected-area networks that had moderate and high aggregation had significant overlap with the heritage sites. We suggest that conventional conservation plans incorporate heritage sites into their design criteria to complement conventional conservation targets and effectively protect indigenous heritage sites.

  12. Correlates of Alaska Native Fatal and Nonfatal Suicidal Behaviors 1990-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…

  13. Atmospheric deposition and critical loads for nitrogen and metals in Arctic Alaska: Review and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, Greg L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Neitlich, Peter; Little, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To protect important resources under their bureau’s purview, the United States National Park Service’s (NPS) Arctic Network (ARCN) has developed a series of “vital signs” that are to be periodically monitored. One of these vital signs focuses on wet and dry deposition of atmospheric chemicals and further, the establishment of critical load (CL) values (thresholds for ecological effects based on cumulative depositional loadings) for nitrogen (N), sulfur, and metals. As part of the ARCN terrestrial monitoring programs, samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens are being col- lected and analyzed as a cost-effective means to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in this region. Ultimately, moss data combined with refined CL values might be used to help guide future regulation of atmospheric contaminant sources potentially impacting Arctic Alaska. But first, additional long-term studies are needed to determine patterns of contaminant deposition as measured by moss biomonitors and to quantify ecosystem responses at particular loadings/ ranges of contaminants within Arctic Alaska. Herein we briefly summarize 1) current regulatory guidance related to CL values 2) derivation of CL models for N and metals, 3) use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition and loadings, 4) preliminary analysis of vulnerabilities and risks associated with CL estimates for N, 5) preliminary analysis of existing data for characterization of CL values for N for interior Alaska and 6) implications for managers and future research needs.

  14. A new magnetic view of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Connard, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new, publicly available aeromagnetic data compilation spanning Alaska enables analysis of the regional crustal character of this tectonically diverse and poorly understood part of the North American Cordillera. The merged data were upward-continued by 10 km (mathematically smoothed without assumptions about sources) to enhance crustal-scale magnetic features and facilitate tectonic analysis. This analysis reveals a basic threefold magnetic character: (1) a southern region with arcuate magnetic domains closely tied to tectonostratigraphic elements, (2) a magnetically neutral interior region punctuated locally by intermediate and deep magnetic highs representing a complex history, and (3) a magnetically subdued northern region that includes a large deep magnetic high. Our tectonic view of the data supports interpretations that Paleozoic extension and continental rift basins played a significant role in the tectonic development of northern and interior Alaska. Accretion of oceanic and continental margin terranes could be restricted to the southern region. The new magnetic view of Alaska can be compared and contrasted with other Pacific margin regions where convergent margin and accretionary tectonic processes are important.

  15. Proceedings of the Alaska-Russia Native Peoples Health and Social Issues Conference. May 1992, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D L; Soule, S

    1993-04-01

    An Alaska-Russia Native People's Health and Social Issues Conference, sponsored by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Alaska Native Foundation, the University of Anchorage Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies, the International Scientific Center "ARTIKA" (Magadan, Russia), the Associations of Native People of Chukotka and Kolyma, and the Magadan Native Association, was held in Wasilla, Alaska in May, 1992. The conference brought together Native people, primarily health and social services workers, to discuss differences and similarities in issues and approaches, and to lay the foundation for future collaboration. The primary participants came mostly from rural villages and small regional cities, and represented Native Health Corporations, Native Associations, and villages. Additional participants came from the University of Alaska, the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the Indian Health Service, the Magadan Health Department, the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, and the International Union for Circumpolar Health. A Total of 39 people participated, including: eight Russian Natives (Chukchi, Even, and Siberian Yup'ik); three non-Native Russians; 18 Alaska Natives (Aleut, Athabaskan, Inupiat, Siberian Yup'ik, Yup'ik); nine non-Native Alaskans; one Canadian. The issues discussed in individual and panel presentations, and in small groups, included history, demography, settlement patterns, the cash and subsistence economies, mental and physical health (epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention), education, governance, culture and language. As the conference participants came to know each other better, the discussions became increasingly open, and, particularly around shared feelings of cultural oppression and loss, emotional.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  17. Interim report on an appraisal of the uranium possibilities of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth; White, Max G.; Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Summaries of the geology and mineral deposits, and appraisals of the uranium possibilities of the various regions of Alaska are presented in this report. A short statement on previous knowledge and investigation of radioactive materials in the Territory is also given. The review of data and appraisal for the Seward Peninsula-Jobuk, Lower Yukon-Kuskokwim, Upper Yukon, Alaska Railroad-Iliamna, and southeastern Alaska regions are essentially complete. Those of the Copper River, Gulf of Alaska, Aleutian and northern Alaska regions are not yet complete. A more detailed presentation of these latter regions will be made in the final report. The appraisals are based on known occurrences of radioactive materials and geologic criteria that suggest the presence of uranium. Review of published and unpublished data to date shows that the Seward Peninsula-Kobuk region and southeastern Alaska followed by the Alaska Railroad, Gulf of Alaska and Lower Yukon-Kuskokwim regions are perhaps the more promising regions of the Territory for the occurrence of high-grade uranium ores.

  18. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...NMFS proposes regulations to revise recordkeeping and reporting regulations and make other miscellaneous revisions to NOAA regulations concerning fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska. The proposed revisions would add a requirement that the Registered Crab Receiver record in eLandings the region in which the stationary floating processor is located at time of crab delivery;......

  19. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and other conservation partners commit to working together. With these dual goals in mind, the Service... Act is not required. Participation on regional management bodies and the Co-management Council will... management body meetings. In addition, the State of Alaska will be required to provide technical...

  20. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... conservation partners commit to working together. With these dual objectives in mind, the Service, working with... bodies and the Co-management Council would require travel expenses for some Alaska Native organizations... also incur expenses for travel to Co-management Council and regional management body meetings....

  1. Methods based on remote sensing data for environmental monitoring to support National and Regional Protection Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, V.; Lasaponara, R.; Macchiato, F. M.; Simoniello, T.

    2001-05-01

    Remote sensing provides useful data for environmental monitoring nevertheless, efforts are required to test and evaluate methods and techniques to be applied for operational applications. Since 1994, in the context of several projects founded by the Italian Environment Protection Agency (ANPA) and Environmental Department of Basilicata Region, we have experienced the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring in operative contexts. Particularly, we have developed and tested methodologies based on the integration of remote sensed data aimed at: estimations of space/temporal dynamics of surface parameters (such as temperature and vegetation indexes), forest fire detection and danger estimation, risk assessment, change detection, desertification, alpine ice monitoring, etc. Some examples are briefly summarized below. The action C of Timoran projects was devoted to forest fire monitoring. We devised a dynamic short time fire forecasting based on the integration of remote sensing and GIS. A daily fire susceptibility assessment was performed, from NOAA-AVHRR exploiting the cross analysis of the temporal evolution of NDVI and the middle-infrared channel. Four danger classes have been obtained (low, moderate, high and very high). We also estimated the expected fire severity combining and integrating different danger variables, such as: (1) fire susceptibility (water stress) performed using satellite AVHRR data, (2) fuel type, (3) incidence of topography, (4) wind forecast, obtained from meteorological models. Potential and limitations of AVHRR for fire detection were evaluated in the Italian ecosystems. At present we are working on evaluating the effectiveness of Landsat-TM imagery for mapping burned area in heterogeneous regions, characterized by different cover types, rough topography and complex ecosystems. In the context of "Devising of environmental indicators based on remote sensing data" project, funded by ANPA, we investigated on an AVHRR time series from

  2. Life Support and Protection Requirements for the Head/Neck Region of Navy Aircrewmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    head is a hard-shell helmet . This is the current solution of i * choice for such diverse activities as football , motorcycling, ice hockey, and military...su~t, flotation gear, etc., outweigh the advantages. In addition, programs are afoot to reconfigure the protective helmet to accommodate more...additions to the protective helmet , penalties can only increase. Problems of comfort, fatigue, and restriction of movement will be exacerbated. -The

  3. Long-term observations of Alaska Coastal Current in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Bell, Shaun; Cheng, Wei; Danielson, Seth; Kachel, Nancy B.; Mordy, Calvin W.

    2016-10-01

    The Alaska Coastal Current is a continuous, well-defined system extending for ~1700 km along the coast of Alaska from Seward, Alaska to Samalga Pass in the Aleutian Islands. The currents in this region are examined using data collected at >20 mooring sites and from >400 satellite-tracked drifters. While not continuous, the mooring data span a 30 year period (1984-2014). Using current meter data collected at a dozen mooring sites spread over four lines (Seward, Gore Point, Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances, and the exit to Shelikof Strait) total transport was calculated. Transport was significantly correlated with alongshore winds, although the correlation at the Seward Line was weak. The largest mean transport in the Alaska Coastal Current occurred at Gore Point (1.4×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer), with the transport at the exit to Shelikof Strait (1.3×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer) only slightly less. The transport was modified at the Seward Line in late summer and fall by frontal undulations associated with strong river discharge that enters onto the shelf at that time of year. The interaction of the Alaska Coastal Current and tidal currents with shallow banks in the vicinity of Kodiak Archipeligo and in Kennedy-Stevenson Entrance results in mixing and prolonged primary production throughout the summer.

  4. Initial Conceptualization and Application of the Alaska Thermokarst Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, W. R.; Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; Romanovsky, V. E.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thermokarst topography forms whenever ice-rich permafrost thaws and the ground subsides due to the volume loss when ground ice transitions to water. The Alaska Thermokarst Model (ATM) is a large-scale, state-and-transition model designed to simulate transitions between landscape units affected by thermokarst disturbance. The ATM uses a frame-based methodology to track transitions and proportion of cohorts within a 1-km2 grid cell. In the arctic tundra environment, the ATM tracks thermokarst-related transitions among wetland tundra, graminoid tundra, shrub tundra, and thermokarst lakes. In the boreal forest environment, the ATM tracks transitions among forested permafrost plateau, thermokarst lakes, collapse scar fens and bogs. The transition from one cohort to another due to thermokarst processes can take place if thaw reaches ice-rich ground layers either due to pulse disturbance (i.e. large precipitation event or fires), or due to gradual active layer deepening that eventually results in penetration of the protective layer. The protective layer buffers the ice-rich soils from the land surface and is critical to determine how susceptible an area is to thermokarst degradation. The rate of terrain transition in our model is determined by a set of rules that are based upon the ice-content of the soil, the drainage efficiency (or the ability of the landscape to store or transport water), the cumulative probability of thermokarst initiation, distance from rivers, lake dynamics (increasing, decreasing, or stable), and other factors. Tundra types are allowed to transition from one type to another (for example, wetland tundra to graminoid tundra) under favorable climatic conditions. In this study, we present our conceptualization and initial simulation results from in the arctic (the Barrow Peninsula) and boreal (the Tanana Flats) regions of Alaska.

  5. Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This ASTER image of Teshekpuk Lake on Alaska's North Slope, within the National Petroleum Reserve, was acquired on August 15, 2000. It covers an area of 58.7 x 89.9 km, and is centered near 70.4 degrees north latitude, 153 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 58.7 by 89.9 kilometers (36.4 by 55.7 miles) Location: 70.4 degrees North latitude, 153 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: August 15, 2000

  6. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.G; Meyers, T.R.; Burton, T.O.; Kurath, G.

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  7. Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000–2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ≥20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ≥28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted.

  8. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Emmenegger, E J; Meyers, T R; Burton, T O; Kurath, G

    2000-04-20

    Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This

  9. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  10. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  11. Human Impacts on Wildfires in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M. P.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, F. S.; Dewilde, L.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of human activities on the fire regime of high latitude ecosystems, which has not been well investigated, has the potential to influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange with the atmosphere by influencing land cover and ecosystem dynamics. In this study we assessed the potential footprint of human presence on fire regime in Interior Alaska by investigating three research questions: 1) Does the type of fire ignition (human or lightning) have a significant impact on fire size?; 2) Does human impact on fire regime vary with population size?; and 3) Does distance from towns, roads or rivers affect fire size and ignition? To evaluate these questions, we overlaid the large-firescar database (fires >0.4 km2 for 1988-2002) and the fire ignition database (1956-2000) of the Alaska Fire Service with towns (all named settlements), major roads, and major rivers in Interior Alaska. Currently, humans are responsible for high fire frequency near towns and roads; however, human caused fires are generally much smaller than lightning ignited fires. Human impact on fire regime is a function of town size, and distance to roads and to a lesser extent rivers play an important role as they allow humans access to remote areas. Thus, it is clear that human activities influence fire regime in localized areas of Interior Alaska. Our next challenge is to evaluate if these effects of humans on the fire regime influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange at the regional scale.

  12. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  13. Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region GLEB PANTELEEV International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska ...Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska , and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia MAX YAREMCHUK Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space...Center, Mississippi JACOB STROH University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska PAMELA POSEY AND DAVID HEBERT Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis

  14. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the lower Yukon River region, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  15. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the generalized bedrock geologic map, Yukon Flats region, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Stanley, Richard G.; Crews, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  16. Conceptual ecological models to support detection of ecological change on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Beever, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    More than 31 million hectares of land are protected and managed in 16 refuges by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in Alaska. The vastness and isolation of Alaskan refuges give rise to relatively intact and complete ecosystems. The potential for these lands to provide habitat for trust species is likely to be altered, however, due to global climate change, which is having dramatic effects at high latitudes. The ability of USFWS to effectively manage these lands in the future will be enhanced by a regional inventory and monitoring program that integrates and supplements monitoring currently being implemented by individual refuges. Conceptual models inform monitoring programs in a number of ways, including summarizing important ecosystem components and processes as well as facilitating communication, discussion and debate about the nature of the system and important management issues. This process can lead to hypotheses regarding future changes, likely results of alternative management actions, identification of monitoring indicators, and ultimately, interpretation of monitoring results. As a first step towards developing a monitoring program, the 16 refuges in Alaska each created a conceptual model of their refuge and the landscape context. Models include prominent ecosystem components, drivers, and processes by which components are linked or altered. The Alaska refuge system also recognizes that designing and implementing monitoring at regional and ecoregional extents has numerous scientific, fiscal, logistical, and political advantages over monitoring conducted exclusively at refuge-specific scales. Broad-scale monitoring is particularly advantageous for examining phenomena such as climate change because effects are best interpreted at broader spatial extents. To enable an ecoregional perspective, a rationale was developed for deriving ecoregional boundaries for four ecoregions (Polar, Interior Alaska, Bering Coast, and North Pacific Coast) from the

  17. Identifying the main drivers of soil carbon response to climate change in arctic and boreal Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; He, Y.; Johnson, K.; Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N. J.; Zhuang, Q.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal and arctic regions represent the largest reservoir of carbon among terrestrial biomes. Most of this carbon is stored deep in the soil in permafrost where frozen organic matter is protected from decomposition. The vulnerability of soil carbon stocks to a changing climate in high latitudes depends on a number of physical and ecological processes. The importance of these processes in controlling the dynamics of soil carbon stocks vary across regions because of variability in vegetation composition, drainage condition, and permafrost characteristics. To better understand the main drivers of the vulnerability of soil carbon stocks to climate change in Alaska, we ran a process-based ecosystem model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. This model explicitly simulates interactions between the carbon cycle and permafrost dynamics and was coupled with a disturbance model and a model of biogenic methane dynamics to assess historical and projected soil carbon dynamics in Alaska, from 1950 to 2100. The uncertainties related to climate, fire regime and atmospheric CO2projections on soil carbon dynamics were quantified by running simulations using climate projections from 2 global circulation models, 3 fossil fuel emission scenarios and 3 alternative fire management scenarios. During the historical period [1950-2009], soil carbon stocks increased by 4.7 TgC/yr in Alaska. Soil carbon stocks decreased in boreal Alaska due to substantial fire activity in the early 2000's. This loss was offset by carbon accumulation in the arctic. Changes in soil carbon stocks from 2010 to 2099 ranged from 8.9 to 25.6 TgC/yr, depending on the climate projections. Soil carbon accumulation was slower in lowlands than in uplands and slower in the boreal than in the arctic regions because of the negative effect of fire activity on soil carbon stocks. Tundra ecosystems were more vulnerable to carbon loss from fire than forest ecosystems because of a lower productivity. As a result, the increase in

  18. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor, and the…

  19. Active Tectonics and Seismic Potential of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wesson, Robert L.; Ekström, Göran

    This multidisciplinary monograph provides the first modern integrative summary focused on the most spectacular active tectonic systems in North America. Encompassing seismology, tectonics, geology, and geodesy, it includes papers that summarize the state of knowledge, including background material for those unfamiliar with the region; address global hypotheses using data from Alaska; and test important global hypotheses using data from this region. It is organized around four major themes: • subduction and great earthquakes at the Aleutian Arc, • the transition from strike slip to accretion and subduction of the Yakutat microplate, • the Denali fault and related structures and their role in accommodating permanent deformation of the overriding plate, and • regional integration and large-scale models and the use of data from Alaska to address important global questions and hypotheses. The book's publication near the beginning of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project makes it especially timely because Alaska is perhaps the least understood area within the EarthScope footprint, and interest in the region can be expected to rise with time as more EarthScope data become available.

  20. Costs of expanding the network of protected areas as a response to climate change in the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Wise, Russell M; Reyers, Belinda; Guo, Chris; Midgley, Guy F; De Lange, Willem

    2012-06-01

    The expansion of protected areas is a critical component of strategies to promote the continued existence of biodiversity (i.e., life at all levels of biological organization) as climate changes, but scientific, social, and economic uncertainties associated with climate change are some of the major obstacles preventing such expansion. New models of climate change and species distribution and new methods of conservation planning now make it possible to explore the uncertainties associated with climate changes and species responses. Yet few reliable estimates of the costs of expanding protected areas and methods for determining these costs exist, largely because of the many (and uncertain) determinants of these costs. We developed a cost-accounting model to estimate the range in costs of various options for expanding protected areas and to explore the variables that drive these costs. Model development was informed by an existing plan to expand protected areas in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa to address species conservation under a scenario of climate change. The 50-year present value of total costs varied from US$260 million ($1077/ha) for an off-reserve option that involves agreements with landowners and no compensation of forgone production and associated revenue to $1020 million ($4228/ha) for an on-reserve option that involves land acquisition and protection. The costs of acquiring land or compensating landowners for forgone production and development opportunities were the major drivers of the total costs across all options because most of the area identified in the protected-area expansion plan consisted of urban and high-quality agricultural lands. Total costs were also affected by changes in protected area extent and discount rate. Model-generated outputs such as these may be useful for informing implementation strategies and the allocation of future efforts in monitoring, data collection, and model development.

  1. Tobacco cessation intervention during pregnancy among Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Patten, Christi A

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered.

  2. Tobacco Cessation Intervention During Pregnancy Among Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based participatory research program with Alaska Native people addressing a community need to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women and children. Tobacco use during pregnancy among Alaska Native women is described along with development of a community partnership, findings from a pilot tobacco cessation intervention, current work, and future directions. Among Alaska Native women residing in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of western Alaska, the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarette smoking and/or use of smokeless tobacco) during pregnancy is 79%. Results from a pilot intervention study targeting pregnant women indicated low rates of participation and less than optimal tobacco abstinence outcomes. Developing alternative strategies to reach pregnant women and to enhance the efficacy of interventions is a community priority, and future directions are offered. PMID:22311690

  3. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  4. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  5. Discovering unique tobacco use patterns among Alaska Native people

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Rohde, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native people are disproportionately impacted by tobacco-related diseases in comparison to non-Native Alaskans. Design We used Alaska’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe tobacco use among more than 4,100 Alaska Native adults, stratified by geographic region and demographic groups. Results Overall tobacco use was high: approximately 2 out of every 5 Alaska Native adults reported smoking cigarettes (41.2%) and 1 in 10 reported using smokeless tobacco (SLT, 12.3%). A small percentage overall (4.8%) reported using iq’mik, an SLT variant unique to Alaska Native people. When examined by geographic region, cigarette smoking was highest in remote geographic regions; SLT use was highest in the southwest region of the state. Use of iq’mik was primarily confined to a specific area of the state; further analysis showed that 1 in 3 women currently used iq’mik in this region. Conclusion Our results suggest that different types of tobacco use are epidemic among diverse Alaska Native communities. Our results also illustrate that detailed analysis within racial/ethnic groups can be useful for public health programme planning to reduce health disparities. PMID:23971010

  6. The Heartland Region P-Index Conservation Innovation Grant: protecting water quality through improved phosphorus management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing phosphorus loss from agricultural land is important for improvement and protection of surface water quality. Agricultural models can be used to determine management impacts on P loss and therefore serve as a guide for recommending best management practices. However, the models must be comp...

  7. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  8. Indicators of recent environmental change in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D.; Juday, G.

    1997-12-31

    Climate models predict that global warming due to the effects of increasing trace gases will be amplified in northern high latitude regions, including Alaska. Several environmental indicators, including tree-ring based temperature reconstructions, borcal forest growth measurements and observations of glacial retreat all indicate that the general warming of the past century has been significant relative to prior centuries to millenia. The tree-ring records for central and northern Alaska indicate that annual temperature increased over the past century, peaked in the 1940s, and are still near the highest level for the past three centuries (Jacoby and D`Arrigo 1995). The tree-ring analyses also suggest that drought stress may now be a factor limiting growth at many northern sites. The recent warming combined with drier years may be altering the response of tree growth to climate and raising the likelihood of forest changes in Alaska and other boreal forests. Other tree-ring and forest data from southern and interior Alaska provide indices of the response of vegetation to extreme events (e.g., insect outbreaks, snow events) in Alaska (Juday and marler 1996). Historical maps, field measurements and satellite imagery indicate that Alaskan glaciers have receded over the past century (e.g., Hall and Benson 1996). Severe outbreaks of bark beetles may be on the increase due to warming, which can shorten their reproductive cycle. Such data and understanding of causes are useful for policy makers and others interested in evaluation of possible impacts of trace-gas induced warming and environmental change in the United States.

  9. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  10. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  11. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  12. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  13. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  14. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  15. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  16. The role of thrust faulting in the formation of the eastern Alaska Range: Thermochronological constraints from the Susitna Glacier Thrust Fault region of the intracontinental strike-slip Denali Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Steven J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Benowitz, Jeff A.; Roeske, Sarah M.

    2014-11-01

    Horizontal-slip along restraining bends of strike-slip faults is often partitioned into a vertical component via splay faults. The active Susitna Glacier Thrust Fault (SGTF), as shown by its initiation of the 2002 M7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, lies south of, and intersects the dextral strike-slip Denali Fault. Geochronology and thermochronology data from samples across the SGTF constrain the region's tectonic history and the role of thrusting in the formation of the eastern Alaska Range south of the Denali fault. U-Pb zircon ages indicate intrusion of plutons in the footwall (~57 Ma) and hanging wall (~98 Ma). These U-Pb zircon ages correlate to those from the Ruby Batholith/Kluane Terrane ~400 km east along the Denali Fault, supporting geologic correlations and hence constraints on long-term slip rates. 40Ar/39Ar mica and K-feldspar data from footwall and hanging wall samples (~54 to ~46 Ma) reflect cooling following magmatism and/or regional Eocene metamorphism related to ridge subduction. Combined with apatite fission track data (ages 43-28 Ma) and thermal models, both sides of the SGTF acted as a coherent block during the Eocene and early Oligocene. Contrasting apatite (U-Th)/He ages across the Susitna Glacier (~25 Ma footwall, ~15 Ma hanging wall) suggest initiation of faulting during the middle Miocene. Episodic cooling and exhumation is related to thrusting on known or hypothesized faults that progressively activate due to varying partition of strain along the Denali Fault associated with changing kinematics and plate interaction (Yakutat microplate collision, flat-slab subduction and relative plate motion change) at the southern Alaskan plate margin.

  17. Digital data for the geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    1999-01-01

    These digital databases are the result of the compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 62,000 sq km (23,000 sq mi) in land area and encompasses much of 13 1:250,000-scale quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment project (AMRAP), whose goal was create and assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data in order to perform mineral resource assessments on a quadrangle, regional or statewide basis. The digital data here was created to assist in the completion of a regional mineral resource assessment of the Alaska Peninsula. Mapping on the Alaska Peninsula under AMRAP began in 1977 in the Chignik and Sutwik Island 1:250,000 quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1981). Continued mapping in the Ugashik, bristol bay, and northwestern Karluk quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1987) began in 1979, followed by the Mount Katmai, eastern Naknek, and northwestern Afognak quadrangles (Riehle and others, 1987; Riehle and others, 1993), the Port Moller, Stepovak bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1995) beginning in 1983. Work in the Cold bay and False Pass quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1992 [Superceded by Wilson and others 1997, but not incorporated herein]) began in 1986. The reliability of the geologic mapping is variable, based, in part, on the field time spent in each area of the map, the available support, and the quality of the existing base maps. In addition, our developing understanding of the geology of the Alaska Peninsula required revision of earlier maps, such as the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles map (Detterman and others, 1981) to reflect this new knowledge. We have revised the stratigraphic nomenclature (Detterman and others, 1996) and our assignment of unit names to some rocks has been changed. All geologic maps on

  18. The Incidence of Infant Physical Abuse in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Moore, Martha; Hamilton, Bernita; Muth, Pam T.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with infant (less than 1 year of age) physical abuse in Alaska. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study for the 1994-2000 resident birth cohort was conducted by linking data from birth certificates, Child Protective Services, a statewide hospital-based trauma…

  19. 50 CFR 18.94 - Pacific walrus (Alaska).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Waiver of Moratorium on Taking and Importation of Individual Marine Mammal Species § 18.94 Pacific walrus (Alaska). (a) Pursuant to sections 101(a)(3)(A) 103, and 109 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, the moratorium on the hunting and killing of...

  20. Assessment and protection of geomorphological heritage in the Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussard, Jonathan; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research deals with two main issues: (1) the protection of the abiotic nature and (2) the promotion of geotourism in a protected area, the Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park (Switzerland). First, an identification and assessment of the geomorphological heritage is conducted, with special attention given to the degree of protection of the sites. The assessment is carried out using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007), partly modified (addition of new criteria concerning the present use and management of the sites). Secondly, we try to understand how the stakeholders active in the tourism sector take into account the Earth heritage (especially geomorphosites). The final goal is to give some perspectives for a suitable protection and a better promotion of the geomorphosites. The Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park is one of the new nature parks developed during the last decade in Switzerland. Created in 2012, it covers a surface of 503 square kilometers on the territory of 13 municipalities. It is managed by an association constituted by the 13 municipalities and by private individuals, companies and societies. The three main objectives of the park are (1) the preservation and qualitative development of nature and landscape; (2) the promotion of sustainable economic activities; and (3) raising public awareness and environmental education. The park is situated in the Swiss Prealps (altitudes ranging from 375 to 2548 m ASL) and is characterised by extensive structural landforms and numerous relicts of Quaternary glaciations. 33 sites were inventoried. Most of them (27 sites) are related to three main geomorphological processes: karst formations, relicts of glacial/periglacial processes and fluvial landforms. The other sites are related to gravity processes, to organic processes and to the structural context. The inventory shows that the study area has a high diversity of landforms and presents a large set of geomorphosites with an

  1. Multi-scales analysis of primate diversity and protected areas at a megadiverse region.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Míriam Plaza; Silva-Júnior, José de Sousa E; Lima, Adriana Almeida de; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo Viveiros

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the question of what proportion of biodiversity is represented within protected areas. We assessed the effectiveness of different protected area types at multiple scales in representing primate biodiversity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. We used point locality data and distribution data for primate species within 1°, 0.5°, and 0.25° spatial resolution grids, and computed the area of reserves within each cell. Four different approaches were used - no reserves (A), exclusively strict use reserves (B), strict and sustainable use reserves (C), and strict and sustainable use reserves and indigenous lands (D). We used the complementarity concept to select reserve networks. The proportions of cells that were classified as reserves at a grid resolution of 1° were 37%, 64%, and 88% for approaches B, C and D, respectively. Our comparison of these approaches clearly showed the effect of an increase in area on species representation. Representation was consistently higher at coarser resolutions, indicating the effect of grain size. The high number of irreplaceable cells for selected networks identified based on approach A could be attributed to the use of point locality occurrence data. Although the limited number of point occurrences for some species may have been due to a Wallacean shortfall, in some cases it may also be the result of an actual restricted geographic distribution. The existing reserve system cannot be ignored, as it has an established structure, legal protection status, and societal recognition, and undoubtedly represents important elements of biodiversity. However, we found that strict use reserves (which are exclusively dedicated to biodiversity conservation) did not effectively represent primate species. This finding may be related to historical criteria for selecting reserves based on political, economic, or social motives.

  2. Multi-Scales Analysis of Primate Diversity and Protected Areas at a Megadiverse Region

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Míriam Plaza; Silva-Júnior, José de Sousa e.; de Lima, Adriana Almeida; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo Viveiros

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the question of what proportion of biodiversity is represented within protected areas. We assessed the effectiveness of different protected area types at multiple scales in representing primate biodiversity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. We used point locality data and distribution data for primate species within 1°, 0.5°, and 0.25° spatial resolution grids, and computed the area of reserves within each cell. Four different approaches were used – no reserves (A), exclusively strict use reserves (B), strict and sustainable use reserves (C), and strict and sustainable use reserves and indigenous lands (D). We used the complementarity concept to select reserve networks. The proportions of cells that were classified as reserves at a grid resolution of 1° were 37%, 64%, and 88% for approaches B, C and D, respectively. Our comparison of these approaches clearly showed the effect of an increase in area on species representation. Representation was consistently higher at coarser resolutions, indicating the effect of grain size. The high number of irreplaceable cells for selected networks identified based on approach A could be attributed to the use of point locality occurrence data. Although the limited number of point occurrences for some species may have been due to a Wallacean shortfall, in some cases it may also be the result of an actual restricted geographic distribution. The existing reserve system cannot be ignored, as it has an established structure, legal protection status, and societal recognition, and undoubtedly represents important elements of biodiversity. However, we found that strict use reserves (which are exclusively dedicated to biodiversity conservation) did not effectively represent primate species. This finding may be related to historical criteria for selecting reserves based on political, economic, or social motives. PMID:25133497

  3. Geoid model computation and validation over Alaska/Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, J.; Roman, D. R.; Wang, Y.; Veronneau, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska and Yukon area consists of very complex and dynamic geology. It is featured by the two highest mountains in North America, Mount McKinely (20,320ft) in Alaska, USA and Mount Logan (19,541ft) in Yukon, Canada, along with the Alaska trench along the plate boundaries. On the one hand this complex geology gives rise to large horizontal geoid gradients across this area. On the other hand geoid time variation is much stronger than most of the other areas in the world due to tectonic movement, the post glacial rebound and ice melting effects in this region. This type of geology poses great challenges for the determination of North American geoid over this area, which demands proper gravity data coverage in both space and time on both the Alaska and Yukon sides. However, the coverage of the local gravity data is inhomogenous in this area. The terrestrial gravity is sparse in Alaska, and spans a century in time. In contrast, the terrestrial gravity is relatively well-distributed in Yukon but with data gaps. In this paper, various new satellite models along with the newly acquired airborne data will be incorporated to augment the middle-to-long wavelength geoid components. Initial tests show clear geoid improvements at the local GPS benchmarks in the Yukon area after crustal motion is accounted for. Similar approaches will be employed on the Alaska side for a better validation to determine a continuous vertical datum across US and Canada.

  4. Colleges in New England Find Few Ways to Protect Assets Amid Their Region's Financial Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmuck, Karen

    1991-01-01

    An informal survey of some New England colleges indicates that, in response to problems in the region's banking industry, school financial officers are monitoring their banks' credit ratings and managing investments more carefully. Consultants and investment advisors are also reporting increased anxiety among college officers and trustees around…

  5. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    PubMed

    Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

    2007-04-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  6. 2006 Compilation of Alaska Gravity Data and Historical Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Brown, Philip J.; Morin, Robert L.; Hill, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    Gravity anomalies provide fundamental geophysical information about Earth structure and dynamics. To increase geologic and geodynamic understanding of Alaska, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and processed Alaska gravity data for the past 50 years. This report introduces and describes an integrated, State-wide gravity database and provides accompanying gravity calculation tools to assist in its application. Additional information includes gravity base station descriptions and digital scans of historical USGS reports. The gravity calculation tools enable the user to reduce new gravity data in a consistent manner for combination with the existing database. This database has sufficient resolution to define the regional gravity anomalies of Alaska. Interpretation of regional gravity anomalies in parts of the State are hampered by the lack of local isostatic compensation in both southern and northern Alaska. However, when filtered appropriately, the Alaska gravity data show regional features having geologic significance. These features include gravity lows caused by low-density rocks of Cenozoic basins, flysch belts, and felsic intrusions, as well as many gravity highs associated with high-density mafic and ultramafic complexes.

  7. Age, distribution and style of deformation in Alaska north of 60°N: Implications for assembly of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas; Box, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The structural architecture of Alaska is the product of a complex history of deformation along both the Cordilleran and Arctic margins of North America involving oceanic plates, subduction zones and strike-slip faults and with continental elements of Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia. We use geological constraints to assign regions of deformation to 14 time intervals and to map their distributions in Alaska. Alaska can be divided into three domains with differing deformational histories. Each domain includes a crustal fragment that originated near Early Paleozoic Baltica. The Northern domain experienced the Early Cretaceous Brookian orogeny, an oceanic arc-continent collision, followed by mid-Cretaceous extension. Early Cretaceous opening of the oceanic Canada Basin rifted the orogen from the Canadian Arctic margin, producing the bent trends of the orogen. The second (Southern) domain consists of Neoproterozoic and younger crust of the amalgamated Peninsular-Wrangellia-Alexander arc terrane and its paired Mesozoic accretionary prism facing the Pacific Ocean basin. The third (Interior) domain, situated between the first two domains and roughly bounded by the Cenozoic dextral Denali and Tintina faults, includes the large continental Yukon Composite and Farewell terranes having different Permian deformational episodes. Although a shared deformation that might mark their juxtaposition by collisional processes is unrecognized, sedimentary linkage between the two terranes and depositional overlap of the boundary with the Northern domain occurred by early Late Cretaceous. Late Late Cretaceous deformation is the first deformation shared by all three domains and correlates temporally with emplacement of the Southern domain against the remainder of Alaska. Early Cenozoic shortening is mild across interior Alaska but is significant in the Brooks Range, and correlates in time with dextral faulting, ridge subduction and counter-clockwise rotation of southern Alaska. Late Cenozoic

  8. Age, distribution and style of deformation in Alaska north of 60°N: Implications for assembly of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Box, Stephen E.

    2016-11-01

    The structural architecture of Alaska is the product of a complex history of deformation along both the Cordilleran and Arctic margins of North America involving oceanic plates, subduction zones and strike-slip faults and with continental elements of Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia. We use geological constraints to assign regions of deformation to 14 time intervals and to map their distributions in Alaska. Alaska can be divided into three domains with differing deformational histories. Each domain includes a crustal fragment that originated near Early Paleozoic Baltica. The Northern domain experienced the Early Cretaceous Brookian orogeny, an oceanic arc-continent collision, followed by mid-Cretaceous extension. Early Cretaceous opening of the oceanic Canada Basin rifted the orogen from the Canadian Arctic margin, producing the bent trends of the orogen. The second (Southern) domain consists of Neoproterozoic and younger crust of the amalgamated Peninsular-Wrangellia-Alexander arc terrane and its paired Mesozoic accretionary prism facing the Pacific Ocean basin. The third (Interior) domain, situated between the first two domains and roughly bounded by the Cenozoic dextral Denali and Tintina faults, includes the large continental Yukon Composite and Farewell terranes having different Permian deformational episodes. Although a shared deformation that might mark their juxtaposition by collisional processes is unrecognized, sedimentary linkage between the two terranes and depositional overlap of the boundary with the Northern domain occurred by early Late Cretaceous. Late Late Cretaceous deformation is the first deformation shared by all three domains and correlates temporally with emplacement of the Southern domain against the remainder of Alaska. Early Cenozoic shortening is mild across interior Alaska but is significant in the Brooks Range, and correlates in time with dextral faulting, ridge subduction and counter-clockwise rotation of southern Alaska. Late Cenozoic

  9. Environmental cues orchestrate regional immune surveillance and protection by pulmonary CTLs.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Linda S

    2016-11-01

    Tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM) provide preemptive immunity against infections that begin in peripheral tissues by guarding the site of initial pathogen exposure. Their role in immunity to respiratory virus infection is particularly important because severe damage to the alveoli can be avoided when local populations of TRM cells reduce viral burdens and dampen the responses of effector CD8 T cells in the lungs. Although a connection between rapid immune activation and early viral control is well established, the signals that keep TRM cells poised for action in the local tissues remain poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that environmental cues influence the fate decisions of activated CTLs during memory formation. Manipulation of these signaling pathways could provide new ways to capitalize on protection from TRM cells in mucosal tissues, while reducing collateral damage and pathology during vaccination.

  10. A Tale of Two Regions: Site Protection Experience and Updated Regulations in Arizona and the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard F.; Diaz Castro, Javier; Allen, Lori; Alvarez del Castillo, Elizabeth; Corbally, Christopher J.; Davis, Donald; Falco, Emilio; Gabor, Paul; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Monrad, Christian Karl; Williams, G. Grant

    2015-08-01

    Some of the world's largest telescopes and largest concentrations of telescopes are on sites in Arizona and the Canary Islands. Active site protection efforts are underway in both regions; the common challenge is getting out ahead of the LED revolution in outdoor lighting. We review the work with local, regional, and national government bodies, with many successful updates of outdoor lighting codes. A successful statewide conference was held in Arizona to raise awareness of public officials about issues of light pollution for astronomy, safety, wildlife, and public health. We also highlight interactions with key entities near critical sites, including mines and prisons, leading to upgrades of their lighting to more astronomy-friendly form. We describe ongoing and planned sky monitoring efforts, noting their importance in quantifying the "impact on astronomy" increasingly requested by regulators.

  11. Assessment of metals exposure and sub-lethal effects in voles and small birds captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Voles (n=6) and small ground-nesting birds (n=12) were live-captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska in 2006 to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, blood analysis, and analysis for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about 3 times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site. Barium and zinc tissue concentrations of animals collected from different sites were not remarkably different, and aluminum concentrations were below the reporting limits in most samples. There was no clear evidence of serious sub-lethal biological effects such as lesions in internal organs or DNA damage in blood in any of the animals. Accordingly, blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road generally were less than tissue concentration thresholds associated with serious biological effects reported from other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for those animals nearest the haul road. Notably, liver lead concentrations of voles and small birds at the reference location were considerably less than those previously reported for similar animals at reference sites in other parts of the United States, Canada, and Europe. Results from this reconnaissance-level study indicate that voles and small birds inhabiting this area are not suffering serious biological effects as a result of metals exposure; however, continued monitoring of lead and other metals is

  12. Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have <10% lake cover. Of the remaining smaller lake districts, 9 are associated with mountain fronts or intermountain basins, 4 are associated with coastal plains, 3 are associated with floodplains and deltas, and 3 occur in high-elevation or mountain terrain. The highest numerical lake densities occur at deltas, while relatively lower densities occur in mountainous areas where individual lakes are often larger in surface area and likely volume. Comparison of these lake districts were made to permafrost distribution, glacial history, lithology, watershed position, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes to better understand where lake-rich regions occur, why, and how they might change in the future. Ten of the 22 lake districts occur in areas dominated by continuous permafrost, 6 occur in areas of discontinuous or sporadic permafrost, and the other 6 occur in regions without perennially frozen soils. The majority of lake districts

  13. Proceedings of International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change Held in Fairbanks Alaska on 11-15 June 1990. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    75.500S 26.65OW 52 Mar9O C e Crozier 7755e 170.09E South Pole Station Minna Bluff 78.5 0S 166.5 OE Clean Air 90.00’S 2835 Jan 86 Minna Bluff East...Tropospheric Temperatures and Winds at the South Pole During Austral Winter R.SR toeadJ.DSal.S...strams Figure 3. Positions of drifting buoys north of Greenluid on 1 Jan- of old, deformed ice moving south from the North Pole uary and 1 May 1987. region

  14. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  15. Seabirds in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring seabird populations vary according to habitat types and the breeding behavior of individual species (Hatch and Hatch 1978, 1989; Byrd et al. 1983). An affordable monitoring program can include but a few of the 1,300 seabird colonies identified in Alaska, and since the mid-1970's, monitoring effotrts have emphasized a small selection of surface-feeding and diving species, primarily kittiwakes (Rissa spp.) and murres (Uria spp.). Little or no information on trends is available for other seabirds (Hatch 1993a). The existing monitoring program occurs largely on sites within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which was established primarily for the conservation of marine birds. Data are collected by refuge staff, other state and federal agencies, private organizations, university faculty, and students.

  16. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  17. Geology of the Alaska-Juneau lode system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twenhofel, William Stephens

    1952-01-01

    The Alaska-Juneau lode system for many years was one of the worlds leading gold-producing areas. Total production from the years 1893 to 1946 has amounted to about 94 million dollars, with principal values in contained gold but with some silver and lead values. The principal mine is the Alaska-Juneau mine, from which the lode system takes its name. The lode system is a part of a larger gold-bearing belt, generally referred to as the Juneau gold belt, along the western border of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks of the Alaska-Juneau lode system consist of a monoclinal sequence of steeply northeasterly dipping volcanic, state, and schist rocks, all of which have been metamorphosed by dynamic and thermal processes attendant with the intrusion of the Coast Range batholith. The rocks form a series of belts that trend northwest parallel to the Coast Range. In addition to the Coast Range batholith lying a mile to the east of the lode system, there are numerous smaller intrusives, all of which are sill-like in form and are thus conformable to the regional structure. The bedded rocks are Mesozoic in age; the Coast Range batholith is Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in age. Some of the smaller intrusives pre-date the batholith, others post-date it. All of the rocks are cut by steeply dipping faults. The Alaska-Juneau lode system is confined exclusively to the footwall portion of the Perseverance slate band. The slate band is composed of black slate and black phyllite with lesser amounts of thin-bedded quartzite. Intrusive into the slate band are many sill-like bodies of rocks generally referred to as meta-gabbro. The gold deposits of the lode system are found both within the slate rocks and the meta-gabbro rocks, and particularly in those places where meta-gabbro bodies interfinger with slate. Thus the ore bodies are found in and near the terminations of meta-gabbro bodies. The ore bodies are quartz stringer-lodes composed of a great number of quartz veins from 6

  18. Protective effect of lidocaine during regional myocardial ischemia: an altered pathophysiologic response assessed by NADH fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, D.W.; Walls, J.T.; Anderson, R.E.; Harrison, C.E. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the effects of lidocaine on ischemic myocardium, which was induced by coronary artery constriction in open-chested dogs. A real-time epicardial fluorescent technique to detect in vivo-reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) during 60 seconds of ischemia was used. Blood flow of ischemic myocardium was measured by using radioactive microspheres of 9 +/- 1 micrometers (mean +/- SE) and was compared with that of normal myocardium, shown by injection of alpha-zurine blue dye. Lidocaine effectively reduced peak NADH fluorescence by 18.6%, from 93.9 +/- 7.2 to 76.4 +/-4.1 mV (p less than 0.005). Lidocaine delayed the onset of fluorescence (2.2 +/- 0.2 versus 1.3 +/- 0.1 s p less than 0.002) and facilitated the recovery from ischemia (38.4 +/- 2.9 versus 54.8 +/- 2.9 s p less than 0.001). Increase in NADH concentration during ischemia correlated (r.0.76, p less than 0.006) with ischemic fluorescence. These findings were independent of altered hemodynamics or change in myocardial blood flow. Results indicate that lidocaine provides myocardial cellular protection during transient ischemia; there is an altered NADH fluorescent response to coronary artery occlusion.

  19. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Cable, William; Kholodov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is a vital physical parameter of the active-layer in permafrost environments, and associated biological and geophysical processes operative at the microscopic to hemispheric spatial scales and at hourly to multidecadal time scales. While in-situ measurements can give the highest quality of information on a site-specific basis, the vast permafrost terrains of North America and Eurasia require space-based techniques for assessments of cause and effect and long-term changes and impacts from the changes of permafrost and the active-layer. Satellite-based 6.925 and 10.65 GHz sensor algorithmic retrievals of soil moisture by Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA-Aqua and follow-on AMSR2 onboard JAXA-Global Change Observation Mission - Water-1 are ongoing since July 2002. Accurate land-surface temperature and vegetation parameters are critical to the success of passive microwave algorithmic retrieval schemes. Strategically located soil moisture measurements are needed for spatial and temporal co-location evaluation and validation of the space-based algorithmic estimates. We compare on a daily basis ground-based (subsurface-probe) 50- and 70-MHz radio-frequency soil moisture measurements with NASA- and JAXA-algorithmic retrieval passive microwave retrievals. We find improvements in performance of the JAXA-algorithm (AMSR-E reprocessed and AMSR2 ongoing) relative to the earlier NASA-algorithm version. In the boreal forest regions accurate land-surface temperatures and vegetation parameters are still needed for algorithmic retrieval success. Over the period of AMSR-E retrievals we find evidence of at the high northern latitudes of growing terrestrial radio-frequency interference in the 10.65 GHz channel soil moisture content. This is an important error source for satellite-based active and passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrievals in Arctic regions that must be addressed. Ref: International

  20. Origin of the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, Brooks Range, Alaska: Evidence from regional Pb and Sr isotope sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, R.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.; Young, L.E.; Slack, J.F.; Wandless, G.; Lyon, A.M.; Dillingham, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Pb and Sr isotope data were obtained on the shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag Red Dog deposits (Qanaiyaq, Main, Aqqaluk, and Paalaaq), other shale-hosted deposits near Red Dog, and Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and barite deposits in the western and central Brooks Range. The Red Dog deposits and other shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits near Red Dog are hosted in the Mississippian Kuna Formation, which is underlain by a sequence of marine-deltaic clastic rocks of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Endicott Group. Ag-Pb-Zn vein-breccias are found in the Endicott Group. Galena formed during the main mineralization stages in the Red Dog deposits and from the Anarraaq and Wulik deposits have overlapping Pb isotope compositions in the range 206Pb/204Pb = 18.364 to 18.428, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.553 to 15.621, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.083 to 38.323. Galena and sphalerite formed during the main ore-forming stages in the Red Dog deposits define a narrow field on standard uranogenic and thorogenic Pb isotope diagrams. Lead in sulfides of the Red Dog district is less radiogenic (238U/204Pb: ?? = 9.51-9.77) than is indicated by the average crustal lead evolution model (?? = 9.74), a difference consistent with a long history of evolution at low ratios of ?? before the Carboniferous. The homogeneous regional isotopic reservoir of Pb may indicate large-scale transport and leaching of minerals with various ?? ratios and Th/Pb ratios. Younger and genetically unrelated fluids did not significantly disturb the isotopic compositions of galena and sphalerite after the main mineralization event in the Red Dog district. Some pyrite shows evidence of minor Pb remobilization. The overall lead isotope homogeneity in the shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits is consistent with three types of control: a homogeneous regional source, mixing of lead during leaching of a thick sedimentary section and fluid transport, or mixing at the site of deposition. Isotopic variability of the hydrothermal fluids, as represented by galena

  1. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  2. Earthquake source studies and seismic imaging in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, C.; Silwal, V.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska is one of the world's most seismically and tectonically active regions. Its enhanced seismicity, including slab seismicity down to 180 km, provides opportunities (1) to characterize pervasive crustal faulting and slab deformation through the estimation of moment tensors and (2) to image subsurface structures to help understand the tectonic evolution of Alaska. Most previous studies of earthquakes and seismic imaging in Alaska have emphasized earthquake locations and body-wave travel-time tomography. In the past decade, catalogs of seismic moment tensors have been established, while seismic surface waves, active-source data, and potential field data have been used to improve models of seismic structure. We have developed moment tensor catalogs in the regions of two of the largest sedimentary basins in Alaska: Cook Inlet forearc basin, west of Anchorage, and Nenana basin, west of Fairbanks. Our moment tensor solutions near Nenana basin suggest a transtensional tectonic setting, with the basin developing in a stepover of a left-lateral strike-slip fault system. We explore the effects of seismic wave propagation from point-source and finite-source earthquake models by performing three-dimensional wavefield simulations using seismic velocity models that include major sedimentary basins. We will use our catalog of moment tensors within an adjoint-based, iterative inversion to improve the three-dimensional tomographic model of Alaska.

  3. Perfluorinated compounds in the Antarctic region: ocean circulation provides prolonged protection from distant sources.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan; Rintoul, Stephen R; Kawaguchi, So; Staniland, Iain; van den Hoff, John; Tierney, Megan; Bossi, Rossana

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the extent to which Perfluorinated Contaminants (PFCs) have permeated the Southern Ocean food web to date, a range of Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic-migratory biota were analysed for key ionic PFCs. Based upon the geographical distribution pattern and ecology of biota with detectable vs. non-detectable PFC burdens, an evaluation of the potential contributory roles of alternative system input pathways is made. Our analytical findings, together with previous reports, reveal only the occasional occurrence of PFCs in migratory biota and vertebrate predators with foraging ranges extending into or north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Geographical contamination patterns observed correspond most strongly with those expected from delivery via hydrospheric transport as governed by the unique oceanographic features of the Southern Ocean. We suggest that hydrospheric transport will form a slow, but primary, input pathway of PFCs to the Antarctic region.

  4. The Regional Geochemistry of Soils and Willow in a Metamorphic Bedrock Terrain, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2005, and Its Possible Relation to Moose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Lamothe, P.J.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Drew, L.J.; Maier, J.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 willow leaves (all variants of Salix pulchra) and A-, B-, and C-horizon soils were sampled at 10 sites along a transect near the Quarry prospect and 11 sites along a transect near the Big Hurrah mine for the purpose of defining the spatial variability of elements and the regional geochemistry of willow and soil over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks potentially high in cadmium (Cd). Willow, a favorite browse of moose (Alces alces), has been shown by various investigators to bioaccumulate Cd. Moose in this region show clinical signs of tooth wear and breakage and are declining in population for unknown reasons. A trace element imbalance in their diet has been proposed as a possible cause for these observations. Cadmium, in high enough concentrations, is one dietary trace element that potentially could produce such symptoms. We report both the summary statistics for elements in willow and soils and the results of an unbalanced, one-way, hierarchical analysis of variance (ANOVA) (general linear model, GLM), which was constructed to measure the geochemical variability in willow (and soil) at various distance scales across the Paleozoic geologic unit high in bioavailable Cd. All of the geochemical data are presented in the Appendices. The two locations are separated by approximately 80 kilometers (km); sites within a location are approximately 0.5 kilometers apart. Duplicate soil samples collected within a site were separated by 0.05 km or slightly less. Results of the GLM are element specific and range from having very little regional variability to having most of their variance at the top (greater than 80 km) level. For willow, a significant proportion of the total variance occurred at the 'between locations' level for ash yield, barium (Ba), Cd, calcium (Ca), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). For soils, concentrations of elements in all three soil horizons were similar in that most of the variability in the geochemical data occurred at the 'between locations

  5. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  6. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.J.; Kurihara, M.; White, M.D.; Moridis, G.J.; Wilson, S.J.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Gaddipati, M.; Masuda, Y.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Narita, H.; Rose, K.; Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  7. Active-Layer Soil Moisture Content Regional Variations in Alaska and Russia by Ground-Based and Satellite-Based Methods, 2002 Through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Kholodov, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a vital physical parameter of the active-layer in permafrost environments, and associated biological and geophysical processes operative at the microscopic to hemispheric spatial scales and at hourly to multidecadal time scales. While in-situ measurements can give the highest quality of information on a site-specific basis, the vast permafrost terrains of North America and Eurasia require space-based techniques for assessments of cause and effect and long-term changes and impacts from the changes of permafrost and the active-layer. Satellite-based 6.925 and 10.65 GHz sensor algorithmic retrievals of soil moisture by Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) onboard NASA-Aqua and follow-on AMSR2 onboard JAXA-Global Change Observation Mission - Water-1 are ongoing since July 2002. Accurate land-surface temperature and vegetation parameters are critical to the success of passive microwave algorithmic retrieval schemes. Strategically located soil moisture measurements are needed for spatial and temporal co-location evaluation and validation of the space-based algorithmic estimates. We compare on a daily basis ground-based (subsurface-probe) 50- and 70-MHz radio-frequency soil moisture measurements with NASA- and JAXA-algorithmic retrieval passive microwave retrievals. We find improvements in performance of the JAXA-algorithm (AMSR-E reprocessed and AMSR2 ongoing) relative to the earlier NASA-algorithm version. In the boreal forest regions accurate land-surface temperatures and vegetation parameters are still needed for algorithmic retrieval success. Over the period of AMSR-E retrievals we find evidence of at the high northern latitudes of growing terrestrial radio-frequency interference in the 10.65 GHz channel soil moisture content. This is an important error source for satellite-based active and passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture retrievals in Arctic regions that must be addressed. Ref: Muskett, R

  8. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian J.; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, Timothy S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  9. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  10. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  11. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  12. Alaska provides icy training ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-04-01

    Offshore oil drilling platforms and oil exploration off the coast of Alaska are discussed. Sohio is investigating the feasibility of platform supporters from shore such as icebreakers and air-cushion vehicles. At Prudhoe Bay Arco is embarking on the first tertiary oil recovery project to take place on Alaska's North Slope.

  13. Alaska High Altitude Photography Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Earl V.; Knutson, Martin A.; Ekstrand, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the Alaska High Altitude Photography Program was initiated to obtain simultaneous black and white and color IR aerial photography of Alaska. Dual RC-10 and Zeiss camera systems were used for this program on NASA's U-2 and WB-57F, respectively. Data collection, handling, and distribution are discussed as well as general applications and the current status.

  14. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  15. Isotropic Thaw Subsidence in Natural Landscapes of Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.; Little, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research documents warming of permafrost, increased emissions of greenhouse gases in permafrost regions, and damage to civil infrastructure induced by melting of ground ice. Particular attention has been focused on 'thermokarst terrain,' localized systems of irregular pits, mounds, and ponds caused by differential subsidence accompanying thaw of ice-rich permafrost. Development of thermokarst terrain is often triggered by discrete, geographically constrained disturbance of vegetative cover or hydrological patterns. Here, we describe landscape-scale, thaw-induced subsidence in northern Alaska lacking the topographic contrasts associated with thermokarst terrain. Observations in some regions of the Arctic reveal little correlation between increasing air temperature and active-layer thickness (ALT) above permafrost in undisturbed terrain. The apparent stability of ALT in many Arctic landscapes may, however, be illusory if thaw penetrates into an ice-rich layer underlying the long-term base of the active layer. The apparent stability in ALT is attributable to the presence in many permafrost regions of an ice-rich 'transition layer' that resists thaw owing to the large amounts of latent heat involved in melting it. During warm summers, this layer protects underlying permafrost from thaw and creates nonlinearities in the response of the permafrost system to climatic forcing. We sought to determine whether widespread, relatively homogeneous, decadal-scale thaw subsidence, possibly attributable to climatic change, is occurring in natural, undisturbed landscapes and, if so, to estimate its magnitude and evaluate its role in the response of permafrost to atmospheric forcing. Field investigations designed to track interannual vertical movements associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table were begun in the summer of 2001 and continued annually at two 1 ha Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites representative of landscapes in the

  16. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  17. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nonprofit organizations known as the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation and the Alaska Village Council Presidents; (ii) Take into consideration— (A) The primarily noncash economy of the region; and (B) The...

  18. 45 CFR 2532.20 - Special Demonstration Project for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nonprofit organizations known as the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation and the Alaska Village Council Presidents; (ii) Take into consideration— (A) The primarily noncash economy of the region; and (B) The...

  19. Seasonal and Intra-annual Controls on CO2 Flux in Arctic Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, Walter; Kalhori, Aram

    2015-12-01

    In order to advance the understanding of the patterns and controls on the carbon budget in the Arctic region, San Diego State University has maintained eddy covariance flux towers at three sites in Arctic Alaska, starting in 1997.

  20. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  1. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-16

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina,41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  2. Proposed oil and gas exploration within the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The draft environmental impact statement describes the procedures and probable effects of aerial and geological surveying for oil and gas in the coastal area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures provide for the protection of caribou caving areas and the avoidance of duplication in the survey activities. Temporary disturbances from seismic surveys would interfere with wildlife breeding and migration due to changes in the habitat. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 provides the legal mandate for environmental assessment.

  3. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  4. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed ΦST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups.

  5. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Anderson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    Present deficiencies in the ground-water information base are obvious limiting factors to ground-water development in Alaska. There is a need to extend the ground-water data-collection network and to pursue special research into the quantitative aspects of ground-water hydrology in cold regions, particularly the continuous permafrost zone.

  6. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Use of SAR data to study active volcanoes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, K.G.; Engle, K.; Lu, Zhiming; Eichelberger, J.; Neal, T.; Doukas, M.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of Westdahl, Veniaminof, and Novarupta volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska were analyzed to investigate recent surface volcanic processes. These studies support ongoing monitoring and research by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) in the North Pacific Ocean Region. Landforms and possible crustal deformation before, during, or after eruptions were detected and analyzed using data from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and the U. S. Seasat platforms. Field observations collected by scientists from the AVO were used to verify the results from the analysis of SAR data.

  8. GPS Constraints on Strain Partitioning and Transfer in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Larsen, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    GPS data from southern Alaska and eastern Canada have helped redraw the picture of how strain is partitioned and transferred within the region. Instead of a relatively simple boundary, the interactions of the Pacific plate and the Yakutat block with Alaska have created a complex margin made up of a number of small blocks and deformation zones. Relative motion is distributed along a variety of structures, including the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Denali, and Totschunda strike-slip fault systems. We present GPS data from across the region and use it to constrain a model for strain partitioning and transfer in southern and central Alaska and the adjacent region of Canada. In southeast Alaska, which contains the eastern boundary of the Yakutat block, the major tectonic feature is the dextral Fairweather-Queen Charlotte fault system. Most the relative plate motion is accommodated by 45 mm/yr of slip along this fault. Some of this motion may be transferred north along a fault connecting the Fairweather and Totschunda faults, but the majority is transferred west into the St. Elias orogen. The remaining relative plate motion in southeast Alaska is transferred east of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte system, causing the region inboard of the Fairweather fault to undergo a clockwise rotation into the Northern Cordillera. About 2 mm/yr of relative motion is accommodated by dextral oblique motion along the Eastern Denali fault while 5% is transferred further east into the Northern Cordillera. Strain partitioning in south central Alaska, which contains the northern and western boundaries of the Yakutat block and the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust, is more complicated. Most of the relative plate motion is accommodated along a narrow band of thrust faults within the St. Elias orogen. About 10-15% of the relative motion is transferred north of the St. Elias and causes the counterclockwise rotation of southern Alaska. Motion between this rotating block, the Northern

  9. Use of SAR data to study active volcanoes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, K.G.; Engle, K.; Lu, Zhiming; Eichelberger, J.; Near, T.; Doukas, M.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of the Westdahl, Veniaminof, and Novarupta volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska were analysed to investigate recent surface volcanic processes. These studies support ongoing monitoring and research by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) in the North Pacific Ocean Region. Landforms and possible crustal deformation before, during, or after eruptions were detected and analysed using data from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and the US Seasat platforms. Field observations collected by scientists from the AVO were used to verify the results from the analysis of SAR data.

  10. The Production and Operational Use of Day-Night Band Imagery in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, E.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the High Latitude Proving Ground, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) receives data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite via direct broadcast antennas in Fairbanks, including data from the SNPP's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. These data are processed by GINA, and the resulting imagery is delivered in near real-time to the National Weather Service (NWS) in Alaska for use in weather analysis and forecasting. The VIIRS' Day-Night Band (DNB) produces what is functionally visible imagery at night and has been used extensively by operational meteorologists in Alaska, especially during the prolonged darkness of the arctic winter. The DNB has proven to be a powerful tool when combined with other observational and model data sets and has offered NWS meteorologists a more complete picture of weather processes in a region where coverage from surface-based observations is generally poor. Thanks to its high latitude, Alaska benefits from much more frequent coverage in time by polar orbiting satellites such as SNPP and its DNB channel. Also, the sparse population of Alaska and the vast stretches of ocean that surround Alaska on three sides allow meteorological and topographical signatures to be detected by the DNB with minimal interference from anthropogenic sources of light. Examples of how the DNB contributes to the NWS' forecast process in Alaska will be presented and discussed.

  11. Carbon-sequestration and ecosystem services in the boreal ecoregion of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Manies, K.; Labay, K.; Johnson, W. N.; Harden, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Managing public lands for carbon (C) sequestration is increasingly discussed as a component of national carbon policies. However, management of public land to facilitate carbon sequestration must be considered in the context of other management mandates and the effects on other ecosystem services. Of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge lands in Alaska, about 35% are in the boreal ecoregion; primarily in the Intermountain and the Alaska Range Transition ecoregions. These refuges were established to conserve wildlife habitat, fulfill treaty obligations, provide for continued subsistence uses, and ensure necessary water quality and quantity. One of the major factors in determining ecosystem distribution in the boreal ecoregion is disturbance. Fire is the dominant disturbance for Alaska's boreal region. Most USFWS refuge lands are managed with "limited" suppression, where fires burn naturally and are monitored to assure the protection of human life, property, and site specific values (such as historical or religious). However, there is increasing interest in biomass harvest and combustion for local energy production. Harvest and fire can have differing effects on both the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage. The current biomass harvest for energy production proposals are considered to be C neutral because they focus on "hazardous" biomass which would burn naturally or in a prescribed burn. The goal of this effort is to explore the relation between C storage and other public land management priorities, as well as, to explore how disturbance type (fire and harvest) affect C storage and boreal ecosystem distribution in the context of wildlife habitat and subsistence use management priorities. We present a conceptual model that defines the linkages among these management priorities, a data gap analysis, and scenarios to be evaluated.

  12. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Nairn R.D.; Hudson, Travis

    1981-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people.

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska 1980 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M.

    1980-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  14. IL3 variant on chromosomal region 5q31-33 and protection from recurrent malaria attacks.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian G; Calixto Fernandes, Maria H; Intemann, Christopher D; Kreuels, Benno; Kobbe, Robin; Kreuzberg, Christina; Ayim, Matilda; Ruether, Andreas; Loag, Wibke; Ehmen, Christa; Adjei, Samuel; Adjei, Ohene; Horstmann, Rolf D; May, Jürgen

    2011-03-15

    Using segregation analyses, control of malaria parasites has previously been linked to a major gene within the chromosomal region 5q31-33, but also to complex genetic factors in which effects are under substantial age-dependent influence. However, the responsible gene variants have not yet been identified for this chromosomal region. In order to perform association analyses of 5q31-33 locus candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1015 children were recruited at the age of 3 months and followed monthly until the age of 2 years in an area holoendemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghana. Quantitative (incidence rates of malaria episodes) and qualitative phenotypes (i.e. 'more than one malaria episode' or 'not more than one malaria episode') were used in population- and family-based analyses. The strongest signal was observed for the interleukin 3 gene (IL3) SNP rs40401 (P = 3.4 × 10(-7), P(c)= 1.4 × 10(-4)). The IL3 genotypes rs40401(CT) and rs40401(TT) were found to exert a protective effect of 25% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.75, P = 4.1 × 10(-5)] and 33% (IRR 0.67, P = 3.2 × 10(-8)), respectively, against malaria attacks. The association was confirmed in transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT, qTDT). The results could argue for a role of IL3 in the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria.

  15. 76 FR 79620 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2012 and 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... be obtained from http://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http...'s Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/npfmc . The draft 2011 SAFE report for the GOA is... trawl PSC limits between the deep-water and shallow-water fisheries, limits for non-exempt...

  16. Devonian volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and occurrences, southern Yukon-Tanana Terrace, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lange, I.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Newkirk, S.R.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Church, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    A belt of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits extends for over 150km along the southern margin of the Yukon-Tanana terrane of the eastern Alaska Range. Located north of the Denali fault, the Yukon-Tanana terrane forms a major basement unit in east-central Alaska. The volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits are primarily in the Jarvis Creek Glacier subterrane, which consists of a volcanogenic massive sulfide-bearing metavolcanic rock member and a metasedimentary rock member. Two periods of regional metamorphism and penetrative deformation are indicated: an older, Early Cretaceous, amphibolite facies event and a younger, mid-Cretaceous lower greenschist facies event. The occurrence, mineralogy and sulphur isotope values are discussed. -from Authors

  17. NASA's DESDynI in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J. M.; Hofton, M. A.; Bruhn, R. L.; Forster, R. R.; Burgess, E. W.; Cotton, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 the National Research Council Earth Science Decadal Survey, Earth Science Applications from Space, recommended an integrated L-band InSAR and multibeam Lidar mission called DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) and it is scheduled for launch in 2017. The NASA InSAR and Lidar mission is optimized for studying geohazards and global environmental change. The complex plate boundary in southern coastal Alaska provides an excellent setting for testing DESDynI capabilities to recover fundamental parameters of glacio-seismotectonic processes. Also, aircraft and satellites acquisitions of Lidar and L-band SAR have been made in this region in the last decade that can be used for DESDynI performance simulations. Since the Lidar observations would penetrate most vegetation, the accurate bald Earth elevation profiles will give new elevation information beyond the standard 30-m digital elevation models (DEM) and the Lidar-derived elevations will provide an accurate georeferenced surface for local and regional scale studies. In an earlier study we demonstrated how the Lidar observations could be used in combination with SAR to generate an improved InSAR derived DEM in the Barrow, Alaska region [Atwood et al., 2007]; here we discuss how Lidar could be fused with L-band SAR in more rugged, vegetated terrane. Based on simulations of multi-beam Lidar instrument performance over uplifted marine terraces, active faults and folds, uplift associated with the 1899 Yakataga seismic event (M=8), and elevation change on the glaciers in southern, coastal Alaska, we report on the significance of the DESDynI Lidar contiguous 25 m footprint elevation profiles for EarthScope related studies in Alaska. We are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-band SAR ice velocities to infer the large scale sub-ice structures that form the structural framework of the Seward-Bagley Basins. Using primarily winter acquisitions of L-band SAR data from ALOS

  18. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  19. Remote identification of polar bear maternal den habitat in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, Ken J.

    2001-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of ice and snow to protect their altricial young. During the snow-free season, we visited 25 den sites located previously by radiotelemetry and characterized the den site physiognomy. Seven dens occurred in habitats with minimal relief. Eighteen dens (72%) were in coastal and river banks. These "banks" were identifiable on aerial photographs. We then searched high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 3000) for habitats similar to those of the 18 dens. On aerial photos, we mapped 1782 km of bank habitats suitable for denning. Bank habitats comprised 0.18% of our study area between the Colville River and the Tamayariak River in northern Alaska. The final map, which correctly identified 88% of bank denning habitat in this region, will help minimize the potential for disruptions of maternal dens by winter petroleum exploration activities.

  20. Population structure and genetic diversity of moose in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer I; Hundertmark, Kris J; Bowyer, R Terry; McCracken, Kevin G

    2009-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) are highly mobile mammals that occur across arboreal regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) range across much of Alaska and are primary herbivore consumers, exerting a prominent influence on ecosystem structure and functioning. Increased knowledge gained from population genetics provides insights into their population dynamics, history, and dispersal of these unique large herbivores and can aid in conservation efforts. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of moose (n = 141) with 8 polymorphic microsatellites from 6 regions spanning much of Alaska. Expected heterozygosity was moderate (H(E) = 0.483-0.612), and private alleles ranged from 0 to 6. Both F(ST) and R(ST) indicated significant population structure (P < 0.001) with F(ST) < 0.109 and R(ST) < 0.125. Results of analyses from STRUCTURE indicated 2 prominent population groups, a mix of moose from the Yakutat and Tetlin regions versus all other moose, with slight substructure observed among the second population. Estimates of dispersal differed between analytical approaches, indicating a high level of historical or current gene flow. Mantel tests indicated that isolation-by-distance partially explained observed structure among moose populations (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.01). Finally, there was no evidence of bottlenecks either at the population level or overall. We conclude that weak population structure occurs among moose in Alaska with population expansion from interior Alaska westward toward the coast.

  1. Alaska: A twenty-first-century petroleum province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alaska, the least explored of all United States regions, is estimated to contain approximately 40% of total U.S. undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural-gas resources, based on the most recent U.S. Department of the Interior (U.S. Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service) estimates. Northern Alaska, including the North Slope and adjacent Beaufort and Chukchi continental shelves, holds the lion's share of the total Alaskan endowment of more than 30 billion barrels (4.8 billion m3) of oil and natural-gas liquids plus nearly 200 trillion cubic feet (5.7 trillion m3) of natural gas. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Multiple source-rock zones have charged several regionally extensive petroleum systems. Extensional and compressional structures provide ample structural objectives. In addition, recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite systems in Jurassic to Tertiary strata. Despite robust potential, northern Alaska remains a risky exploration frontier - a nexus of geologic complexity, harsh economic conditions, and volatile policy issues. Its role as a major petroleum province in this century will depend on continued technological innovations, not only in exploration and drilling operations, but also in development of huge, currently unmarketable natural-gas resources. Ultimately, policy decisions will determine whether exploration of arctic Alaska will proceed.

  2. 40 CFR 60.4216 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Alaska?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4216... internal combustion engines subject to this paragraph. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 37971, June 28, 2011... engines used in Alaska? 60.4216 Section 60.4216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  4. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  5. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Galloway, John P.

    1989-01-01

    This volume continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports on geologic investigations in Alaska. Since 1975, when the first of these collections of short papers appeared under the title "The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1975," the series has been published as USGS circulars. This bulletin departs from the circular style, in part to provide a more flexible format for longer reports with more depth of content, better documentation, and broader scope than is possible for circular articles.The 13 papers in this bulletin represent a sampling of research activities carried out in Alaska by the USGS over the past few years. The topics addressed range from mineral resource studies (including natural gas) and geochemistry, Quaternary geology, basic stratigraphic and structural problems, and the use of computer graphics in geologic map preparation, to the application of geochronology to regional tectonic problems. Geographic areas represented are numbered on figure 1 and include the North Slope (1) and Brooks Range (2, 3) of Arctic Alaska, Seward Peninsula (4), interior Alaska (5-9), and remote locations of the Alaska Peninsula (10, 11) and southeast Alaska (12, 13).Two bibliographies following the reports of investigations list (1) reports about Alaska in USGS publications released in 1988 and (2) reports about Alaska by USGS authors in publications outside the USGS in 1988. A bibliography and index of the short papers in past USGS circulars devoted to Geological Research and Accomplishments in Alaska (1975-1986) is published as USGS Open-File Report 87-420.

  6. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  7. Identification of a Receptor-Binding Region within Domain 4 of the Protective Antigen Component of Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Mini; Teixeira, Avelino V.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

    1999-01-01

    Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity. PMID:10085028

  8. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports…

  9. 77 FR 58731 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2013... Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the... and Wildlife Service (Service or we) proposes migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in...

  10. Presence of rapidly degrading permafrost plateaus in south-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Baughman, Carson A.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Parsekian, Andrew D.; Babcock, Esther L.; Stephani, Eva; Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Berg, Edward E.

    2016-11-01

    Permafrost presence is determined by a complex interaction of climatic, topographic, and ecological conditions operating over long time scales. In particular, vegetation and organic layer characteristics may act to protect permafrost in regions with a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) above 0 °C. In this study, we document the presence of residual permafrost plateaus in the western Kenai Peninsula lowlands of south-central Alaska, a region with a MAAT of 1.5 ± 1 °C (1981-2010). Continuous ground temperature measurements between 16 September 2012 and 15 September 2015, using calibrated thermistor strings, documented the presence of warm permafrost (-0.04 to -0.08 °C). Field measurements (probing) on several plateau features during the fall of 2015 showed that the depth to the permafrost table averaged 1.48 m but at some locations was as shallow as 0.53 m. Late winter surveys (augering, coring, and GPR) in 2016 showed that the average seasonally frozen ground thickness was 0.45 m, overlying a talik above the permafrost table. Measured permafrost thickness ranged from 0.33 to > 6.90 m. Manual interpretation of historic aerial photography acquired in 1950 indicates that residual permafrost plateaus covered 920 ha as mapped across portions of four wetland complexes encompassing 4810 ha. However, between 1950 and ca. 2010, permafrost plateau extent decreased by 60.0 %, with lateral feature degradation accounting for 85.0 % of the reduction in area. Permafrost loss on the Kenai Peninsula is likely associated with a warming climate, wildfires that remove the protective forest and organic layer cover, groundwater flow at depth, and lateral heat transfer from wetland surface waters in the summer. Better understanding the resilience and vulnerability of ecosystem-protected permafrost is critical for mapping and predicting future permafrost extent and degradation across all permafrost regions that are currently warming. Further work should focus on reconstructing

  11. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  12. Recent Advances in High-Resolution Regional Climate Modeling at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Bullock, O. Russell; Herwehe, Jerold; Spero, Tanya; Nolte, Christopher; Mallard, Megan

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Climate Modeling Team at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been improving the quality of regional climate fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Active areas of research include improving core physics within the WRF model and adapting the physics for regional climate applications, improving the representation of inland lakes that are unresolved by the driving fields, evaluating nudging strategies, and devising techniques to demonstrate value added by dynamical downscaling. These research efforts have been conducted using reanalysis data as driving fields, and then their results have been applied to downscale data from global climate models. The goals of this work are to equip environmental managers and policy/decision makers in the U.S. with science, tools, and data to inform decisions related to adapting to and mitigating the potential impacts of climate change on air quality, ecosystems, and human health. Our presentation will focus mainly on one area of the Team's research: Development and testing of a seamless convection parameterization scheme. For the continental U.S., one of the impediments to high-resolution (~3 to 15 km) climate modeling is related to the lack of a seamless convection parameterization that works across many scales. Since many convection schemes are not developed to work at those "gray scales", they often lead to excessive precipitation during warm periods (e.g., summer). The Kain-Fritsch (KF) convection parameterization in the WRF model has been updated such that it can be used seamlessly across spatial scales down to ~1 km grid spacing. First, we introduced subgrid-scale cloud and radiation interactions that had not been previously considered in the KF scheme. Then, a scaling parameter was developed to introduce scale-dependency in the KF scheme for use with various processes. In addition, we developed new formulations for: (1) convective adjustment timescale; (2) entrainment of

  13. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  14. Establishing a culturally sensitive palliative care program in rural Alaska Native American communities.

    PubMed

    DeCourtney, Christine A; Jones, Kristina; Merriman, Melanie P; Heavener, Nina; Branch, P Kay

    2003-06-01

    End-of-life programs that provide an option for patients to die at home are available in most U.S. communities. However, Alaska Natives living in remote Alaska villages often die alone in hospitals and nursing homes hundreds of miles away from home. The Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation (BBAHC), a tribal organization, is the sole provider of comprehensive primary care services to 34 Alaska Native villages located within a 46,000 square mile area in southwest Alaska. The closest tertiary care hospital is 329 air miles away in Anchorage. Because of the high cost of, and difficulties encountered in trying to deliver end-of-life care services to remote communities, a village-focused, culturally sensitive, volunteer and primary care program combined with a regionally based physician and home health nurse to deliver multi-disciplinary palliative care was developed. The Helping Hands Program blends cultural practices with contemporary palliative care medicine to allow Alaska Natives and others living in remote communities to be cared for at home through the end of life. Since the program was implemented in 1999, the percentage of home deaths for selected causes has changed from 33% in 1997 to 77% in 2001. The Anchorage-based Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC) have recognized the importance and success of the BBAHC program and are investigating expanding the program to other parts of Alaska. Centralizing the program in Anchorage will allow staff trained in palliative care to travel to regional Alaska Native hospitals to help train health care professionals.

  15. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  16. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  17. 50 CFR 17.5 - Alaska natives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resides in Alaska; or (2) Any non-native permanent resident of an Alaskan native village who is primarily... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section may be sold in native villages or towns in Alaska for native consumption within native villages and towns in Alaska. (c) Non-edible by-products of endangered or...

  18. 75 FR 45649 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. The lands are in the vicinity of Holy Cross, Alaska, and... Bureau of Land Management Alaska Native Claims Selection AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of decision approving lands for conveyance. SUMMARY: As required by 43 CFR...

  19. Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcome Report 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Performance Scholarship was established in state law in 2011 and first offered to Alaska high school graduates beginning with the class of 2011. Described as "an invitation to excellence" to Alaska's high school students, its goal was to inspire students to push themselves academically in areas that correlate to success in…

  20. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  1. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury in the state. Collaborative efforts have contributed to reducing crash rates and mortality in Alaska's rapidly expanding helicopter logging industry and have played an important supportive role in the substantial progress made in reducing the mortality rate in Alaska's commercial fishing industry (historically Alaska's and America's most dangerous industry). Alaska experienced a 46% overall decline in work-related acute traumatic injury deaths from 1991 to 1998, a 64% decline in commercial fishing deaths, and a very sharp decline in helicopter logging-related deaths. Extending this regional approach to other parts of the country and applying these strategies to the entire spectrum of occupational injury and disease hazards could have a broad effect on reducing occupational injuries. PMID:10670623

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  3. 76 FR 39789 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS deems it appropriate to not open directed fishing for... accordance with Sec. 679.83(a)(3), the Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS, deems it appropriate...

  4. Proposed Determination Pursuant to Section 404c of the Clean Water Act for Pebble Deposit Area, Southwest Alaska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 10's proposed determination to restrict the use of certain waters in the Bristol Bay watershed for disposal of dredged or fill material associated with mining the Pebble deposit, a large ore body in southwest Alaska.

  5. The Alaska SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, R. E.; Charny, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Alaska SAR processor was designed to process over 200 100 km x 100 km (Seasat like) frames per day from the raw SAR data, at a ground resolution of 30 m x 30 m from ERS-1, J-ERS-1, and Radarsat. The near real time processor is a set of custom hardware modules operating in a pipelined architecture, controlled by a general purpose computer. Input to the processor is provided from a high density digital cassette recording of the raw data stream as received by the ground station. A two pass processing is performed. During the first pass clutter-lock and auto-focus measurements are made. The second pass uses the results to accomplish final image formation which is recorded on a high density digital cassette. The processing algorithm uses fast correlation techniques for range and azimuth compression. Radiometric compensation, interpolation and deskewing is also performed by the processor. The standard product of the ASP is a high resolution four-look image, with a low resolution (100 to 200 m) many look image provided simultaneously.

  6. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  7. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire

    2017-03-03

    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  8. Methane emissions from Alaska in 2012 from CARVE airborne observations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E; Dinardo, Steven J; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Daube, Bruce C; Henderson, John M; Mountain, Marikate E; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Miller, John B; Bruhwiler, Lori M P; Wofsy, Steven C

    2014-11-25

    We determined methane (CH4) emissions from Alaska using airborne measurements from the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Atmospheric sampling was conducted between May and September 2012 and analyzed using a customized version of the polar weather research and forecast model linked to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (stochastic time-inverted Lagrangian transport model). We estimated growing season CH4 fluxes of 8 ± 2 mg CH4⋅m(-2)⋅d(-1) averaged over all of Alaska, corresponding to fluxes from wetlands of 56(-13)(+22) mg CH4⋅m(-2)⋅d(-1) if we assumed that wetlands are the only source from the land surface (all uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals from a bootstrapping analysis). Fluxes roughly doubled from May to July, then decreased gradually in August and September. Integrated emissions totaled 2.1 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 for Alaska from May to September 2012, close to the average (2.3; a range of 0.7 to 6 Tg CH4) predicted by various land surface models and inversion analyses for the growing season. Methane emissions from boreal Alaska were larger than from the North Slope; the monthly regional flux estimates showed no evidence of enhanced emissions during early spring or late fall, although these bursts may be more localized in time and space than can be detected by our analysis. These results provide an important baseline to which future studies can be compared.

  9. Methane emissions from Alaska in 2012 from CARVE airborne observations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Daube, Bruce C.; Henderson, John M.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Miller, John B.; Bruhwiler, Lori M. P.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined methane (CH4) emissions from Alaska using airborne measurements from the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Atmospheric sampling was conducted between May and September 2012 and analyzed using a customized version of the polar weather research and forecast model linked to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (stochastic time-inverted Lagrangian transport model). We estimated growing season CH4 fluxes of 8 ± 2 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 averaged over all of Alaska, corresponding to fluxes from wetlands of 56−13+22 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 if we assumed that wetlands are the only source from the land surface (all uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals from a bootstrapping analysis). Fluxes roughly doubled from May to July, then decreased gradually in August and September. Integrated emissions totaled 2.1 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 for Alaska from May to September 2012, close to the average (2.3; a range of 0.7 to 6 Tg CH4) predicted by various land surface models and inversion analyses for the growing season. Methane emissions from boreal Alaska were larger than from the North Slope; the monthly regional flux estimates showed no evidence of enhanced emissions during early spring or late fall, although these bursts may be more localized in time and space than can be detected by our analysis. These results provide an important baseline to which future studies can be compared. PMID:25385648

  10. Maps showing sedimentary basins, surface thermal maturity, and indications of petroleum in the Central Alaska Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, Sandra M.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This publication includes two maps (at 1:2,500,000 scale) and a pamphlet that describe sedimentary basins, surface thermal maturity, and 95 reported occurrences of petroleum in natural seeps, wells, and rock outcrops in central Alaska. No commercial petroleum production has been obtained from central Alaska, in contrast to the prolific deposits of oil and gas that have been found and developed in northern Alaska and the Cook Inlet region. Nevertheless, confirmed indications of petroleum in central Alaska include (1) natural seeps of methane gas on the Yukon Delta; (2) occurrences of methane gas in wells in the Bethel, Kotzebue, Nenana, Northway, and Yukon Flats basins; (3) oil and methane gas in seeps and wells in Norton Sound; (4) small quantities of liquid and solid hydrocarbons associated with mercury ore in the Kuskokwim Mountains; (5) oil shale and numerous occurrences of bitumen in the Kandik area; and (6) tasmanite, a form of oil shale, in the uplands north of Yukon Flats.

  11. Extent And Distribution Of Montane Riparian Zone Vegetation And Representation In Protected Areas In The Sky Island Region Of The Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Nicole H.

    The Sky Island region of the southwestern United States hosts some of the richest biodiversity anywhere in the world. In the mountain ranges of the Sky Islands, most vertebrate biodiversity is dependent on riparian areas for all or some of their life cycles. Riparian vegetation is threatened by human impacts and climate change. Though riparian vegetation along rivers and major perennial streams is already mapped in this region, vegetation in ephemeral and intermittent riparian areas, arguably equally important for biodiversity in the mountain ranges, has not been quantified. I developed a Random Forest classification model of riparian vegetation for all three types of riparian areas, mapped this vegetation for each of the 25 mountain ranges, described the spatial distribution and connectivity of the vegetation among and between mountain ranges, and demonstrated enhancement of regional riparian land cover classes with the new model of riparian zone vegetation. The resulting map indicates a much broader distribution of riparian zone vegetation than previous land cover mapping efforts indicate, likely due to inclusion of ephemeral and intermittent riparian types. The spatial distribution and connectivity of riparian zone vegetation varied widely within and between mountain ranges, possibly as a result of variability in environmental factors affecting aridity, temperature, water availability, landscape position, and disturbances. The model can be used with other information to augment understanding of the integrity, connectivity, and vulnerability of riparian zone vegetation in this unique and important region. To analyze the conservation status of riparian zone vegetation, I quantified its representation in protected areas. I then compared the representation relative to the overall amount of riparian zone vegetation in each mountain range. The relationships between representation of riparian zone vegetation in protected areas, degree of mountain range protection, and

  12. Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  13. Alaska Resource Data File, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  14. Annual Live Code Tsunami Warning System tests improve EAS services in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preller, C. C.; Albanese, S.; Grueber, M.; Osiensky, J. M.; Curtis, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service, in partnership with the State of Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (DHSEM) and the Alaska Broadcasters Association (ABA), has made tremendous improvements to Alaska's Emergency Alert System (EAS) with the use of an annual live code Tsunami System test. The annual test has been implemented since 2007 during the 3rd week of March commemorating the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 and promoting Tsunami Preparedness Week. Due to the antiquity of hardware, this test had always been conducted state-wide. This resulted in over-warn testing large areas of the largest state with no tsunami risk. The philosophy being that through over-warning, the most rural high risk areas would be warned. In 2012, the State of Alaska upgraded their dissemination hardware and the NWS was able to limit the test to a regional area eliminating most of the unthreatened areas from the test. While this occurred with several great successes, it also exposed a myriad of unknown problems and challenges. In addition, the NWS and the State of Alaska, with support from the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Committee (NTHMP), has engaged in an aggressive education, outreach, and mitigation campaign with Alaska's coastal high-risk community Emergency Managers. The resultant situation has produced a tight team between local Emergency Managers, State Emergency Managers and Emergency Operations Center, the NWS' National Tsunami Warning Center, NWS' Weather Forecast Offices and Regional Managers, and Alaska's Broadcasters coming together as a dynamic and creative problem solving force. This poster will address the leaps of progress as well as the upcoming hurdles. Ultimately, live code testing is improving how we warn and save lives and property during the shortest fuse disaster his planet offers; the tsunami.

  15. Revisiting Notable Earthquakes and Seismic Patterns of the Past Decade in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Macpherson, K. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska, the most seismically active region of the United States, has produced five earthquakes with magnitudes greater than seven since 2005. The 2007 M7.2 and 2013 M7.0 Andreanof Islands earthquakes were representative of the most common source of significant seismic activity in the region, the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. The 2013 M7.5 Craig earthquake, a strike-slip event on the Queen-Charlotte fault, occurred along the transform plate boundary in southeast Alaska. The largest earthquake of the past decade, the 2014 M7.9 Little Sitkin event in the western Aleutians, occurred at an intermediate depth and ruptured along a gently dipping fault through nearly the entire thickness of the subducted Pacific plate. Along with these major earthquakes, the Alaska Earthquake Center reported over 250,000 seismic events in the state over the last decade, and its earthquake catalog surpassed 500,000 events in mid-2015. Improvements in monitoring networks and processing techniques allowed an unprecedented glimpse into earthquake patterns in Alaska. Some notable recent earthquake sequences include the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, the 2006-2008 M6+ crustal earthquakes in the central and western Aleutians, the 2010 and 2015 Bering Sea earthquakes, the 2014 Noatak swarm, and the 2014 Minto earthquake sequence. In 2013, the Earthscope USArray project made its way into Alaska. There are now almost 40 new Transportable Array stations in Alaska along with over 20 upgraded sites. This project is changing the earthquake-monitoring scene in Alaska, lowering magnitude of completeness across large, newly instrumented parts of the state.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  17. The Alaska Land Carbon Assessment: Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, A. D.; Genet, H.; He, Y.; Stackpoole, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.; Rupp, S. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The Alaska Land Carbon Assessment was conducted to inform mitigation and adaptation policies and land management decisions at sub-regional, regional, and national scales. Ecosystem carbon balance of Alaska was estimated for two time periods, a historical period (1950-2009) and a projected period (2010-2099) by synthesizing results for upland, wetland, and inland aquatic ecosystems. The total area of Alaska considered in this assessment was 1,474,844 km2, which is composed of 84 percent uplands, 12 percent wetlands, and 4 percent inland waters. Between 1950 and 2009 the upland and wetland ecosystems of the state sequestered an average of 4.4 TgC/yr, which is almost 2 percent of net primary production (NPP) by upland and wetland ecosystems. However, this sequestration is spatially variable with the northern boreal sub-region losing C because of fire disturbance and other sub-regions gaining carbon. For inland aquatic ecosystems, there was a net combined carbon flux through various pathways of 41.2 TgC/yr, or about 17 percent of upland and wetland NPP. The greenhouse gas forcing potential of upland and wetland ecosystems of Alaska was approximately neutral during the historical period, but the state as a whole could be a source for greenhouse gas forcing to the climate system from methane emissions from lake ecosystems, which were not considered in the assessment. During the projected period (2010-2099), carbon sequestration of upland and wetland ecosystems of Alaska would increase substantially (18.2 to 34.4 TgC/yr) primarily because of an increase in NPP of 8 to 19 percent associated with responses to rising atmospheric CO2, increased nitrogen cycling, and longer growing seasons. Although C emissions to the atmosphere from wildfire increase substantially for all of the projected climates, the increases in NPP more than compensate for those losses. The analysis indicates that upland and wetland ecosystems would be sinks for greenhouse gases for all scenarios during

  18. Status of EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, K.; Busby, R. W.; Enders, M.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope's Transportable Array has completed its first year of operations in Alaska. The proposed station grid uses 85 km spacing & consists of ~290 locations in Alaska and Western Canada. About 60 of the grid locations will be at existing seismic stations operated by the AEC, AVO & ATWC and are being upgraded with shallow borehole installations or higher quality sensors as appropriate. About 10 new stations will be collocated with PBO GPS stations. At the end of July 2014, 90% of the site reconnaissance has been completed, & 25 sites have been permitted with private landowners or the State of Alaska. 11 new TA stations have been installed, & 7 existing stations (AK network code) have been upgraded. Data from these stations is flowing to the Array Network Facility (ANF) and being archived at the IRIS DMC. As the Transportable Array has moved to Alaska, IRIS has experimented with different portable drills and drilling techniques to create shallow holes (1-5 m deep, 15-20 cm in diameter) in permafrost and rock outcrops for seismometer installation. The goal of these new methods is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint & the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design & the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, & permafrost underlies much of the region. IRIS contracted with a drilling specialist to create a prototype Transportable Drill (less than 1300 lbs with tooling) that is capable of augering to 5 m in unconsolidated materials and permafrost, downhole hammering to 2.5 m in bedrock with a steel casing following the bit and diamond coring in solid rock to 2 m. This drill has been successfully deployed by helicopter to create a hole 2.7 m deep and 15 cm diameter in bedrock. The auger mode was used successfully to install a

  19. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  20. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…